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					DISTANCE EDUCATION TASK FORCE                                  RECOMMENDATION 101
PASADENA CITY COLLEGE October 2009

                    Recommendation For Inclusion of Distance Education
                         in the Mission Statement of the College

The Distance Education Committee recommends that Pasadena City College commit to
planning and implementing a distance education program with policies and procedures in
place, so that faculty and staff can offer equivalent academic content and student services
within an appropriate college support structure with ongoing oversight.

Rationale:
Both the U.S. Department of Education and the Accrediting Commission for Community
and Junior Colleges, Western Association of Schools and Colleges
affirm that an institution that undertakes a distance education program, should have a
mission statement that is explicit in its commitment to offering quality distance education.

Therefore, the development of a distance education program should be congruent with the
strategic plan and mission of this Institution, in fostering successful student learning.
Furthermore, administration and the Board of Trustees should be able to articulate the
strategic importance of distance education and its role in the strategic plan and mission of
the institution.

A well-articulated, institutional mission statement should be explicit about its goals of
increasing access to a diverse population of learners, reaching out to underserved or
special populations (such as working adults), serving students who need time and place
flexibility, or those who wish to develop technology as well as subject-area fluency.

References:

Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges Western Association of
Schools and Colleges. Distance Learning Manual (2008). Accessed 6/30/09.
http://www.accjc.org/pdf/Distance_Learning_Manual_August_2008.pdf


U. S Department of Education, Office of Postsecondary Education (2006). Evidence of
Quality in Distance Education Programs Drawn from Interviews with the Accreditation
Community. Accessed 8/10/09. http://www.ysu.edu/accreditation/Resources/Accreditation-
Evidence-of-Quality-in-DE-Programs.pdf

Walton, I., James-Hanz, P., North, W., Pilati, M. (2008). Ensuring the Appropriate Use of
Educational Technology: An Update for Local Academic Senates. Accessed 5/13/09.
http://www.asccc.org/Publications/Papers/Education_Technology.htm  

Recommendation Approved by the Distance Education Committee - October 13, 2009
Recommendation Approved by the Academic Senate – November 23, 2009
DISTANCE EDUCATION TASK FORCE                                   RECOMMENDATION 102
PASADENA CITY COLLEGE October 2009


                Distance Education Committee Mission Statement (Revision)
                 (Original version approved by the Academic Senate April 2006)


The mission of the Distance Education (DE) Committee is to develop policies and
promote practices that contribute to the quality and growth of distance education at
Pasadena City College.

With the understanding that faculty should have the primary responsibility for developing
policies and promoting distance education practices, the Committee will support a
learner-centered program designed to further student success by making
recommendations to the Academic Senate regarding:

    •   Curriculum and instruction, evaluation and assessment, technology, accessibility,
        infrastructure, and academic support services that affect all modes of distance
        education course delivery.




    •   Policy issues that may affect the union contract, including but not limited to
        intellectual property rights, enrollment, office hours, online course development
        and management, and technical support.




    •   Ongoing faculty development and consistent support in the areas of pedagogy
        and technology in order to ensure that faculty who teach distance education
        courses are able to provide high quality learning environments for the students of
        Pasadena City College.

 
 
 
 
 
Recommendation Approved by the Distance Education Committee - October 13, 2009
Recommendation Approved by the Academic Senate – November 23, 2009
DISTANCE EDUCATION TASK FORCE                                RECOMMENDATION 103
PASADENA CITY COLLEGE October 2009


            Distance Education Delivery Modalities Proposal to Revise
          (Original version approved by the Academic Senate March 26, 2007)


   1. Online –– An online course is delivered primarily via the Internet typically using a
        campus-supported Learning Management System (LMS). Such a course may
        require limited on-campus meetings for orientation or assessments. Students
        are required to use a computer with Internet access as the primary technology,
        and may be required to use other available technologies to acquire and learn
        course content. Through regular effective contact, instructor and students
        interact to complete assignments and assessments, and demonstrate Student
        Learning Outcomes. An online course will be designated as OL in published
        campus materials.

   2. Hybrid –– A hybrid course combines a traditional face-to-face classroom
        environment, with use of the Internet and other instructional technologies to
        complete assignments and assessments, and demonstrate Student Learning
        Outcomes. Fifty-one percent or more of course learning activities are delivered
        via the Internet with regular effective contact between instructor and student.
        Typically a campus-supported Learning Management System is used to provide
        course content replacing face-to-face time. Students must have access to a
        computer and the Internet. A hybrid course will be designated as HB in
        published campus materials.

   3. ITV ––An Instructional Television Course is a course that is delivered using
         videotapes, DVDs or other technologies. Students learn asynchronously, outside
         of the face-to-face classroom. The instructor meets with students at designated
         times for review and maintains regular effective contact. Some of the
         requirements that apply for developing or teaching an online course may not
         apply to an Instructional Television Course. An ITV course will be designated as
         ITV in published campus materials.

      Clarification:

      (Web-Enhanced is not a Distance Education Course. Web-Enhanced refers to any
      course that uses the Internet, website(s) or an LMS to enhance student learning
      through the posting of information, learning elements, or collaboration features such
      as discussion areas, chat rooms or email.)

Recommendation Approved by the Distance Education Committee - October 13, 2009
Recommendation Approved by the Academic Senate – November 23, 2009
       
DISTANCE EDUCATION TASK FORCE                                 RECOMMENDATION 104
PASADENA CITY COLLEGE November 2009


        Distance Education Technology Literacy and Readiness for Faculty

As an essential part of our commitment to student success in all areas of learning,
distance education courses at Pasadena City College should provide high quality,
innovative instruction that maintains the highest standards and best practices in online
teaching and learning. To that end, the Distance Education Committee recommends
that instructors who wish to teach online should be proficient in certain basic technology
skills in order to assure course quality, and also to assist students with the technology
used in content delivery. Skilled faculty spends less time with the technical aspects and
more time interacting with, and helping students learn. Specific recommendations
regarding faculty standards for technology literacy and readiness are found below.

Faculty Standards for Technology Literacy and Readiness

The U.S. Department of Education (1996) defines technology literacy as “Computer
skills and the ability to use computers and other technology to improve learning
productivity and performance.” Technology Literacy (1997). Accessed 9/29/09
http://www.ed.gov/updates/PresEDPlan/part11.html

Prior to teaching online at Pasadena City College, faculty must:

          1. have completed formal college-level coursework or training in online
             teaching and associated technology literacy from an accredited college or
             university*

             or

          2. have completed two semesters of teaching in a predominantly online
             format, preferably using the College's Learning Management System
             (LMS)

             or

          3. present a teaching demonstration in an online format, showing evidence of
             technology literacy, including familiarity with the College's Learning
             Management System

*For example, instructors can acquire the necessary fundamental technology literacy
skills through the California Community College’s @ONE Online Teaching Certification
Program (http://www.cccone.org/certification/index.php), by following the standardized
path of taking a total of four courses including, Introduction to Online Teaching and
Learning, Building Learning Communities, Accessibility, and Course Management
System Training, or by completing the UCLA Extension, 16 unit/4 course, Online
Professional Development Program: Instructional Design for Online Training and
Education



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DISTANCE EDUCATION TASK FORCE                                   RECOMMENDATION 104
PASADENA CITY COLLEGE November 2009
https://www3.uclaextension.edu/index.cfm?href=/departmentalPages/index.cfm&depart
ment=/online/ido/index.cfm or by taking relevant distance education technology
offerings through the Office of Academic Support or the New Media Center Training
Workshops, and/or other accredited institutions.

Technology Literacy and Readiness Skills

Determination as to whether an instructor meets the technology literacy skills
requirement will be made by the Dean of the Office of Academic Support with the
consultation of the division/department dean or designee and in consultation with the
Chair of the Distance Education Committee or designee.

The Distance Education Committee recommends that instructors who wish to teach
online courses must meet the following basic technology literacy and readiness
qualifications:

    1. Work within a standard operating environment (e.g., Windows OS or Mac OS).

    2. Manage and manipulate files.

          •   Create, use, and (re) name file and folders
          •   Organize file formats in folders
          •   Use appropriate naming conventions for files and folders
          •   Be able to identify types of file formats such as jpg, PDF, rtf
          •   Understand file size and the impact large files may have on student
              access and storage

    3. Use standard word processing application(s) (e.g. Microsoft Word) and be able
       to:
           • Maneuver among multiple applications
           • Open and work with more than one application at a time
           • Use document formatting techniques (bullets, numbering, headings)
           • Enter and edit text documents
           • Select and save documents in various file formats (e.g. html, PDF)
           • Insert graphics and tables into a document

    4. Use the Internet (Information Competencies) and be able to:

          •   Employ a variety of browsers and search engines
          •   Locate, open, and download files
          •   Save web sites as favorites/bookmarks
          •   Find and evaluate information gathered from the Internet based on the
              criteria of relevance, objectivity, authority, scope, and currency
          •   Apply ethical and legal principles to the use of information in all formats
              and contexts California Digital Literacy Executive Order S-06-09
              www.gov.ca.gov/executive-order/12393


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DISTANCE EDUCATION TASK FORCE                                  RECOMMENDATION 104
PASADENA CITY COLLEGE November 2009


    5. Upload and manage content in the current learning management system

          •   Upload, download, and organize files in the file management area
          •   Design and edit course content, including the home page
          •   Create and edit course modules
          •   Post an online course syllabus
          •   Set up communication tools (email, discussion posts, chat rooms, IM,
              announcements)
          •   Use the assessment tool to create a database and specific assessments
          •   Post grades
          •   Create/Select/Modify course content to provide access to users with
              disabilities Section 508 Standards
               http://www.section508.gov/

References

Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges, Western Association of
Schools and Colleges (August 2008). Distance Learning Manual. Accessed 10/5/09.
http://www.accjc.org/pdf/Distance_Learning_Manual_August_2008.pdf

Cerritos College, Standards for Online Instruction, Basic Technology Competencies,
Accessed 9/7/09.
http://cms.cerritos.edu/ic/de-standards

College of the Canyons, Distance Learning, Online Instructor Qualifications. Accessed
9/15/09.
http://www.canyons.edu/Offices/Distance%5FLearning/facsupport/fullonlineinstquals.asp

Long Beach Community College, Distance Learning Course Guidelines, Distance
Learning Faculty Training. Accessed 4/8/09. http://de.lbcc.edu/DLguidelines/#training

San Diego Community College District, Online Learning Pathways, Accessed 5/17/09.
http://www.sdccdonline.net/faculty/resources/

Walton, I., James-Hanz, P., North, W., Pilati, M. (2008). Ensuring the Appropriate Use
of Educational Technology: An Update for Local Academic Senates. Accessed 5/13/09.
http://www.asccc.org/Publications/Papers/Education_Technology.htm

Recommendation Approved by the Distance Education Committee – November 10, 2009
Recommendation Approved by the Academic Senate – December 7, 2009




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DISTANCE EDUCATION TASK FORCE                                  RECOMMENDATION 105
PASADENA CITY COLLEGE October 2009
 


                     Distance Learning Form D Proposal to Revise

It is the recommendation of the Distance Education Committee that the current
Pasadena City College Curriculum and Instruction Form D, the separate form commonly
referred to as a "distance education addendum," be revised. The current Form D needs to
be updated, as it refers to prior Title 5 language and sections, and is incomplete and
lacking clarity in the questions it poses regarding course quality and regular effective
contact.

Furthermore, the formulation of the specialized content of Form D should be understood to
be part of the responsibility of the Distance Education Committee, in its mission to
determine policy and procedure regarding best practices in Distance Education at the
College. Following review, amendment and approval by the Distance Education
Committee, the Curriculum and Instruction Committee should review, amend as needed,
and approve the revised Form D. The purpose of the review is to assure the concept of
one common course curriculum with multiple, equivalent delivery modes, verifying that the
quality of a distance education course is comparable in terms of rigor, scope, and regular
effective instructor-student contact, to equivalent face-to-face classes. "Students should
expect that distance learning programs will permit completion of learning outcomes and
objectives in the same manner as those delivered in traditional programs." (WASC,
Distance Learning Manual, 2008,3).

It is further recommended that to aid in the review and approval process, the Curriculum
and Instruction Committee should reserve a permanent, voting seat for a member of the
Distance Education Committee, who will consult on matters relating to Distance Education.


Pursuant to Title 5 California Code of Regulations (2007), Sections 55202, (formerly
55209) 55204 (formerly 55211), and 55206 (formerly 55213), of the Chancellor’s Office
Guidelines for California Community Colleges, a proposed or existing course, designed to
be offered in a distance learning environment, whether fully online or hybrid, should have
course quality determination, regular effective contact between instructor and students,
and a separate course review and approval. California Community Colleges: Chancellor's
Office, Title 5 Guidelines Related to Curriculum and Instruction. (1994, 2002, 2007).
http://www.cccco.edu/ChancellorsOffice/Divisions/AcademicAffairs/Title5Guidelines/tabid/1
330/Default.aspx

The function of Form D for online teaching and learning is to elicit and confirm, through its
questions, that the prospective instructor understands that the methods of instruction and
evaluation in online teaching and learning are different from face-to-face, while instructor
objectives do not change. Faculty continues to be responsible for establishing goals for
student learning, and for creating content. The freedom of inquiry and instruction in an
academic field of specialty is not infringed upon by the guidelines and approval process
promulgated by Form D.


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DISTANCE EDUCATION TASK FORCE                                   RECOMMENDATION 105
PASADENA CITY COLLEGE October 2009
 
Title 5 and the State Academic Senate state that Form D should be considered an
opportunity to demonstrate how instructor-student, regular effective contact will be
accomplished in a proposed course. Regular effective contact is defined as:
  Title 5
        Section 55204. Instructor Contact In addition to the requirements of section
        55002 and any locally established requirements applicable to all courses, district-
        governing boards shall ensure that:
        (a) All approved courses offered as distance education include regular effective
            contact between instructor and students, through group or individual meetings,
            orientation and review sessions, supplemental seminar or study sessions, field
            trips, library workshops/orientations, telephone contact, correspondence, voice
            mail, e-mail, or other activities.
        (b) All distance education courses are delivered consistent with guidelines issued
            by the Chancellor pursuant to section 409 of the Procedures and Standing
            Orders of the Board of Governors. Regular effective contact is an academic and
            professional matter pursuant to Title 5, section 53200.

Best practices in undergraduate education have focused on the Seven Principles of
learning as codified by Arthur W. Chickering and Zelda F. Gamson (March,1987). The
American Association for Higher Education Bulletin.
http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/7princip.htm 

These principles of learning clearly lay out aspects of regular effective contact (also cited
in Ensuring the Appropriate Use of Educational Technology: An Update for Local
Academic Senates, Adopted Spring 2008, 21) and should inform distance education
strategies for success, as well as be reflected in the Distance Education Addendum (Form
D).

The Seven Principles are:

     1.   Encourages contact between students and faculty
     2.   Develops reciprocity and cooperation among students
     3.   Encourages active learning
     4.   Gives prompt feedback
     5.   Emphasizes time on task
     6.   Communicates high expectations
     7.   Respects diverse talents and ways of learning

Form D must also address issues of accessibility and distance education. Federal law
protects the rights of persons with disabilities, and includes mandates and guidelines for
distance education web-accessibility. These include:

    Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act (1973) requires all employers and organizations
        receiving federal assistance—including most universities—to provide people with
        disabilities equal access to information, programs, activities, and services.
    The 1998 Amendment to Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act does not directly apply to
        universities, but it does mandate specific conditions for Internet and Web

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DISTANCE EDUCATION TASK FORCE                                  RECOMMENDATION 105
PASADENA CITY COLLEGE October 2009
 
       accessibility that are used as guidelines in designing and creating federal agency
       Web sites.
  The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) (1990) applies the same general principle as
       Section 504—equal opportunity to participate in programs and services—but
       extends the reach to private organizations and any state or local entities not
       covered under Section 504.
Other laws, including Section 255 of the Telecommunications Act, the Individuals with
Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), and the Assistive Technology Act (1998, 2004), or
"ATA," may also impact Web-based instruction, and how institutions may use federal
monies, while AB 386 amends the California Education Code to establish a mechanism
for community colleges to comply with state and federal equal access laws regarding
captioned instructional materials for deaf and hearing-impaired students without violating
copyright.



For an overview of Title 5 language on distance education, see:

Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges, Western Association of
Schools and Colleges (August 2008). Distance Learning Manual. Accessed 10/5/09.
http://www.accjc.org/pdf/Distance_Learning_Manual_August_2008.pdf

California Community Colleges Chancellor's Office. Title 5 Guidelines Related to
Curriculum and Instruction, 2009.
http://www.cccco.edu/ChancellorsOffice/Divisions/AcademicAffairs/Title5Guidelines/tabid/1
330/Default.aspx

Walton, I., James-Hanz, P., North, W., Pilati, M. (2008). Ensuring the Appropriate Use of
Educational Technology: An Update for Local Academic Senates. Accessed 5/13/09.
http://www.asccc.org/Publications/Papers/Education_Technology.htm




Recommendation Approved by the Distance Education Committee – November 24, 2009
Recommendation Presented to the Academic Senate for Review – December 7, 2009
Recommendation Sent to the Curriculum and Instruction Committee – December, 2009
Reviewed by C&I Subcommittee on Style and Mechanics March 9, 2010.
Final Draft March 23, 2010
Recommendation (105-D) Approved by the Curriculum and Instruction Committee - April
2009




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DISTANCE EDUCATION TASK FORCE                             RECOMMENDATION 105-D
PASADENA CITY COLLEGE November 2009
Distance Learning Form D (Revision) final draft March 23, 2010

After completing this form, faculty must make an appointment to consult with the C&I committee
Distance Education representative in order to insure the proposed course conforms with all standards
for Distance Education.

    A. General Course Information
       Course Title:
    Course Number:
B. Rationale:
   What is the purpose of offering this course via distance education? (Write a brief one-paragraph response.)




C. Type of Delivery (Check all that apply.)

        Online
        Hybrid (51% or less of the course delivered via the Internet)
        ITV
        Publisher E-Pack
        Other delivery methods:
 
 
D. Learner Support and Resources

A distance education course provides a variety of course-specific and campus resources to
students. Describe the resources required by the course and the students in each of the areas
specified below and briefly identify/explain implications or impact on these resources or services:  
1. Computing Services (helpdesk, computer labs, technical support)
 
2.    Academic Support (Learning Management System technology support, course design, online pedagogy)
 

3.    Library (library resources, facilities and online information resources)
 

4.    Student Services (Financial Aid, Counseling, Bookstore, etc.)
 

5.    Disabled Students Programs Services DSPS (Section 508 compliance of course material and delivery)
 

6.    Tutoring (Learning Assistance Center, MESA, ESL Center, Reading Center, Writing Center, Foreign Language Lab, etc.)
 

7. Other 
 

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DISTANCE EDUCATION TASK FORCE                                 RECOMMENDATION 105-D
PASADENA CITY COLLEGE November 2009

E. Instructional Design & Delivery (TITLE 5: 55202 ; WASC, ASCCC):

Student-to-Student; Student-to-Content Contact (Regular Effective Contact)
This section is dedicated to how the course will be translated from face-to-face learning activities
into technology mediated, learner-centered pedagogy.

 Briefly address the following quality teaching and learning methods and tools you will use
 in your course:

 1. Describe how the course curriculum will promote each of these interactions and
     communication (Title 5; WASC):

     a. Student-to-student


     b. Student-to-content


 2. Provide examples of how the instructor will facilitate critical thinking and problem solving.


 3. Describe at least two learning activities that the instructor will use in this course to promote
     and monitor substantive student-to-student contact.

 4. Describe how the instructor will foster online community building activities. Include a sampling
     of the LMS tool(s), i.e., discussions, announcements, email, chat, etc. that will be used to
     engage students in collaborative learning communities.




F. Instructional Design & Delivery (TITLE 5: 55211a; WASC; ASCCC)
Instructor-to-Student Contact (Regular Effective Contact)

Title 5 states: "All approved courses offered as distance education shall include regular effective
     contact between instructor and students, through group and individual meetings, orientation and
     review sessions, supplemental seminar or study sessions, field trips, library
     workshops/orientations, telephone contact, correspondence, voice mail, email, or other
     activities."

For each method and/or technology that will be used to maintain regular effective contact with
   students:
   o   Briefly explain how the delivery method(s) and/or technologies listed below will be used to
       maintain regular effective contact with students throughout the course.
   o   Include/explain what will make this interaction effective.
   o   Indicate how faculty will identify and respond to students experiencing academic difficulty?
   o   Indicate online or face-to-face; synchronous or asynchronous.

   1. Group meeting

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DISTANCE EDUCATION TASK FORCE                                    RECOMMENDATION 105-D
PASADENA CITY COLLEGE November 2009
      2. Individual meeting
      3. Orientation
      4. Library workshop
      5. Study session
      6.    Supplemental seminar
      7. Field trip
      8. Review session
      9. Discussion board
      10. Email
      11. Voice mail
      12. Chat room
      13. IM
      14. OTHER
 
 
G. Assessment & Evaluation of Student Learning

Aligning multiple timely assessment strategies with learning objectives that actively engage your
students, require critical thinking activities, and promote application and transfer of learning in real-
life scenarios are pedagogically preferred. For example, a gradual portfolio of graded assignments
throughout the course helps verify how well your students have met the course objectives.
A variety of methods of assessment, comparable to those used in face-to-face courses should be
proposed and considered.

    1. Describe each assessment method that will be used to evaluate student learning in this
    course. For each assessment method used, give a specific example.

                                    Assessment Method and Example(s)
           a. Participation/communication


           b. Individual projects


           c. Group projects


           d. Authentic/discovery learning assignments, i.e., role playing, diagnosis, experiments


           e. Written papers, essays, or reports


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DISTANCE EDUCATION TASK FORCE                               RECOMMENDATION 105-D
PASADENA CITY COLLEGE November 2009
     f.   Self-tests


     g. Form based / skills based tests, i.e., multiple choice, matching


     h. Portfolio of scaffolding assignments


     i.   Other



 2. Given these assessment methods briefly explain how the instructor will address issues of
 student academic integrity and authentication in this course.




H. Evaluation
Integrating ongoing formal and informal student feedback to help strategize student learning
instruction and assessment is required by Title 5 and ACCJC. Evaluation instruments should be
appropriate to distance education delivery.

 Briefly explain how opportunities for student feedback will be offered in the course.
 1. Course content

 2. Ease of technology used within the course


I. Teaching with Technology
   A variety of multimedia elements and/or learning objects are used and relevant to student
   learning throughout the course. The technology choices made should consider access for all
   students.

   o Digital/flash video clips
   o Virtual space
   o Simulations
   o Educational gaming
   o Animations
   o Graphics
   o Podcasting/MP3
   o Presentation programs, i.e., PowerPoint, Keynote, etc
   o Web-based resources

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DISTANCE EDUCATION TASK FORCE                                     RECOMMENDATION 105-D
PASADENA CITY COLLEGE November 2009
      o Publisher prepared online materials
      o Course cartridge materials (e-pack)
      o CD support materials
      o DVD support materials
      o Instructor authored web site
      o Internet
      o     Other

J. Online Design & Delivery
Accessibility - This section describes how the course design will ensure that all instructional
content is accessible to students with disabilities, as well as those with ESL and technical
challenges. The CCCCO Distance Education Guidelines state: “Ensuring that distance education
courses, materials and resources are accessible to students with disabilities is a shared institutional
responsibility." The following requirements and guidelines must be met.
      •     The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) requires educational institutions to provide
            for effective communication, auxiliary aides and services, and reasonable accommodations
            to achieve access to computer technology and the Internet.
      •     The 1998 amendment to the Workforce Rehabilitation Act (Section 508 standards) requires
            that all information technology developed, used, maintained and purchased by Federal
            agencies are accessible to people with disabilities.
      •     The Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG 2.0, December 2008) covers a wide range
            of recommendations for making Web content accessible to people with disabilities including
            blindness and low vision, deafness and hearing loss, learning disabilities, movement
            limitations, cognitive and speech impairments.
      •     More recently, Assembly Bill AB386 required textbook publishers to provide captioned
            audiovisual materials for deaf and hearing-impaired college students in a timely manner.
            Other alternate formats or methods of accessibility include audio recordings, Braille, large
            print, electronic text, Internet postings, multimedia audio description, and real-time
            transcription service. DSPS is available for consultation.

    Consider how the course design will ensure access to all students.
    1. Briefly describe how course design and delivery will ensure that each of the technology
          choices from the above, Part I, (Teaching with Technology) will be ADA compliant and 508
          conformant. 
     
    2. Briefly describe how your LMS, web page, and/or publisher-produced multimedia content
          will provide equivalent alternatives to auditory and visual content. Give one example.

 


Recommendation Approved by the Distance Education Committee – November 24, 2009
Recommendation Presented to the Academic Senate for Review – December 7, 2009

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DISTANCE EDUCATION TASK FORCE                       RECOMMENDATION 105-D
PASADENA CITY COLLEGE November 2009
Recommendation Sent to the Curriculum and Instruction Committee – December, 2009
Reviewed by C&I Subcommittee on Style and Mechanics March 9, 2010.
Final Draft March 23, 2010
Recommendation Approved by Curriculum and Instruction Committee – April 2009




                                            6                                       
                                                                                    
DISTANCE EDUCATION TASK FORCE                                    RECOMMENDATION 106
PASADENA CITY COLLEGE December 2009

               Distance Education Pedagogical Readiness for Faculty

Rationale:

As an essential part of our commitment to student success in all areas of learning,
distance education courses at Pasadena City College should provide high quality,
innovative instruction that maintains the highest standards and best practices in the
teaching and learning environment delivered electronically. Furthermore,
“Institutions are expected to control development, implementation, and evaluation of all
courses and programs offered in their names, including those offered electronically"
(Accreditation Reference Handbook, 2008).

The Distance Education Committee recommends that faculty who wish to teach online
be proficient in basic online pedagogical skills (competencies) in order to assure that
online course quality translates into student success. With these skills in mind the
objective of the Distance Education Pedagogical Readiness Recommendation is to
provide prospective online instructors with best practices to be used in converting face-
to face courses or creating new online courses into successful online courses.

WASC Red Flag – Face-to-face courses directly translated into a distance education
course may indicate inadequate consideration of distance education pedagogy (Walton,
James-Hanz, North, and Pilati, 2008).

“It is easy to put content online but the effort comes in crafting work flow, and activities
to guide the learning process and produce the learning outcomes one wants" (Lemire,
2008).

In her presentation, "Quality Online Programs Begin with You!" (Session - Learning by
Distance) given at the California Community Colleges Academic Senate Curriculum
Institute in 2004, Pat James-Hanz, co-director of @ONE -Technology and Pedagogical
Training for California Community College Faculty and Staff, and Dean of Libraries and
Technology at Mt. San Jacinto College points out that in distance education courses,
methods of instruction and evaluation change, NOT content or objectives.

 But it is also true, as pointed out in "Nine Principles for Excellence in web-based
Teaching," a recent research article from the Canadian Journal of Learning and
Technology (2008), written by experts in the field of online learning, that it is not
sufficient to be a content expert or a technology savvy individual. The author/educators
go on to point out that "It is not even sufficient to be an excellent traditional classroom
teacher. Because the online world is a categorically different environment [and] a
particular blend of skills and knowledge is necessary if success is to be found in this
domain…. this blend includes an understanding that the online world is a medium unto
itself and that the delivery of content requires action; that technology must be used
wisely and that a sense of community is essential; that many areas of expertise are
needed and that an effective web interface must be provided; that ongoing assessment
and refinement must be carried out, that little extras often go a long way, and that while


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DISTANCE EDUCATION TASK FORCE                                    RECOMMENDATION 106
PASADENA CITY COLLEGE December 2009
technology is the vehicle for online courses, that vehicle is driven by good pedagogy."
(Henry 8)

With best practices and student success in mind, the following standards for online
pedagogical readiness for Distance Education courses at PCC are recommended:


Faculty Standards for Distance Education Pedagogical Readiness

Prior to teaching online at Pasadena City College, faculty will:

    1. Have completed formal college-level coursework or training in online teaching
       and learning from an accredited college or university, or the equivalent. This
       coursework or training should include instruction in best practices for online
       teaching and learning, including Section 508 compliance, and [familiarity with] the
       College’s course management system.

    Examples of such formal college-level coursework with training in online teaching
    and learning include the California Community College’s @ONE Online Teaching
    Certification Program (http://www.cccone.org/certification/index.php) or the UCLA
    Online Teaching for Academic and Business Professionals program, or by taking
    relevant distance education technology offerings through the Office of Academic
    Support or the New Media Center Training Workshops, and/or other similar
    coursework at accredited institutions.

    or

    2. Present a teaching demonstration in an online format, showing evidence of
       pedagogical readiness that includes:

         a) Showing evidence of effective student-to-faculty, student-to-student, and
            student-to-content contact
         b) Assessments designed to support student learning outcomes
         c) Section 508 compliant curriculum materials
         d) Familiarity with the College’s course management system

The Distance Education Committee further recommends that instructors who wish to
teach online courses should complete at least one online course as a student. It is
imperative for an instructor to experience this mode of delivery from the student's point
of view.

Determination as to whether an instructor meets the pedagogical recommendations will
be made by the Dean, or designee of the relevant Division, in consultation with the
Dean of the Office of Academic Support and in consultation with the Chair of the
Distance Education Committee or designee.




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DISTANCE EDUCATION TASK FORCE                              RECOMMENDATION 106
PASADENA CITY COLLEGE December 2009
An appeals process will be developed by the Distance Education Committee that will
rely on the guidance of the Dean of Academic Support or designee and in consultation
with the Dean of the relevant Division.

Distance Education Pedagogical Readiness Qualifications:

The Distance Education Committee recommends that instructors who wish to teach
online courses must meet the following online, pedagogical readiness qualifications:

    1. Pedagogical Fundamentals
       • Recognize opportunities and challenges of an online learning environment.
       • Comprehend distinctive differences between face-to-face and online
         pedagogy and delivery.
       • Understand learner-centered pedagogy where concepts of interactivity,
         instructor-led facilitation and feedback are core elements.
       • Recognize unique needs of the online learner.
       • Transition from instructor / content expert to facilitator / resource person.
       • Convert face-to-face course content into active learning strategies.

    2. Course Interaction
       • Communicate and interact asynchronously and synchronously with students.
       • Structure, organize and cultivate learning communities and group activities.
       • Practice regular effective instructor – student contact.
       • Acknowledge the importance of and provide prompt feedback to students,
         that helps them understand what is needed to improve their performance.

    3. Curriculum Technology Integration
       • Identify the most appropriate technologies for specific subject area and
         learning outcomes.
       • Understand how selected technologies support content presentation,
         instruction, demonstration, collaboration, active learning, and assessment.
       • Recognize how appropriate technologies can be utilized to enhance online
         instruction and learning.

    4. Assessment
       • Use online asynchronous assessment techniques
       • Provide multiple opportunities for authentic assessment and demonstration of
         student learning outcomes.
       • Employ multiple assessment strategies to maintain active student
         engagement
       • Integrate an evaluation survey to receive regular constructive student
         feedback.
       • Understand the unique challenges affecting academic Integrity in an online
         learning environment.

    5. 508 Compliancy


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DISTANCE EDUCATION TASK FORCE                             RECOMMENDATION 106
PASADENA CITY COLLEGE December 2009
     • Create or modify all course content and self-authored web sites to provide
       access to students with disabilities.

References

Accreditation Reference Handbook: Policy on Distance Learning, Including
Electronically Mediated Learning. (2008). A Publication of the Accrediting Commission
for Community and Junior Colleges Western Association of Schools and Colleges.

Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges, Western Association of
Schools and Colleges (August 2008). Distance Learning Manual. Accessed 10/5/09.
http://www.accjc.org/pdf/Distance_Learning_Manual_August_2008.pdf

Cerritos College Standards for Online Instruction, Basic Pedagogical Competencies,
Accessed 9/7/09. http://cms.cerritos.edu/ic/de-standards

College of the Canyons, Online Instructor Qualifications. (2005). Accessed 9/15/09.
http://www.canyons.edu/Offices/Distance%5FLearning/facsupport/fullonlineinstquals.as
p  

Course Readiness Criteria - Example 7: Do the faculty members involved have an
understanding of learning theory? (2005). A Publication of the National Center for
Academic Transformation. Accessed 11/21/09.
http://www.thencat.org/PlanRes/RCexamples/C_Ex7.htm 

Gibbons, H. & Wentworth, G. (2001). Andrological and Pedagogical Training
Differences for Online Instructors. Accessed 11/20/09.
http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/fall43/gibbons_wentworth43.html  
 
James-Hanz, Pat. (2004) Quality Online Programs Begin with You! Learning By
Distance, California Community Colleges Academic Senate Curriculum Institute, July
15-17,2004. http://www.asccc.org/Events/Curriculum/Curric2004.htm

Henry, J., Meadows, J. (2008). Nine Principles for Excellence in Web-based Teaching,
Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology, v34 (1) Winter 2008.
http://www.educause.edu/Resources/Anabsolutelyrivetingonlinecour/163704

Kosak, L., Manning, D., Dobson, E., Rogerson, L., Cotnam, S., Colaric, S., &
McFadden, C. (2004). Prepared to Teach Online? Perspectives of Faculty in the
University of North Carolina System. Accessed 11/25/09. 
http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/fall73/kosak73.html 

Kaminskaya, E. (2006). Teaching with Technology: A Case Study of Online Faculty
Development at the University of Central Florida. Accessed 11/20/09.
http://www.irex.org/programs/uasp/CaseStudies/06/kaminskaya.pdf.




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DISTANCE EDUCATION TASK FORCE                             RECOMMENDATION 106
PASADENA CITY COLLEGE December 2009
Lemire, D. (2008). Some Myths about Online Teaching. Accessed 11/25/09.
http://www.daniel-lemire.com/blog/archives/2008/07/29/some-myths-about-online-
teaching/

Online Course Readiness. (2004). A Publication of the Electronic University Consortium
of South Dakota. Accessed 11/21/09.
http://www.sdbor.edu/euc/online_course_readiness.htm

Online DE Course Development Faculty Readiness Checklist. (2008). Sheridan Institute
of Technology and Advanced Learning, Vancouver, Canada. Accessed 11/25/09.
http://www.advanced-tv-and-film.com/CCFD/accouncil/checklist.pdf

Oomen-Early, J. & Murphy, L. (2008). Overcoming Obstacles to Faculty Participation in
Distance Education. Accessed 11/25/09.
http://www.magnapubs.com/issues/magnapubs_ff/5_3/news/601249-1.html

Palloff, R. M., & Pratt, K. (2001). Lessons from the cyberspace classroom: The realities
of online teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Truman-Davis, B., Futch, L., Thompson, K., Yonekura, F. (1999). UCF's Support for
Teaching and Learning Online: CD-ROM Development, Faculty Development, and
Statewide Training. Accessed 11/24/09.
http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/html/edu9906/edu9906.html

Walton, I., James-Hanz, P., North, W., Pilati, M. (2008). Ensuring the Appropriate Use
of Educational Technology: An Update for Local Academic Senates. Accessed 5/13/09.
http://www.asccc.org/Publications/Papers/Education_Technology.htm




Recommendation Approved by the Distance Education Committee – March 9, 2010
Recommendation Approved by the Academic Senate – April 6, 2010




                                           5
DISTANCE EDUCATION TASK FORCE                                   RECOMMENDATION 107
PASADENA CITY COLLEGE December 2009


                Online Class Size (Course Cap) Recommendation
    (Based on Class Size Recommendation Approved by DE Committee April 2008)

Rationale:

Title 5, WASC, ACCJC, and independent research confirm that establishing an online
learning community through substantive group/collaborative learning, discussions, and
individual learning facilitated via instructor-student interaction is key to student
motivation, involvement, and attaining positive learning outcomes in distance education
courses.

Ensuring regular effective instructor-student contact guarantees students receive the
benefit of the faculty’s presence in the online learning environment both as a provider of
instructional information and as a facilitator of student learning.

Title 5 Section 55204: "All approved courses offered as distance education shall include
regular effective contact between instructor and students, through group/collaborative
learning, group/individual discussions, or other activities." WASC and ASCCC endorse
Title 5 Section 55204.

Title 5 Section 55208: Number of Students - Procedures used for determining the
number of students assigned to a course section offered by distance education may
include a review by the Curriculum Committee (Walton, James-Hanz, P., et al, 2008).

WASC Red Flag:
[If the] curriculum plan indicates that a large number of students are expected to enroll
in each section of an online course this [policy] could compromise the effectiveness of
interaction between the students and faculty unless additional provision is made to
accommodate large numbers (U.S. Department of Education, 2006).

Drago and Peltier (2004) concur that one factor recognized to be “significantly and
negatively impacted by class size is instructor-student interaction (31).”

Fully online and hybrid courses which do not incorporate WASC and Title 5 regular
effective contact through group/collaborative learning, substantive discussion, and
individual learning facilitated via substantive instructor-student interaction curriculum
components are not accreditation exemplars of PCC.

Online and Hybrid Recommendations:

   1. In response to Title 5 regulations and WASC guidelines regarding instructor-
      student interaction, the pedagogical rationale for capping class size is to make
      allowances for continuous substantive communication. Therefore, optimally
      facilitated fully online courses require quantity and quality (frequency and mode
[Type text] 
 

        of instructor-student contact) with section sizes small enough to promote and
        meet positive learning outcomes.

        Recommendation 1a:
        The Distance Education Committee recommends that for the above reasons, a
        course enrollment cap of 30 for PCC fully online courses be established unless
        the maximum for a face-to-face equivalent course is less than 30. In these cases,
        the face-to-face maximum enrollment will be used.

    2. Hybrid courses are expected to include and ensure regular effective contact
       based on a mutual effort between faculty and students. Title 5 Subsection (a)
       underscores:

               …[it is] the responsibility of the instructor in a DE course to initiate regular
               contact with enrolled students to verify their participation and performance
               status. The use of the term regular effective contact in this context
               suggests that students should have frequent opportunities to ask
               questions and receive answers from the instructor of record.

        Hybrid courses include the combination of scheduled reduced face-to-face
        instruction with computer-based learning and other instructional technologies.
        Consequently, frequency and mode of faculty-student continuous substantive
        communication may vary and individual hybrid course curriculum should be
        assessed to insure optimal Title 5 regulation compliance and WASC guidelines
        covering continuous substantive faculty-student communication.

        Recommendation 1b:

        The Distance Education Committee recommends that maximum enrollment in a
        hybrid course, ensuring regular effective faculty-student contact, should not
        exceed the face-to-face maximum and preferably the enrollment should be
        capped at 30. Larger hybrid course sections should be compensated by
        additional credit in load assignment in the same manner as face-to-face sections.

        Conversely, when regular effective faculty-student contact is not evident in the
        course design, the hybrid course is exempt from the above recommendation and
        the course enrollment cap will remain identical to its equivalent PCC face-to-face
        course.

Resources:

Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges, Western Association of
Schools and Colleges (August 2008). Distance Learning Manual. Accessed 10/5/09.
http://www.accjc.org/pdf/Distance_Learning_Manual_August_2008.pdf  

                                               2
 
[Type text] 
 

Boettcher, J.V. (1999). How Many Students Are Just Right in a Web Course? Accessed
11/10/09. http://www.designingforlearning.info/services/writing/number.htm

Cerritos Community College Standards for Distance Education. (2007). Regular
Effective Contact. Accessed 11/21/09. http://cms.cerritos.edu/ic/de-standards#VIII

Colwell, J.L. (n.d.). The Upper Limit: The Issues for Faculty in Setting Class Size in
Online. Accessed 11/10/09.
http://www.ipfw.edu/tohe/Papers/Nov%2010/015__the%20upper%20limit.pdf

Drago, W & Peltier, J. (2004). The effects of class size on effectiveness of online
courses. Accessed 11/15/09. Retrieved from
http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/01409170410784310

U.S. Department of Education Office of Postsecondary Education. (2006). Evidence of
Quality in Distance Education Programs Drawn from Interviews with the Accreditation
Community. Accessed 11/10/09.
http://www.ysu.edu/accreditation/Resources/Accreditation-Evidence-of-Quality-in-DE-
Programs.pdf

Hiltz, S.R. (1998). Collaborative Learning in Asynchronous Learning Networks: Building
Learning Communities. Accessed 11/7/09.
http://web.njit.edu/~hiltz/collaborative_learning_in_asynch.htm

Stein, J. (2009). What Size Do You Want to Be? Accessed 11/7/09.
http://flexknowlogy.learningfield.org/2009/10/01/online-class-what-size-do-you-want-to-
be/

Walton, I., James-Hanz, P., North, W., & Pilati, M. (2008). Ensuring the Appropriate use
of Educational technology: An Update for Local Academic Senates. Accessed 11/2/09.
http://www.asccc.org/Publications/Papers/Education_Technology.htm




Recommendation Approved by the Distance Education Committee – December 8, 2009
Recommendation Presented to Academic Senate for Review – March 9, 2010
Recommendation Sent on to the Faculty Association for negotiation – April 6, 2010



                                             3
 
DISTANCE EDUCATION TASK FORCE                                 RECOMMENDATION 108
PASADENA CITY COLLEGE December 2009


                    Distance Education Office/Conference Hours
    (Based on Conference Hours Recommendation Approved by DE Committee April 2008)

Rationale:
Instructor office/conference hours in relation to distance education courses should be
understood as an aspect of “regular effective contact,” as defined in Title 5 section
55204.

The Academic Senate of the California Community Colleges recommends that workload
issues, such as office/conference hours in relation to distance education classes, be
treated differently from face-to-face classes only “if there is good educational
justification” (Walton, James-Hanz p. 20). To be sure, online office hours may be useful
not only to the online student in a course, but also to face-to-face students, if they are
offered outside of the normal business day. Allowing online instructors to conduct a
portion of their required office hours online is one way to meet the needs of a diverse
community of online students. (Academic Senate for California Community Colleges
Ensuring the Appropriate Use of Technology, 2008)

It is important to note that the matter addressed in Recommendation 108 relates to
instructor office/conference hours. Participation in shared governance should be
understood as a separate issue, not to be confused with any issues associated with
best practices (regular effective contact) regarding distance education courses and
instructor office/conference hours. Faculty communication through interactive, online
office-conference hours is an integral component of quality instruction, as well as a
leading indicator of student satisfaction.

The Current PCC Contract Language regarding Conference hours states:

(PCC Contract Agreement July 1, 2007 – June 30, 2008, Article 5, Working
Conditions, 5.2.1) http://www.pasadena.edu/hr/CTAfinal08.pdf

5.2.2 CONFERENCE HOURS. Full-time unit members shall schedule their five and one
half (5.5) student conference hours on no fewer than three (3) different days per week.
Unit members on reduced load shall schedule student conference hours on no fewer
days than one less than the number of required conference hours. It is recommended
that conference hours be held between the hours of 6:30 a.m. and 10:00 p.m. No single
conference period shall be less than thirty (30) minutes in length.
Conference hours will not be scheduled between 12:00 and 1:00 p.m. on Tuesdays or
Thursdays and will not be scheduled to conflict with the instructor’s class assignments.
Conference hours shall be held in the unit member’s office or in a laboratory facility
readily accessible to students, based on a schedule posted no later than the first
Monday following the opening of a semester.
 5.2.2.1 During the final examination period, required conference hours may be
scheduled in a pattern appropriate to the faculty member’s final examination
schedule and student needs. A copy of the revised office hours and final examination
schedule shall be posted, and a copy shall be distributed to the division dean


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DISTANCE EDUCATION TASK FORCE                                  RECOMMENDATION 108
PASADENA CITY COLLEGE December 2009
5.2.3 Unless excepted by this Agreement, the classroom assignment for a full-time
instructor of credit classes shall be a minimum of thirty four (30) lecture equivalent hours
(l.e.h.) per year. An “l.e.h.” is based on one lecture hour per week for a full semester (18
weeks).
5.2.3.1 Unless excepted by this Agreement, each hour designated in the College
Bulletin as lecture shall be given credit as (1) l.e.h.
5.2.3.2 Unless excepted by this Agreement, each hour designated in the College
Bulletin as laboratory shall be given credit as (0.75) l.e.h.
5.2.3.3 Each hour designated in the College Bulletin as laboratory in a Physical
Education Activity course shall be given credit as (0.7143) l.e.h.
5.2.3.4 Each hour designated as field practice shall be given (0.200) l.e.h.
5.2.4 New employees will be placed no higher than the 14th step on the salary
schedule.

PCC Contract Agreement July 1, 2007 – June 30, 2008, Article 5, Working Conditions,
5.2.1) http://www.pasadena.edu/hr/CTAfinal08.pdf



    Distance Education Committee Office/Conference Hours Recommendation

The Distance Education Committee recommends that full-time faculty who teach
online may hold a percentage of office/conference hours online.
The portion of office/conference hours that may be held online should be
commensurate with the percentage of teaching load that is held online, but no more
than 40% of the number of hours (consistent with the assignment for the 16 week
semester) required for full-time faculty. The maximum number of office/conference
hours that may be held online is 2.25, or 2 hours and 15 minutes for full-time faculty
who teach online. The remaining 60% office/conference hours will be held on
campus as per the relevant PCC Contract Agreement regarding Conference Hours,
cited above.
    •   Online office/conference hours must be scheduled over at least 2 days in
        blocks of 30 minutes or more.
    •   The online office/conference hours will require synchronous communication,
        such as chat, text messaging, video teleconference, or other similar methods.
    •   Information about online office/conference hours along with face-to-face office
        hours as per the PCC Contract Agreement must be posted online in the course
        syllabus and a copy distributed to the Division Dean.


References:




                                             2
DISTANCE EDUCATION TASK FORCE                                RECOMMENDATION 108
PASADENA CITY COLLEGE December 2009
Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges, Western Association of
Schools and Colleges (August 2008). Distance Learning Manual. Accessed 10/5/09.
http://www.accjc.org/pdf/Distance_Learning_Manual_August_2008.pdf

Cerritos College, Standards for Online Instruction, Basic Technology Competencies,
Accessed 9/7/09.
http://cms.cerritos.edu/ic/de-standards

College of the Canyons, Distance Learning, Online Instructor Qualifications. Accessed
9/15/09.
http://www.canyons.edu/Offices/Distance%5FLearning/facsupport/fullonlineinstquals.as
p

Maxfield, M. (2006). The Online Teacher: Examing the Time and Daily Schedules. In E.
Pearson & P. Bohman (eds.), Proceedings of World Conference on Educational
Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications , Chesapeake, VA. (pp. 1416-1422).
Retrieved from http://www.editlib.org/p/23188.

Mt. San Jacinto College, Guidelines for Online Instruction
http://www.msjc.edu/etc/onlinemou.pdf

Pasadena City College. Contract Agreement July 1, 2007 – June 30, 2008, Article 5,
Working Conditions, 5.2.1). Accessed 11/12/09.
http://www.pasadena.edu/hr/CTAfinal08.pdf

Pasadena City College. Memorandum from the Office of the VP of Instruction to
Division Deans Regarding Faculty Conference Hours, (August 2009).

State University of New York, College at Oneonta. (2009) Distance Learning Policy.
"Office Hours, Faculty Presence," Accessed 11/19/09.
http://www.oneonta.edu/academics/senate/documents/Distance%20Learning%20Policy
%20%20(approved%20by%20College%20Senate%20on%20Jan%2026%20'09).pdf

Walton, I., James-Hanz, P., North, W., Pilati, M. (2008). Ensuring the Appropriate Use
of Educational Technology: An Update for Local Academic Senates. Accessed 5/13/09.
http://www.asccc.org/Publications/Papers/Education_Technology.htm



Recommendation Approved by the Distance Education Committee – December 8, 2009
Recommendation Presented to the Academic Senate for Review – March 9, 2010
Recommendation Sent on to the Faculty Association for negotiation – April 6, 2010




                                           3
DISTANCE EDUCATION TASK FORCE                                RECOMMENDATION 109
PASADENA CITY COLLEGE    March 2010

                            Distance Education Teacher Load

(Based on an earlier Teacher Load recommendation approved by DE Committee and
presented to the Academic Senate in April 2008. The Senate decided at that time to defer a
vote and send the recommendation on to the Faculty Association. The recommendation
regarding Teacher Load was forwarded to the Faculty Association with no response
throughout 2008 and 2009.)

Rationale
As an essential part of our commitment to distance education student success Pasadena City
College must provide quality online teaching and learning environments that maintain the
highest standards and best practices. Assuring quality instruction translates into online
student success by relying on the instructor‘s complex tasks of maintaining pedagogical,
social, managerial, and technical roles (Berge, 1995) coupled with instructor-student regular
effective contact (Title 5, section 55204).

The 2009 Sloan National Commission on Online Learning reports that, “nearly 64 percent of
faculty said it takes somewhat more or a lot more effort to teach online compared to a face-
to-face course.” Higher education administrators believe that it takes more faculty time and
effort to teach an online course (p. 6).

In relation to distance education courses and teacher load, the AAUP in their 2000
interpretive comments revision of the Statement on Faculty Workload, states:

     No examination of teaching loads today would be complete without consideration of how
     distance education has affected the work of faculty members who engage in it. Since
     faculty members have primary responsibility for instruction, the curricular changes
     needed to implement new technologies…require substantial faculty participation…
     Consideration should also be given to the matter of increases in contact hours in the real
     or asynchronous time required to achieve interactive learning and student accessibility
     (AAUP, Policy Documents and Reports, Committee on Teaching, Research and
     Publication, Statement on Faculty Workload with Interpretive Comments, p. 195).

The Academic Senate for California Community Colleges’ Technology in Education: A
Summary of Practical Policy and Workload Language, states that distance education courses
with effective instructor-student contact require more faculty time than corresponding lecture
courses. There is “growing evidence that faculty spend more time than in a traditional course
when they interact via email or the web.” (2000, p.26) Cavanaugh’s 2005 Teaching Online –
A Time Comparison analysis compares time spent teaching online courses and why distance
education courses require more time than face-to-face courses:

     a)   Online time on task is tied directly to the course quality, and
     b)   Time demands for even small online courses exceed those for in-class courses.




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DISTANCE EDUCATION TASK FORCE                                  RECOMMENDATION 109
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Lawrence Tomei’s 2004 The Impact of Online Teaching on Faculty Load supports the
ASCCC 2000 statement. Tomei’s research found in light of the additional time and workload
issues involved with a distance education course, “online teaching demanded a minimum of
20 percent more time than traditional [face-to-face] instruction, most of which was spent
presenting instructional content.” (p. 7)

Workload is further discussed in the 2002 Technology in Education article, wherein the
Academic Senate references Tyner’s Guidelines for Negotiating Distance Education Issues.
According to those guidelines – “A faculty member teaching a distance education course for
the first time requires substantial time and effort to learn new technologies and/or develop or
adapt new materials.” (Cited in Academic Senate for California Community Colleges)

WASC red flag: If faculty are teaching a full-time teaching load while simultaneously
“engaging in distance education course development and delivery,” this situation is
considered a warning sign that the institution is not building the appropriate systems to
sustain a growing distance education initiative.” (U.S. Department of Education Office of
Postsecondary Education, p. 226).

As cited a number of times previously in making other DE recommendations, the Academic
Senate for California Community Colleges recommends that workload issues, such as
teacher load, in relation to distance education classes, be treated differently from face-to-face
classes only “if there is good educational justification” (Walton, James-Hanz, p. 20). Clearly a
recommendation on appropriate teacher load is fundamental in providing high quality
instruction that maintains the highest standards and best practices in the online teaching and
learning environment.

The Academic Senate for California Community Colleges discussion of workload issues
further states, “Just as class size has a significant effect on the quality and success of the
mandated effective instructor-student contact, so can the teaching load of the faculty
member…. In addition, reduced on-campus availability of faculty who teach distance
education sections impacts their ability to participate in traditional collegial meetings and set
the decision-making climate of their institution.” Two of the most important questions about
distance education workload issues to be considered according the ASCCC are, “Is the
maximum semester load different for faculty teaching distance education sections and regular
classroom sections?” and, “Are instructors required to teach a certain portion of their load on
campus?” (Walton, James-Hanz, p. 20). These questions may ultimately need to be resolved
through collective bargaining, but the DE Committee must make a recommendation.

The current PCC contract language regarding face-to-face teacher load contract delineates
load for both full-time, adjunct instructors, and credit and non-credit courses.
Therefore, faculty teaching load for PCC distance education courses must be added to
contract language.


See: Memorandum of Understanding Between Pasadena City College CCA/CTA and
Pasadena Area Community College District Concerning Teaching Load (PCC Faculty
Association Website, 2003)
                                                                                            2 of 6
 
DISTANCE EDUCATION TASK FORCE                                  RECOMMENDATION 109
PASADENA CITY COLLEGE    March 2010

(PCC Contract Agreement July 1, 2007 – June 30, 2008, Article 5, Working Conditions,
5.2.1) http://www.pasadena.edu/hr/CTAfinal08.pdf

5.2 TEACHING FACULTY - CREDIT COURSES
5.2.1 The assignment of a full-time, classroom instructor of credit classes shall be one
hundred seventy-six (176) days per fiscal year (eleven [11]-month employees add twenty-two
[22] days), thirty four (34) hours per week consisting of a combination of in-class teaching
and preparation for teaching; five and one half (5.5) hours of additional time for student
conferences; and five and one half (5.5) hours for professional growth and development,
College governance and other professional responsibilities. The first duty day shall be the
first day of classes. First-year contract (probationary) and temporary faculty shall have two (2)
additional days of assignment for orientation.
5.2.3 Unless excepted by this Agreement, the classroom assignment for a full-time instructor
of credit classes shall be a minimum of thirty four (30) lecture equivalent hours
(l.e.h.) per year. An “l.e.h.” is based on one lecture hour per week for a full semester (18
weeks).
5.2.3.1 Unless excepted by this Agreement, each hour designated in the College Bulletin as
lecture shall be given credit as (1) l.e.h.
5.2.3.2 Unless excepted by this Agreement, each hour designated in the College Bulletin as
laboratory shall be given credit as (0.75) l.e.h.
5.2.3.3 Each hour designated in the College Bulletin as laboratory in a Physical Education
Activity course shall be given credit as (0.7143) l.e.h.
5.2.3.4 Each hour designated as field practice shall be given (0.200) l.e.h.
5.2.4 New employees will be placed no higher than the 14th step on the salary schedule.
Contract faculty (credit and non-credit), effective July 1, 2003, shall be eligible to teach all
four sessions (fall, winter, spring, summer).

5.4 ADJUNCT FACULTY – CREDIT COURSES
5.4.1 Adjunct faculty should be paid comparable to contract faculty for the same
responsibilities. Achieving the goal of comparable pay for comparable work means that the
District has reached parity.
5.4.2 Comparable work for contract and adjunct faculty is defined as classroom teaching,
class preparation and grading, and advising students.
5.4.3 A contract faculty weekly teaching load is defined as 17 hours of classroom teaching.

5.5 TEACHING FACULTY - NONCREDIT CLASSES
5.5.1 The full-time noncredit load shall be one hundred seventy-six (176) days per fiscal year,
(eleven [11]-month employees add twenty-two [22] days), forty (40) hours per week
consisting of twenty-five (25) teaching hours; twelve (12) preparation hours; and three (3)
hours for conference and/or governance. First-year contract (probationary) and temporary
faculty shall have two (2) additional days of assignment for orientation.

5.5.2 A minimum of thirty (30) hours of the weekly assignment shall be scheduled. This
requirement shall include travel time between two sites when teaching assignments for a
given day are on more than one campus.
5.5.3 Those affected employees on less than 100% contract assignment shall serve the pro
rata hours to those in sections 5.5.1 and 5.5.2.
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5.5.4 New employees will be placed no higher than the seventh (7th) step on the salary
schedule.


Distance Education Committee Teacher Load Recommendation:

The Distance Education Committee recommends that consideration must be given to
the increased workload of facilitating fully online courses.

Recommended guidelines:

    1. The portion of an individual instructor’s load delivered online should not exceed
       2/3 (two-thirds) of the instructor’s full-time contract load.

        EXCEPTION: An exception to the above guideline (1.) will be allowed for
        faculty members who teach in a Division or Program where the curricular
        needs of the students, the availability of classroom resources, the structure of
        existing and new programs within the Division or Program, or fluctuations in
        student demand among semesters would support an increased percentage of
        online teaching load in some semesters. This determination shall be made by
        the Division Dean in consultation with the faculty in the discipline, Program or
        Division.

    2. Instructors who have not previously taught online may teach no more than two
       online course sections in their first semester of teaching online.
    3. A new PCC instructor who has taught a comparable online course at another
       accredited institution of higher learning may teach no more than two online course
       sections as part of their load in their first semester of teaching.
    4. Participation by faculty in distance education at Pasadena City College is voluntary.
       The decision by a faculty member not to be involved with distance education will not
       be negatively evaluated.




References
Academic Senate for California Community Colleges. 2002. A Summary of Practical Policy
and Workload Language. Adopted Spring 2000, in Technology in Education: A Collection of
Academic Senate Papers on Technology, 1995-2000. Second Edition.
http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=tru
e&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED445711&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accn
o=ED445711
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Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges, Western Association of Schools
and Colleges (August 2008). Distance Learning Manual. Accessed 10/5/09.
http://www.accjc.org/pdf/Distance_Learning_Manual_August_2008.pdf

Allen, I.E. & Seaman, J. (2005, 2006, 2007, 2008). Staying The Courses: Online Education in
the United States, 2008, Needham, MA: Sloan Consortium.
http://www.sloanconsortium.org/publications/survey/staying_course

American Association of University Professors. (1969, 2000). Policy Documents and Reports,
Committee on Teaching, Research and Publication, Statement on Faculty Workload with
Interpretive Comments, 191-195.
http://www.aaup.org/AAUP/issues/facwork/

Berge, Z.L. (1995). Facilitating computer conferencing: Recommendations from the field.
Educational Technology, 35 (1), 22-30.

Cataldi, Emily F., Ellen M. Bradburn, and Mansour Fahimi. 2004 National Study of
Postsecondary Faculty (NSOPF: 04): Background Characteristics, Work Activities, and
Compensation of Instructional Faculty and Staff: Fall 2003. US Dept. of Educ. Natl. Center for
Educ. Statistics. Dec. 2005. 19 May 2006. http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch

Cavanaugh, J. (2005). Teaching Online - A Time Comparison Online Journal of Distance
Learning Administration, Volume VIII, Number I, Spring.
http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/spring81/cavanaugh81.htm

Cerritos College Faculty Senate Standards for Online Instruction: VII Additional
recommendations for first time online instructors, 2007, p. 3. http://cms.cerritos.edu/ic/de-
standards#VIII

Glapa-Grossklag, James. Dean, Education Technology, Learning Resources and Distance
Learning. College of the Canyons. Email - March 20, 2010.

Massachusetts Community College Distance Education Agreement (1998). Memorandum of
Agreement between the Board of Higher Education and the Massachusetts Community
College Council on Distance Education.
http://mccc-union.org/distanceedagreement.htm; mccc-
union.org/CONTRACTS/DistanceEd/DE_Agreement.pdf


Maxfield, M. (2006). The Online Teacher: Examining the Time and Daily Schedules. In E.
Pearson & P. Bohman (eds.), Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia,
Hypermedia and Telecommunications, Chesapeake, VA. (pp. 1416-1422). Retrieved from
http://www.editlib.org/p/23188.

Sloan National Commission on Online Learning. (2009). Online Learning as a Strategic
Asset. http://www.aplu.org/NetCommunity/Document.Doc?id=1879

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Pasadena City College. Contract Agreement July 1, 2007 – June 30, 2008, Article 5, Working
Conditions: Teaching Faculty, 5.2.1, Adjunct Faculty, 5.4.1). Accessed 11/12/09.
http://www.pasadena.edu/hr/CTAfinal08.pdf

Pasadena City College Faculty Association Website. (2003). Faculty Association Website.
http://www.profaculty.com/load.htm

Tomei, Lawrence. (2004) The Impact of Online Teaching on Faculty Load. International
Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. January 2004. Accessed 3/11/10.
http://www.itdl.org/journal/Jan_04/article04.htm

U.S. Department of Education Office of Postsecondary Education. (2006). Evidence of
Quality in Distance Education Programs Drawn from Interviews with the Accreditation
Community. Accessed 11/10/09. http://www.ysu.edu/accreditation/Resources/Accreditation-
Evidence-of-Quality-in-DE-Programs.pdf

Walton, I., James-Hanz, P., North, W., Pilati, M. (2008). Ensuring the Appropriate Use of
Educational Technology: An Update for Local Academic Senates. Accessed 5/13/09.
http://www.asccc.org/Publications/Papers/Education_Technology.htm




Recommendation Approved by the Distance Education Committee – April 27, 2010
Recommendation Approved by the Academic Senate – May 17, 2010




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Regular Effective Contact Definition

Title 5 California Code of Regulations: 55204: Instructor Contact
Section 55204 requires regular instructor-student contact in distance education courses,
stressing the responsibility of the instructor to initiate regular contact with enrolled students to
verify their participation and performance status. Furthermore, a number of specific types of
interactions are delineated.

Title 5: Section 55210: Ongoing Responsibilities of Districts
Section 55210 further mandates that districts need to specifically describe the type and
quantity of student-faculty interaction in their annual reports to their local governing boards
and the State Chancellor’s Office. (Walton, James-Hanz, P., et al, 2008).

Rationale: Regular Effective Contact and Effective Practices

Regular effective contact “…is not a simple matter, but involves a wide variety of elements
that reflect the instructor’s participation in the course content development and
implementation.” (Walton, I., James-Hanz, et al. 2008). Research results confirm that
establishing an online learning community in a fully online course through group/collaborative
learning, substantive discussions, and individual learning, facilitated via substantive
instructor-student interaction, is key to online students attaining positive learning outcomes. A
hybrid course also demands regular communication not only through the face-to-face
meetings of the course, but also in each distance portion of the course (Long Beach City
College Distance Learning Course Guidelines, 2009). Therefore it is important to consider the
methods of interaction that will be used.

Quality interaction (instructor to student, student to student and student to content) must
occur regularly throughout the semester. Good communication is a key factor in student
retention and success; students who feel engaged are more likely to complete the course and
enjoy their online experience.

Ensuring regular effective instructor-student contact in online courses guarantees students
receive the benefit of the instructor’s presence in the learning environment both as a provider
of instructional information and as a facilitator of student learning (Palomar Community
College Instructor/Student Contact Policy for Distance Learning Courses, 2009). The visible
personality and preferences of the instructor in a course are major factors in predicting
retention in online courses (Reisetter, Marcy, et al.2004).

Furthermore, regular effective contact addresses issues of authentication of students in
distance education courses since active student interaction with the instructor, the other
students, and the content promote academic integrity. Indeed, best practices in strategies
that promote academic integrity are the equivalent strategies that are employed to support
regular effective contact. (See WCET Best Practice Strategies to Promote Academic Integrity
in Online Education Version 2.0, June 2009). In the Western Cooperative for Educational
Telecommunications (WCET) article Are Your Students Really the Ones Registered for the
Course? Student Authentication Requirements for Distance Education Providers, (Feb 2008),
instructor-student interactions via written assignments and discussions are recognized
strategies that allow the instructor to become familiar with the students’ writing style.
[Type text] 
 
Interactive strategies based in regular effective contact address issues of academic integrity
and authentication.

Four of the seven often-cited Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education
support the importance of regular effective contact. (Chickering & Gamson, 1987)

    1.   Encourage faculty to student interaction;
    2.   Encourage student to student interaction;
    3.   Promote active learning;
    4.   Provide rich, rapid feedback

Questions that can be asked about whether effective contact between instructor and students
and among students (synchronous or asynchronous) are incorporated into the design of the
course include this list from the Commission on Colleges, Southern Association of Colleges
and Schools (2000):

    a) What provisions for instructor-student and student-student interaction are included in
       the program/course design and the course syllabus? How is appropriate interaction
       assured?
    b) Is instructor response to student assignments timely? Does it appear to be
       appropriately responsive?
    c) What technologies are used for program interaction (e.g., email, telephone office
       hours, phone conferences, voicemail, chat rooms, discussion boards, computer
       conferences and threaded discussions, etc.)?
    d) How successful is the program’s interactive component, as indicated by student and
       instructor surveys, comments, or other measures?

(Commission on Colleges. Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. (2000). Best
Practices for Electronically Offered Degree and Certificate Programs.)

WASC Red Flag: The discussion board (an asynchronous interaction) in an online course
shows little or no activity (DOE, 2006).

Finally, one of the major functions of the required Distance Education Addendum - Form D is
to provide information about how the design of the course achieves compliance with State-
mandated regular effective contact.




The Distance Education Committee recommends that all Distance Education
courses include regular effective contact that follows Title 5 regulations and guidelines in
Section 55204. Pasadena City College defines regular effective contact by the following
guidelines:
                                                                                           2 of 4 
 
[Type text] 
 
(Numbered headings based on Butte College Distance Learning Online and Hybrid Course Standards
for “regular effective contact.”) (Specific guidelines derived from Walton, I., James-Hanz, P., North,
W., & Pilati, M. Academic Senate for California Community Colleges, (2008). Ensuring the
Appropriate Use of Educational Technology: An Update for Local Academic Senates, pp. 22-23.).

    1. Initiated regular effective contact
       a. Contact must include student engagement in all areas of distance learning,
           instructor to student, student to student, and student to content.
       b. Instructor to student contact includes regular announcements about what is
           expected of students regarding upcoming assignments and assessments.
       c. Instructor provides communication or collaborative student activities involving
           contact and interactions on a weekly basis.
       d. General discussion forums for student questions encourage interaction on a daily
           or weekly basis.
       e. Specific discussion forums for questions regarding an assignment encourage
           interaction and critical thinking about course content.
       f. Active student interaction with the instructor, fellow students and content takes
           place each week throughout the course, i.e. through discussions, blogs wikis, self-
           assessments, posts, email or instant messaging.
       g. Frequent monitoring of any contact activity by the instructor makes sure that
           students are interacting with their peers and substantively staying on topic.
       h. Regular effective contact includes regularly added/revised, faculty-created course
           content that in part is based on student feedback.

    2. Frequency and timeliness of regular effective contact
       a. An active, daily presence of the instructor is maintained especially during the
          beginning weeks of a course.
       b. Expectations of availability and a turn-around response time is established and
          posted for student questions/inquiries, i.e. one to two business days.
       c. Early in the course, students should be given an opportunity to introduce
          themselves and the instructor should introduce her/himself to model interaction.
       d. Students should receive frequent and substantive feedback from the instructor.
       e. The frequency of contact should be at least the same as would occur for a
          comparable face-to-face course.

    3. Expectations regarding regular effective contact
        a. Specific beginning and ending dates for courses should be clearly defined for
           students, along with all deadlines for assignments and assessments throughout
           the course.
        b. The instructor’s specific policies regarding the frequency and timeliness of
           instructor initiated contact and feedback should be part of the syllabus or other
           course documents where relevant.
        c. Netiquette is explained and encouraged.
        d. Accessible media in compliance with Section 508 and Chancellor’s Office of the
           California Community Colleges Guidelines are used to facilitate “regular effective
           contact.”

                                                                                                3 of 4 
 
[Type text] 
 
         e. Peer review opportunities, with clear guidelines, should be established.

    4. Instructor Absences from regular effective contact
        a. If an illness, family emergency, or other unexpected reason prevents the instructor
           from continuing regular effective contact, the instructor or designee (the Division)
           will inform students expeditiously within the course when regular contact is likely to
           resume.
        b. In the event of a prolonged absence, the instructor will make appropriate
           arrangements for the continuation of the course.

Resources

Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges. Western Association of Schools
and Colleges (August 2008) Distance Learning Manual. Accessed 10/5/09.
http://www.accjc.org/pdf/Distance_Learning_Manual_August_2008.pdf

Butte College Distance Learning Committee. Course Diagnostic Standards for Online and
Hybrid Courses. Evidence of Provision for “regular effective student contact.” (Revised May
2009).
http://www.butte.edu/departments/governance/committees/dlc/documents/DLC_CDS.pdf

California Community Colleges Chancellor’s Office, Title 5 Guidelines Related to Curriculum
and Instruction, Chapter 6, Parts 1 and 2.
http://www.cccco.edu/ChancellorsOffice/Divisions/AcademicAffairs/Title5Guidelines/tabid/133
0/Default.aspx

Cerritos Community College Standards for Distance Education. (2007). Regular Effective
Contact. http://cms.cerritos.edu/ic/de-standards#VIII

Chickering, A. & Gamson, Z. (1987). Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate
Education.
http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/7princip.htm

Commission on Colleges, Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. (2000). Best
Practices for Electronically Offered Degree and Certificate Programs.
http://www.sacscoc.org/pdf/commadap.pdf

Hiltz, S.R. (1998). Collaborative Learning in Asynchronous Learning Networks: Building
Learning Communities. http://web.njit.edu/~hiltz/collaborative_learning_in_asynch.htm

Long Beach City College Distance Learning Course Guidelines. (2009).
http://de.lbcc.edu/DLguidelines/

Palomar Community College Instructor/Student Contact Policy for Distance Learning
Courses. (2009).

                                                                                           4 of 4 
 
[Type text] 
 
http://www.palomar.edu/accreditation/FollowUpReportEvidence/Instructor%20Student%20Co
ntact%20Policy.pdf

Reisetter, Marcy, et al. (January 2004). What Works: Student Perceptions to Effective
Elements on Online Leaning in Quarterly Review of Distance Education.

U.S. Department of Education Office of Postsecondary Education. (2006). Evidence of
Quality in Distance Education Programs Drawn from Interviews with the Accreditation
Community.
http://www.ysu.edu/accreditation/Resources/Accreditation-Evidence-of-Quality-in-DE-
Programs.pdf

WCET (Western Cooperative for Educational Technologies). (February 2008). Are Your
Online Students Really the Ones Registered for the Course? Student Authentication
Requirements for Distance Education Providers. A WCET Briefing Paper
http://wiche.edu/attachment_library/Briefing_Paper_Feb_2008.pdf


WCET (Western Cooperative for Educational Technologies). (Version 2.0, June 2009). Best
Practice Strategies to Promote Academic Integrity in Online Education.
http://wiche.edu/attachment_library/Student_Authentication/BestPractices.pdf

Walton, I., James-Hanz, P., North, W., & Pilati, M. (2008). Ensuring the Appropriate use of
Educational technology: An Update for Local Academic Senates.
http://www.asccc.org/Publications/Papers/Education_Technology.htm




Recommendation Approved by the Distance Education Committee – April 6, 2010
Recommendation Approved by the Academic Senate – May 3, 2010




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                          Intellectual Property Rights And Copyright

Both WASC and the Chancellor’s Office of the California Community Colleges identify
copyright and fair use issues in relation to distance education as areas of policy that should be
addressed.

The ACCJC lists two specific issues of concern in relation to “intellectual property rights” and
accreditation.

    1. The preparation of distance learning instructional materials … rais[es] questions about
       ownership, fair use, and copyright.
    2. Faculty and administrative personnel will need to develop policies that both address
       issues of copyright, ownership, and faculty compensation but do not undermine faculty
       rights or the learning/teaching process. (Distance Education Guidelines, 2008 Omnibus
       Version, p. 5)

Furthermore, WASC poses this basic question regarding the evaluation of Curriculum and
Instruction intellectual property rights issues:

“How clear and effective are the institution’s distance learning policies concerning ownership of
materials, faculty compensation, copyright issues, and the utilization of revenue derived from
the creation and production of software, telecourses, or other media products?” (p.10).

An intellectual property rights policy should encourage and promote excellence and innovation
in teaching by identifying and protecting the rights of the institution, its faculty, students and
staff (derived from Cornell University Copyright Policy).

The institution’s distance learning policies concerning intellectual property rights and copyright,
in relation to the development and use of instructional materials for an online course and the
use of educational technology, should be addressed so that faculty, staff, and students are
informed about the legal ramifications of these issues in relation to distance learning.

Background:

       Fair Use is a copyright principle based on the belief that the public is entitled to freely
       use portions of copyrighted materials for purposes of commentary and criticism. For
       example, if you wish to criticize a novelist, you should have the freedom to quote a
       portion of the novelist's work without asking permission. Absent this freedom, copyright
       owners could stifle any negative comments about their work.

       Unfortunately, if the copyright owner disagrees with your fair use interpretation, the
       dispute will have to be resolved by courts or arbitration. If it's not a fair use, then you are
       infringing upon the rights of the copyright owner and may be liable for damages.
       The only guidance is provided by a set of fair use factors outlined in the copyright law.
       These factors are weighed in each case to determine whether a use qualifies as a fair
       use. For example, one important factor is whether your use will deprive the copyright

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     owner of income. Unfortunately, weighing the fair use factors is often quite subjective.
     For this reason, the fair use road map is often tricky to navigate
     http://fairuse.stanford.edu/Copyright_and_Fair_Use_Overview/chapter9/index.htm
     l


The 2002 TEACH Act - The Technology, Education and Copyright Harmonization (TEACH)
Act, HR. 2215, part of larger Justice Reauthorization legislation (H.R 2215) is copyright law
that specifically addresses special requirements for distance learning. “It redefines the terms
and conditions by which accredited, nonprofit educational institutions in the United States may
use copyright protected material without permission from the copyright owners and without
payment of royalties by meeting ‘rigorous requirements.’ Educators will not be able to comply
by either accidental circumstances or well-meaning intention. Instead, the law calls on each
educational institution to undertake numerous procedures and involve the active participation
of many individuals.” (American Library Association. (2010) Distance Education and the
TEACH Act.)

In his analysis of the TEACH Act for the American Library Association, law professor
Kenneth D. Crews, Director of the Copyright Management Center Indiana University
School of Law-Indianapolis has outlined the content and implications of the TEACH Act
thusly:
Context of Distance Education
Comprehending the practical implications of the new legislation also requires understanding the congressional
vision of "distance education" and the relationship between educators and the institution. The TEACH Act is a
clear signal that Congress recognizes the importance of distance education, the significance of digital media, and
the need to resolve copyright clashes. The new law is, nevertheless, built around a vision that distance education
should occur in discrete installments, each within a confined span of time, and with all elements integrated into a
cohesive lecture-like package.

In other words, much of the law is built around permitting uses of copyrighted works in the context of "mediated
instructional activities" that are akin in many respects to the conduct of traditional classroom sessions. The law
anticipates that students will access each "session" within a prescribed time period and will not necessarily be
able to store the materials or review them later in the academic term; faculty will be able to include copyrighted
materials, but usually only in portions or under conditions that are analogous to conventional teaching and lecture
formats. Stated more bluntly, this law is not intended to permit scanning and uploading of full or lengthy works,
stored on a website, for students to access throughout the semester-even for private study in connection with a
formal course.

The TEACH Act suggests another general observation: Many provisions focus entirely on the behavior of
educational institutions, rather than the actions of instructors. Consequently, the institution must impose
restrictions on access, develop new policy, and disseminate copyright information. The institution is allowed to
retain limited copies for limited purposes, but the statute indicates nothing about whether the individual instructor
may keep a copy of his or her own instructional program. Most important, educational institutions are probably at
greater risk than are individuals of facing infringement liability, and individual instructors will most likely turn to
their institutions for guidance about the law. These circumstances will probably motivate institutions to become
more involved with oversight of educational programs and the selection and use of educational materials. This
substantive oversight may raise sensitive and important issues of academic freedom.

One consequence of these developments is apparent: The pursuit and regulation of distance-education programs
will become increasingly centralized within our educational institutions. Because the law calls for institutional
policymaking, implementation of technological systems, and meaningful distribution of copyright information,
colleges and universities may well require that all programs be transmitted solely on centralized systems that

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meet the prescribed standard. Because the law permits uses of only certain copyrighted materials, institutions will
feel compelled to assure that faculty are apprised of the limits, and some colleges and universities will struggle
with whether to monitor the content of the educational programming.

Some news announcements anticipating the TEACH Act have suggested that the use of materials in distance
education will be on a par with the broad rights of performance and display allowed in the face-to-face classroom.
This characterization of the law neglects the many differences between the relevant statutes. In the traditional
classroom, the Copyright Act long has allowed instructors to "perform" or "display" copyrighted works with few
restrictions (Section 110(1)). By contrast, both the previous and the new versions of the statute applicable to
distance education are replete with conditions, limits, and restrictions. Make no mistake: While the TEACH Act is
a major improvement over the previous version of Section 110(2), the law still imposes numerous requirements
for distance education that reach far beyond the modest limits in the traditional classroom.


Benefits of the TEACH Act
The primary benefit of the TEACH Act for educators is its repeal of the earlier version of Section 110(2), which
was drafted principally in the context of closed-circuit television. That law permitted educators to "perform" only
certain types of works and generally allowed transmissions to be received only in classrooms and similar
locations. These restrictions, and others, usually meant that the law could seldom apply to the context of modern,
digital transmissions that might utilize a range of materials and need to reach students at home, at work, and
elsewhere. The new version of Section 110(2) offers these explicit improvements:

        Expanded range of allowed works. The new law permits the display and performance of nearly all types
        of works. The law no longer sweepingly excludes broad categories of works, as did the former law.
        However, a few narrow classes of works remain excluded, and uses of some types of works are subject
        to quantity limitations.
        Expansion of receiving locations. The former law limited the transmission of content to classrooms and
        other similar location. The new law has no such constraint. Educational institutions may now reach
        students through distance education at any location.
        Storage of transmitted content. The former law often permitted educational institutions to record and
        retain copies of the distance-education transmission, even if it included copyrighted content owned by
        others. The new law continues that possibility. The law also explicitly allows retention of the content and
        student access for a brief period of time, and it permits copying and storage that is incidental or
        necessary to the technical aspects of digital transmission systems.
        Digitizing of analog works. In order to facilitate digital transmissions, the law permits digitization of some
        analog works, but in most cases only if the work is not already available in digital form.
None of these benefits, however, is available to educators unless they comply with the many and diverse
requirements of the law. The rights of use are also often limited to certain works, in limited portions, and only
under rigorously defined conditions. The remainder of this paper examines those requirements.


Requirements of the TEACH Act
This paper groups the law's many new requirements according to the unit within the institution that will likely be
responsible for addressing or complying with each.

Duties of Institutional Policymakers
1. Accredited nonprofit institution. The benefits of the TEACH Act apply only to a "government body or an
accredited nonprofit educational institution." In the case of post-secondary education, an "accredited" institution is
"as determined by a regional or national accrediting agency recognized by the Council on Higher Education
Accreditation or the United States Department of Education." Elementary and secondary schools "shall be as
recognized by the applicable state certification or licensing procedures." Most familiar educational institutions will
meet this requirement, but many private entities-such as for-profit subsidiaries of nonprofit institutions-may not be
duly "accredited."

2. Copyright policy. The educational institution must "institute policies regarding copyright," although the

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language does not detail the content of those policies. The implication from the context of the statute, and from
the next requirement about "copyright information," suggests that the policies would specify the standards
educators and others will follow when incorporating copyrighted works into distance education. For most
educational institutions, policy development is a complicated process, involving lengthy deliberations and multiple
levels of review and approval. Such formal policymaking might be preferable, but informal procedural standards
that effectively guide relevant activities may well satisfy the statutory requirement. In any event, proper authorities
within the educational institution need to take deliberate and concerted action.

3. Copyright information. The institution must "provide informational materials" regarding copyright, and in this
instance the language specifies that the materials must "accurately describe, and promote compliance with, the
laws of United States relating to copyright." These materials must be provided to "faculty, students, and relevant
staff members." Some of this language is identical to a statutory requirement that educational institutions might
already meet regarding their potential liability as an "online service provider." In any event, the responsibility to
prepare and disseminate copyright information is clear; institutions might consider developing websites,
distributing printed materials, or tying the information to the distance-education program, among other possible
strategies.

4. Notice to students. In addition to the general distribution of informational materials, the statute further
specifies that the institution must provide "notice to students that materials used in connection with the course
may be subject to copyright protection." While the information materials described in the previous section appear
to be more substantive resources detailing various aspects of copyright law, the "notice" to students may be a
brief statement simply alerting the reader to copyright implications. The notice could be included on distribution
materials in the class or perhaps on an opening frame of the distance-education course. Taking advantage of
electronic delivery capabilities, the educational materials may include a brief "notice" about copyright, with an
active link to more general information resources.

5. Enrolled students. The transmission of content must be made "solely for . . . students officially enrolled in the
course for which the transmission is made." The next section will examine the technological restrictions on
access, but in addition, the law also requires that the transmission be "for" only these specific students. Thus, it
should not be broadcast for other purposes, such as promoting the college or university, generally edifying the
public, or sharing the materials with colleagues at other institutions. Educators might address this requirement
through technological restrictions on access, as mentioned in the following section.[top]


Duties of Information Technology Officials
1. Limited access to enrolled students. The new law calls upon the institution to limit the transmission to
students enrolled in the particular course "to the extent technologically feasible." Therefore, the institution may
need to create a system that permits access only by students registered for that specific class. As a practical
matter, the statute may lead educational institutions to implement technological access controls that are linked to
enrollment records available from the registrar's office.

2. Technological controls on storage and dissemination. While the transmission of distance education
content may be conducted by diverse technological means, an institution deploying "digital transmissions" must
apply technical measures to prevent "retention of the work in accessible form by recipients of the transmission . . .
for longer than the class session." The statute offers no clarification about the meaning of a "class session," but
language throughout the statute suggests that any given transmission would require a finite amount of time, and
students would be unable to access it after a designated time. Also, in the case of "digital transmissions," the
institution must apply "technological measures" to prevent recipients of the content from engaging in
"unauthorized further dissemination of the work in accessible form." Both of these restrictions address concerns
from copyright owners that students might receive, store, and share the copyrighted content. Both of these
provisions of the statute call upon the institution to implement technological controls on methods for delivery,
terms of accessibility, and realistic abilities for students to download or share copyrighted content. These
provisions specifically demand application of "technological measures" that would restrict uses of the content "in
the ordinary course of their operations." In other words, when the restrictive controls are used in an "ordinary"
manner, they will safeguard against unauthorized reproduction and dissemination. This language apparently
protects the institution, should someone "hack" the controls and circumvent imperfect technology.

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3. Interference with technological measures. If the content transmitted through "digital transmissions" includes
restrictive codes or other embedded "management systems" to regulate storage or dissemination of the works,
the institution may not "engage in conduct that could reasonably be expected to interfere with [such] technological
measures." While the law does not explicitly impose an affirmative duty on educational institutions, each institution
is probably well advised as a practical matter to review their technological systems to assure that systems for
delivery of distance education do not interrupt digital rights management code or other technological measures
used by copyright owners to control their works.

4. Limited temporary retention of copies. The statute explicitly exonerates educational institutions from liability
that may result from most "transient or temporary storage of material." On the other hand, the statute does not
allow anyone to maintain the copyrighted content "on the system or network" for availability to the students "for a
longer period than is reasonably necessary to facilitate the transmissions for which it was made." Moreover, the
institution may not store or maintain the material on a system or network where it may be accessed by anyone
other than the "anticipated recipients."

5. Limited long-term retention of copies. The TEACH Act also amended Section 112 of the Copyright Act,
addressing the issue of so-called "ephemeral recordings." The new Section 112(f)(1) explicitly allows educational
institutions to retain copies of their digital transmissions that include copyrighted materials pursuant to Section
110(2), provided that no further copies are made from those works, except as allowed under Section 110(2), and
such copies are used "solely" for transmissions pursuant to Section 110(2). As a practical matter, Congress
seems to have envisioned distance education as a process of installments, each requiring a specified time period,
and the content may thereafter be placed in storage and outside the reach of students. The institution may,
however, retrieve that content for future uses consistent with the new law. Incidentally, the TEACH Act did not
repeal the earlier language of Section 112 that generally allowed educational institutions to keep some copies,
such as videotapes, of educational transmissions for a limited period of time.[top]


Duties of Instructors
Thus far, most duties and restrictions surveyed in this examination of the TEACH Act have focused on
responsibilities of the institution and its policymakers and technology supervisors.

None of the details surveyed so far, however, begins to address any parameters on the substantive content of the
distance-education program. Under traditions of academic freedom, most such decisions are left to faculty
members who are responsible for their own courses at colleges and universities. Consequently, to the extent that
the TEACH Act places restrictions on substantive content and the choice of curricular materials, those decisions
are probably best left to the instructional faculty. Faculty members are best positioned to optimize academic
freedom and to determine course content. Indeed, the TEACH Act does establish numerous detailed limits on the
choice of content for distance education. Again, the issue here is the selection of content from among copyrighted
works that an instructor is seeking to use without permission from the copyright owner.

1. Works explicitly allowed. Previous law permitted displays of any type of work, but allowed performances of
only "nondramatic literary works" and "nondramatic musical works." Many dramatic works were excluded from
distance education, as were performances of audiovisual materials and sound recordings. The law was
problematic at best. The TEACH Act expands upon existing law in several important ways. The new law now
explicitly permits:

                  Performances of nondramatic literary works;
                  Performances of nondramatic musical works;
                  Performances of any other work, including dramatic works and audiovisual works, but only in
        "reasonable and limited portions"; and
                  Displays of any work "in an amount comparable to that which is typically displayed in the course
        of a live classroom session."
2. Works explicitly excluded. A few categories of works are specifically left outside the range of permitted
materials under the TEACH Act. The following materials may not be used:

                Works that are marketed "primarily for performance or display as part of mediated instructional

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         activities transmitted via digital networks"; and
                   Performances or displays given by means of copies "not lawfully made and acquired" under the
         U.S. Copyright Act, if the educational institution "knew or had reason to believe" that they were not
         lawfully made and acquired.
The first of these limitations is clearly intended to protect the market for commercially available educational
materials. For example, specific materials are available through an online database, or marketed in a format that
may be delivered for educational purposes through "digital" systems, the TEACH Act generally steers users to
those sources, rather than allowing educators to digitize the upload their own copies.

3. Instructor oversight. The statute mandates the instructor's participation in the planning and conduct of the
distance education program and the educational experience as transmitted. An instructor seeking to use materials
under the protection of the new statute must adhere to the following requirements:

                 The performance or display "is made by, at the direction of, or under the actual supervision of an
        instructor";
                 The materials are transmitted "as an integral part of a class session offered as a regular part of
        the systematic, mediated instructional activities" of the educational institution; and
                 The copyrighted materials are "directly related and of material assistance to the teaching content
        of the transmission."
The requirements share a common objective: to assure that the instructor is ultimately in charge of the uses of
copyrighted works and that the materials serve educational pursuits and are not for entertainment or any other
purpose. A narrow reading of these requirements may also raise questions about the use of copyrighted works in
distance-education programs aimed at community service or continuing education. While that reading of the
statute might be rational, it would also be a serious hindrance on the social mission of educational institutions.

4. Mediated instructional activities. In perhaps the most convoluted language of the bill, the statute directs that
performances and displays, involving a "digital transmission," must be in the context of "mediated instructional
activities." This language means that the uses of materials in the program must be "an integral part of the class
experience, controlled by or under the actual supervision of the instructor and analogous to the type of
performance or display that would take place in a live classroom setting." In the same provision, the statute
specifies that "mediated instructional activities" do not encompass uses of textbooks and other materials "which
are typically purchased or acquired by the students." The point of this language is to prevent an instructor from
including, in a digital transmission, copies of materials that are specifically marketed for and meant to be used by
students outside of the classroom in the traditional teaching model. For example, the law is attempting to prevent
an instructor from scanning and uploading chapters from a textbook in lieu of having the students purchase that
material for their own use. The provision is clearly intended to protect the market for materials designed to serve
the educational marketplace. Not entirely clear is the treatment of other materials that might ordinarily constitute
handouts in class or reserves in the library. However, the general provision allowing displays of materials in a
quantity similar to that which would be displayed in the live classroom setting ("mediated instructional activity")
would suggest that occasional, brief handouts-perhaps including entire short works-may be permitted in distance
education, while reserves and other outside reading may not be proper materials to scan and display under the
auspices of the new law.

5. Converting analog materials to digital formats. Troublesome to many copyright owners was the prospect
that their analog materials would be converted to digital formats, and hence made susceptible to easy
downloading and dissemination. Some copyright owners have held steadfast against permitting digitization in
order to control uses of their copyrighted materials. The TEACH Act includes a prohibition against the conversion
of materials from analog into digital formats, except under the following circumstances:

                   The amount that may be converted is limited to the amount of appropriate works that may be
         performed or displayed, pursuant to the revised Section 110(2); and
                   A digital version of the work is not "available to the institution," or a digital version is available, but
         it is secured behind technological protection measures that prevent its availability for performing or
         displaying in the distance-education program consistent with Section 110(2).
These requirements generally mean that educators must take two steps before digitizing an analog work. First,
they need to confirm that the exact material converted to digital format is within the scope of materials and
"portion" limitations permitted under the new law. Second, educators need to check for digital versions of the work

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available from alternative sources and assess the implications of access restrictions, if any.

                                            ****************
The Distance Education Committee has a three-part recommendation regarding
Intellectual Property Rights and Copyright Policy.
    I. General Practice Policies in Distance Education Courses

Utilizing the requirements in the U.S. Copyright Act, the Digital Millennium Copyright Act of
1998, Fair Use Policy and the 2002 TEACH Act, along with best practices in distance
education utilizing a Learning Management System, the Distance Education Committee
recommends that the College adopt the following general practices in distance education at
Pasadena City College regarding Intellectual Property Rights, Fair Use, and Copyright policy:

        a. The Institution must publicize its copyright policies in regard to distance education in
           a document easily accessible by the community at large.
        b. The Institution must implement some technological measures to ensure compliance
           with these policies, beyond merely assigning a password.
        c. Instructors, students, and staff must be informed of copyright laws and policies.
        d. The instructor of a DE course should provide a warning in the description of any
           relevant content that notifies students that copying and redistributing certain
           materials is a breach of copyright law.
        e. Use of copyrighted materials must be part of mediated instructional activities.
        f. Only students officially enrolled in a course by direct enrollment feeds should have
           access to the copyrighted materials.
        g. Use of copyrighted material must be limited to a specific number of students enrolled
           in a specific course section.
        h. Copyrighted materials used with permission or under fair use guidelines should be
           placed in course content areas within an LMS that are unavailable to guests and
           observers.
        i. When copyrighted materials are available from an online database subscribed to
           by the College, students should be directed to access these materials directly from
           that database.
        j. Access to copyrighted materials must be limited to only the time needed to complete
           the class assignment, session or course.
        k. Use must either be for synchronous or asynchronous class sessions.
        l. Prohibit transmission of textbook materials, materials “typically purchased or
           acquired by students,” or works developed specifically for online uses.
        m. Instructors, students and staff should not interfere with copyright protection
           mechanisms in an LMS

American Library Association. (2010). Distance Education and the TEACH Act: TEACH Act Best Practices Using
Blackboard.
Copyright Clearance Center. The TEACH Act: New Roles, Rules and Responsibilities for Academic Institutions.
(2005).   

        II. Faculty Intellectual Property Rights

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The Distance Education Committee agrees that in regard to Intellectual Property Rights, the
preparation of distance learning instructional materials differs from the preparation of materials
for the traditional classroom setting, raising questions about ownership, copyright and fair use.

Therefore, we recommend that representative faculty and appropriate administrative personnel
work together to develop policies that do not undermine faculty rights or the learning/teaching
process and that address issues of copyright, ownership, and faculty compensation. In general
we believe that faculty should maintain the same intellectual property rights of the instructional
material they develop for online courses as they would for traditional courses. Exception to
this may include work-for-hire, reassigned time, or stipend-based development of online
courses. We further recommend that the Institution develop explicit policy guidelines for
intellectual property rights as they extend to online course development and implementation.
Based on Diablo Valley College Online Course Guidelines - 4.4 Intellectual Property Rights
http://www.dvc.edu/faculty/Online_Course_Guidelines_5-15-07.pdf


        III. Fair Use and Legal Use of Copyrighted Materials in Distance Education
             Courses

The Distance Education Committee affirms that it is the duty and responsibility of the instructor
of a distance education course to be knowledgeable of the U.S. Copyright Act, the Digital
Millennium Copyright Act of 1998, Fair Use Policy, and the 2002 TEACH Act to ensure that all
instructional material and delivery methods for such courses be in compliance with copyright
laws. It should also be a priority that students in all distance education classes are informed
about the social, legal and ethical issues related to the use of information and its relationship to
upholding copyright and intellectual property right laws and regulations in order to support
academic integrity and avoid plagiarism.

To this end, the Committee recommends that a copyright manual reflecting and including all
issues of copyright for faculty, staff, and students be created and be available in a document
easily accessible by the community at large. The policies in the manual should be drafted by
the District in consultation with the Distance Education Committee. The contents of the
manual should be taught in all faculty online training on campus, and should include and reflect
on issues of copyright as represented in the most up-to-date information regarding the U.S.
Copyright Act, the Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998, Fair Use Policy, and the 2002
TEACH Act.

References

Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges, Western Association of Schools
and Colleges (August 2008). Distance Learning Manual. Accessed 10/5/09.
http://www.accjc.org/pdf/Distance_Learning_Manual_August_2008.pdf

American Library Association. (2010). Distance Education and the TEACH Act. Prepared for
ALA by: Kenneth D. Crews, Professor of Law, Director, Copyright Management Center
Indiana University School of Law-Indianapolis. Accessed 4/7/10
http://www.ala.org/Template.cfm?Section=Distance_Education_and_the_TEACH_Act&Templa
te=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=25939
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American Library Association. (2010). Distance Education and the TEACH Act: TEACH Act
Best Practices Using Blackboard. Accessed 4/3/10
http://www.ala.org/Template.cfm?Section=distanceed&Template=/ContentManagement/Conte
ntDisplay.cfm&ContentID=34705

American Library Association. (2010). Digital Delivery in the Classroom. Accessed 4/7/10
http://www.ala.org/ala/issuesadvocacy/copyright/fairuse/digitalclassroomdelivery/webdigitalpsa
final.pdf

Chancellor’s Office California Community Colleges. Academic Affairs Division. Instructional
Programs and Services. Distance Education Guidelines (2008 Omnibus Version).
http://www.cccco.edu/ChancellorsOffice/Divisions/AcademicAffairs/DistanceEducation/Regulati
onsandGuidelines/tabid/767/Default.aspx

Copyright Clearance Center. The TEACH Act: New Roles, Rules and Responsibilities for
Academic Institutions. (2005). Accessed 4/22/10. http://www.copyright.com/media/pdfs/CR-
Teach-Act.pdf

Cornell University. Cornell University Copyright Policy (2001). Accessed 4/15/10.
http://www.dfa.cornell.edu/dfa/cms/treasurer/policyoffice/policies/volumes/governance/upload/
Copyright.html

Diablo Valley College Distance Learning Advisory Task Force. Diablo Valley College. Online
Course Guidelines. Local Contract/Bylaw, Policy and Copyright Issues.
http://www.dvc.edu/faculty/Online_Course_Guidelines_5-15-07.pdf

Gelman-Danley, B. & Fetzner, M. Asking the Really Tough Questions: Policy Issues for
Distance Learning, Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, Volume I, Number 1,
State University of West Georgia, Distance Education. (Spring 1998).
http://www.westga.edu/~distance/danley11.html

Long Beach Community College, Distance Learning Course Guidelines, Distance Learning
Faculty Training. Accessed 4/8/09. http://de.lbcc.edu/DLguidelines/#training

McIsaac, M., Rowe, J. Building a Working Policy for Distance Education. New Directions for
Community Colleges, Number 99. Ownership and Access: Copyright and Intellectual Property
in the On-line Environment (Fall 1997).
http://www.eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=t
rue&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED412999&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&acc
no=ED412999

Stanford University Libraries. (2010). Copyright and Fair Use. Accessed 4/8/10
http://fairuse.stanford.edu/Copyright_and_Fair_Use_Overview/chapter9/index.html

United States of America. Copyright Law of the United States and Related Laws Contained in
Title 17 of the United States Code. (2009). http://www.copyright.gov/title17/


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United States of America. U.S. Copyright Office. Fair Use.
http://www.copyright.gov/fls/fl102.html

Walton, I., James-Hanz, P., North, W., Pilati, M. (2008). Ensuring the Appropriate Use of
Educational Technology: An Update for Local Academic Senates. Accessed 5/13/09.
http://www.asccc.org/Publications/Papers/Education_Technology.htm




Recommendation Approved by the Distance Education Committee – April 27, 2010
Recommendation Approved by the Academic Senate May 17, 2010




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Distance Education Course Quality Rubric

        When we teach, we engage in two closely related, but distinct, activities. First, we design
        the course by gathering information and making a number of decisions about the way the
        course will be taught. Second, we engage in teacher-student interactions as we
        implement the course we have designed…In order to teach well, one must be competent
        in both course design and teacher-student interactions. (Fink, 2004)

As an essential part of our commitment to student success in all areas of learning, distance
education courses at Pasadena City College should provide high quality, innovative courses that
maintain the highest standards and best practices in online teaching and learning. The
recognition that effective online course construction differs from face-to-face instruction is
dependent upon ensuring that faculty is properly trained supported, and willing to adopt a
student-centered (constructivist) teaching paradigm (PCC DE Recommendation:106, 2009).

Title 5: 55202. Course Quality Standards

The same standards of course quality shall be applied to any portion of a course conducted
through distance education as are applied to traditional classroom courses, in regard to the
course quality judgment made pursuant to the requirements of section 55002, and in regard to
any local course quality determination or review process. Determinations and judgments about
the quality of distance education under the course quality standards shall be made with the full
involvement of faculty in accordance with the provisions of subchapter 2 (commencing with
section 53200) of chapter 2.
TITLE 5. EDUCATION - DIVISION 6. CALIFORNIA COMMUNITY COLLEGES - CHAPTER 6. CURRICULUM AND
INSTRUCTION - SUBCHAPTER 3. - ALTERNATIVE INSTRUCTIONAL METHODOLOGIES - ARTICLE 1. DISTANCE
EDUCATION - 5 CA ADC § 55202

Components of Course Quality include:

    •   Course Development Standards
    •   Continuous Improvement

WASC Red Flags:
  • The use of only a single method of assessment in a course might indicate that the course
    does not adequately link assessments and outcomes.
  • Students express dissatisfaction with the quality of their distance education courses.
  • Courses lack objectives.
  • Courses are all very much alike, indicating a “cookie-cutter” approach to course
    development. While the use of the same platform will provide some consistency in online
    courses, a reviewer expects courses to make use of different instructional strategies and
    tools to fulfill their individual objectives.
  • The discussion board in an online course shows little or no activity.
  • The majority of student postings lack substance and show little evidence of reflection or
    critical thinking.
  • Course materials have not been updated in over five years. For certain curricula, the
    updating should be done more frequently.

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    •   Comments from faculty indicate that they have directly translated their traditional course
        to a distance education course. This may indicate inadequate consideration of distance
        education pedagogy.
    •   Students don’t know whom to contact if they have questions or problems.
(U. S. Department of Education. Office of Post Secondary Ed. (2006). Evidence of Quality in DE Programs Drawn
from Interviews with the Accreditation Community. Pp 8-11).


Accreditation evaluators look for:

    •   Consistency in course formats
    •   Use of a common platform
    •   Syllabi that contain course descriptions and clearly stated learning and assignments and
        other assessment strategies are mapped, or connected to, the learning objectives.
    •   Course structure is critical. Courses that are designed with benchmarks and clear
        deadlines or recommended schedules provide evidence that the institution is aware of
        some of the time management challenges, and risk of attrition, of distance learning
        students, who are typically juggling a variety of roles including work, family and study.
    •   Course syllabi with evidence of the degree of interaction between faculty and student and
        among students such as requirements for student to: participate in discussions, evaluate
        drafts of other students’ work, work in small groups on projects, and inclusion in the
        grading rubrics of “quality of participation” in discussions and group work.
    •   Use of the same interface (in online courses)…lessens confusion for students and is an
        indicator of good course design and institutional oversight. For online courses, the use of
        the same course management system will result in a common interface and basic course
        structure.
    •   Evidence of the extent to which faculty add value beyond what a student would read in a
        textbook. For example, faculty provide additional information or resources to assist
        students in understanding difficult concepts; pose questions and facilitate and summarize
        group discussions; be available to answer individual questions about course material and
        assignments; and give detailed feedback on assignments.
    •   Providing prospective distance education students with a self-assessment of their skills
        and aptitude for distance learning is good evidence that the institution is attempting to
        enroll students with the appropriate characteristics in their distance education programs.
    •   At the course level, it is a good practice for reviewers to look at course evaluations, and
        to interview faculty about how they have used the course evaluations to improve their
        courses and about how these changes have affected student performance and
        outcomes.
    •   Quality standards that include no “grandparenting” language

    (U. S. Department of Education. Office of Post Secondary Ed. (2006). Evidence of Quality in DE Programs
    Drawn from Interviews with the Accreditation Community. Pp 6-13).




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Course Quality Best Practices

All seven of the often-cited Chickering and Gamson’s Seven Principles for Good Practice in
Undergraduate Education relate to course quality standards that

    1.   encourage contact between students and faculty,
    2.   develop reciprocity and cooperation among students,
    3.   encourage active learning,
    4.   give prompt feedback,
    5.   emphasize time on task,
    6.   communicate high expectations, and
    7.   respect diverse talents and ways of learning.


California State University Chico has developed a rubric for online instruction that is a model for
what a high quality distance education course should aspire to. The Rubric for Online Instruction
(ROI) is a primary resource for determining course quality. A companion document (created for
the PCC campus) based on Instructional Design Tips for Online Instruction can be used in
conjunction with the ROI to help an instructor assess course quality standards.

         Overview
         The ROI describes what elements make for exemplary online instruction based on six
         rubric categories:

            1.   Learner support and resources
            2.   Online organization and design
            3.   Instructional design and delivery
            4.   Assessment and evaluation of student learning
            5.   Innovative teaching with technology
            6.   Faculty use of student feedback.

         Evidence of Effectiveness
         The ROI supplies clear faculty guidelines to assist in making distance education courses
         exemplary by helping to:

            •    Improve existing online courses or course components.
            •    Develop/design new online courses. (Sederberg, 2003)

         Student Satisfaction
         The ROI solicits constant student feedback about the online course in each of the six
         rubric categories. This feedback provides the faculty with valuable comments on which to
         base course changes and improvements that also contribute to student satisfaction.
         (Sederberg, 2003)

         Instructional Design Tips for Online Learning


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        Instructional Design Tips for Online Learning can be used in conjunction with the six
        corresponding categories of the ROI. (Van Duzer, 2004)
                           **********************************
Recommendation

In support of Title 5 regulations and guidelines in Section 55202 regarding Course Quality
Standards, the Distance Education Committee recommends that:

    •   Faculty developing distance education courses use the Rubric for Online Instruction
        developed by CSU Chico as a primary resource and guide to the recognized elements
        and criteria needed for exemplary online course design.

    •   Faculty developing distance education courses work with the Division/Department Dean,
        other faculty teaching online at PCC, and the Office of Academic Support prior to the
        initial offering of the course to determine whether the course meets the Rubric for
        Online Instruction course quality performance indicators for an effective or exemplary
        course. The determination on fulfillment of course quality standards based on the
          Rubric should be completed before the course is initially taught online to provide time
        for modification if needed

    •   Faculty teaching online courses use the Rubric for Online Instruction as a guide for
        subsequent review (at least every 5 years) to determine course quality strengths and
        areas for improvement in conjunction with Quality Online Course Design Elements.

References

California State University, Chico. (2002). Rubric for Online Instruction (ROI). Accessed 9/25/09
http://www.csuchico.edu/celt/roi/index.shtml

Chancellor’s Office California Community Colleges. Academic Affairs Division. Instructional
Programs and Services. Distance Education Guidelines (2008 Omnibus Version).
http://www.cccco.edu/ChancellorsOffice/Divisions/AcademicAffairs/DistanceEducation/Regulatio
nsandGuidelines/tabid/767/Default.aspx

 Chickering, A. & Gamson, Z. (1987). Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate
Education.
http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/7princip.htm

Fink, D. (2004). A Self-Directed Guide to Designing Courses for Significant Learning.
http://trc.virginia.edu/Workshops/2004/Fink_Designing_Courses_2004.pdf

Robinson, C. (2003). Quality Online Course Design Elements. Office of Academic Support.
Pasadena City College.

Sederberg, L. (2003). Sloan-C: The Rubric for Online Instruction. http://www.sloan-
c.org/node/367
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U.S. Department of Education. Office of Post Secondary Ed. (2006). Evidence of Quality in DE
Programs Drawn from Interviews with the Accreditation Community.
http://www.ysu.edu/accreditation/Resources/Accreditation-Evidence-of-Quality-in-DE-
Programs.pdf 
 
Van Duzer, J. (2004). Instructional Design Tips for Online Instruction.
http://www.csuchico.edu/tlp/webct/rubric/rubric_final.pdf

Walton, I., James-Hanz, P., North, W., Pilati, M. (2008). Ensuring the Appropriate Use of
Educational Technology: An Update for Local Academic Senates. Academic Senate for
California Community Colleges. Accessed 5/13/09.
http://www.asccc.org/Publications/Papers/Education_Technology.htm 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Recommendation Approved by the Distance Education Committee – May 4, 2010
Recommendation Presented to Academic Senate for Review – May 17, 2010




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Student Conduct and Academic Integrity

Academic Integrity is a sine qua non of scholarship, teaching and learning.

        Promoting and sustaining an institutional climate of academic integrity requires active
        participation by all members of a college community and is largely dependent on
        ongoing system-wide communications that are wedded more to principles of alliance
        than compliance. Such a climate is an extension of institutional integrity, an
        understanding that honesty must be woven throughout the fabric of a college.

Academic Senate of the California Community Colleges. (adopted Spring 2007). Promoting and Sustaining an Institutional
Climate of Academic Integrity. Educational Policies Committee 2006-07.

A useful, and widely accepted list of principles defining the core of academic integrity is found
in the Ten Principles of Academic Integrity by Donald L. McCabe and Gary Pavela (1997).

 1.     Affirm the importance of academic integrity.
 Institutions of higher education are dedicated to the pursuit of truth. Faculty members need to
 affirm that the pursuit of truth is grounded in certain core values, including diligence, civility,
 and honesty.
 2. Foster a love of learning.
 A commitment to academic integrity is reinforced by high academic standards. Most students
 will thrive in an atmosphere where academic work is seen as challenging, relevant, useful,
 and fair.
3.      Treat students as ends in themselves. Faculty members should treat their students as
 ends in themselves—deserving individual attention and consideration. Students will generally
 reciprocate by respecting the best values of their teachers, including a commitment to
 academic integrity.
4.      Promote an environment of trust in the classroom.
 Most students are mature adults, and value an environment free of arbitrary rules and trivial
 assignments, where trust is earned, and given.
 5.     Encourage student responsibility for academic integrity.
 With proper guidance, students can be given significant responsibility to help protect and
 promote the highest standards of academic integrity. Students want to work in communities
 where competition is fair, integrity is respected, and cheating is punished. They understand
 that one of the greatest inducements to engaging in academic dishonesty is the perception
 that academic dishonesty is rampant.
 6.     Clarify expectations for students.
 Faculty members have primary responsibility for designing and cultivating the educational
 environment and experience. They must clarify their expectations in advance regarding
 honesty in academic work, including the nature and scope of student collaboration. Most
 students want such guidance, and welcome it in course syllabi, carefully reviewed by their
 teachers in class.
 7.     Develop fair and relevant forms of assessment.
 Students expect their academic work to be fairly and fully assessed. Faculty members should
 use--and continuously revise--forms of assessment that require active and creative thought,
 and promote learning opportunities for students.
 8. Reduce opportunities to engage in academic dishonesty.
 Prevention is a critical line of defense against academic dishonesty. Students should not be
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tempted or induced to engage in acts of academic dishonesty by ambiguous policies,
undefined or unrealistic standards for collaboration, inadequate classroom management, or
poor examination security.
9.   Challenge academic dishonesty when it occurs.
Students observe how faculty members behave, and what values they embrace. Faculty
members who ignore or trivialize academic dishonesty send the message that the core
values of academic life, and community life in general, are not worth any significant effort to
enforce.
10. Help define and support campus-wide academic integrity standards.
Acts of academic dishonesty by individual students can occur across artificial divisions of
departments and schools. Although faculty members should be the primacy role models for
academic integrity, responsibility for defining, promoting, and protecting academic integrity
must be a community-wide concern--not only to identify repeat offenders, and apply
consistent due process procedures, but to affirm the shared values that make colleges and
universities true communities

Center for Academic Integrity. These “Ten Principles” first appeared as “Faculty and Academic Integrity” in the Summer
1997 issue of Synthesis: Law and Policy in Higher Education, Gary Pavela, editor

The Western Cooperative for Educational Technologies has published an excellent list of
best practice strategies based on “Institutional Policies/Practices and Course Design
Strategies to Promote Academic Integrity in Online Education,” based on feedback from a
survey of their higher education institution membership. The five organizational categories
for “Best Practice Strategies to Promote Academic Integrity in Online Education” are

        1.   Institutional Context and Commitment
        2.   Curriculum and Instruction
        3.   Faculty Support
        4.   Student Support
        5.   Assessment and Evaluation

http://wiche.edu/attachment_library/Student_Authentication/BestPractices.pdf

Whether considering issues of academic integrity in a face-to-face or distance education
class, instructors should be encouraged to use strategies that develop awareness of
academic integrity and foster student honesty in all work completed for a course.
Furthermore, students should be fully informed about institutional policies regarding
academic integrity and student conduct.
Pasadena City College. Academic Senate Faculty Survey on Student Academic Integrity and Authentication. March 2010.

The College’s Student Conduct and Academic Honesty Policy No. 4520 makes no distinction
between online and face-to-face students. The Code of Conduct outlines the expectations of
the College and the types of conduct subject to discipline. However, identity of a student
registered in any PCC course, whether face-to-face or online, and whether that student is in
fact responsible for all work turned in for credit in the course is an ongoing issue of concern
for instructors. Research studies have shown that in a comparison between online vs. face-
to-face students, that cheating (absence of academic integrity) is comparable across the two
modalities (Grijalva, 2003). The fact is that 23% to 45% of higher education students self-
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report cheating on tests, while 45% to 56% admit to cheating on writing assignments
(McCabe, 2004).
 
Higher Education Opportunity Act 2008
In the Reauthorization of the Higher Education Opportunity Act (H.R. 4137) signed into law in
August of 2008, the federal government called for increased accountability regarding
accreditation standards and student achievement. The Act states that the U.S. Department of
Education may not "…require an accreditor to have separate standards, procedures or
policies, for evaluation of distance education. Accreditors must, however, require institutions
that offer distance education to establish that a student registered for a distance education
course is the same student who completes and receives credit for it." (ACE Analysis of
Higher Education Act Reauthorization)

In September of 2008, Dr. Barbara Beno, President of the Accrediting Commission for
Community and Junior Colleges (WASC) sent a letter to member institutions regarding the
need for those institutions to begin evaluating what can be done to assure student
authentication and academic integrity in distance education classes. Specifically, the
Accrediting Commission wished to know what strategies member institutions, like Pasadena
City College, currently use to authenticate students enrolled in distance education courses.

The Distance Education Committee of the Academic Senate felt that a survey looking at
these issues would be most useful if ALL PCC faculty including full-time as well as adjunct,
AND including all teaching and learning modalities, (face-to-face, hybrid, and fully online
distance education courses) took part in an institution-wide survey. Such an institution-wide
discussion about academic integrity serves to update stakeholders about important issues
and may lead to broader recommendations that include the importance of instructor/staff
training, student awareness and expectations, and professional development workshops.
The Survey results showed a strong commitment, on the part of all faculty, to ensuring a high
level of student conduct and academic integrity, and included some suggestions for future
action to improve that commitment.

                            *******************************************

Recommendation:

    1. The Distance Education Committee recommends that the College review the Student
       Conduct and Academic Honesty Policy No. 4520 to incorporate language that fully
       responds to technologically challenging educational environments.

    2. The Committee further recommends that in order to promote best practices and fulfill
       the directives in the Higher Education Act regarding student verification in distance
       education courses, all distance education instructors conscientiously include regular
       effective contact (Recommendation 110: Regular Effective Contact) in their courses.
       Furthermore, instructors should be familiar with the list of Best Practice Strategies to
       Promote Academic Integrity in Online Education, Version 2.0 June 2009, as published
       by WCET.
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       http://wiche.edu/attachment_library/Student_Authentication/BestPractices.pdf

    3. It is also recommended that instructors of distance education courses utilize best
       practices in online pedagogy (DE Recommendation 106: Pedagogical Readiness)
       along with the capabilities of a College-supported Learning Management System with
       secure username and password/ID in order to encourage appropriate student conduct
       and academic integrity and discourage dishonesty.


Resources
Academic Senate of the California Community Colleges. (adopted Spring 2007). Promoting
and Sustaining an Institutional Climate of Academic Integrity. Educational Policies
Committee 2006-07.
http://www.asccc.org/Publications/Papers/downloads/PDFs/academic-integrity-2007.pdf

Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges. Western Association of Schools
and Colleges (August 2008) Distance Learning Manual. Accessed 10/5/09.
http://www.accjc.org/pdf/Distance_Learning_Manual_August_2008.pdf

American Council on Education, ACE Analysis of Higher Education Act Reauthorization,
August 2008.
http://www.acenet.edu/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Papers_Publications&TEMPLATE=/CM/C
ontentDisplay.cfm&CONTENTID=29218

Beno, Barbara. Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges, Higher
Education Act Update, September 5, 2008.

California Community Colleges Chancellor’s Office, Title 5 Guidelines Related to Curriculum
and Instruction, Chapter 6, Parts 1 and 2.
http://www.cccco.edu/ChancellorsOffice/Divisions/AcademicAffairs/Title5Guidelines/tabid/133
0/Default.aspx

Center for Academic Integrity. Ten Principles of Academic Integrity. McCabe, D. L., Pavela,
G.(1997).
http://www.csub.edu/studentconduct/documents/principlesacademicintegrity.pdf

Clemson University. The Center for Academic Integrity, Rutland Institute for Ethics (2010).
Accessed 4/29/10.
http://www.academicintegrity.org/

Grijalva, T. C., KerkVliet, J., & Nowell, C. (2003). Academic Honesty and Online Courses.
Accessed 4/29/10
http://oregonstate.edu/dept/econ/pdf/cheat.online.pap6.pdf

McCabe, D.L. (2004) CAI Research. Accessed 4/22/10
http://www.academicintegrity.org/cai_research/cai_related_resrch.php
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Pasadena City College. Academic Senate Faculty Survey on Student Academic Integrity and
Authentication. March 2010.
http://www.pasadena.edu/de/documents/AcadIntegritySurveyReportFINAL3.27.10.pdf

Pasadena Area Community College District Policy. Student Conduct and Academic Honesty,
Policy No 4520.
http://www.pasadena.edu/ipro/policies/pcc_4520.pdf

U.S. Department of Education Office of Postsecondary Education. (2006). Evidence of
Quality in Distance Education Programs Drawn from Interviews with the Accreditation
Community.
http://www.ysu.edu/accreditation/Resources/Accreditation-Evidence-of-Quality-in-DE-
Programs.pdf

Varvel, V. Honesty in Online Education. (2005). Pointers & Clickers, Vol. 6 (1), Illinois Online
Network, a collaboration of all community colleges in Illinois.
http://www.ion.illinois.edu/resources/pointersclickers/2005_01/VarvelCheatPoint2005.pdf

WCET (Western Cooperative for Educational Technologies). (February 2008). Are Your
Online Students Really the Ones Registered for the Course? Student Authentication
Requirements for Distance Education Providers. A WCET Briefing Paper
http://wiche.edu/attachment_library/Briefing_Paper_Feb_2008.pdf
WCET (Western Cooperative for Educational Technologies). (Version 2.0, June 2009). Best
Practice Strategies to Promote Academic Integrity in Online Education.
http://wiche.edu/attachment_library/Student_Authentication/BestPractices.pdf

Walton, I., James-Hanz, P., North, W., & Pilati, M. (2008). Ensuring the Appropriate use of
Educational technology: An Update for Local Academic Senates.
http://www.asccc.org/Publications/Papers/Education_Technology.htm


Recommendation Approved by the Distance Education Committee – May 18, 2010
Recommendation Approved by Academic Senate – June 7, 2010




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Self-Assessment of Online Course Facilitation

As an essential part of Pasadena City College’s commitment to student success in all areas
of learning, distance education courses shall provide quality, innovative instruction that
maintains the highest standards and best practices in online teaching and learning. Effective
online course facilitation is dependent upon ensuring that faculty is properly trained,
supported, and willing to adopt a student-centered (constructivist) teaching paradigm (DE
Recommendation106: Pedagogical Readiness). Facilitation means helping the student or
students to accomplish the learning objectives of the course.

Learning in an online class requires a pedagogical shift (moving from subject matter
distribution to learner facilitation). Even the most experienced educators are faced with the
following challenges:
    • Attention must be paid to sound pedagogical principles driven by learner participation
        and the social dynamics of the online learning environment.
    • Preparation for adjusting to the online course facilitation approach is often time
        consuming.
    • Online classrooms generate challenges of juggling classroom management,
        community building, curriculum design, and technology guidance responsibilities while
        recognizing learners’ needs during different course intervals.

Three of the seven often-cited Chickering and Gamson’s Seven Principles for Good Practice
in Undergraduate Education relate to the importance of supporting facilitation of online
courses:

    1. Encourages contact between students and faculty
    2. Develops reciprocity and cooperation among students
    3. Gives prompt feedback

All Distance Education courses should support Title 5 “regular effective contact” regulations
including guidelines in Section 55204 defined in DE Recommendation 110: Regular Effective
Contact:
    1. Initiated regular effective contact
    2. Frequency and timeliness of regular effective contact
    3. Expectations regarding regular effective contact

The nature of online teaching requires instructors to reexamine and move beyond traditional
face-to-face pedagogy toward more facilitative practices – student-centered learning.
Furthermore, “faculty cannot be expected to know intuitively how to…deliver an effective
online course.” (Palloff and Pratt, p. 23). Thus, the Self-Assessment of Online Course
Facilitation Instrument will help faculty to deliver an effective online course.


WASC Red Flags
  • Regular effective contact is not obvious.
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    •   Students express dissatisfaction with the quality of their distance education courses.
    •   Students don’t know whom to contact if they have questions or problems.
    •   Comments from faculty indicate that they have directly translated their traditional
        course to a distance education course. This may indicate inadequate consideration of
        distance education pedagogy.
    •   The use of only a single method of assessment in a course might indicate that the
        course does not adequately link assessments and outcomes.
    •   While the use of the same platform will provide some consistency in online courses, a
        reviewer expects courses to make use of different instructional strategies to fulfill their
        individual objectives.
    •   The discussion board in an online course shows little or no activity.
    •   The majority of student postings lack substance and show little evidence of reflection
        or critical thinking.

(U. S. Department of Education. Office of Post Secondary Ed. (2006). Evidence of Quality in DE
Programs Drawn from Interviews with the Accreditation Community. Pp. 8 - 11).

…[A] “self-evaluation” component provides the opportunity for serious reflection and goal
setting, and action plans for improvement (Los Angeles Community College District, 2006).


Overview: The Assessing Online Facilitation Instrument
The Assessing Online Facilitation (AOF) instrument and accompanying Facilitation Activity
Record were developed by the California State University Tigers Grant Committee as a
primary resource for the following:

        •   Checklist for self-evaluation in combination with student evaluations to gauge both
            areas of course strengths and areas of needing improvement.
        •   Framework for invited peer evaluation.
        •   Outline for a department’s expectations with simple modifications.
        •   Guide for faculty training.

http://www.humboldt.edu/~aof/aof

What are the criteria for effective facilitation of online courses?

Online classrooms bring challenges of juggling many responsibilities such as classroom
management, community building, and technology “guru” while recognizing learners’ needs
during different course intervals. Few online educators have the benefit of experienced
mentors to help fine tune online facilitation skills (Sloan Survey of Online Learning, 2008).

Best practices reveal:
   • Emphasis on multiple “hats”, or roles, required of the successful online facilitator.
   • Duties and expectations of online facilitators differ depending on the course interval.

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While the research shows slight variations in the roles assumed by facilitators, the four roles
that were most consistently cited were: Managerial, Pedagogical, Social, and Technical.

    1. The Managerial role involves completing general procedural and administrative
       duties. In a face-to-face class, this might be loosely described as “paperwork” or
       “housekeeping.”
    2. The Pedagogical role is the one that is probably most expected for online facilitators.
       As the subject matter expert in the online classroom, the facilitator guides students to
       understanding the important concepts and skills of the course of study.
    3. The Social role may be the most often overlooked for facilitators new to the online
       environment. However, the research is clear that building community in an online class
       is key to support student learning.
    4. When assuming the Technical role, the facilitator assists students to become
       comfortable with the technologies used in course delivery so that the technology
       becomes as transparent as possible.

Research also led to the recognition of categories or course intervals found in all online
classes. Course intervals drive facilitators’ tasks. The intervals are:

    1. Before Class Begins - includes responsibilities such as inspecting course materials
       for currency and preparing students for their upcoming online experience.
    2. During The First Week - expands responsibilities to include important tasks for
       building community and creating a welcoming environment conducive to learning.
    3. Throughout Class - the longest interval in the course and has many responsibilities in
       all roles. However, the pedagogical role takes on special importance.
    4. The Last Week - the final interval where the course is brought to a close.

The Assessing Online Facilitation (AOF) Instrument is essentially a self /peer assessment
component of a process representing a cooperative effort to continuously improve online
instruction. It is comprised of organized tips and techniques from the literature into an easy-
to-use checklist called the Assessing Online Facilitation Instrument, or the “AOF”. The
document is available at http://www.humboldt.edu/~aof/aof.htm but will be made available on
the PCC Distance Education website. The first four pages of the checklist represent different
facilitation intervals. Each interval has tips sorted into the different facilitator roles.
The AOF can:
    1. Serve as a checklist for self-evaluation in combination with student feedback to gauge
         both areas of course strengths and areas needing improvement.
    2. Function as a framework for invited peer evaluation.
    3. Outline a division/department’s expectations with simple modifications.
    4. Guide for faculty training.

The Facilitation Activity Record is an optional companion document for the Assessing Online
Facilitation (AOF) Instrument. A blank template is available on the AOF website at
http://www.humboldt.edu/~aof/far.htm and will be made available on the PCC Distance
Education website.


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These instruments reflect institutional commitment to online instructional quality based on
research and best practices to enhance student learning in online environments. Instruments
such as these are intended to be completely voluntary and optional; not to replace existing
procedures used for retention, promotion, or tenure at any institution. However, adoption of
the AOF review process is a clear demonstration of institutional or programmatic commitment
to assessment and continuous improvement.

The following recommendations regarding the Self-Assessment of Online Course Facilitation
Instrument are not meant to abrogate the established role of the faculty, division, or
department in evaluating online instructors, nor should they contravene the evaluation
process established though the collective bargaining process. These recommendations are
meant to serve as helpful tools in maintaining high quality instruction and promoting ongoing
professional development (College of the Canyons, 2006).

                                 ************************************

Recommendation:

In the interest of ensuring continued quality of instructional facilitation, promoting innovation,
and enhancing student success, the Distance Education Committee supports the adoption
and use of the Assessing Online Facilitation (AOF) Instrument and the Facilitation Activity
Record developed by the California State University Tigers Grant Committee as a primary
resource for the following:

       •   Checklist for self-evaluation of online course facilitation, in combination with
           student feedback, to gauge both areas of course strengths and areas needing
           improvement.
       •   Framework for invited peer feedback.
       •   Outline a department’s expectations with simple modifications.
       •   Guide for faculty training.

Resources
An Instrument to Assess Online Facilitation. (2007). California State University Tigers Grant
Project. http://www.humboldt.edu/~aof/aof

Chickering, A. & Gamson, Z. (1987). Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate
Education.
http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/7princip.htm

College of the Canyons. (2008). Checklist for Online Instructor Evaluation.

Facilitation Activity Record. (2007). California State University Tigers Grant Project.
http://www.humboldt.edu/~aof/far.htm

Los Angeles Community College District. Faculty Evaluation Taskforce. Recommendation for
the Incorporation of Student Learning Outcomes in Faculty Evaluations. (2006).
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http://accred.mentorlounge.net/images/uploads/LACCDFacultyEvaluationTF2006.pdf

Palloff, R. Pratt, K. (2001). Lessons from the Cyberspace Classroom: The Realities of Online
Teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Sloan-C. Sloan Survey of Online Learning (2008). Staying The Course – Online Education in
the United States.
http://www.sloan-c.org/publications/survey/staying_course

U.S. Department of Education Office of Postsecondary Education. (2006). Evidence of
Quality in Distance Education Programs Drawn from Interviews with the Accreditation
Community. http://www.ysu.edu/accreditation/Resources/Accreditation-Evidence-of-Quality-
in-DE-Programs.pdf

Walton, I., James-Hanz, P., North, W., & Pilati, M. (2008). Ensuring the Appropriate Use of
Educational Technology: An Update for Local Academic Senates.
http://www.asccc.org/Publications/Papers/Education_Technology.htm




Recommendation Approved by the Distance Education Committee – June 1, 2010
Recommendation Approved by the Academic Senate – June 7, 2010




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Student Course Feedback Survey and Grievance Process

(Based on an earlier Faculty Evaluation Student Questionnaire [See Appendix ii.] approved
by the Distance Education Committee and presented to the Academic Senate in April 2007.
The Senate deferred a vote and forwarded the recommendation to the Faculty Association.
The Faculty Evaluation Student Questionnaire recommendation was forwarded to the Faculty
Association with no response throughout 2008 and 2009.)

Student Course Feedback Survey Rationale
“Accrediting agencies in the United States are now seriously considering how to evaluate
online [courses] in terms of the quality of education they provide to students” (Tobin, 2004).
Typically, faculty evaluation occurs only through end-of-course student evaluations that may
or may not yield adequate information (Park University, 2008). Additionally, the Academic
Senate for California Community Colleges advocates:

Various components of distance education…should be separately evaluated using the
following processes or college structures:

         •   The distance education program (if there is a coordinated program) should be
             evaluated by the normal college program review process;
         •   The individual course should be evaluated by the normal discipline department
             mechanism but perhaps, in addition, by a distance education committee;
         •   The instructor should be evaluated by students and peers using an
             observation/evaluation tool that is appropriate to distance education, uses
             language consistent with online instructional methodology and evaluation methods,
             and does not include evaluation of course software;
         •   The timelines for evaluation of online courses must be established and be
             considerate of the difference between observing a face-to-face class and a
             distance education course (Walton, James-Hanz, North, et al. 2008. p. 20).

Effective professional evaluation processes … provide for self-evaluation and identification of
self-determined goals as important aspects of the process. (Academic Senate for California
Community Colleges, 1990, p. 4) Integrated student feedback is intended to:

    1.   Strengthen scholarship of teaching
    2.   Enhance student satisfaction
    3.   Identify professional development needs
    4.   Provide more robust preparation for accreditation visits (Park University, 2008).

WASC emphasizes:
    [The]…importance for adequate feedback loops in the areas that are closely
    associated with quality in higher education [including] faculty development and course
    development and delivery…. Course evaluations can …yield important information for
    improving faculty training and development... In institutions where courses are
    developed centrally and individual sections are taught by faculty (including adjunct
    faculty) who were not involved in the original development, it is good practice…to
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       confirm that there is a mechanism in place to get information from instructional faculty
       on how the courses can be improved, and that is reflected in course revisions. (U.S.
       Department of Education. 2006, p. 13.)

       It is important to document regular effective contact and how it is achieved…this
       documentation occurs during separate course approval process as well as during
       faculty evaluation, surveys and program review [section 55206] (Park University, 2008.
       p. 7). To this end, Title 5 requires:

       Title 5 Section 55204: Instructor Contact (Distance Education Recommendation 110:
       Regular Effective Contact Definition, May 2010) requires regular instructor-student
       contact in distance education courses, stressing the responsibility of the instructor
       initiating regular effective contact with enrolled students to verify their participation and
       performance status.

       Title 5 Section 55210: Ongoing responsibilities of Districts further mandate that
       districts need to specifically describe the type and quantity of student-faculty
       interaction in their annual reports to their local governing boards and the State
       Chancellor’s Office (Walton, James-Hanz, et al, 2008).

WASC Red Flags
    • The discussion board in an online course shows little or no activity;
    • The majority of student postings lack substance and show little evidence of
       reflection or critical thinking. (U. S. Department of Education, 2006, pp 8).

All PCC distance education courses fully subscribe to Title 5 regulations and guidelines in
Section 55202 regarding Course Quality Standards. The Distance Education Committee
supports the use of the Rubric for Online Instruction (ROI) developed by California State
University, Chico as a primary resource for quality online instructional course design
(Distance Education Recommendation 112: Distance Education Course Quality Rubric, June
2010). The ROI specifies that faculty solicits integrated student feedback about the online
course in each of the six rubric categories. This feedback provides faculty with valuable
comments on which to base course modifications and improvements that also contribute to
student satisfaction (Sederberg, 2003).

Rubric for Online Instruction – Category Six: Faculty Use of Student Feedback lists the
following important considerations:

    1. Instructor offers multiple opportunities for students to give feedback on course content.
    2. Instructor offers multiple opportunities for students to give feedback on ease of online
       technology and accessibility of course.
    3. Instructor uses formal and informal student feedback in an ongoing basis to help plan
       instruction and assessment of student learning throughout the semester.
    4. [A] means to fostering an excellent faculty is for the college to have an evaluation
       policy and procedure that assesses the most important characteristics of an individual
       faculty member and provides encouragement for improvement.
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Collaboration between faculty members and students can improve learning and personal
satisfaction for both (Angelo & Cross, 1993). Integrated student feedback enables and
ensures the finest quality educational experience for online students via a systematic
approach to faculty best practices. Best practices are included in Distance Education
Recommendation 110: Regular Effective Contact Definition, May 2010.

    1. Instructor Initiated regular effective contact:

       a. Contact must include student engagement in all areas of distance learning,
          instructor to student, student to student, and student to content.
       b. Instructor to student contact includes regular announcements about what is
          expected of students regarding upcoming assignments and tests.
       c. Instructor provides communication or collaborative student activities involving
          contact and interactions on a weekly basis.
       d. General discussion forums for student questions encourage interaction on a daily
          or weekly basis.
       e. Specific discussion forums for questions regarding an assignment encourage
          interaction and critical thinking about course content.
       f. Active student interaction with the instructor, fellow students and content takes
          place each week throughout the course, i.e. through discussions, blogs wikis, self-
          assessments, posts, email or instant messaging.
       g. Frequent monitoring of any contact activity by the instructor makes sure that
          students are interacting with their peers and substantively staying on topic.
       h. Regular effective contact includes regularly added/revised, faculty-created course
          content.

    2. Frequency and timeliness of regular effective contact
       a. An active, daily presence of the instructor is maintained especially during the first
          weeks of a course.
       b. Expectations of availability and a turn-around response time is established and
          posted for student questions/inquiries, i.e. one to two business days.
       c. Early in the course, students should be given an opportunity to introduce
          themselves and the instructor should introduce her/himself to model interaction.
       d. Students should receive frequent and substantial feedback from the instructor.
       e. The frequency of contact should be at least the same as would occur for a
          comparable face-to-face course.

    3. Expectations regarding regular effective contact
        a. Specific beginning and ending dates for courses should be clearly defined for
           students, along with all deadlines for assignments and assessments throughout
           the course.
        b. The instructor’s specific policies regarding the frequency and timeliness of
           instructor initiated contact and feedback should be part of the syllabus or other
           course documents where relevant.
        c. Netiquette is explained and enforced.
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          d. Accessible media in compliance with Section 508 and Chancellor’s Office of the
             California Community Colleges Guidelines are used to facilitate “regular effective
             contact.”
          e. Peer review opportunities, with clear guidelines, should be established.

The recommendations regarding integrating student course feedback are not meant to
abrogate the established role of the faculty, division/department in evaluating online
instructors, nor should they contravene the evaluation process established though the
collective bargaining process. These recommendations are meant to serve as a helpful tool in
maintaining high quality instruction and promote ongoing professional development (College
of the Canyons, 2006.)


Student Grievance Process Rationale

In addition to the Student Course Feedback Survey, student grievance procedures “…shall
be available to any student who reasonably believes a College decision or action has
adversely affected his or her status, rights or privileges as a student….” Student grievance
resolution information is found in the Manual for Student Conduct, Due Process, and Dispute
Resolution. “[Currently]…students may obtain a copy of this manual from the Vice President
of Student and Learning Services Office in Room L112.”

The Student Support and Learning Services section of the Pasadena City College Course
Catalog states that the grievance and complaint procedures are meant “to provide a prompt
and equitable means of resolving student grievances.” (Pasadena City College, 2010/2011)

WASC Red Flags
       • Student grievance process requires face-to-face meeting;
       • Students don’t know whom to contact if they have questions or problems;
       • Students express dissatisfaction with the quality of their distance education
          courses.
       • Specific needs of students for whom electronically delivered courses are
          intended, identified and addressed are found in the 2006 ACCJC Distance
          Learning Manual (Walton, James-Hanz, et al. 2008. p. 11)


                                      *********************
Recommendations

The Distance Education Committee has a two-part recommendation regarding a) student
course feedback and b) the student grievance process.

     I.     In the interest of ensuring continued quality of distance education courses, an
            anonymous, Integrated Student Course Feedback Survey (See Appendix i) will be
            offered at least twice (formative and summative evaluation) during the distance
            education course cycle. Faculty will review feedback in combination with the
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          Assessing Online Facilitation Instrument and division-wide Faculty Evaluation in
          order to:
             a. Determine if enhancements for instructional strategies are required in
                 current and upcoming courses (Distance Education Recommendation 114:
                 Self Assessment of Online Course Facilitation, June 2010).
             b. Gauge both areas of course strengths and areas needing improvement.
             c. Discover individual professional development needs.
             d. Integrated Student Course Feedback Survey result summaries will be made
                 available to the Division Dean and the Office of Academic Support.

    II. In addition to Integrated Student Course Feedback, and in order to manage the
        resolution of potential student-faculty grievances and appeals, the Distance Education
        Committee also recommends that:

              a. The 2007 Pasadena City College Manual for Student Conduct Due Process
                 and Dispute Resolution (available in the Office of Student Services, see
                 appendix iii.) be reviewed and made accessible online to facilitate
                 resolution of student-faculty disputes/conflicts.
              b. The student grievance process will not require a face-to-face meeting.
              c. The two different titles on the student complaint form should be reconciled.
                 Currently, a Student Dispute Form, Appendix iv (2007 Pasadena City
                 College Manual for Student Conduct, Due Process, and Dispute Resolution,
                 Appendix C1) and a similar Student Grievance Form, Appendix v, are both
                 distributed by the Office of Student Services.
              d. The College Manual for Student Conduct, Due Process, and Dispute
                 Resolution should contain a flowchart of each procedural step including a
                 general timeline for resolution (from complaint investigation to equitable
                 solution).
              e. The Student Grievance/Dispute Form circumstances description should be
                 updated to include:
                         i. Summary of Facts - Describe in detail what occurred, including
                            specific names, dates, and events. Attach copies of any
                            supporting materials;
                        ii. Statement of Grievance - Explain in detail how your student
                            rights were violated (see sections 2-10 of the Professional Ethics
                            of Faculty California Education Code Section 70902 PCC policy
                            number 3110 ;
                       iii. Requested Remedy - Explain in detail how this situation should
                            be resolved; and




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Resources
Accreditation: Evaluating the Collective Faculty. (1990). Academic Senate for California
Community Colleges Educational Policies Committee
www.asccc.org/Publications/Papers/Downloads/Accred90.doc

Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges. Western Association of Schools
and Colleges (August 2008) Distance Learning Manual.
http://www.accjc.org/pdf/Distance_Learning_Manual_August_2008.pdf

Angelo, T. K., & Cross, K. P. (1993). Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for
college teachers (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

California State University, Chico. (20020. Rubric for Online Instruction (ROI). Accessed
9/25/09 http://csuchico.edu/celt.edu/roi

College of the Canyons. (2008). Checklist for Online Instructor Evaluation.

Mandernach, J., Donnelli, E., Dailey, A., & Schulte, M. (2005). A Faculty Evaluation Model for
Online Instructors: Mentoring and Evaluation in the Online Classroom.
http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/fall83/mandernach83.htm

Park University. (2008). Explanation of the Online Instructor Evaluation System (OIES).
http://www.park.edu/assessment/documents/AppendixY-
OnlineInstructorEvaluationSystemOIES_000.pdf

Pasadena City College. Pasadena City College Manual for Student Conduct, Due Process,
and Dispute Resolution, (rev 2008).

Pasadena City College. Pasadena City College Grievance and Complaint Procedures in
Course Catalog 2010/2011 Section 3 – Policies and Regulations
http://www.pasadena.edu/catalog/Section3.htm
Sederbeg, L. (2003). Sloan-C: the rubric for Online Instruction. http://www.sloan-
c.org/node/367
Thorpe, S. (2002). Online Student Evaluation of Instruction
http://www.airweb.org/forum02/550.pdf

Tobin, T. (2005). Best Practices for Administrative Evaluation of Online Faculty.
http://www.westga.edy/%7Edistance/ojdla/summer72/tobin72.html

U. S. Department of Education. Office of Post Secondary Education. (2006). Evidence of
Quality in DE Programs Drawn from Interviews with the Accreditation Community.
http://www.ysu.edu/accreditation/Resources/Accreditation-Evidence-of-Quality-in-DE-
Programs.pdf


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Walton, I., James-Hanz, P., North, W., & Pilati, M. (2008). Ensuring the Appropriate use of
Educational Technology: An Update for Local Academic Senates.
http://www.asccc.org/Publications/Papers/Education_Technology.htm




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Appendix i

                     Integrated Student Course Feedback Survey
                                       07/2010


                                                 Almost   Sometimes   Rarely   Never
                    Criteria                     Always
                                                    4         3         2       1

    1. Learner Support and Resources
       a. Instructor provides a variety of course-
          specific resources, contact information
          for instructor, department, and
          program.
       b. Instructor offers access to a wide
          range of resources supporting course
          content and different learning abilities.
    2. Organization and Design
       a. This course is well-organized so I can
          easily find what I need.
       b. Navigation cues help me figure out
          where to begin and easily move
          through the course content without
          help.
       c. Instructor’s course materials are easy
          to understand and clearly
          communicate information.
       d. Instructor conducts the course
          according to the expectations and
          schedule posted in the course
          syllabus.
       e. Course objectives and requirements
          are clearly communicated and posted
          in the course materials.
       f. Accessibility issues are addressed
          throughout the course (including: sight,
          mobility, hearing, cognition, ESL, and
          technical challenges).
       g. I know on a daily and weekly basis
          what was expected of me in this
          course.
    3. Instructional Design, Delivery, Interaction, and Discussion
       a. This course offers ample opportunities
          for me and the instructor to interact
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          and communicate.
       b. Instructor models the tone and quality
          of interactions expected of me and my
          peers.
       c. Instructor treats me and my peers, our
          ideas and opinions with respect.
       d. This course provides many
          opportunities for me to regularly
          interact with all students in the course.
       e. This course provides many
          opportunities for me to work in teams
          and team projects.
       f. Instructor communicates clearly and
          meaningfully in online discussions.
       g. Instructor effectively leads online
          discussions and stimulates ongoing
          online discussion about course
          content.
       h. Instructor is responsive to my
          questions.
       i. Course provides multiple visual,
          textual, physical, and / or auditory
          activities to improve my learning.
       j. Course provides multiple activities that
          help me identify problems and form
          solutions.
    4. Assessment & Evaluation of Student Learning
       a. Instructor was clear and specific in
          assignment directions and evaluation
          criteria posted in the course.
       b. Instructor clearly communicates
          directions for submitting assignments
          in the course management system
          (Bb).
       c. Ongoing multiple types of assessment
          are used to measure my knowledge
          and skills.
       d. Instructor provides me clear, useful,
          and timely feedback about my
          performance.
       e. Self-assessments and peer feedback
          opportunities exist throughout the
          course.
    5. Innovative Teaching with Technology

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       a. Instructor maintains a positive
          atmosphere in the online classroom.
       b. Instructor is sensitive to any difficulty I
          have with course work.
       c. Instructor is easy to communicate with
          and readily available for consultation.
       d. This course uses a variety of
          technology tools to help
          communication and learning.
       e. Instructor uses a variety of media to
          communicate course subject matter.
       f. Instructor often uses the Internet to
          engage my learning in a variety of
          ways.
       g. Instructor strengthens my
          understanding of online course
          concepts using a variety of interactive
          Bb technologies (discussion, grade
          book, feedback, etc).
    6. Faculty Use of Student Feedback
       a. Instructor offers multiple opportunities
          for students to give feedback on
          course content.
       b. Instructor offers multiple opportunities
          for students to give feedback on the
          ease of online technology and course
          accessibility.
    7. Accessibility - Complete this section only if you are a self-disclosed student
        receiving academic accommodation for students with disabilities from DSPS.
       a. Syllabus is in an accessible format.
       b. Required course text document
          content (word and PDF) are available
          in text-to-speech formats.
       c. Required course video presentation
          content (DVDs, video podcasts, and
          other video formats) are available with
          closed or open captioning or subtitles.
       d. Required course Internet resource
          content (e.g., websites, blogs, wikis,
          and other Internet based resources)
          are accessible.
       e. Required course audio presentation
          content (CDs, audio podcasts, audio
          clips, and other audio formats) are

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          accessible.
    8. About Me
       a. I meet assignment deadlines.
       b. I ask the instructor for help and
          feedback when I need it.
       c. I invest time and energy to meet and
          exceed course requirements.
              Instrument: Thorpe (2002), Sederberg (2003), Mandernach, Donnelli, Dailey, & Schulte (2005).

    1. What has the instructor done that you found most helpful?

    2. What would you like to see the instructor do to improve the course?


    Comments: If you have additional comments (positive or negative) please discuss them
    here.




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Appendix ii
                       Faculty Evaluation Student Questionnaire
             Approved by the Academic Senate Distance Education Committee
                                        4-03-07
Part I.
Please answer the following questions about your online course using the scale below.

    Strongly Disagree     Disagree Neutral Agree       Strongly Agree      Not Applicable

    1.   The course syllabus clearly defined the learning objectives.
    2.   The course grading policies were clearly defined.
    3.   The learning materials were available in a timely manner.
    4.   The course materials helped me to understand the course content.
    5.   The course assignments and activities followed the learning objectives.
    6.   Assessments such as tests, projects, and quizzes emphasized the learning objectives.
    7.   The course content was well organized.
    8.   The course contributed to my general knowledge and education.
Part II.
Please answer the following questions about your instructor using the scale below:

    Strongly Disagree     Disagree Neutral Agree       Strongly Agree      Not Applicable

    1.  The instructor was knowledgeable in the subject area.
    2.  The instructor followed course grading policies.
    3.  The instructor used effective teaching methods.
    4.  The instructor effectively used online communication tools such as email, discussion
        boards, and/or announcements.
   5. Feedback on assessments and assignments was provided in a timely manner.
   6. The instructor assisted me with my questions and problems.
   7. The instructor responded to my questions and concerns within a reasonable time.
   8. The instructor encouraged online participation.
   9. The instructor motivated student interest.
   10. The instructor created a positive learning atmosphere for me.
        .
Part III.
Written Responses:
   1. What did you like best about this course?
   2. What specific changes could improve this course?
   3. Please make any additional comments or suggestions about this class and/or this
        instructor.




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Appendix iii

          Manual for Student Conduct, Due Process, and Dispute Resolution




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Appendix iv




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Appendix v




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Distance Education Faculty Evaluation Addendum

(Based on an earlier Faculty Evaluation Recommendation [see Appendix ii] approved by the
Distance Education Committee in May 2007.

Rationale

“Accrediting agencies in the United States are now seriously considering how to evaluate
online [courses] in terms of the quality of education they provide to students” (Tobin, 2004).
Additionally, the Academic Senate for California Community Colleges advocates:

Various components of distance education…should be separately evaluated using the
following processes or college structures:

       •   The instructor should be evaluated by students and peers using an
           observation/evaluation tool that is appropriate to distance education, uses
           language consistent with online instructional methodology and evaluation
           methods…;
       •   The timelines for evaluation of online courses must be established and be
           considerate of the difference between observing a face-to-face class and a
           distance education course (Walton, James-Hanz, North, et al. 2008. p. 20).

Effective professional evaluation processes … provide for self-evaluation and identification of
self-determined goals as important aspects of the process. (Academic Senate for California
Community Colleges, 1990, p. 4) Division Led Faculty Evaluation Addendum is intended to:

    1. Enhance student satisfaction
    2. Identify professional development needs
    3. Provide more robust preparation for accreditation visits (Park University, 2008).

“Learning is dynamic and interactive regardless of the setting in which it occurs” (Eaton,
2002, p. 26). The 2009 Higher Education Opportunities Act defines distance education is
defined:

       ...for the purpose of accreditation review as a formal interaction which uses one or
       more technologies to deliver instruction to students who are separated from the
       instructor and which supports regular and substantive interaction between the students
       and instructor, either synchronously or asynchronously. (ACCJC News, Spring 2010.
       p. 5).

Additionally, Title: Section 55204 requires:
       Contact (Distance Education Recommendation 110: Regular Effective Contact
       Definition, May 2010) requires regular instructor-student contact in distance education
       courses, stressing the responsibility of the instructor initiating regular effective contact
       with enrolled students to verify their participation and performance status.
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       Section 55210: Ongoing responsibilities of Districts further mandate that districts need
       to specifically describe the type and quantity of student-faculty interaction in their
       annual reports to their local governing boards and the State Chancellor’s Office
       (Walton, James-Hanz, et al., 2008).

The Academic Senate’s 1999 Effective Instructor-Student Contact in Distance Learning paper
suggests the importance of “…both parts of the learning experience: the information transfer
portion of the course and also the individual instructor-student contact portion.”

    Describe the nature and frequency of instructor-student interactions, taking into account
    the proposed class size:

       a. Provide examples of both synchronous and asynchronous components of the
          course taught using distance education technology. List the criteria that will be
          used to substantiate student learning, and describe the methods of evaluating
          student achievement;
       b. Describe the number and frequency of different types of instructor-student
          interaction for students making satisfactory progress, including instructor initiated
          contacts;
       c. Describe the nature and methods of instructor-student communications designed to
          intervene when students are at-risk of dropping the course due to poor participation
          or low test performance (Walton, James-Hanz, et al, p.14).

The importance “to document regular effective contact and how it is achieved…this
documentation occurs during separate course approval process as well as during faculty
evaluation, surveys and program review [section 55206] (Park University, 2008. p.7).

WASC Red Flags
    • The discussion board in an online course shows little or no activity;
    • Courses lack objectives;
    • Course materials have not been updated in over five years. For certain curricula,
       the updating should be done more frequently.
    • The majority of student postings lack substance and show little evidence of
       reflection or critical thinking. (U. S. Department of Education, 2006, p 8).

The Distance Education Committee supports the use of the Rubric for Online Instruction
(ROI) developed by California State University, Chico as a primary resource for quality online
instructional course design including
       [A] means to fostering an excellent faculty is for the college to have an evaluation
       policy and procedure that assesses the most important characteristics of an individual
       faculty member and provides encouragement for improvement. (Distance
       Recommendation 112: Distance Education Course Quality Rubric, June 2010).
       Furthermore, the ROI specifies that faculty “offer ample opportunities for interaction
       and communication student to student, student to instructor. (ROI, 19XX)
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All Pasadena City College distance education courses fully subscribe to Title 5 regulations
and guidelines in Section 55202 regarding Course Quality Standards (best practices). Best
practices are included in Distance Education Recommendation 110: Regular Effective
Contact Definition, May 2010.

    1. Instructor Initiated regular effective contact:

       a. Contact must include student engagement in all areas of distance learning,
          instructor to student, student to student, and student to content.
       b. Instructor to student contact includes regular announcements about what is
          expected of students regarding upcoming assignments and tests.
       c. Instructor provides communication or collaborative student activities involving
          contact and interactions on a weekly basis.
       d. General discussion forums for student questions encourage interaction on a daily
          or weekly basis.
       e. Specific discussion forums for questions regarding an assignment encourage
          interaction and critical thinking about course content.
       f. Active student interaction with the instructor, fellow students and content takes
          place each week throughout the course, i.e. through discussions, blogs wikis, self-
          assessments, posts, email or instant messaging.
       g. Frequent monitoring of any contact activity by the instructor makes sure that
          students are interacting with their peers and substantively staying on topic.
       h. Regular effective contact includes regularly added/revised, faculty-created course
          content.

    2. Frequency and timeliness of regular effective contact
       a. An active, daily presence of the instructor is maintained especially during the first
          weeks of a course.
       b. Expectations of availability and a turn-around response time is established and
          posted for student questions/inquiries, i.e. one to two business days.
       c. Early in the course, students should be given an opportunity to introduce
          themselves and the instructor should introduce her/himself to model interaction.
       d. Students should receive frequent and substantial feedback from the instructor.
       e. The frequency of contact should be at least the same as would occur for a
          comparable face-to-face course.

    3. Expectations regarding regular effective contact
        a. Specific beginning and ending dates for courses should be clearly defined for
           students, along with all deadlines for assignments and assessments throughout
           the course.
        b. The instructor’s specific policies regarding the frequency and timeliness of
           instructor initiated contact and feedback should be part of the syllabus or other
           course documents where relevant.
        c. Netiquette is explained and enforced.

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           d. Accessible media in compliance with Section 508 and Chancellor’s Office of the
              California Community Colleges Guidelines are used to facilitate “regular effective
              contact.”
           e. Peer review opportunities, with clear guidelines, should be established.

The Distance Education Committee approved Distance Education Recommendation 105D:
Distance Learning Form D (Revision), October 2009 requiring regular effective contact in
Instructional Design and Delivery and incorporating student feedback into online and hybrid
courses:

    E. Instructional Design & Delivery (TITLE 5: 55202 ; WASC, ASCCC):

    Student-to-Student; Student-to-Content Contact (Regular Effective Contact)

    This section is dedicated to how you will translate your face-to-face learning activities into
    technology mediated, learner-centered pedagogy. Learner-centered teaching and learning
    activities highlight active student engagement and the importance of social interaction
    (Bruner, 1966; Piaget, 1963; Vygotsky, 1978).
     8
     Briefly address the following quality teaching and learning methods and tools you
     will use in your course:
         1. Describe how your curriculum will promote each of these interactions and
             communication (Title 5; WASC):
                 a. Student-to-student
                 b. Student-to-content
         2. Describe course activities that include multiple ways of learning, i.e., visual,
             textual, kinesthetic and/or auditory.
         3. Describe at least two learning activities in this course that you will use to
             encourage students to develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills.
         4. Describe at least two learning activities that you will use in this course to promote
             and monitor substantive student-to-student contact.
         5. Describe how you will foster online community building activities. Include a
             sampling of the LMS tool(s), i.e., discussions, announcements, email, chat,
             etc…you will use to actively engage students in collaborative learning
             communities.
        
    F. Instructional Design & Delivery (TITLE 5: 55211a; WASC; ASCCC)
    Instructor-to-Student Contact (Regular Effective Contact)
    Title 5 language states: "All approved courses offered as distance education shall include
    regular effective contact between instructor and students, through group and individual
    meetings, orientation and review sessions, supplemental seminar or study sessions, field
    trips, library workshops/orientations, telephone contact, correspondence, voice mail, email,
    or other activities."
        • Frequent faculty-student contact in and out of classes is the most important factor in
             student motivation and involvement. Faculty concern helps students get through
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               challenging assignments and succeed.
         •     Ensuring regular effective instructor-student contact guarantees that the student
               receives the benefit of the instructor’s presence in the learning environment both as
               a provider of instructional information and as a facilitator of student learning
               outcomes.

             1. Select each method and/or technology you will use to maintain regular effective
                contact with your students. (Check all that apply.)

                •  Indicate the delivery method(s) and/or technology you will use to maintain
                   regular effective contact with your students – Online and/or Face-to-Face
                • Check S for synchronous and/or A for asynchronous instructor-student
                   interaction.
                • Fill in approximate Hours for each activity. (All learning activities must total 51
                   hours per academic unit)
                Method / Technology           S A Online          Face-to-      Hrs / Activity
                                                                     Face
     √
                    a.   Group meeting
                    b.   Individual meeting
                    c.   Orientation
                    d.   Library workshop
                    e.   Study session
                    f.   Supplemental
                         seminar
                    g.   Field trip
                    h.   Review session
                    i.   Discussion board
                    j.   Email
                    k.   Voice mail
                    l.   Chat room
                    m.   IM
                    n.
                         Other

                                                                   Total Hours

    Briefly explain how you will use the above selected delivery method(s) and/or
    technologies to maintain regular effect contact with your students throughout the course.
    Include/explain what will make this interaction effective.

             2. How will you identify and respond to students experiencing academic difficulty?




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As an essential part of Pasadena City College’s commitment to student success in all areas
of learning, distance education courses shall provide quality, innovative instruction that
maintains the highest standards and best practices in online teaching and learning (DE
REC106: Distance Education Pedagogical Readiness for Faculty, April 2009).

The recommendation regarding adding the Distance Education Faculty Evaluation Addendum
to the faculty evaluation is not meant to abrogate the established role of the faculty,
division/department chairs in evaluating online instructors, nor should they contravene the
evaluation process established though the collective bargaining process. The Distance
Education Faculty Evaluation Addendum recommendation is meant to serve as a helpful tool
in maintaining high quality instruction and promote continual professional development
(College of the Canyons, 2006.)

Recommendations

In regard to faculty evaluations and online courses, the Distance Education Committee has
three recommendations:

     I.   In the interest of ensuring continued quality of distance education courses,
          Division/Department evaluation of distance education faculty will include the
          Distance Education Faculty Evaluation Addendum (See Appendix i) to the
          Pasadena Area Community College District Faculty Review of Professional
          Performance (See Appendix iii), Professional Qualities and Contributions (See
          Appendix iv), Faculty Summary Evaluation Report (See Appendix v), and Review
          of Professional Performance: Teaching Faculty Worksheet (See Appendix vi) in
          order to:
              a. Gauge both areas of facilitation strengths and areas needing improvement
                  at the beginning and throughout online course intervals;
              b. Identify individual online faculty professional development needs;
              c. Enhance high quality learning and online student satisfaction in virtual
                  classrooms;
              d. Determine if enhancements for instructional strategies are required in
                  current and upcoming courses regarding regular effective contact (including
                  instructor-to-student, student-to-student, and student-to-content) for the
                  purpose of accreditation review.

    II. In the interest of ensuring quality of distance education courses, faculty who teach
        both distance education and face-to-face courses in the same semester, must have
        at least one distance education course evaluated during the appointed semester of
        faculty evaluation.

    III. The Distance Education Committee further recommends procedures to be followed
         by members of the faculty evaluation team by:



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           a. Establishing procedural guidelines for periodic evaluation of distance
              education faculty.
           b. Providing for participation of faculty peers in the review process

        Procedural Recommendations

        1. Select a faculty peer evaluator and/or VP Designee from the
           department/division that has distance education teaching experience. If no
           member of the department has distance education teaching experience, seek
           an experienced distance education faculty evaluator/VP Designee from another
           department/division to help conduct the evaluation.

        2. Establish the type of distance education course (hybrid, 100% online, etc…).
           Establish what type of virtual classroom(s)/course management system the
           instructor is utilizing. (Why is this step necessary?)

        3. The evaluator should review the Division/Department Level Online Faculty
           Evaluation Addendum for the course, paying particular attention to the
           descriptions of student-instructor and student-student contact.

        4. Request permission to enter the evaluatee’s course during a specific period of
           time, preferably a window of between one and seven days, or the duration of a
           learning unit. No one other than the evaluator (and experienced online educator
           from the division who may be assisting the evaluator) should access the virtual
           classroom(s) with their user name and password.

        5. The evaluatee should be encouraged to provide directions, emphasize features
           of the course, and otherwise guide the evaluator through the course.

        6. If the evaluatee wishes, s/he should be allowed to personally assist the faculty
           evaluator in exploring the virtual classroom. This assistance may be provided in
           person, via telephone, instant messaging, or other synchronous
           communication. (College of the Canyons, 2006).




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Appendix i

                         Distance Education Faculty Evaluation Addendum


    Effective and meaningful instructor-learner interaction is essential to learner motivation, intellectual
    commitment, and personal development.

    1. Instructor Initiated Regular Effective Contact                    Baseline     Effective   Exemplary

       a. Instructor-student contact includes regular
           announcements about what is expected of students
           regarding upcoming assignments and tests.
       b. Instructor provides communication or collaborative
           student activities involving contact and interactions on a
           daily or a weekly basis.
       c. General discussion forums for student questions
           encourage interaction on a daily or weekly basis.
       d. Specific discussion forums for questions regarding
           assignments encourage interaction and critical thinking
           about course content.
       e. Active instructor-student, student-student, student-
           contact interaction takes place each week throughout
           the course, i.e. through discussions, blogs wikis, self-
           assessments, posts, email or instant messaging.
       f. Instructor frequently monitors contact activity to insure
           students are interacting with peers and substantively
           staying on topic.
       g. Regular effective contact includes regularly
           added/revised, faculty-created course content.
    2. Instructor Frequency and Timeliness of Regular                    Baseline     Effective   Exemplary
       Effective Contact
       a. An active, daily presence is maintained especially
           during the first weeks of a course.
       b. Expectations of availability and a turn-around response
           time is established and posted for student
           questions/inquiries, i.e. one to two business days.
       c. Early in the course, students are given an opportunity to
           introduce themselves and the instructor should
           introduce her/himself to model interaction.
       d. Students receive frequent and substantial feedback
           from the instructor.
       e. Frequency of instructor-student contact should be at
           least the same as would occur for a comparable face-to-
           face course.
    3. Instructor Expectations Regarding Regular Effective               Baseline     Effective   Exemplary
       Contact

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    a. Specific beginning and ending dates for courses are
       clearly defined, along with all deadlines for assignments
       and assessments throughout the course.
    b. Instructor’s specific policies regarding the frequency and
       timeliness of instructor initiated contact and feedback
       are part of the syllabus or other course documents
       where relevant.
    c. Accessible media in compliance with Section 508 and
       Chancellor’s Office of the California Community
       Colleges Guidelines are used to facilitate “regular
       effective contact.”

    Suggestions from the Review Team:




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Appendix ii

                           Faculty Evaluation Recommendations
              Approved by the Academic Senate Distance Education Committee
                                          5-14-07

The Distance Education Committee recommends that the following three procedures be
incorporated into the Faculty Evaluation process when faculty who teach online are being
evaluated.

    1. For faculty who teach online, at least one of the peer evaluators must have online
       teaching experience.

    2. For faculty who teach online, the evaluation team shall be able to observe the course
       as a student would during a designated time agreed upon with the faculty member
       teaching the online course.

    3. For faculty who teach online, the evaluation team members will not have direct online
       contact with the students enrolled in the course.




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Appendix iii
                      Pasadena Area Community College District
                   FACULTY REVIEW OF PROFESSIONAL PERFORMANCE
                          Self Evaluation Guided Questions

Name_____________________________________ Date_________________

Division_________________________________________________________

    1. Please reflect and comment on what you have done in terms of your professional
       responsibilities in your major assignment(s), including activities in your department,
       division, and the college and wider community.




    2. Discuss your perception of your role as a faculty member. If you have been previously
       evaluated, has it changed/developed since your last evaluation?




    3. What experiences and achievements have you had recently that have informed your
       role as a faculty member at PCC? This could include conference attendance, in-
       service education, continuing education, private study and/or travel, etc.




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    4. How does the success and retention data of students in your courses affect what you
       do in the classroom? Have you changed any strategies in order to improve/maintain
       success and/or retention?




    5. How have you incorporated Student Learning Outcomes in your courses and how do
       you assess them?




    6. After taking time to reflect, what more could you do to provide students with a
       successful learning experience?




    7. What can the College do to support you in your professional goals and professional
       development?




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 Appendix iv

                                     Pasadena Area Community College District
                        Review of Professional Qualities and Contributions
     Employee _____________________________                              Division   _________________________

     Evaluator      _____________________________                        Date       _________________________




  
         




                                                                                                                   Specific Area(s)
                                                                                                                   improvement in
Performance Indicators:




                                                                                                                                      Unsatisfactory




                                                                                                                                                           Not Observed
                                                                                                    Satisfactory
                                                                                    Excellent




                                                                                                                   Needs
Keeps current in discipline


Demonstrates cooperation and sensitivity in working with colleagues and staff


Accepts constructive criticism


Submits required division reports/information, enrollment forms, book orders,
schedules, and grade sheets on time


Maintains adequate and appropriate records


Observes health and safety regulations


Attends required meetings


Maintains office hours and is accessible to students


Convenes class/appointments regularly and on time


Treats students, faculty and staff with dignity and respect




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Maintains professional standards according to the position held



Contributes academically to the discipline/department/district


Participates in special assignments, committees, projects, research and development
areas as needed in the discipline/department/district


Shares in faculty responsibilities and college governance such as Academic Senate




 Summary Comments:

     It is suggested that the evaluator consider both strengths and suggestions for improvements.

       




 Reviewer’s Signature __________________________________________ Date ____________

 I have received a copy of this report: ______________________________ Date ____________

 *I will submit an addendum to this report: __________________________ Date ____________


 * Addendum must be submitted within ten (10) working days after copy of this report is reviewed and signed.




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Appendix v
                                             PASADENA AREA COMMUNITY COLLEGE DISTRICT
                                           FACULTY SUMMARY EVALUATION REPORT
                                                                                                                                                                                               STATUS
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Temporary _______
                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 Contract _______
                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 Contract _______
                                                                                                                                                                                                        3 Contract _______
                                                                                                                                                                                                        4 Contract _______
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Regular _______ 

 
 
 
 Employee                                                                                                                                           Date

Division (or Department)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                         ______________________________________
Recommendation:                                                                                           Division Dean                                                                                     Date
    Outstanding   Satisfactory            *Improvement                   **Unsatisfactory
                                             Needed



                                                                                                          Assistant Superintendent/Vice President, Instruction                                              Date


*In specific areas
*An unsatisfactory evaluation may cause the denial of a class change or service increment.

I have received a copy of this report                                                                                                                                                                      ____
                                                                                             Employee’s Signature                                                                                        Date



**I will submit an addendum to this report
**Addendum must be submitted with ten (10) working days after copy of this report is reviewed and signed.

White - Human Resources                       Yellow - Assistant Superintendent                                               Pink - Division Dean                              Goldenrod - Employee



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Appendix vi
                                      Pasadena Area Community College District
                           REVIEW OF PROFESSIONAL PERFORMANCE
                                  Teaching Faculty Worksheet
 
Employee________________                             Division_________________________

Evaluator___________________                         Date__________________________

Performance Indicators
Please provide examples and/or comments

    Uses current materials and theories



    Employs multiple teaching approaches when
    applicable

    Uses materials pertinent to the course outline



    Teaches at an appropriate level for the course

    Communicates ideas clearly, concisely, and
    effectively



    Paces classes according to the level and material
    presented



    Maintains student-faculty relationship conducive to
    learning



    Demonstrates sensitivity and flexibility to differing
    student learning styles




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  Stimulates student interest in the material presented



    Tests student performance in fair and valid ways



    Uses class time efficiently



    Provides students with a written explanation of the
    evaluation process, expectations and requirements,
    assignments, course content, relevant dates, and other
    information.



    Clearly communicates desired student learning
    outcomes to students



    Assignments and tests are clearly related to expressed
    student learning outcomes



    Demonstrates flexibility in addressing student needs




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Resources
ACCJC News. ( Spring 2010).
http://www.accjc.org/pdf/ACCJC%20NEWS%20Spring%202010.pdf

Accreditation: Evaluating the Collective Faculty. (1990). Academic Senate for California
Community Colleges Educational Policies Committee
www.asccc.org/Publications/Papers/Downloads/Accred90.doc

Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges. Western Association of Schools
and Colleges (August 2008) Distance Learning Manual.
http://www.accjc.org/pdf/Distance_Learning_Manual_August_2008.pdf

Angelo, T. K., & Cross, K. P. (1993). Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for
college teachers (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Eaton, J. (2002).maintaining a Delicate Balance: Distance Learning, Higher Education
Accreditation and the Politics of Self-Regulation. Washington Council on Education.
http://www.acenet.edu/bookstore/pdf/distributed-learning/distributed-learning-02.pdf

College of the Canyons. (2006). Checklist for Online Instructor Evaluation.

Mandernach, J., Donnelli, E., Dailey, A., & Schulte, M. (2005). A Faculty Evaluation Model for
Online Instructors: Mentoring and Evaluation in the Online Classroom.
http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/fall83/mandernach83.htm

Park University. (2008). Explanation of the Online Instructor Evaluation System (OIES).
http://www.park.edu/assessment/documents/AppendixY-
OnlineInstructorEvaluationSystemOIES_000.pdf

Pasadena City College Manual for Student Conduct, Due Process, and Dispute Resolution,
(rev 2008).

Sederbeg, L. (2003). Rubric for Online Instruction.

Thorpe, S. (2002). Online Student Evaluation of Instruction
http://www.airweb.org/forum02/550.pdf

Tobin, T. (2005). Best Practices for Administrative Evaluation of Online Faculty.
http://www.westga.edy/%7Edistance/ojdla/summer72/tobin72.html

U. S. Department of Education. Office of Post Secondary Education. (2006). Evidence of
Quality in DE Programs Drawn from Interviews with the Accreditation Community.
http://www.ysu.edu/accreditation/Resources/Accreditation-Evidence-of-Quality-in-DE-
Programs.pdf


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Walton, I., James-Hanz, P., North, W., & Pilati, M. (1999). Effective Instructor-Student
Contact in Distance Learning.
http://www.asccc.org/Publications/Papers/Downloads/PDFs/Educational_Technology.pdf

Walton, I., James-Hanz, P., North, W., & Pilati, M. (2008). Ensuring the Appropriate use of
Educational Technology: An Update for Local Academic Senates.
http://www.asccc.org/Publications/Papers/Education_Technology.htm




 




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Distance Education Support Services
A. Institutional Support Services

Rationale
The success of a quality distance education program is dependent upon committed
institutional support services. In planning and implementing a distance education
program, the college must support an equivalence (provided for both face-to-face and
distance students) of academic content and integrity, as well as student and faculty
support services. (Walton et al., 2008 p. 12) In Distance Education Recommendation
101: Recommendation for Inclusion of Distance Education in the Mission Statement of
the College, the Distance Education Committee recommended, and the Academic
Senate concurred, that

       … Pasadena City College commit to planning ad implementing a distance
       education program with policies and procedures in place, so that faculty and staff
       can offer equivalent academic content and student services within an appropriate
       college support structure with ongoing oversight.

With distance education as an integral part of the institution’s mission and goals, initial
and ongoing implementation and support of distance education must be a significant
part of periodic institutional educational and facilities master plans, program review,
planning and budgeting. Furthermore,

       Since the purpose of this approach is to produce a lasting and effective impact
       on educational programs, the local academic senate should be heavily involved
       in all of these conversations as part of their collegial consultation on educational
       program development as a governance issue. (Walton et al., 2008, p.12)

                                  ***********************

Recommendations

The Distance Education Committee has three recommendations regarding Distance
Education Support Services.


    1. The Distance Education Committee recommends that the institution
       provide:

       a. A separate, centralized, distance education department/division with a full-
          time manager with a background in distance education, who is responsible for
          coordinating, implementing, and overseeing major support services for
          students and faculty




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          A good practice is for reviewers to look at the qualifications of the
          educational director (including experience with distance education) and for
          evidence of student success in the programs the director has overseen.
          (U.S. Department of Education 2006, p. 6)

      b. A stable, password protected learning management system with faculty and
         student 24/7 technical help support
      c. A technical support Warning System (i.e. like “Big Brother”)
      d. Resources (budget and staffing) to implement distance education policies and
         procedures
      e. Scheduled evaluation of distance learning (instructor, course and program, as
         well as educational effectiveness) using data collection and outcomes
         assessments
      f. Appropriate levels of training and/or training materials related to the use of
         distance education technologies
      g. A technology lending program that is convenient, flexible, and an effective
         means of supplying necessary hardware and software to qualified distance
         education faculty
      h. Distance education student access to key administrative and support
         services, including registration and enrollment, assessment, financial aid,
         advising and counseling, scholarships, book store, disability support, health
         services.
      i. A course coding system (as recommended in Distance Education
         Recommendation 103: Distance Education Delivery Modalities Proposal to
         Revise) that clearly flags specific courses as distance education courses in all
         published and e-delivered schedules of course offerings. Furthermore, all
         distance education “required” on-campus meetings such as orientations,
         meetings and assessments must be coordinated with the face-to-face
         schedule of classes to avoid time conflicts for students.
      j. Cultural, gender-neutral, and socio-economically equitable and adequate
         access to distance learning


B. Faculty Support Services

Rationale
In its report identifying crucial distance education accrediting standards as developed by
twelve accrediting organizations, including WASC, the U.S. Department of Education,
Office of Postsecondary Education (March 2006) indicates that faculty support,
especially in ensuring quality in distance education, is “a critical component.”

Reviewers were united in their conviction that an institution needs to approach distance
education in a systemic manner, which includes providing a range of faculty support
services. Among the areas of faculty support that accrediting bodies look for are:




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      1. Extent and frequency of provided training. Good training is broader than
         software training. It addresses distance education pedagogy, with specific
         emphasis on instructional strategies to foster interaction, to convey concepts,
         and to assess student learning. It also provides guidance to a faculty
         member on how to translate an onsite course to the distance delivery mode
         being used in order to achieve specific learning outcomes.
      2. Responsible organizational unit for providing training and on-going
         support. Providing faculty access to specialized resources and technical
         support for course development and delivery is also a sign of a quality
         distance education initiative.
      3. Faculty resources faculty and satisfaction with support the institution
         provides
      4. Availability of instructional designer during course development and of
         personnel who are able to resolve technical problems that arise during
         delivery
      5. Adjunct faculty training and support comparable to that provided the
         regular faculty in order to achieve some consistency in the quality of
         instruction. Additionally, adjunct faculty needs to be integrated into the culture
         of the institution. It is good practice for reviewers to interview some adjunct
         faculty members to determine the kind of training and support they receive
         and their sense of engagement with the institution. Additional evidence of
         adjunct faculty integration includes their participation in faculty meetings,
         service on faculty committees, involvement in discussion forums, and
         selection as mentors to new faculty. (U.S. Department of Education. 2006, pp.
         8-9)

WASC Red Flags
    • Comments from faculty indicate that they have directly translated their
       traditional course to a distance education course. This may indicate
       inadequate consideration of distance education pedagogy.
    • Courses are all very much alike, indicating a “cookie cutter” approach to
       course development.
    • Faculty are given primary responsibility for resolving technical issues for
       students or are required to produce their own courses (upload materials, find
       or design graphics, etc). This may indicate that the support structure for
       distance education is lacking.
    • A number of faculty engage in distance education course development and
       delivery, while carrying a full-time teaching load. This may be a sign that the
       institution is not building the appropriate systems to sustain a growing
       distance education initiative.
    • Student evaluations of sections of courses taught by adjunct and regular
       faculty show wide variation between the two.

The Academic Senate for California Community Colleges (2000) emphasizes the
importance of equipment and training as part of distance education faculty support
services:


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      To provide effective instructional use of technology, colleges must provide
      adequate training and support for faculty and timely support and repair for
      equipment. This can be addressed in a variety of arenas, such as the college
      technology plan, staff development plan and instructional equipment process.

      Tom Tyner’s, “Guidelines for Negotiating Distance Education Issues,” suggests
      possible contract language regarding training and support of faculty:

          •   Technical support will be provided for instructors of all distance education
              courses, including technicians both on site and at distance sites of
              interactive courses, freeing instructors to teach most effectively.
          •   No faculty shall be assigned to teach a distance learning course that
              involves learning new technologies without the opportunity to be trained in
              those technologies. Faculty willingness to teach these courses shall be
              considered but program need will to be given higher priority.
          •   No faculty member shall be assigned to teach a distance learning course
              using new technologies without adequate prior opportunity to prepare
              materials required to use those technologies.
          •   Faculty members assigned to teach a distance learning course will receive
              appropriate clerical, logistical, instructional, and technical support.

      The California Federation of Teachers’ “Framework for Contract Negotiations
      Related to Instructional Technology Issues,” makes the following
      recommendations on equipment, support and training:

              1. Equipment: When equipment is required for classes, it is desirable
                 that there be sufficient equipment to accommodate the students
                 assigned thereto. The Board and the District are committed to seek
                 funding to provide for the replacement of obsolete equipment,
                 recognizing the necessity for maintaining an adequate inventory of
                 technologically current equipment.
              2. Support: Faculty who participate in Distance Learning courses shall
                 be provided logistical, instructional, and technical support. In the event
                 of system failure, the instructor will not be obligated for additional
                 instructional hours beyond the regular schedule. Prior to
                 implementation of the Distance Education program logistical
                 procedures will be addressed and mutually agreed upon.
              3. Training: Faculty who agree to participate in Distance Learning
                 courses shall receive appropriate training paid for by the District.
                 Additional training shall be offered where feasible as determined by the
                 District at the request of the bargaining unit member.

The Sloan Consortium Report to the Nation: Five Pillars of Quality Online Education
reports providing adequate faculty support is perhaps best exemplified at the Monroe
Community College in Rochester, New York.


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The Monroe Model is:

      a team effort that effectively responds to the need for online faculty support at
      multiple levels…academics, training, instruction, the library, technology, and
      student services. [By] providing multi-faceted support, faculty can devote less
      time to administration and more time to the development and delivery of their
      courses and interaction with learners. (Lorenzo and Moore, 2002, pp. 4-5).




      Source: http://www.missouristate.edu/assets/provost/Inst-Support-Faculty-Satisfaction-MFetzner_13.pdf

The 2003 Sloan Consortium Elements of Quality Online Education concurs and
elaborates:
      A support team helps faculty concentrate on teaching and provides help for
      managing large discussions and providing timely feedback. The team is designed
      to emulate the structure of an online problem solving community - “team-based,
      collaborative, comprehensive, action-oriented and non-hierarchical in nature.”
      (Bourne and Moore, 2003, p. 8).

    2. The Distance Education Committee recommends that faculty support
       services consist of:

      a. Administrative support
      b. Pedagogical and instructional design services (i.e. a course development
         team) to ensure sound planning and best practices in distance education
         courses
      c. Mentoring program for instructors new to distance education

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     d. Ongoing training workshops
     e. Training certification in facilitating online pedagogy
        (See Distance Education Recommendation 106: Distance Education
        Pedagogical Readiness for Faculty)
     f. Training certification in distance education technology literacy
        (See Distance Education Recommendation 104: Distance Education
        Technology Literacy and Readiness for Faculty)
     g. Incentives to participate in distance education course development training
        opportunities and technical training
     h. Assistance interpreting current copyright law regarding all aspects of distance
        education
     i. Assistance designing distance education courses that are ADA accessible


C. Student Support Services

Rationale
Students who are not prepared for the online environment can have a negative impact
on other students and the instructor in the online classroom (Fink, 2002). As indicated in
the literature, students with support systems such as online tutoring, online counseling,
and online study groups are more likely to succeed in their ODL [online distance
learning] classes (Mason & Weller, 2000; McLoughlin, 1999; Myers, 2001; Myers &
Ostash, 2001; Savrock, 2001 in Levy, 2003).

The Sloan Consortium Report to the Nation: Five Pillars of Quality Online Education
describes students as consumers.

        Online learners, like customers, are satisfied when they receive responsive,
        timely, and personalized services and support. Academic and administrative
        support services (admissions, registration, career advice, tutoring, academic
        advising, library, etc.) are all key factors that impact student satisfaction.
        (Lorenzo and Moore, 2002, pp. 4-5).

In its report identifying crucial distance education accrediting standards as developed by
twelve accrediting organizations, including WASC, the U.S. Department of Education,
Office of Postsecondary Education (March 2006) indicates that student support,
especially in ensuring quality in distance education, is “a critical component.”

Reviewers were united in their conviction that an institution needs to approach distance
education in a systemic manner, which includes providing a range of student support
services. Among the areas of student support that accrediting evaluators look for are:

    •   A self-assessment of student skills and aptitude for distance learning that
        indicates that the institution is attempting to enroll students with the appropriate
        characteristics in their distance education programs
    •   A distance education orientation program, or primer that gives prospective
        students an idea of how they will fare in a distance education course


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    •   A website that serves prospective distance education students and that includes
        a thorough description of how the courses will be offered, how students will get
        textbooks and other materials, the kinds of equipment needed (which may
        include an online equipment check), any requirements for on-campus
        orientations, assignments or assessments, and a way to contact an advisor
    •   Technology support services that are sufficient and include specific standards for
        response time to problem reports and data on actual response times ad problem
        resolution, combined with student survey or interview data showing satisfaction.
        Technical support should be available during some evening and weekend hours
        and provision for dealing with an emergency situation.
    •   Means to communicate with students if a technical problem, such as a network
        outage will affect them
    •   Faculty provide information to students (for example in the syllabus) about the
        timeframe in which they will respond to questions and assignments.
    •   Information is provided to distance education students on how to contact an
        academic advisor from a distance--– by email, phone, fax or online chat
    •   The online library site provides information and training on how to use resources,
        and there is access to a librarian by email, phone, fax, or online chat
    •   Evidence that students use online services, in the form of statistics on the
        number of webpage hits or database searches (U.S. Department of Education
        Office of Postsecondary Education, 2006, p. 10, 11).

WASC Red flags
  • An institution that offers full programs by distance education, with no onsite
    components, requires students to come to campus for some student services
  • The distance education office is responsible for providing all services to students,
    rather than having services provided by specialized staff. This could indicate a
    lack of institutional commitment to distance education students.
  • The student grievance process requires face-to-face meetings.
  • Students don’t know whom to contact if they have questions or problems.
    (U.S. Department of Education. 2006, pp. 10-11)

    3. The Distance Education Committee recommends that student support
       services consist of:

        a. Access to information and training regarding technologies used in a course
           before the start of a course (i.e. Online Learning Readiness Assessment on
           the Pasadena City College Distance Education website.)
        b. Minimal student study and technological skill requirements for a distance
           education course before the start of the course
        c. A comprehensive course syllabus supplied before the start of the course (See
           Distance Education Recommendation 112: Distance Education Course
           Quality Rubric)


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     d. Advance notice of all required synchronous (real time) activities as well as
        their dates and times before the start of the course
     e. 24/7 technical support available prior to the start of the course and continuing
        through the duration of the course

      f. A defined student grievance process (See Distance Education
         Recommendation 115: Student Course Feedback Survey and Student
         Grievance Process)
      g. Adequate online access to key administrative and support services, including
         registration and enrollment, assessment, financial aid, advising and
         counseling, scholarships, book store, disability support, health services.




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References

Academic Senate for California Community Colleges. 2002. A Summary of Practical
Policy and Workload Language. Adopted Spring 2000, in Technology in Education: A
Collection of Academic Senate Papers on Technology, 1995-2000. Second Edition.
http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfp
b=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED445711&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_
0=no&accno=ED445711

Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges, Western Association of
Schools and Colleges (August 2008). Accreditation Reference Handbook: Policy on
Distance Learning, Including Electronically Mediated Learning. (2008).
http://www.accjc.org/pdf/Accreditation_Reference_Manual_August_2008.pdf

Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges, Western Association of
Schools and Colleges (August 2008). Distance Learning Manual. Accessed 10/5/09.
http://www.accjc.org/pdf/Distance_Learning_Manual_August_2008.pdf

Bourne, J. and Moore, J. (2003). Elements of Quality Online Education
Practice and Direction.
http://sloanconsortium.org/publications/books/eqoe4summary.pdf

Fetzner, M. (2003). Institutional Support for Online Faculty: Expanding the Model.
http://www.missouristate.edu/assets/provost/Inst-Support-Faculty-Satisfaction-
MFetzner_13.pdf

Fink, M. L. (2002). Rethinking faculty support services. Syllabus: New Directions in
Education Technology, 15(7), 27-29.

Institution of Higher Education Policy. Quality on the Line: Benchmarks for Success in
Internet-Based Distance Education (April 2000).
http://www.abanet.org/legaled/distanceeducation/QualityOnTheLine.pdf

James-Hanz, Pat. (2004) Quality Online Programs Begin with You! Learning By
Distance, California Community Colleges Academic Senate Curriculum Institute, July
15-17, 2004. http://www.asccc.org/Events/Curriculum/Curric2004.htm

Levy, S. (2003). Six Factors to Consider when Planning Online Distance Learning
Programs in Higher Education Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration,
Volume VI, Number I, Spring 2003
http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/spring61/levy61.htm

Lorenzo, G. and Moore, J. (2002). Sloan Consortium Report to the Nation: Five Pillars
of Quality Online Education.
http://sloanconsortium.org/publications/books/pillarreport1.pdf




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Southern Regional Education Board. Electronic Campus Initiatives. Principles of Good
Practice (2006-2007).
http://www.ecinitiatives.org/publications/principles.asp

University of Alaska. Recommended Quality Standards for Distance Education (2002).
www.distance.uaf.edu/steeringboard/docs/UAA_quality_standards.doc

U.S. Department of Education Office of Postsecondary Education. (2006). Evidence of
Quality in Distance Education Programs Drawn from Interviews with the Accreditation
Community.
http://www.ysu.edu/accreditation/Resources/Accreditation-Evidence-of-Quality-in-DE-
Programs.pdf

University of Alaska. Distance Education Steering Board. Recommended Quality
Standards for UAA Distance Education Courses: Standards for Faculty Support
Services (2006).
www.distance.uaf.edu/steeringboard/docs/UAA_quality_standards.doc

Walton, I., James-Hanz, P., North, W., Pilati, M. (2008). Ensuring the Appropriate Use
of Educational Technology: An Update for Local Academic Senates. Accessed 5/13/09.
http://www.asccc.org/Publications/Papers/Education_Technology.htm




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                                Distance Education Website

Distance Education Recommendation 101: Inclusion of Distance Education in the Mission
Statement of the College (November 2009) indicates from the outset that the Distance
Education Committee and the Academic Senate support an institutional mission statement
and strategic plan that are explicit in their support for the development of a distance
education program at Pasadena City College. Indeed, the mission of the College is to
facilitate successful student learning “in a variety of instructional modalities.” WASC
emphasizes that the “commitment role and mission” of the institution include addressing the
“specific needs of students for whom electronically delivered courses are intended.”

Rationale:

In its report identifying crucial distance education accrediting standards as developed by
twelve accrediting organizations, including WASC, the U.S. Department of Education, Office
of Postsecondary Education (March 2006) cites the importance of a full range of services that
should be provided to students, including a website that provides a full range of services,
from a student self-assessment of skills and aptitude for distance learning, to the kinds of
equipment and technical skills needed, to the way to contact an advisor. (U.S. Department of
Education, p.10)

Part of the responsibility of the College regarding a distance education program is to plan the

      use of the college web site to enhance [distance education] instruction (perhaps other
      roles). (Walton, I., et al. p. 13).

Concomitantly, adequate technology and support resources must be available to faculty so
that they can carry out their responsibilities to facilitate the offering of programs with
technologically and pedagogically sound distance education courses. A dedicated website is
one element that can begin to systematically provide the institutional support that faculty and
students need to help them succeed.

Pasadena City College has not had a distance education website since 2004. The chair of
the Distance Education Committee established a DE Committee website in 2008 to attempt
to partially fill the lacunae of support and communication.

We have a Blackboard/WebCT- provided login page.
http://pcc.blackboard.com/webct/entryPageIns.dowebct. This login page is not adequate to
support the needs of distance education on this campus. The login page has five links. Three
of the links relate to the importance of students preparing their computer to work efficiently
with online course content, and include the Browser Check, Pop-up Blockers and Java
Security. The View Course List button takes the user to a clickable list of Online Courses
organized by semester and year. From this same View Course List web page, one can click
on five tabs that link to other DE-related web pages:



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     PCC CE 6 Log In
     PCC Login Info
     PCC Student Help
     PCC Online Courses (present page)
     Tools for Success

Information on these web pages may or may not be relevant or up-to-date. (For example we
are currently using CE8, not CE6. And although many of the outside websites are useful
(Netiquette), we need PCC-developed, relevant web material. Many of the links for the
outside websites are dead. Clearly these PCC web pages have not been updated for years.
Furthermore, these pages do not use PCC web page templates nor do they follow PCC
standard design layouts.

The Academic Senate for California Community Colleges has adopted Guidelines on
Minimum Standards for College Technology (2000). The guidelines are specifically keyed to
issues of instructional technology such as hardware, software, training and support and not
administrative uses of technology. “Availability of technology is a student access and equity
issue. Local academic senates should ensure that their technology policies promote the
enhancement of instruction for all students and contribute toward reducing the ‘digital divide.’"
To this end, the ASCCC guidelines emphasize that particularly important is the maintenance
of a full service institutional website that should include a strong distance education
presence.

The front line to access distance education technological and pedagogical information is a
distance education website designed to offer students and instructors entreé to fully
accessible educational resources “anytime, anywhere.” (Chancellor’s Office, California
Community Colleges, Academic Affairs Division, Instructional Programs and Services.
Distance Education Guidelines, (2008) pg. 4 Omnibus Version)

The PCC distance education website should include the following content components:

Faculty
   1) LMS login link and login information
   2) Computer technical requirements
   3) Helpdesk information
   4) Policy and procedure resources
   5) Guidelines, tutorials, and training support
   6) Staff development opportunities
   7) Sample online course
   8) Turnitin.com information
   9) DE open discussion board
   10) FAQs

Student
   1) LMS login link and login information
   2) Computer technical requirements
   3) Helpdesk information
   4) Schedule of courses
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   5) Guidelines and tutorials
   6) Student Conduct and Academic Honest Policy
   7) Turnitin.com information
   8) Student Academic Services
          • Registration information and link
          • Online counseling
          • Disabled Students Program and Services
          • Library
          • Assessment Services
          • Bookstore
   9) Sample online course
   10) Student readiness assessment
   11) Accessibility information
   12) Financial aid link
   13) FAQs

                                     **********************
Recommendation

In consideration of the commitment and mission of the College to offer a high quality distance
education program supporting student success, the Distance Education Committee
recommends

    1. A full service, accessible, distance education website be established for instructors,
       staff, and students of this campus.
    2. The distance education website will be consistently updated and maintained on a
       weekly basis by a qualified member of the Office of Academic Support in consultation
       with the Vice President of Instruction and the college web producer (webmaster).




Update:
A PCC distance education website was created by Pat Rees and Sandra Haynes with input
from Carole Robinson, Regina Fernandez and Krista Goguen. It will launch fall semester
2010.
http://www.pasadena.edu/distance/




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References

Academic Senate for California Community Colleges (2000). Guidelines on Minimum
Standards for College Technology.
http://www.asccc.org/Publications/Papers/Guidelines_minimum_standards.html

Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges, Western Association of Schools
and Colleges (August 2008). Distance Learning Manual. Accessed 10/5/09.
http://www.accjc.org/pdf/Distance_Learning_Manual_August_2008.pdf

Pasadena City College. Mission and Values. Accessed 7/30/10
http://www.pasadena.edu/about/president/philosophy.cfm

U.S. Department of Education Office of Postsecondary Education. (2006). Evidence of
Quality in Distance Education Programs Drawn from Interviews with the Accreditation
Community. Accessed 11/10/09. http://www.ysu.edu/accreditation/Resources/Accreditation-
Evidence-of-Quality-in-DE-Programs.pdf

Walton, I., James-Hanz, P., North, W., Pilati, M. (2008). Ensuring the Appropriate Use of
Educational Technology: An Update for Local Academic Senates. Accessed 5/13/09.
http://www.asccc.org/Publications/Papers/Education_Technology.htm
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 




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Learning Management System (LMS)

The goal of a Learning Management System is to provide high quality teaching and learning
tools that satisfy both current and long term requirements for supporting quality online
instruction, using the most robust and superior technology available.

The Western Association of Schools and Colleges and best practices in distance education
support the use of a common learning management system by all faculty teaching online at
an institution. The U.S. Department of Education Office of Postsecondary Education report,
Evidence of Quality in Distance Education Programs Drawn from Interviews with the
Accreditation Community, states that the “development of a coherent curriculum…. implies
“the use of a common platform (for online courses);” Furthermore, “Use of the same interface
(in online courses) or layout (in print-based courses) lessens confusion for students and is an
indicator of good course design and institutional oversight. In print-based courses, ‘layout’
would encompass the course overview and course objectives, unit objectives, narrative
discussion, learning activities, and review questions. For online courses, the use of the same
course management system will result in a common interface and basic course structure.”
http://www.ysu.edu/accreditation/Resources/Accreditation-Evidence-of-Quality-in-DE-
Programs.pdf     

Best practices, such as the use of a common platform, can lead to greater student success.
 
Background: The current PCC Learning Management System, Blackboard/WebCT8, will be
supported by the vendor until Fall 2012. At that time, we will have to move to another LMS. If
we stay with the Blackboard LMS, we will need to migrate to a Blackboard 9 version that is
quite different from the old WebCT interface we are presently using. The migration will
involve re-training and movement of courses to the new platform. Should we stay with
Blackboard or engage another LMS to deliver online, hybrid and web-enhanced courses?

The San Diego Community College District recently (2009-2010) conducted a study and
evaluation of their present learning management system, which is also soon to be phased
out, (Blackboard Vista) comparing the offerings of software vendors with the strategic needs
of the District. Andrea Henne, EdD (ahenne@sdccd.edu), Dean, Online & Distributed
Learning Instructional Services, Planning & Technology at SDCCD shared the strategy for
choosing a new LMS at a recent Online Teaching Conference in San Diego (June 17, 2010),
sponsored by CETC and CUE. http://otc10.org/ Such a study should be conducted at least a
year prior to any change in LMS.

The following strategy is based on the SDCCD planning process for choosing a new LMS.




I. LMS EVALUTION CRITERIA


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    1. Experience, Skill and Reliability
         The LMS platform and the vendor must have the ability to provide the required
         services with demonstrated experience in similar distance education programs.
         The LMS vendor must have a history of stability and reliable service.

    2. Tools and Features
         The functionality of the MS must meet faculty needs and be intuitive for students.
         Tools must reflect best practices for instructional design, with a pedagogically-
         sound model including learning modules, interactivity and communication
         elements, and a robust assessment tool with strong gradebook.
         Additional questions that should be asked are, what SCORM Standard does the
         LMS use, what technologies are additionally required (Java) and will the system be
         easily integrated with the PCC student information system?

    3. Migration of Current LMS Courses
       The LMS must accommodate the need to efficiently migrate current courses with
       minimal need to rebuild and retrain faculty and students

    4. Licensing Costs
       Whether the choice is to license the software, host the LMS or be hosted, there are
       benefits and drawbacks. The licensing fees must be cost-effective and within existing
       budgetary constraints.

    5. Support Services must include
         • Accessibility for ADA Compliance
         • Tracking statistics for enrollment reporting
         • SCORM compliance for e-packs and test banks
         • Course migration support
         • Training materials, context-sensitive help
         • Administrator tools for managing courses

II. STEPS IN STRATEGIC PLANNING PROCESS

   6. Conduct an Online Faculty Needs Assessment Survey
To assure openness in the process, and buy-in, distance education faculty must be asked to
participate in a strategic review and planning effort to reach consensus about the future
choice of a learning management system for Pasadena City College.

In order to collect as much input as possible from distance education faculty about what tools
are most important in a course management system, an Online Faculty Needs Assessment
Survey is used to learn about must-haves as well as a wish list of tools and features desired
in a course management system. Faculty ranks the importance of LMS tools on a scale of 1-
10, with 10 being the highest importance. The top-ranked tools will help direct the choice of a
LMS. Here is the Online Faculty Needs Assessment Survey of CMS Tools and Features
used by SDCCD:

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      http://www.zipsurvey.com/LaunchSurvey.aspx?suid=39766&key=29E96FC6

    7. Organize a series of demonstrations by different LMS vendors
During the course of the academic year, faculty (and other relevant stakeholders) are invited
to attend in-person demonstrations and interactive webinars with a diverse group of LMS
companies, ask questions, and then follow up with hands-on “test drives.” These
demonstrations should be informative, and tailored to our Institutional needs, with vendors
required to answer a number of specific questions. The demonstrations should be followed
up by hands-on, interactive, online faculty experience and review of each vendor’s product
made available with links from the vendor. Collect feedback from stakeholders by posting a
LMS Decision Matrix Survey. The matrix should be available to distance education faculty,
staff, students and administration who have participated in a demonstration, live or archived,
or have hands-on experience.

Here is the LMS System Decision Matrix Survey used by SDCCD:




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   3. Gather pricing and licensing proposals.
The Office of Academic Support will organize a list of LMS pricing and licensing proposals
and make the list available to all stakeholders.

    4. Rank Each LMS on the Evaluation Criteria.
The Learning Management System Decision Matrixes will be evaluated by the designated
members of the Office of Academic Support along with designated members of the DE
Committee, using a web-based decision-matrix survey as the information-collection
instrument:

Here is the LMS System Decision Matrix Summary Form used by SDCCD:




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    5. Create/Review LMS Decision Matrix Survey Comparison and Summary Chart
All stakeholders, e.g., IT leadership, Campus and Faculty Technology Committees, DSPS,
and the Library should meet to review and discuss results.

   6. Advise faculty of leading LMS contender
Solicit additional input and feedback via Faculty Forums. The Faculty Forums will be held for
one hour on four Fridays during the spring semester. The Forums will be conducted via
CCCConfer http://www.cccconfer.org/index1.aspx and set up by the Office of Academic
Support. The Dean of Academic Support and a designated representative of the DE
Committee will coordinate and host the actual online forums. These Forums should be widely
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publicized through the Campus Bulletin, PCC and Distance Education Home Pages, as well
as email so that any final input can be considered and all constituencies feel assured there
has been widespread participation and opportunity to give feedback.

    7. Finalize the Choice of a LMS
The results of the stakeholder evaluations of the LMS options, which include the feedback
from faculty who participated in the review process, review of survey results, and the four
Friday Faculty Forums conducted in the spring should lead to consensus.

   8. Now the Work Starts
Secure funding for all areas of support for the new platform. Work with the Office of
Academic Support, Computing Services and MIS to integrate all related technology including
support, student registration, and enrollment.

Develop a strategic plan for faculty/staff training and migration of courses to the new platform.
As soon as possible, faculty should have access to the chosen LMS via test drives, tutorials,
sandboxes, etc.

                                ************************************

Recommendation:

The Distance Education Committee makes the following recommendations regarding the
choice of a Learning Management System for the campus:

       •   All faculty will be encouraged to use the campus-supported LMS.
       •   The decision regarding the choice of a new LMS will be made by the Academic
           Senate Distance Education Committee and the dean of the Office of Academic
           Support, in consultation with other college stakeholders.
       •   The strategy for choosing a new LMS will closely parallel the 2009/10 planning
           process used by the San Diego Community College District.
       •   The Learning Management System must meet the needs of faculty and students
           and be accessible for ADA Compliance.
       •   Ample training and course migration support will be provided.
       •   Faculty and student technical support will be reliable and ongoing.




Resources


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California Educational Technology Consortium, Computer Using Educators. Online Teaching
Conference June 16, 17, 18, 2010. San Diego City College, CA. http://otc10.org/

Chickering, A. & Gamson, Z. (1987). Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate
Education.
http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/7princip.htm 
Henne. A. Email from Author re: CMS Information Sessions, 28 June 2010.

Henne. A. So You’re Thinking About Changing Your Course Management System? Online
Teaching Conference June 16, 17, 18, 2010. San Diego City College, CA.
http://otc10.org/TopNav/Presentations.html

San Diego Community College District. Online Learning Pathways. Course Management
System (CMS) Needs Assessment and Evaluation. Accessed June 17, 2010
http://www.sdccdonline.net/faculty/CMS_Needs_Assessment_and_Review.pdf

U.S. Department of Education Office of Postsecondary Education. (2006). Evidence of
Quality in Distance Education Programs Drawn from Interviews with the Accreditation
Community. http://www.ysu.edu/accreditation/Resources/Accreditation-Evidence-of-Quality-
in-DE-Programs.pdf

Walton, I., James-Hanz, P., North, W., & Pilati, M. (2008). Ensuring the Appropriate Use of
Educational Technology: An Update for Local Academic Senates.
http://www.asccc.org/Publications/Papers/Education_Technology.htm

WCET eduTools. Course Management System Comparisons – Reborn. Accessed June 24
2010. http://www.edutools.info/static.jsp?pj=4&page=HOME




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