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Parc national Kuururjuaq

VIEWS: 23 PAGES: 29

									       Parc national Kuururjuaq
                        Expedition Planning Guide

                                             Mai 2010




Expedition Planning Guide – Parc national Kuururjuaq    1
Last updated on May 27 th 2010
1    Introduction..................................................................................................... 4
2    Nunavik........................................................................................................... 5
3    Parc national Kuururjuaq ................................................................................ 6
4    How to get there ............................................................................................. 7
    4.1      From Southern Québec to Kuujjuaq....................................................................................................... 7
    4.2      From Kuujjuaq to Kangiqsualujjuaq ....................................................................................................... 7
    4.3      From Kuujjuaq to the park ...................................................................................................................... 7
5    Maps and coordinates .................................................................................... 7
    5.1      Topographic maps .................................................................................................................................. 7
    5.2      Coordinates of the main sectors of interest ........................................................................................... 8
6    Infrastructure .................................................................................................. 8
7    Recommended travel periods......................................................................... 8
8    Registration and checkout .............................................................................. 9
    8.1      Prior to an expedition in the park............................................................................................................ 9
    8.2      Registration Torngat Mountains National Park of Canada ................................................................... 9
    8.3      On exiting the park .................................................................................................................................. 9
9    Sectors of interest......................................................................................... 10
    9.1      Torngat Mountains to the confluence of the Koroc and Palmer rivers ............................................... 10
    9.2      Confluence of the Koroc and Palmer rivers to Narsaaluk Creek........................................................ 10
    9.3      Narsaaluk Creek to Ungava Bay .......................................................................................................... 10
    9.4      Plateau................................................................................................................................................... 10
10        Activities ..................................................................................................... 11
    10.1       Valley trekking ..................................................................................................................................... 11
    10.2       Mountain trekking................................................................................................................................ 11
    10.3       Camping .............................................................................................................................................. 11
    10.4       River travel .......................................................................................................................................... 12
    10.5       Backcountry skiing .............................................................................................................................. 12
    10.6       Fishing ................................................................................................................................................. 12
11        Climatological data ..................................................................................... 12
    11.1       Average, high and low air temperatures ............................................................................................ 13
    11.2       Winds: direction, speed and wind chill ............................................................................................... 13
    11.3       Sunshine and daylight......................................................................................................................... 14
    11.4       Precipitation......................................................................................................................................... 15
    11.5       Freeze-up and Ice Break-up............................................................................................................... 15
12        Level of difficulty ......................................................................................... 16
    12.1       Physical health .................................................................................................................................... 16
    12.2       Psychological health ........................................................................................................................... 16
    12.3       Technical skills .................................................................................................................................... 16
13        Land users.................................................................................................. 16
14        Village services and accommodations........................................................ 17
    14.1       Languages spoken.............................................................................................................................. 17
    14.2       Kuujjuaq............................................................................................................................................... 17
    14.3       Kangiqsualujjuaq................................................................................................................................. 17
15        Park activities – inherent risks and dangers ............................................. 18
    15.1       Temperature, frostbite and hypothermia............................................................................................ 18
    15.2       Winds, blizzards and fog..................................................................................................................... 18
    15.3       Avalanches and rockslides ................................................................................................................. 18
    15.4       Flash flooding ...................................................................................................................................... 19
    15.5       Wildlife ................................................................................................................................................. 19
    15.6       Directions............................................................................................................................................. 19
    15.7       Stream crossings ................................................................................................................................ 20
    15.8       Terrain.................................................................................................................................................. 20
    15.9       Poisonous plants and insects, and biting insects.............................................................................. 20
    15.10       Water quality and hydration.............................................................................................................. 20
16        Required equipment ................................................................................... 20
Expedition Planning Guide – Parc national Kuururjuaq                                                                                                                      2
Last updated on May 27 th 2010
17    Communications ......................................................................................... 22
  17.1    Satellite telephones............................................................................................................................. 22
  17.2    Personal signalling devices (SPOT) .................................................................................................. 22
  17.3    Personal locator beacons ................................................................................................................... 22
  17.4    Distress flares...................................................................................................................................... 22
18    Safety, INSURANCE, search and rescue ................................................... 23
19    Park rules .................................................................................................. 23
20    Conservation policy ................................................................................... 24
  20.1    Principle 1: Plan ahead and prepare for your expedition.................................................................. 25
  20.2    Principle 2: Carry out your activities at designated sites .................................................................. 25
  20.3    Principle 3: Dispose of waste properly............................................................................................... 25
  20.4    Principle 4: Leave what you find......................................................................................................... 25
  20.5    Principle 5: Campfires......................................................................................................................... 26
  20.6    Principle 6: Respect nature ................................................................................................................ 26
  20.7    Principle 7: Be considerate of others ................................................................................................. 26
21    Useful numbers and links ........................................................................ 26
22    Bibliography................................................................................................ 29




Expedition Planning Guide – Parc national Kuururjuaq                                                                                                            3
Last updated on May 27 th 2010
   1 INTRODUCTION




                       Hello and welcome to Parc national Kuururjuaq !

This guide was designed for anyone planning a visit to the park. Its goal is to help
visitors with their preparations so that their expedition may be both safe and memorable.
Due to the park’s remoteness, variable weather conditions, and longer emergency
service response times, visitors must be well informed of the risks and dangers
regarding activities in the park.

Covering a total area of 4,460.8 km2, the park extends from Ungava Bay to the summits
of the Torngat Mountains. The Koroc River and Mount D’Iberville (Mount Caubvick) are
the main attractions of this magnificent region. Reaching a height of 1,646 m, Mount
D’Iberville towers above the area. Parc national Kuururjuaq is situated next to Torngat
Mountains National Park which is operated by Parks Canada.

Parc national Kuururjuaq teems with life and has been occupied for thousands of years
by the Inuit of the region. Still today, the Koroc River valley serves as a route between
Ungava Bay and the Labrador Sea. Numerous archaeological sites are located along the
banks of the river. Your dealings with Kangiqsualujjuamiut!the residents of
Kangiqsualujjuaq!will inevitably reveal their close relationship with this exceptional
area.

For the sake of conciseness, important references and telephone numbers are compiled
in Section 21, Useful Numbers and Links.




Expedition Planning Guide – Parc national Kuururjuaq                                   4
Last updated on May 27 th 2010
   2 NUNAVIK




                                                       Park




Expedition Planning Guide – Parc national Kuururjuaq          5
Last updated on May 27 th 2010
   3 PARC NATIONAL KUURURJUAQ




Expedition Planning Guide – Parc national Kuururjuaq   6
Last updated on May 27 th 2010
   4 HOW TO GET THERE

4.1   FROM SOUTHERN QUÉBEC TO KUUJJUAQ

Two airlines fly to Kuujjuaq. Air Inuit flights depart from Montreal and stop at Quebec
City and Schefferville. First Air offers a direct flight to Montreal. Refer to Section 21,
Useful Numbers and Links.


4.2   FROM KUUJJUAQ TO KANGIQSUALUJJUAQ

Air Inuit provides regular connections between Kuujjuaq and Kangiqsualujjuaq via Twin
Otter (maximum 19 passengers).


4.3   FROM KUUJJUAQ TO THE PARK

Charter flights (by Twin Otter or helicopter) are the main method for accessing the park.

A natural landing strip is located in the Mount D’Iberville sector at (N 58 46 20.0 /
W 63 35 11.2).

In winter, alternative methods for accessing the park are dogsledding and snowmobiling.

Finally, the park may be accessed via powerboat. Powerboats can not however travel up
the Koroc River due to the presence of rapids.




   5 MAPS AND COORDINATES

5.1   TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS

Topographic maps (scale of 1/50,000 or 1/250,000) of the park are useful for planning
your itinerary.

The necessary maps are available on the website operated by Natural Resources
Canada.

The map identification numbers for the park and surrounding area are:

Québec: 24I08, 24I09, 24I10, 24I11, 24I12, 24I13, 24I14, 24I15, and 24I16.

Newfoundland and Labrador: 14L05, 14L06, 14L11, 14L12, 14L13, and 14L14.


Expedition Planning Guide – Parc national Kuururjuaq                                        7
Last updated on May 27 th 2010
5.2   COORDINATES OF THE MAIN SECTORS OF INTEREST

Table 1:         Coordinates of the main sectors of interest
                  Sectors                          Latitude north        Longitude west         Elevation
                                                  Degree/minute/second   Degree/minute/second     Metre
Mount D’Iberville                                      58 53 13.1           63 42 44.8            1646
Landing strip, upstream Koroc River                    58 46 20.0           63 35 11.2             266
Confluence: Koroc and Palmer rivers                    58 42 52.7           64 08 18.2             328
Mount Haywood                                          58 35 34.8           64 12 53.7             610
Lake Tasiguluk                                         58 28 50.4           64 04 32.7             533
Korluktok Falls                                        58 36 35.0           64 33 26.8             112
Confluence: Koroc and André-Grenier                    58 36 26.5           64 46 14.0             147
rivers
Conjunction Koroc River and Narsaaluk                  58 43 18.0           65 29 58.9              -
Creek
Ungava Bay                                             58 51 48.8           65 49 17.1              -
Kangiqsualujjuaq*                                      58 42 60.0           65 59 40.0             66
Source: Map Source    * Source: Environment Canada



   6 INFRASTRUCTURE

Currently, the park office is located in a garage-warehouse in Kangiqsualujjuaq. In the
park, no shelters or huts have yet been erected.


   7 RECOMMENDED TRAVEL PERIODS

The following information should help you pick a date for your expedition in the park.
Notwithstanding, you must always be prepared for variable weather conditions.

1) July to mid-September: This is an ideal period to plan an expedition in the park. Be
prepared to encounter many mosquitoes. In September, the contrasting colours of the
landscape are simply magnificent. Be prepared for cold temperatures, snowfall and
strong winds.

2) Mid-September to mid-March: Travel in the park during this period is not
recommended due to the extremely cold temperatures, limited hours of daylight, and the
risk of blizzards.

3) Mid-March to mid-April: This is an ideal period to plan a back-country ski expedition in
the park. Be prepared: temperatures can sometimes be very cold.


Expedition Planning Guide – Parc national Kuururjuaq                                                8
Last updated on May 27 th 2010
4) Mid-April to June: This period is not highly recommended for an expedition in the
park. Due to thawing, the land is extremely wet and water levels high.


     8 REGISTRATION AND CHECKOUT

8.1   PRIOR TO AN EXPEDITION IN THE PARK

1)    Consult this guide.
3)    Frankly assess your physical and psychological health and your skill level in terms
      of your planned activities. Visitors with inadequate experience may be refused
      access to the park.
4)    Fill out and sign the registration form. You will have to provide the following
      information:
        •      personal information (name, address, date of birth);
        •      emergency contact information (names, addresses, telephone numbers);
        •      a summary of your medical history and health problems;
        •      itinerary and expedition plans (date of entry and checkout, means of
               transportation, planned activities, itinerary);
        •      a list of your safety equipment;
        •      a description of your level of preparedness.
 5)     Seriously consider purchasing travel trip insurance for air evacuation, mountain
        and sea rescue.
 6)     Organize your expedition. Park staff are available to assist with your
        preparations.
 7)     At a meeting with park staff, your itinerary and final preparations will be reviewed.

8.2   REGISTRATION TORNGAT MOUNTAINS NATIONAL PARK OF CANADA
If you are planning your trek close to the common limits with Torngat Mountains National
Park, you will need to register to this park too. All visitors must register before entering
Torngat Mountains National Park. Doing so provides information in case of an
emergency situation. You may register by phone, fax, or in-person at the Nain office
(www.pc.gc.ca).


8.3   ON EXITING THE PARK

For your safety, you are asked to inform park staff once you have exited the park.
Among other things, this step will preclude the implementation of unnecessary
emergency measures. It also gives park staff an opportunity to discuss your expedition
with you and to collect your comments. To confirm your departure from the park,
contact the park director in Kuujjuaq at 819-964-2961, extension 2321 or the park
wardens office in Kangiqsuallujuaq at 819-337-5454.
Expedition Planning Guide – Parc national Kuururjuaq                                        9
Last updated on May 27 th 2010
   9 SECTORS OF INTEREST

9.1   TORNGAT MOUNTAINS TO THE CONFLUENCE OF THE KOROC AND PALMER RIVERS

The Torngat Mountains are, in certain respects, the
“Rockies of eastern Canada”. This sector offers unique
landscapes in eastern North America. From the summit
of Mount D’Iberville, the panorama is breathtaking. To
the east, the Labrador Sea is visible. The turquoise and
cobalt colours of the glacier lakes contrast with the grey,
brown and rusty red tones of the surrounding
mountains. Avalanches and rockslides occur on the
steep gradients and have produced scarred slope faces.


9.2   CONFLUENCE OF THE KOROC AND PALMER RIVERS TO NARSAALUK CREEK

The Koroc River presents magnificent landscapes
worked by the passage of glaciers and is a good
challenge for paddlers. Korluktok Falls and some drops
require portaging. The valley of the Koroc River
continues to be highly frequented by the residents of
Kangiqsualujjuaq for their traditional hunting, fishing and
trapping activities, mainly in the area downstream from
Korluktok Falls.


9.3   NARSAALUK CREEK TO UNGAVA BAY

This sector possesses the greatest water cover.
According to the season, various marine mammal
species may be present, such as seal, polar bear and
beluga. This sector is by far the richest in terms of
historical and paleo-historical sites.


9.4   PLATEAU

Extending away on either side of the Koroc River valley,
the plateau sector is fragmented by the valleys of the
tributaries of the Koroc River. The topography is gentle,
vast and regular. The almost complete absence of
significant topography means that there is no shelter
against heavy winds.




Expedition Planning Guide – Parc national Kuururjuaq                  10
Last updated on May 27 th 2010
    10 ACTIVITIES

Visitors may choose to retain the services of a park warden or to conduct their
expeditions independently. In the latter case, visitors must demonstrate that they
possess the experience, skills and equipment necessary for their expedition. Otherwise,
they may be refused access to the park. It should be noted that cutting trees or gathering
deadwood for fires is prohibited.


10.1 VALLEY TREKKING1

Given the low number of visitors and the serious impact that can be caused by repeated
treading along the same paths, trails have not been constructed. Park staff can propose
routes based on your specific interests.


10.2 MOUNTAIN TREKKING

To climb Mount D’Iberville, certain technical skills are required. This sector is also
subject to quickly changing weather conditions. Loose boulders, 200 foot drops and
dangerous rocks when wet are part of the objectives hazards. Mount D’Iberville is a
horn, which is to say a summit where three cirques meet. The climb is relatively easy,
until you reach the summit ridge. From this point on, individuals who are not used to
approaches that require technical climbing, which is to say requiring the use of hands
and ropes, must not try to climb to the summit. Climbing difficulties range from 3YDS2 to
5.6YDS3. If you are planning mountain trekking at Mount D’Iberville, you will need to
register to the two national parks.

10.3 CAMPING

Due to the absence of accommodation infrastructure, camping is unavoidable. Specific
sites have not been identified. Based on your choice of activities and your itinerary, park
staff can make certain recommendations, in particular to help you avoid camping on
archaeological or sacred sites. To promote natural and cultural resource conservation,
no traces of your passage should be left behind.




1
  Trekking is long-distance hiking with a pinch of adventure and exoticism. It is practised in hard-to-access,
mountainous regions and generally lasts more than eight days. Good physical condition and long-distance
hiking experience are prerequisites to trekking. Source: Conseil québécois du loisir, September 2006.
2
  YDS: The Yosemite Decimal System is a system for rating rock climbing difficulty that has been adopted
by the Fédération québécoise de montagne et d’escalade. Source: Conseil québécois du loisir,
September 2006.
Class 3: Technical climb on a gradient that requires the use of hands. A rope may sometimes be used to
reduce the consequences of a fall.
3
  Class 5.6: Free climbing requiring the use of specialized safety equipment and involving rectilinear
movements using various-sized holds.
Expedition Planning Guide – Parc national Kuururjuaq                                                         11
Last updated on May 27 th 2010
10.4 RIVER TRAVEL

A trip down the Koroc River is an excellent way to discover the different areas of the
park. Inflatable kayaks (Sportyak), white-water kayaks or canoes, or rafts are
recommended. Annotated maps (Fédération québécoise du canot et du kayka, FQCK)
will be useful for planning your trip (10-50-00-00). The Guide des parcours canotables
du Québec (FQCK), rates the Koroc River as level 3, including whitewater to level four
rapids. Korluktok Falls and other drops require portaging. The current is considered
average and similar to the Rouge River (04-02-00-00). To date, no other information is
available on the rate of flow of the Koroc. Be aware that the river level may vary from
year to year, season to season and even day to day. Rapids (especially the last one)
and shallow water represent the main obstacles. Many areas along the banks are
appropriate for camping. Refer to Section Useful Numbers and Links, for the contact
information of an operator who organizes expeditions on the Koroc River.


10.5 BACKCOUNTRY SKIING

The end of March and beginning of April offer the best conditions for backcountry skiing.
The area upriver from Mount Haywood is not recommended for skiing due to icy and
abrasive surfaces, high winds and the absence of shelters.


10.6 FISHING

Anyone wishing to practise sport fishing in the park, must possess the permits required
in accordance with the sector and the applicable land regime. The first document
required is a provincial permit issued by the ministère des Ressources naturelles et de la
Faune. This permit allows individuals to fish upstream from Mount Haywood (category III
lands) to the head of the Koroc River in the Torngat Mountains. To fish downstream from
Mount Haywood (category II lands) all the way to Ungava Bay, you must possess a
second permit issued by the Qiniqtiq Landholding Corporation in Kangiqsualujjuaq. Only
on-site consumption of catches is permitted. Ask park staff about other rules and
regulations for fishing in the park.




   11 CLIMATOLOGICAL DATA

The following climatological data is drawn from multiple sources. Given the varied and
rough topography, geographical features have a significant influence on local climate.


Environment Canada presents on its website weather conditions recorded at the airport
in Kangiqsualujjuaq. Saklek weather station, Labrador, can also provide useful
information.

Expedition Planning Guide – Parc national Kuururjuaq                                   12
Last updated on May 27 th 2010
          11.1 AVERAGE,           HIGH AND LOW AIR TEMPERATURES

          The following table is based on data recorded at the weather station in Kuujjuaq.

          Table 2:             Temperatures in Kuujjuaq between 1971 and 2000




                                                                                                  September




                                                                                                                        November



                                                                                                                                   December
                                February




                                                                                                              October
                     January




                                                                                         August
                                           March




                                                                        June
                                                    April



                                                              May




                                                                                 July
Daily average (ºC)    -24.3     -23.6      -18.3     -9.1      0.3        7.2     11.5    10.6        5.6       -0.7       -8.4    -19.3


Daily high (ºC)       -19.7     -18.7      -12.9     -4.1      4.3       12.4     17.1    15.6        9.4        2.2       -4.9    -15.0


Daily low (ºC)        -28.8     -28.4      -23.6    -14.1      -3.8       2.0      5.8      5.6       1.9       -3.6    -11.9      -23.5


Record high (ºC)        5.6         7.8     12.1     14.7      31.1      33.1     32.2    30.3      28.3       18.3         1.2        8.3


Record low (ºC)       -49.8     -43.9      -43.9    -34.1     -24.7      -8.3     -1.6     -1.7      -7.8     -20.0     -31.1      -43.9


          Source: Environment Canada (2004)



          11.2 WINDS: DIRECTION, SPEED AND WIND CHILL

          Winds are stronger in the Torngat Mountains (average speed 24 km/h) compared with
          the Ungava coast (average speed 20 km/h). Wind speed increases with elevation. Wind
          speed can be as much as 20% greater at the top of mountains.

          Data recorded in Kuujjuaq indicate an average wind speed of 18.5 km/h. On an annual
          basis, winds blow most often from the west, southwest and north.

          Average speed, summer:                   between 16 and 21 km/h
          Average speed, winter:                   between 21 and 25 km/h
          Average speed, annual:                   between 21 and 25 km/h
          Average speed, maximum:                  between 88 and 96 km/h
          Source: Office de planification et de développement du Québec (1983)




          In addition, wind chill can have a major impact on the apparent temperature. For
          example, in the Mount D’Iberville sector if the temperature is -35°C and the wind is
          blowing at 24 km/h, the temperature will actually feel more like -50°C.




          Expedition Planning Guide – Parc national Kuururjuaq                                                              13
          Last updated on May 27 th 2010
Table 3:                 Wind chill adjustment for temperatures between 5 and -50°C

 Tair (°C)
                     5      0       -5     -10       -15       -20     -25       -30      -35      -40       -45       -50
 V10 (km/h)
       5             4      -2      -7     -13       -19       -24     -30       -36      -41      -47       -53       -58
       10            3      -3      -9     -15       -21       -27     -33       -39      -45      -51       -57       -63
       15            2      -4     -11     -17       -23       -29     -35       -41      -48      -54       -60       -66
       20            1      -5     -12     -18       -24       -30     -37       -43      -49      -56       -62       -68
       25            1      -6     -12     -19       -25       -32     -38       -44      -51      -57       -64       -70
       30            0      -6     -13     -20       -26       -33     -39       -46      -52      -59       -65       -72
       35            0      -7     -14     -20       -27       -33     -40       -47      -53      -60       -66       -73
       40           -1      -7     -14     -21       -27       -34     -41       -48      -54      -61       -68       -74
       45           -1      -8     -15     -21       -28       -35     -42       -48      -55      -62       -69       -75
       50           -1      -8     -15     -22       -29       -35     -42       -49      -56      -63       -69       -76
       55           -2      -8     -15     -22       -29       -36     -43       -50      -57      -63       -70       -77
       60           -2      -9     -16     -23       -30       -36     -43       -50      -57      -64       -71       -78
       65           -2      -9     -16     -23       -30       -37     -44       -51      -58      -65       -72       -79
       70           -2      -9     -16     -23       -30       -37     -44       -51      -58      -65       -72       -80
       75           -3     -10     -17     -24       -31       -38     -45       -52      -59      -66       -73       -80
       80           -3     -10     -17     -24       -31       -38     -45       -52      -60      -67       -74       -81

Tair = Actual air temperature in °C                   V10 = Wind speed at 10 m in km/h
  1.       For a given combination of temperature and wind speed, the wind chill index corresponds roughly to the temperature
           that an individual would feel. For example, with a wind of 20 km/h and a temperature of -25°C, it would feel to a
           person more like -37°C.
  2.       Wind chill does not affect objects and does not lower the actual temperature. It only describes how a human being
           would feel in the wind at the ambient temperature.
  3.       The wind chill index does not take into account the effect of sunshine. Bright sunshine can reduce the effect of wind
           chill (making the temperature feel warmer) by 6 to 10 units.

                                                           Frostbite Guide
                                              Low risk of frostbite for most people
                          Increasing risk of frostbite for most people within 30 minutes of exposure
                                   High risk for most people in 2 to 5 minutes of exposure
                                   High risk for most people in 2 to 5 minutes of exposure
                                  High risk for most people in 2 minutes of exposure or less
  Source: Environment Canada




11.3 SUNSHINE AND DAYLIGHT
In summer, daylight lasts roughly 18 hours and 32 minutes. In winter, daylight lasts
roughly 6 hours and 9 minutes.


Expedition Planning Guide – Parc national Kuururjuaq                                                                      14
Last updated on May 27 th 2010
         Environment Canada presents on its website sunrise and sunset times at the airport in
         Kangiqsualujjuaq.



         11.4 PRECIPITATION

         Maximum snow accumulation (which may reach 3 to 4 m) tends to occur in valleys,
         depressions and along lee slopes. Wind action also tends to pack snow tightly. It should
         be noted that perennial snow can be found at higher elevations in the plateau and
         mountain sectors of the park.


         Table 4:             Precipitation in Kuujjuaq between 1971 and 2000




                                                                                          September




                                                                                                                November



                                                                                                                           December
                               February




                                                                                                      October
                    January




                                                                                 August
                                          March




                                                                 June
                                                  April



                                                          May




                                                                         July
Rainfall (mm)          0.1         0.6      0.6     2.5   14.8    44.8    59.1    70.0      54.1       25.7         4.7        0.4


Snowfall (cm)        33.7        29.0      31.4    25.3   14.7     6.3     0.1      0.5       7.6      27.5       43.4       37.5


Average snow            38          43       45      40    12       1       0         0           0         2        15        ¨31
cover (cm)
Daily rainfall         5.1         6.0      2.6     9.2   22.6    44.7    56.4    44.5      35.1       25.0       20.2         6.9
high (mm)
Daily snowfall       76.2        29.5      31.0    17.8   20.8    20.6     1.3      9.4     25.7       21.1       27.4       36.6
high (cm)
         Source: Environment Canada (2004)




         11.5 FREEZE-UP AND ICE BREAK-UP

         In the park, the lakes generally freeze up between November 10 and 20, while ice break-
         up occurs between June 10 and 20. Rivers generally freeze up after December 1, while
         ice break-up occurs between May 20 and June 1.


         The eastern coast of Ungava Bay normally freezes up around mid-December (pack ice).
         Break-up begins in mid-July (scattered ice) and ends around mid-August (chance of
         icebergs). Marine navigation is limited to roughly four months of the year (July to
         November).




         Expedition Planning Guide – Parc national Kuururjuaq                                                       15
         Last updated on May 27 th 2010
   12 LEVEL OF DIFFICULTY

12.1 PHYSICAL HEALTH

It is essential to be well prepared for your planned activities. For example, trekking
requires muscular endurance (to negotiate rough terrain, to carry a load) and cardio
respiratory endurance (to climb gradients). River kayaking, canoeing and rafting require
strength and muscular endurance.

12.2 PSYCHOLOGICAL HEALTH

To avoid frustration, flexibility is crucial. Unplanned occurrences (lateness, poor weather,
injury) can have a major impact on an expedition. Patience is moreover needed to deal
with the swarms of biting insects present during the summer months.


12.3 TECHNICAL SKILLS

Be sure to have the experience and technical training necessary for your planned
activities. It is important to be realistic and to accurately assess your true skill level. Keep
in mind that distances and elevation can de deceptive. Do not overestimate your daily
distances as difficult terrain, river crossing, orientation and elevation will considerably
slow your pace.




   13 LAND USERS
                        The park is located on land governed by the James Bay and
                        Northern Québec Agreement (JBNQA). Consequently, Inuit
                        beneficiaries of the JBNQA are entitled to exercise their
                        harvesting right in the park. Specifically, they may carry out
                        traditional hunting, fishing, trapping and gathering activities.
                        However, as regards non-beneficiaries, the provisions of the
Parks Act apply. Among other things, the Act stipulates that hunting and trapping are
prohibited in parks.

For your safety, it is recommended that you wear highly visible clothing.

Table 5:         Hunting, fishing and trapping periods*

                             Fall      Winter    Summer    Spring             Sectors
Caribou                       X          X         X         X        Ungava Bay, valleys and
                                                                      plateau
Polar bear                    X          X                   X        Ungava Bay and valleys
Black bear                    X                        X     X        Ungava Bay and valleys
Seal                          X          X             X     X        Ungava Bay

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Last updated on May 27 th 2010
Fish                          X          X             X       X        Ungava Bay and Koroc
                                                                        River to Korluktok Falls
Fox                           X          X             X       X        Valleys
Ptarmigan and grouse          X          X             X       X        Ungava Bay and valleys
Duck, goose                   X                        X       X        Ungava Bay
* Seasons are indicated for information purposes only. JBNQA beneficiaries may exercise their
harvesting right at any time.



   14 VILLAGE SERVICES AND ACCOMMODATIONS


14.1 LANGUAGES SPOKEN

Although Inuktitut, French and English are all spoken, English is the language most
commonly used for communication in Kangiqsualujjuaq. Park staff speak Inuktitut and
English, and sometimes French.


14.2 KUUJJUAQ

There are two general stores at Kuujjuaq that sell food and a small selection of
hardware: Northern and Newviq’vi.


For last-minute purchases, including items that cannot be transported by aircraft from
southern Québec, Kuujjuaq has the greatest selection: pepper spray, Bearbanger,
cooking fuel, matches, etc. It is advisable to call ahead to ascertain the availability of
these products. Product selection is more limited than in stores in southern Québec.


There are two hotels at Kuujjuaq offering a similar level of accommodations. The Fort-
Chimo Cooperative Hotel possesses a shared kitchen where guests can prepare their
meals. The Kuujjuaq Inn has an adjoining restaurant, but no shared kitchen.


At Kuujjuaq, there is a health centre, a municipal office, two restaurants, a lounge and a
bar, two arts and crafts stores, two schools, an auditorium, a sports centre and two
police stations (the Kativik Regional Police Force and the Sûreté du Québec).


14.3 KANGIQSUALUJJUAQ

There are two general stores at Kangiqsualujjuaq that sell food and a small selection of
hardware: Northern and the George River Cooperative Store. Selection is limited, so it is
advisable to call ahead to ascertain the availability of the products you need.


Kangiqsualujjuaq is the last place to make purchases since nothing is sold in the park.

Expedition Planning Guide – Parc national Kuururjuaq                                            17
Last updated on May 27 th 2010
The George River Cooperative Hotel provides the only accommodations                      at
Kangiqsualujjuaq. There is no restaurant but there is a shared kitchen.


At Kangiqsualujjuaq, there is also a CLSC, a municipal office, a school and a police
station (Kativik Regional Police Force).


   15 PARK ACTIVITIES – INHERENT RISKS AND DANGERS

Below are explained a few of the main risks and dangers that accompany activities in the
park. The more thorough your preparations, the more pleasant your expedition will be.


15.1 TEMPERATURE, FROSTBITE AND HYPOTHERMIA

Harsh arctic temperatures should not be taken lightly. In January, a temperature of
-50°C with a wind of 20 km/h feels more like -80°C! Refer to Table 3. Frostbite can occur
quickly. Warm, protective clothing is therefore a necessity.

Hypothermia is the extreme loss of body heat. Hypothermia is caused by cold, but it is
aggravated by wet, wind, and exhaustion. Kayakers are particularly susceptible. To
prevent hypothermia, wear a warm hat in cool, damp or windy weather; dress in layers,
take frequent rest stops; and eat frequent, nutritional snacks and drinks. Pay attention to
your body. Remember, there is no natural protection in the open tundra of the mountains
(www.pc.gc.ca).


15.2 WINDS, BLIZZARDS AND FOG

Strong winds have a direct impact on the quality of the equipment you should carry. For
example, clothing that protects from the wind, a burner that operates in extreme
conditions and a tent that is resistant to strong and continuous gusts are recommended.
It is also recommended that you always weigh down your tent with rocks or snow
because the wind in this area is known to pick up suddenly. It is not unusual for strong
winds to blow for several days, and can require visitors to alter their itineraries. In the
mountain area, extremely high winds can be expected any month of the year. Sudden
wind shifts can produce « ghost winds » that barrel down from the peaks at high velocity
and from any direction, catching visitors unaware and unprepared. These winds have
been known to blow people off their feet. (TMNP:2006) In winter, blizzards do occur and
may result in zero visibility. Fog may be experienced near the coast.

15.3 AVALANCHES AND ROCKSLIDES

In certain places, the steep topography results in conditions that can produce
avalanches. Gradients that exceed 25° are at high risk of producing avalanches. Such
gradients are found along edges of the plateau and the Koroc River and in the Torngat
Expedition Planning Guide – Parc national Kuururjuaq                                    18
Last updated on May 27 th 2010
Mountains, as well as along the head of glacial valley slopes and cirques. Concerned
readers should obtain more information on this topic. The Centre d’avalanche de la
Haute-Gaspésie delivers public awareness training and avalanche safety courses.

Rockslides occur where there are breaks in the rock or where small secondary valleys
evacuate abundant precipitation. Such gradients are usually between 15 and 25°.
Exercise care when in the vicinity of steep slopes.

15.4 FLASH FLOODING

A flash flood is a sudden high water level that coincides with significant spring thawing or
heavy rainfall. If you are on the wrong side of a river, you might have to alter your
itinerary. It is also important not to set up camp too close to a stream or river or in a zone
at risk of flooding.


15.5 WILDLIFE

The black bear is the animal most frequently encountered by visitors. Black bears are
well known to be opportunistic. They are most often encountered in valleys and on
mountain slopes, where vegetation is abundant. Black bears can be attracted by smells
and may be defensive if surprised or disturbed. A female with cubs should not be
disturbed.


Although infrequent, encounters with polar bears in the park are possible. The Koroc
River valley is a known travel route used by this predator. This animal poses a serious
threat to humans. For a clearer understanding of bears and information on how to react
in their presence, it is recommended you speak with park staff. DVDs on the topic are
available online.


Wolves and foxes generally tend not to attack humans. Nonetheless, in certain
circumstances, wolves and foxes can be aggressive and may be infected with rabies. It
is recommended that you stay a safe distance away from these animals.


15.6 DIRECTIONS

It is easy to become disoriented in the park due to the large number of valleys and the
expanse of the plateau sector. Sudden fog can make visual orientation impossible.
Whenever moving about, be sure to carry your communications, safety and
navigation equipment. You should also always be prepared to set up an effective
emergency camp. Despite the openness of the plateau sector, it is nonetheless
important that group members always remain in view of one another. A fraction of a
second is more than enough time to lose sight of a partner.



Expedition Planning Guide – Parc national Kuururjuaq                                       19
Last updated on May 27 th 2010
15.7 STREAM CROSSINGS

During your expedition, you will probably be required to
cross streams. It is therefore advisable to pack your
essential equipment in waterproof bags (sleeping bag, warm
clothing, electronics, etc.) Water levels can rise suddenly
due to rain or sunshine and the time of day (spring thawing).
The use of trekking poles and a solid line may be necessary.
Water temperature should be kept in mind to avoid
hypothermia, and the use of neoprene bootees or wool socks and sandals is advisable.
At stream crossings, identify the best crossing point and avoid places where the water
level is above your knees. Crossings should be made facing upstream, first without a
load and then together in close order as a group in case of problems. Loosen all straps
and undo pack buckles. Swimming with a backpack can be dangerous.


15.8 TERRAIN

Outside of the valleys, the terrain is rough, sometimes steep and marked by loose rocks.
Descents may be technically more difficult than climbs. In the plateau sector, rock fields
may be encountered frequently. It is advisable to use trekking poles for balance, as well
as good hiking boots to avoid slipping. The use of new boots should be avoided! Rain,
snow, dampness and especially lichens can make rocks very slippery.


15.9 POISONOUS PLANTS AND INSECTS,              AND BITING INSECTS

In the park, there are no poisonous plants, animals (snakes) or insects. The presence of
biting insects must, however, be taken into consideration by anyone with related
allergies. Mosquitoes, black flies and others thrive during the summer months (June,
July and August) and even in September. Mosquito netting and insect repellent are
strongly recommended.


15.10 WATER QUALITY AND HYDRATION

Water is not a problem in the valley sector. Water may, however, be more difficult to find
in the plateau sector. Despite the remoteness of the park, it is recommended that water
be boiled or treated before consumption; no analysis of water quality has been carried
out. It is important to drink sufficient water every day to avoid dehydration.


   16 REQUIRED EQUIPMENT

The following suggested list of equipment should help you plan your expedition.


Expedition Planning Guide – Parc national Kuururjuaq                                   20
Last updated on May 27 th 2010
Camping                !   Sturdy season-appropriate tent (expedition 3-4 season type, waterproof
                           and resistant to strong winds, nothing less)
                       !   1 bright tarp (orange)
                       !   Headlamp and spare batteries
                       !   Season-appropriate sleeping bag
                       !   Sleeping pad
                       !   1 stove + 1 survival stove (your only source of heat)
                       !   Naphta (melted snow may be your only source of water)
                       !   Water treatment procedure (cold water)
                       !   Food (enough for your expedition plus extra 2-3 days rations; transport
                           your food in sealed packages)
                       !   Cookware
                       !   Matches (in waterproof container) and lighter
Personal               !   Trekking poles
                       !   Good hiking boots
                       !   Waterproof outerwear (jacket and pants)
                       !   Warm clothes
                       !   Weather-resistant bags
                       !   Knife or jack-knife
                       !   Sturdy waterproof containers
                       !   Sunglasses
                       !   Sunscreen
                       !   Insect repellent and mosquito netting
                       !   Gaiters
                       !   Medication
                       !   Candles
                       !   Sturdy rope (at least 15 m long and 5 mm thick)
                       !   Whistle
                       !   Bear bell
Security and          Mandatory:
survival               !   GPS and spare batteries (lithium batteries recommended)
                       !   2 communication devices
                       !   Complete first aid kit
                       !   Map and compass


                      Strongly recommended:
                       !   Satellite telephone
                       !   SPOT messaging device
                       !   Devices to scare away aggressive animals (acoustic device, Bear
                           banger, pepper spray)

Expedition Planning Guide – Parc national Kuururjuaq                                            21
Last updated on May 27 th 2010
                       !   Bear-resistant container
                       !   Distress flares
Repairs                "   Tie wraps
                       "   Duct tape
                       "   Wire
                       "   Needle and thread
                       "   Repair kit (tent, sleeping pad, stove)



   17 COMMUNICATIONS


17.1 SATELLITE TELEPHONES

Although costly to use, satellite telephones permit vocal interaction with emergency
contacts and park staff, allowing specific information about a situation to be shared and
clear actions to be taken. Do not forget that signal strength may be negatively affected
by heavy vegetation or cloud cover or by shadowing produced next to rock cliffs. In this
specific location, Iridium Satellite Phones are known to work better.


17.2 PERSONAL SIGNALLING DEVICES (SPOT)

This GPS messaging device forwards messages via satellite. It does not however allow
others to contact you. SPOT devices can include a variety of functions.


17.3 PERSONAL LOCATOR BEACONS

Personal locator beacons (PLB) 406 MHz are portable units designed for land based
activities such as hiking, camping, climbing and canoeing. PLBs can only be activated
manually. Some newer 406 MHz PLBs include an integrated GPS capability, which
allows GPS position data to be included in the distress signal message.

A PLB must only be activated in a distress situation and only in remote areas where
conventional communication facilities are not available. A distress situation is defined as
an incident where there is grave danger to the safety of human life.


17.4 DISTRESS FLARES

In the event that you need to be rescued, distress flares can be helpful for your would-be
rescuers.




Expedition Planning Guide – Parc national Kuururjuaq                                    22
Last updated on May 27 th 2010
   18 SAFETY, INSURANCE, SEARCH AND RESCUE

You should keep in mind that, in the event of an emergency (broken equipment, medical
care, a lost expedition member, etc.), rescue service response could take some time,
even up to several days. Poor weather conditions, the availability of emergency services
and your location in the park can delay responses. You must be prepared to deal with
such delays.


Park employees are trained and authorized to respond to emergencies. Notwithstanding,
if a required emergency response exceeds employee capacities, the assistance of
external resources will be called on.


For all these reasons, you must be responsible for your own safety and take all
the steps necessary to prepare for these situations.


Visitors are strongly advised to purchase travel trip insurance for air evacuation,
mountain and sea rescue from a remote region, in order to cover the costs of such
operations.


                             IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL

                    PARKS WARDENS KANGIQSUALUJJUAQ OFFICE
                                        (819) 337-5454
                                KANGIQSUALUJJUAQ POLICE:
                                        (819) 337-9111
                      POLICE - KUUJJUAQ EMERGENCY NUMBER:
                                        (819) 964-9111


   19 PARK RULES


The following rules are based on the Parks Regulation:


1) No person who travels, stays or engages in an activity in a park for purposes other
than scientific or management purposes may:


    •   fell, damage, remove or bring in a tree, a shrub, a herbaceous plant or a part
        thereof; however, the picking of edible vegetable products is allowed, except for
        commercial purposes or in a preservation zone or maximum preservation zone;
Expedition Planning Guide – Parc national Kuururjuaq                                  23
Last updated on May 27 th 2010
      •   make fires at places other than those marked for that purpose;
      •   paint, deface or remove rocks or parts thereof, pebbles, fossils or other natural
          formations;
      •   feed animals living in the park;
      •   bring in animals or fish except guide dogs, dogs used to engage in an activity
          offered in the park, to travel across the park or to travel in the park in possession
          of an animal or a fish kept at all times inside a vehicle or a boat, to travel or stay
          in a park or to engage in an activity in the park with a dog kept at all times on a
          leash and only at the places marked for that purpose.
          Notwithstanding the first paragraph, Inuit who engage in an activity for food, ritual
          or social purposes are authorized to fell trees to make fires or to heat a
          temporary camp on the premises.


2) No person may travel in a park, for purposes other than scientific or management
purposes, by off-highway vehicle (snowmobile, motorized all-terrain vehicle).
Notwithstanding, Inuit who engage in an activity for food, ritual or social purposes are
                                                                                4
authorized to travel by snowmobile, except in a maximum preservation zone.

3) The possession of arms or hunting or trapping implements is prohibited in a park.


4) A holder of an authorization to fish shall, after practising his activity, report his activity
at the place provided for that purpose at the reception station by indicating the number of
fish he has caught per day, if any; certain parts of the fish may be taken for study
purposes.



     20 CONSERVATION POLICY


The mission of Québec national parks is to: “ensure the conservation and permanent
protection of areas representative of the natural regions of Québec and of natural sites
with outstanding features, in particular because of their biological diversity, while
providing the public with access to those areas or sites for educational or cross-country
recreation purposes.”


To this end, Nunavik Parks supports the principles of Leave No Trace Canada, as they
have been adapted for national parks in Québec. These principles should guide our
activities so as to leave the great outdoors as unchanged as possible (or even improved)
after our presence.



4
    Park employees may use snowmobiles to rescue people in emergency situation. Because of the long distances
involved, it is also tolerated to use a snowmobile to access the park.
Expedition Planning Guide – Parc national Kuururjuaq                                                      24
Last updated on May 27 th 2010
20.1 PRINCIPLE 1: PLAN AHEAD AND PREPARE FOR YOUR EXPEDITION

    •   Know the regulations applicable in national parks and the special concerns for
        the area you will visit.
    •   Choose an itinerary that is appropriate for all group members.
    •   Prepare for extreme weather, natural hazards and emergencies (adapted
        equipment and clothing, first aid kit, adapted communications tools).
    •   Travel in small groups.
    •   Repackage supplies to minimize waste to be packed out.
    •   Inform others of your itinerary and leave a map of your route.


20.2 PRINCIPLE 2: CARRY OUT YOUR ACTIVITIES AT DESIGNATED SITES
    •   Follow the itinerary submitted to park staff.
    •   Keep your campsite small.
    •   Focus activity in areas where vegetation is absent.


20.3 PRINCIPLE 3: DISPOSE OF WASTE PROPERLY

    •   Pack out all trash, leftover food (biodegradation is very slow in the North!) and
        litter. Before leaving rest areas and campsites, inspect them for trash and leftover
        food. If you see other trash, collect it. Inform park staff of any trash that could not
        be packed out (barrels, etc.).
    •   If no toilets are found nearby:
             • Urinate and have bowel movements at least 50 m (roughly 75 steps) from
               any water;
             • Urinate on mineral surfaces to prevent animals attracted by the salt from
               disturbing vegetation;
             • Deposit human solid waste in catholes dug 15 cm deep. Fill catholes
               when finished and cover with a rock;
             • Pack out toilet paper and feminine hygiene products.
    •   After washing yourself or your dishes, dispose of your wastewater at least 50 m
        (roughly 75 steps) from any water, on a specific spot. Use small amounts of
        biodegradable soap. Place any solid waste in your trash.


20.4 PRINCIPLE 4: LEAVE WHAT YOU FIND
    •   Preserve the past: only touch with your eyes.
    •   Leave rocks, plants and other natural or cultural objects as you find them.
    •   Do not pack in non-indigenous species or pack out indigenous species.

Expedition Planning Guide – Parc national Kuururjuaq                                        25
Last updated on May 27 th 2010
    •   Do not build any structures or objects (i.e. inukshuks).


20.5 PRINCIPLE 5: CAMPFIRES
    •   To protect the fragile vegetation, tree cutting and campfires are prohibited.

20.6 PRINCIPLE 6: RESPECT NATURE
    •   Enjoy vegetation without collecting or trampling it.
    •   Observe wildlife from a distance. Do not follow or approach animals.
    •   Never feed wildlife. Feeding animals damages their health and alters their natural
        behaviour, ultimately jeopardizing their chances of survival.
    •   Protect wildlife, yourself and your food by storing rations and trash in sealed
        containers.


20.7 PRINCIPLE 7: BE CONSIDERATE OF OTHERS
    •   Respect other visitors and protect the quality of their experience.
    •   Let nature’s sounds prevail. Avoid loud voices and noises.
    •   Don’t forget that compliance with the first six principles stems necessarily from
        compliance with this seventh principle.




   21 USEFUL NUMBERS AND LINKS

NATIONAL PARKS

KRG – Nunavik Parks (General information - Kuujjuaq)                           819-964-2961
http://www.nunavikparks.ca/en/

KRG - Parc national des Pingualuit (Kangiqsujuaq)                              819-338-3282
http://www.nunavikparks.ca/en/parks/pingualuit/index.htm

KRG - Parc national Kuururjuaq (Kangiqsualujjuaq)                              819-337-5454
http://www.nunavikparks.ca/en/parks/kuururjuaq/index.htm

Sépaq / Parcs Québec                                                          1-800-665-6527
http://www.sepaq.com/pq/index.dot?language_id=1

Torngat Mountains National Park, Parks Canada (Nain)                           709-458-2417
http://www.pc.gc.ca/eng/pn-np/nl/torngats/index.aspx

Expedition Planning Guide – Parc national Kuururjuaq                                     26
Last updated on May 27 th 2010
Ministère du Développement durable, de l’Environnement et des Parcs
http://www.mddep.gouv.qc.ca/index_en.asp


NUNAVIK

Nunavik Tourism Association                                           1-888-594-3424
http://www.nunavik-tourism.com/default.aspx

Université du Québec à Montréal
www.museevirtuel.ca/Exhibitions/Nunavik/

Others
www.inuktitut.org


AIR TRANSPORTATION

Air Inuit                                                             1-800-361-2965
http://www.airinuit.com/en/index.aspx

First Air                                                             1-800-267-1247
http://www.firstair.ca/

Nunavik Rotors (helicopters)                                           819-964-1185
http://inuit.pail.ca/nunavik-rotors/
ADVENTURE TOURISM

ABV Kayak & Excursions (white-watering on the Koroc River)            1-888-844-5292
http://www.abvkayak.com/



PLANNING
Environment Canada, National Climate Data and Information Archive,
KANGIQSUALUJJUAQ A station
http://climate.weatheroffice.gc.ca/climateData/hourlydata_e.html?timeframe=1&Prov=CA
&StationID=10684&Year=2010&Month=1&Day=17&


Environment Canada, National Climate Data and Information Archive, SAGLEK
NEWFOUNDLAND station
http://climate.weatheroffice.gc.ca/climateData/hourlydata_f.html?timeframe=1&Prov=CA
&StationID=10684&Year=2010&Month=1&Day=17



Expedition Planning Guide – Parc national Kuururjuaq                              27
Last updated on May 27 th 2010
Environment Canada, Daily Weather, Kangiqsualujjuaq
http://www.weatheroffice.gc.ca/city/pages/qc-118_metric_e.html

Natural Resources Canada (topographic maps)
http://ess.nrcan.gc.ca/mapcar/top_e.php
http://geogratis.cgdi.gc.ca/geogratis/en/collection/detail.do;jsessionid=06AA747CF3259
A653B4C1598F96EADE6?id=10119

Centre d’avalanche de la Haute-Gaspésie (avalanche safety)
http://www.centreavalanche.qc.ca/

Fédération québécoise du canoe et du kayak
http://www.canot-kayak.qc.ca/nouvelles.asp

Tragedy in the Torngats – What happened?
http://alavigne.net/Outdoors/TripReports/Torngats2004/index.jsp

Experienced trekker website
http://www.stuyvesantcove.org/Torngats/Torngats_Main.shtml

Safety in Polar Bear Country – Parks Canada
http://www.pc.gc.ca/eng/pn-np/nl/torngats/visit/brochures.aspx

Polar bear and black bear safety videos
http://www.macecanada.com/unitedstates/video.htm.

Sirius Wilderness Medicine
http://www.siriusmed.com/index.htm

SPOT
http://international.findmespot.com/

Satellites telephones
http://www.iridium.com/


LOCAL RESOURCES

Kuujjuaq Inn (Kuujjuaq)                                                  819-964-2903

Fort Chimo Cooperative Hotel (Kuujjuaq)                                  819-964-2272

Newviq’vi, general store (Kuujjuaq)                                      819-964-2228

Northern, general store (Kuujjuaq)                                       819-964-2877

George River Cooperative Hotel (Kangiqsualujjuaq)                        819-337-5404
Expedition Planning Guide – Parc national Kuururjuaq                                 28
Last updated on May 27 th 2010
George River Cooperative Store, general store (Kangiqsualujjuaq)         819-337-5332

Northern, general store (Kangiqsualujjuaq)                               819-337-5275


   22 BIBLIOGRAPHY

1) Kativik Regional Government and MDDEP. 2005. Status report. Kuururjuaq Park
Project. 215 p.

2) Kativik Regional Government and MDDEP. 2007. Provisionnal Master Plan. Projet de
parc national de la Kuururjuaq. 46 p.

3) Kativik Regional Government – Nunavik Parks. 2008. Map - Parc national des
Pingualuit.

4) Parks Canada. 2005. Pre-trip planning package Auyuittuq National Park of Canada.
41 p.

5) Torngat Mountains National Park Reserve of Canada. 2006. Risk Management.133 p.

6) Fédération québécoise du canot et du kayak. 2005. Guide des parcours canotables
du Québec. Broquet. 455 p.

7) Louis Baron-Lafrenière. 2005. Observations sur le couvert neigeux et les avalanches.
9 p.

8) Web Site Environment Canada. http://www.meteo.gc.ca/canada_f.html.




                   Have a Safe and Good Trip !
Expedition Planning Guide – Parc national Kuururjuaq                                29
Last updated on May 27 th 2010

								
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