Achieving Success for our ELLs

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					Achieving Success for our ELLs
 Federal Programs—ELL Department
What will be covered…

   •   Stages of Second Language Acquisition
   •   Difference between BICS and CALP
   •   Cultural Characteristics and Data
   •   Role of ELL Staff
Stages of Second Language Acquisition

   • ―All new learners of English progress
     through the same stages to acquire
     language. However, the length of time
     each student spends at a particular stage
     may vary greatly.‖
                              -Judie Haynes
Stages of Second Language Acquisition

                      Five Stages
     1.   Pre-production
     2.   Early Production
     3.   Speech Emergence
     4.   Intermediate Fluency
     5.   Advanced Fluency
Stage I--Pre-production

    • Known as the silent period
    • Up to 500 words in their receptive
      vocabulary, similar to a 2 year old
    • What it will look like:
      – Listen attentively
      – Copy words from the board
      – Respond to pictures and other visuals
      – Understand and duplicate gestures to show
Stage I--Pre-production

    • At this stage, teachers should focus on:
      – Listening comprehension activities
      – Building receptive vocabulary
      – Providing a ―buddy‖ who speaks their
        language (if possible)

   • What did you understand?
   • How did you feel?
Video—Take Two
Video—Take Two

   • Now, what did you understand?
   • What did the teacher do to improve the
     comprehensibility of her presentation?
   • How did your feelings change?
Stage II—Early Production

   • Lasts up to six months
   • Receptive and active vocabulary of 1000
     words, similar to a 3 year old
   • What it will look like:
      – Speaks in one or two word phrases
      – Uses short language chunks that have been
        memorized, but not always correctly
Stage II—Early Production

   • At this stage, teachers should focus on:
      – Ask yes/no and either/or questions
      – Accept one or two word responses
      – Use pictures and realia to support
      – Modify content to the language level of the
      – Simplify content materials—focus on key
        vocabulary and key concepts
      – Support with graph organizers, charts, and
Stage III—Speech Emergence

   • Vocabulary of about 3,000 words, similar to a
     five year old
   • Can communicate in simple phrases and
   • What it will look like:
     – Participates in short conversations with classmates
     – Understands easy stories read in class with the
       support of pictures
     – Can do some content work with teacher support
Stage III—Speech Emergence

   • At this stage, students will be able to:
      – Read short, modified texts in content area
      – Complete graphic organizers with word banks
      – Study flashcards with content area vocab
      – Participate in choral reading activities
      – Understand teacher explanations and two-step
      – Compose brief stories based on personal
Stage IV—Intermediate Fluency

   • Vocabulary of about 6,000 words, similar to
     and eight year old
   • Can communicate in more complex sentences
     when speaking and writing
   • What it will look like:
     – Willing to express opinions and share their
     – Ask questions to clarify what they are learning
       in class
     – Able to work in grade level math and science
       class with some teacher support
     – Comprehension of English literature and social
       studies content is increasing
Stage IV—Intermediate Fluency

   • At this stage, students will be:
     – Writing with many errors
     – Synthesizing what they learned to make
     – Able to understand more complex concepts
     – May be translating written assignments from
       native language
Stage V—Advanced Fluency

   • On average, after 7 years students will
     achieve proficiency in the cognitive
     academic language necessary for school
   • Considered to be at a near native ability
   • Most likely exited from the ELL program
   • May still struggle in writing and in the
     content areas of history/social studies
The Importance of Vocabulary Building
and Comprehension

                Dumfrase Needed
    • The bogo also recognizes the need to
      invest more in cucio themselves, 40
      percent of which now lack basic
      sumwalz. Ligachev said cucio for 28
      million monos will be frazequack by the
      year 2000, and that capital expenditures
      in blocka will increase drastically.

   • Greatly influenced by prior knowledge
   • Apply this knowledge to relate to the new
   • Factors that effect comprehension:
     – The number of difficult words or unknown
     – Length of sentences
     – Syntax
The Frustration Level

    Students experience frustration when:
      – Less than 93% of the words are known
      – More than 7% of the words are unknown
    • A student’s instructional level is when:
      – 93-97% of the words are known
      – 3-7% of the words are unknown
    • True for both ELL and non-ELL students
Now try it…

              Dumfrase Needed
   • The bogo also recognizes the need to
     invest more in cucio themselves, 40
     percent of which now lack basic
     sumwalz. Ligachev said cucio for 28
     million monos will be frazequack by the
     year 2000, and that capital expenditures
     in blocka will increase drastically.
Now try it…

              Investments Needed
   • The Kremlin also recognizes the need to
     invest more in schools themselves, 40
     percent of which now lack basic
     plumbing. Ligachev said schools for 28
     million students will be under
     construction by the year 2000, and that
     capital expenditures in education will
     increase drastically.
What is BICS/CALP?

   • BICS—Basic Interpersonal
     Communication Skills—the language
     needed for everyday conversations and
   • CALP—Cognitive Academic Language
     Proficiency—the language necessary to
     understand and discuss academic
     content in the classroom
Iceberg Model
    -Conversational            BICS              -Knowledge
      Proficiency                                -Comprehension
    -Pronunciation      0-2 years to develop      -Application

    -Academic          5 to 7 years to develop   -Analysis
    Proficiency                                  -Synthesis
    -Functional and
    Semantic Meaning

Common Misconception with BICS/CALP

   • A child’s language ability can easily be
     over-estimated by looking at the BICS
     and not realizing the complexity and
     difficulty that second language students
     have in acquiring CALP in the second
Years to Proficiency Chart
Cultural Information
      and Data
Population Growth

   • In the 1990s, the following increases
     occurred in U.S. population:
     – Hispanic population increased by 58%
     – Asian population increased by 48%
     – Native American and Alaska Native by 26%
     – African American population by 16%
     – Pacific Islander population increased by 9%
Cultural Variable to Consider

    • Educational background of family
    • Languages spoken
    • Length of residence in area
    • Country of birth (immigrant vs. native)
    • Reasons for immigration
    • Urban vs. rural background
    • Religious beliefs
    • Others
District Data

       • 2008-09 Ethnicity of the MSBSD Student
             • Alaska Native = 9.1% (1,401)
            • American Indian = 2.2% (338)
                   • Asian = 1.3% (200)
                  • Black = 1.3% (198)
                 • Hispanic = 2.5% (383)
               • Multi-Ethnic = 3.1% (477)
      • Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander = .4% (61)
                • White = (12,267) = 80%

                                     Data pulled 05/01/09
District Diversity

          MSBSD’s Top 4 Limited English
              Proficient Cultures
       – Alaska Natives
       – Russian/Ukrainians
       – Spanish
       – Hmong
Alaska Native

   • Reluctant to exalt themselves above
   • Taught to show respect for authority and
     the elderly
   • Not taught to be assertive
   • Family events may overtake things like
   • Nonverbal cues may be key to
     understanding how they are feeling
Language Considerations

   • One way to show respect is to avoid eye
     contact by looking down
   • Taught that more is learned by listening
     and observing than speaking
   • Etiquette requires a lapse of time
     between asking and answering a
Additional Resources

   • Kits
   • Cultural Presentations
   • For more information, please contact:
      – Barbara Bodnar, Cultural Specialist
        at 761-4037 or by email at
Russian/Ukrainian Families

   • Most have immigrated for religious freedom, economic
     hardship, and limited educational/vocational
     opportunities for themselves and their children
   • Early marriage is common.
   • High literacy rate.
   • When dealing with professionals, the professional
     comes first, the parents’ ideas are secondary.
   • Relationships are very important—take priority over
     business concerns.
   • Touching others and sharing space are considered
     positive values.
   • Often straightforward
Language Considerations

   • Ukrainians are typically bilingual. They will be
     able to speak Russian and Ukrainian.
   • A double negative in Russian increases the
     overall negativity of the utterance. Ex. ―I don’t
     know nothing.‖
   • No set rules for stress in words—any syllable
     can be accented.
   • No significant differentiation between long and
     short vowels.
Hispanic Families

   • Family life is extremely important.
   • Father is usually the authority figure.
   • Children are often taught to listen, obey and
     not challenge authority.
   • Typically parents don’t comment about ongoing
     events—like grocery shopping
   • Teachers are viewed with great respect.
   • Value a collective perspective—needs of the
     group versus the individual or competition
Language Considerations

   • See Handout—Table 5.1 and 5.2
   • Verbal elaboration is rude—‖Tell me all
     you can about a horse.‖
   • Encourage parents to speak Spanish in
     the home—fluent Spanish is better than
     ―broken‖ English
   • Need to encourage mothers to read to
     their children prior to kindergarten—not
     seen as appropriate

  • Parents have little or no formal education
    and are often unable to participate in
    their child’s education nor provide
    educational guidance
  • The interests of the group comes before
    the interest of the individual
  • Majority of Hmong people do not read
    their language—translations are not
Language Considerations

   • Most words in Hmong are one syllable
   • There are no suffixes--plurals (-s), past
     tense (-ed) or participles (-ing)
   • Has the subject-verb-object agreement
     like in English
   • Possessives and pronouns do not exist
Role of Your ELL Staff

    • ELL Staff can be found in schools with a
      significant number of ELLs, like this one. They
      perform a wide range of responsibilities…
      – To identify and assess students for qualification
      – To assist in communications with parents when
        appropriate (interpreters/translators)
      – To be a liasion between the school and district on
        ELL matters
         • Provide training
         • Act as a resource as for general/special education
           classroom teachers of ELLs
Role of Your ELL Staff

    • To collaborate, communicate, and assist
    • To coordinate/administer the annual ELP
      assessment (Federal Mandate)
    • To teach students through a variety of ESL
      instructional techniques
    • To assist with the placement and schedules of
      ELL students
    • To use data to guide instruction
Role of Your ELL Staff

    • To identify the appropriate testing
      accommodations for students on state,
      district, and school testing (Federal
    • To be advocates for all ELL students
    • And a bunch of other things 
Want to know more?

   • Contact:
     – Your school’s ELL staff
       • OR
     – Jennifer Throndsen, District ELL Coordinator
       Call 761-4065 or email
       • OR
     – District Webpage—Federal Programs-ELL

   •   Cummins, J. (1984). Wanted: A theoretical framework for relating language
              proficiency to academic achievement among bilingual students. In C.
              Rivera (ed.), Language Proficiency and Academic Achievement. Clevedon:
              Multilingual Matters.
   •   Duffy, J., Harmon, R., Ranard, D.A., Thao, B., & Yang, K. (2004). The Hmong: An
              Introduction to their History and Culture. Washington, D.C.: Center for
              Applied Linguistics.
   •   Gickling, E., & Thompson, V. (1992, April). Curriculum based         assessment: A
              naturalistic guide to reading and mathematics instruction. Workshop
              presented at the Council for Exceptional Children, Baltimore, MD.
   •   Haynes, J. (2005). Stages of Second Language Acquisition. Retrieved June 23,
              2009, from
   •   Roseberry-McKibbin, C. (2008). Multicultural Students with Special
              Language Needs: Practical Strategies for Assessment and Intervention.
              Oceanside, CA: Academic Communication Associates, Inc.
   •   English Proficiency Chart can be located at
   •   Iceberg Image can be found at:

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