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Voyager Interstellar Mission - Voyager - NASA

VIEWS: 44 PAGES: 26

  • pg 1
									                              Voyager Interstellar
                                   Mission




     The Journey of Discovery Continues
Voyager   30 September 2004                    EdBM - 1
                     What is an Astronomical Unit (AU)??




About 93 million miles
Or ~150 million kilometers
Or ~8.3 light minutes




   Voyager   30 September 2004                       EdBM - 2
     Mariner Jupiter Saturn (MJS) Mission




                 Renamed Voyager prior to launch
Voyager   30 September 2004                        EdBM - 3
          Spacecraft and Launch Vehicle




Voyager    30 September 2004              EdBM - 4
                   The Grand Tour Trajectory




Voyager   30 September 2004                    EdBM - 5
The Grand Tour                  • active atmospheres
                                • high-speed jet streams
                                • large storm systems
                                • all have ring systems
                                • all have magnetospheres
                                • total of 57 known moons
                                • great diversity among moons
                                • Io, Europa, Titan, Triton unique
                                • spectrum of scientific discoveries




  Voyager   30 September 2004                              EdBM - 6
                                             Jupiter
                                                 • Great Red Spot is complex storm
                                                   rotating counterclockwise
                                                 • Incredibly diverse satellite geology

                                                 • Active volcanoes on Io with plumes
                                                   extending up to 300 Km (200
                                                   miles) above surface.
                                                 • Two new, small moons found
                                                   orbiting just inside the ring and a
                                                   third satellite discovered between
                                                   orbits of Amalthea.
                                                 • Magnetospheric rotation strips
                                                   away material from Io and forms a
                                                   torus along Io’s orbit around
                                                   Jupiter.
                                                 • Saw cloud top lightning bolts and
                                                   polar auroras
Jupiter and Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto




Voyager         30 September 2004                                              EdBM - 7
                                                   Saturn



                                                           • Complex ring system consisting of
                                                             irregular shaped particles
                                                           • A wide variety of satellites in
                                                             Saturn’s orbit, including “shepherd”
                                                             moons and possibly a captured
                                                             asteroid
                                                           • Titan, a planet-sized moon has thick
                                                             nitrogen-methane atmosphere
                                                           • Chemistry of Titan may resemble
                                                             that which occurred on Earth before
                                                             life evolved.


Saturn and Enceladus, Rhea, Dionne, Tethys, Mimas, Titan




       Voyager         30 September 2004                                                EdBM - 8
                                   Uranus

                         Titinia                                     Miranda




    • Magnetic field tilted 60 degrees and offset from the center of the
      planet by about 1/3 radius
    • Sunlit pole radiates large amounts of ultraviolet light -
      “dayglow”
    • Cloud top temperature about -350 degrees F over most of the
      planet
    • 10 new moons found
    • Broad ring system, distinctly different from those at Jupiter and
      Saturn

Voyager     30 September 2004                                          EdBM - 9
                                        Neptune




                                      Great Dark Spot                Neptune and
                                                                        Triton

•   Found six new moons
•   Showed that Neptune’s rings are complete but are diffuse and the material so fine
    that they couldn’t be fully resolved from Earth. A total of four rings seen
•   Several large Dark Spots similar to Jupiter’s storms. Great Dark spot the size of
    Earth and resembling the Great Red Spot
•   Magnetic field highly tilted - 47 degrees from rotation axis - and offset from center
    by .55 radius
•   Active geyser-like eruptions seen on Triton
•   Triton’s retrograde orbit suggest it is a captured object


    Voyager      30 September 2004                                                 EdBM - 10
               Looking Back and Looking Ahead
                 “pale blue dot”




 Portrait of the Solar System
Voyager 1, February 14, 1990


     Voyager     30 September 2004          EdBM - 11
                            Voyager Distances
As of 4 October 2004

                            Distance from the Sun    Round-trip Light Time
   Voyager 1            93.3 AU (13.96 billion km)   25h 58m 36s
   Voyager 2            74.5 AU (11.15 billion km)   20h 38m 30s




  Voyager      30 September 2004                                    EdBM - 12
          Voyager and the Termination Shock
                                •   Voyager 1 is the furthest
                                    human-made object from the
                                    Sun
                                •   Both spacecraft on paths
                                    toward interstellar space
                                •   No one knows how far out the
                                    Sun’s atmosphere
                                    (heliosphere) extends
                                •   Will know how far when
                                    Voyager 1 reaches termination
                                    shock
                                •   Heliopause is where the solar
                                    wind and interstellar wind
                                    meet
                                •   Termination shock expected to
                                    be less than 100 AU from the
                                    Sun
                                •   Voyager 1 may be close.
                                    Spacecraft has observed
                                    energetic Ions from the shock.

Voyager   30 September 2004                             EdBM - 13
          The Solar System - Overview of Scale




Voyager   30 September 2004                      EdBM - 14
                                The Future


          • Sufficient power until the year 2020
          • Voyagers will then wander the Milky Way
             - Voyager 1 within 1.6 light years of AC+79
               3888 in 40,000 years
             - Voyager 2 within 4.3 light years of Sirius in
               296,000 years




Voyager     30 September 2004                                  EdBM - 15
                    Interstellar Outreach:
                 A Golden Record From Earth




• Greetings from U.S. President Jimmy Carter   •   Whale Greetings
• Greetings from Kurt Waldheim, UN Secretary   •   Sounds of Earth
  General                                      •   90 minutes of music
• Congressional List                           •   118 pictures
• Greetings in 54 languages
     Voyager   30 September 2004                                 EdBM - 16
                     For More Information
• Voyager Web Site @ JPL                 http://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov

• Books
   - Murmurs of Earth, The Voyager Interstellar Record    Carl Sagan, et al
   - Voyager’s Grand Tour      Dethloff & Schorn




  Voyager    30 September 2004                                         EdBM - 17
          Alternate Planetary Exploration Slides




Voyager     30 September 2004                      EdBM - 18
                        Jupiter’s Rich Meteorology


                    belt                 zone

                                                     “barge”




     Io and Europa
    over Jupiter disk


                     Earth to scale

      Great Red Spot, CCW 350-yr storm



Voyager      30 September 2004                            EdBM - 19
            Comparing the Galilean Satellites




Voyager   30 September 2004                     EdBM - 20
                              The Volcanoes of Io




                                      Pele plume to 300 km,
                                      fallout size of France



                                  Galileo image
                              50 km



                    hot lava from Tvashtar Catena



Voyager   30 September 2004                                    EdBM - 21
                Europa - Ice Over a Vast Ocean




                                Galileo image

                                                 5 km




   Voyager image




Voyager     30 September 2004                           EdBM - 22
                             Ganymede and Callisto


                                   Voyager




                                             Voyager/Galileo
   15 km




     Galileo
                                                    Galileo
                  torn comet,
                  200 km scar



Voyager        30 September 2004                               EdBM - 23
                               Saturn and Titan


                                 dense, nitrogen-methane
                                   atmosphere for Titan



                                   chemistry may resemble early Earth


                    ring “spokes”




                              complex rings, many
                                 diverse moons




Voyager   30 September 2004                                             EdBM - 24
                             Uranus and Miranda




 tilted, featureless,
ringed, and 10 new
 moons discovered




                                 smashed and
                                                 diameter 472 km
                                 reassembled,
                                 or upwelling?


Voyager      30 September 2004                                     EdBM - 25
                                 Neptune and Triton


   fast winds, Great Dark Spot,
     faint rings, 6 new moons




                                        geyser-like eruptions




                                        retrograde, likely captured object



Voyager      30 September 2004                                               EdBM - 26

								
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