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Biofuels - a way towards clean and efficient energy in transport

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					Biofuels - a way towards clean and efficient energy in transport, 26 Nov 2004, Bucharest

Energy Efficiency in Transport

Ioan Cuncev Enero Romania Tel.+40724574912 E-mail: icuncev@yahoo.com

Biofuels - a way towards clean and efficient energy in transport,
26 Nov 2004, Bucharest

Romanian transport and TEN-T corridors

VII

Biofuels - a way towards clean and efficient energy in transport,
26 Nov 2004, Bucharest

• The energy efficiency in transport became a core problem after 1973 when the share of energy in total cost became > 25%. • The concept of energy conservation has been used as “the reduction of energy consumption”, “the reduction of specific energy consumption”, “the energy saving”, “the energy economy” etc. • The energy efficiency through: – Increase in energy efficiency using the existing technologies; – Replace the existing technologies with new energy efficiency technologies; – Transport policy considering the energy efficiency; – Promotion of alternative sources of energy; – Measures to reduce the consuming of energy.
Ioan Cuncev, Enero

Biofuels - a way towards clean and efficient energy in transport,
26 Nov 2004, Bucharest

The policy of energy conservation was built considering the advantages:  Decreasing of fuel imports.  Reduction of polluting emissions, knowing that the pollution increases with energy consumption.  Stimulating of research and development for new energy efficiency technologies.

The main categories of losses were coming, form:  Technical imperfections of equipment.  Bad operation and maintenance of the equipment.  Deviations from optimal regime of of equipment operation.  Output wastes.  Bad condition of storage of the energy etc.

Ioan Cuncev, Enero

Biofuels - a way towards clean and efficient energy in transport,
26 Nov 2004, Bucharest

In transport the energy can be saved using together many measures in an intelligent way. Considering three dimensional analysis (energy, information and time) the energy could be saved (- dE), by: – decreasing the speed (longer travel time) – introducing more information on board: – optimal control of energy, – new fuels, – new technologies, – IT etc. The concept of optimum speed is subordinated to the global efficiency of transport. Depending on the optimization criteria, it is also defined the optimum speed of the respective vehicle or fleet of vehicles.

Ioan Cuncev, Enero

Biofuels - a way towards clean and efficient energy in transport,
26 Nov 2004, Bucharest

Considering the ratio of vehicle resistance variation on speed variation, the optimal speed is a decisional turning point:
dR / dV

Speed of vehicle

V

Optimum speed
Ioan Cuncev, Enero

Biofuels - a way towards clean and efficient energy in transport,
26 Nov 2004, Bucharest

• Knowing the technology parameter C being the ratio of the cost exponent b and the energy exponent a: C=b / a, it is possible to estimate the energy-saving potential. The parameter C, can be : Ratio of life-cycle capital cost and the life-cycle energy cost when the system is designed for cost-optimum operation. - Ratio of the life-cycle process energy requirement and the lifecycle embodied energy in the capital investment. Percentage increase in capital cost for every % decrease in energy consumption. • The connection of parameter C with the price elasticity of energy consumption is described by the formula p = -1/(1+C), where p is the percentage decrease in energy use for every % increase in energy price. • In a multimodal approach, the maximum energy saving is achieved when the marginal cost-benefit ratio of each transport mode is the same.
Ioan Cuncev, Enero

Biofuels - a way towards clean and efficient energy in transport,
26 Nov 2004, Bucharest

Ways of action:
General objectives of the Romanian transport policy are the same as they are at EU level. The main objective is to offer competitive alternative modes to the less environmental friendly transport modes (road transport). The main groups of needs, actions, innovation and polices for energy efficiency in transport, are focused on infrastructure and operational areas.
Romanian modal share in 2001 (tons)
Sea 0% Air 0% Pipe 3% Road 74%

Romanian modal share in 2001 (tkm)
Air IWT Sea Pipe 4% 0% 4% 7% Rail 40% Road 45%

IWT 3% Rail 20%

Ioan Cuncev, Enero

Biofuels - a way towards clean and efficient energy in transport,
26 Nov 2004, Bucharest

European and National Energy and Transport Policies

Infrastructure:
-Top-down policy -The state as policymaker -Authority for implementation and surveying -Rules and pricing policy -Cost effective as main criteria

Authority
R&D Supplier Market

Operational:
-Top-down policy -Bottom-up implementation -On-board technol. -Market driven -Operators investing -CBA main criteria -New fuels -Financial & fiscal facilities

Energy Efficiency of Transport
Ways of action to improve the energy efficiency of transports
Ioan Cuncev, Enero

Biofuels - a way towards clean and efficient energy in transport,
26 Nov 2004, Bucharest

On infrastructure area:
• Networks, ports, corridors, the quality and stability of networks and especially during critical seasons, the traffic signaling and guiding, IT, intermodal transshipment terminals, infrastructure networks for fuels distribution including LNG, LPG, H2 etc., container, Ro-Ro and Ro-La terminals, logistics centers. • Some initiatives in using renewable energy in Romanian transports: – Solar energy equipment installed on the roofs of warehouses. – Wind energy generators installed on riverbanks, to the Danube flowing into the sea. – Buoys lights using hydro-energy generated by the Danube flow. – Natural gas network.

Ioan Cuncev, Enero

Biofuels - a way towards clean and efficient energy in transport,
26 Nov 2004, Bucharest

On operational area:
• Means of transport: new vehicles, re-engineering and upgrading of the existing vehicles, ro-ro ships, fast ships, specialized ships for delta, hovercrafts, river-sea ships, access of SSS on the river, energy efficiency vehicles bodies, electric propulsion of vehicles. • On-board of vehicle: equipment, performing engines, installations, propellers, technological changes, fuels. – The engines and other equipment installed on board are very efficient. So, the main source of the increasing of energy efficiency is the optimal management of the equipment operational regime. – On long term, the main way of energy efficiency improvement is the introducing of new fuels and innovation in technology: hydrogen, fuel cells, biofuels, natural gas.
Ioan Cuncev, Enero

Biofuels - a way towards clean and efficient energy in transport,
26 Nov 2004, Bucharest

On operational area:
• On-board of vehicle: – The Energy efficiency is market driven. Due to high performance of technologies and very competitive market, the new engine and equipment are difficult to be offered by Romanian suppliers. There are only a few and very competitive suppliers even on the continental market. – Controlling the operational regime on board of vehicles implies that the engines, the propellers and other systems must work together in a global optimal efficiency. For instance, in the engine-propeller diagram the elliptical contours of specific fuel consumption must have the longitudinal axis in the same direction to the propeller curve.

Ioan Cuncev, Enero

Biofuels - a way towards clean and efficient energy in transport,
26 Nov 2004, Bucharest

On operational area:
• On-board of vehicle:
– The improvement of heat transfer of the on-board equipment. Some important achievement were performed related to heat transfer intensification, the fouling in heat exchangers, the use of additives, compact heat exchangers using new materials and technologies etc. It was a tentative to use the on board heat pumps. The objective was to recover the heat contained in waste sources existing on board and use it at a higher thermal potential. – Vehicle operation: ISM, on board optimal management, ship bodies cleaning, optimal configuration of trains and other convoys, optimum speed depending on the fuel price, navigation in restricted waters etc. – Intelligent freight and traffic mgmt.: FMS, TMS, RIS, integrated FMS/TMS

• Improve the mentality into energy efficiency of transport. • Better procurement policy. • Logistics as integrator of the energy efficiency supply chains.
Ioan Cuncev, Enero

Biofuels - a way towards clean and efficient energy in transport,
26 Nov 2004, Bucharest

Need for energy efficiency policy in the frame of transport
policy at national level, taking into consideration the EU energy and transport policies, because: – there were only isolated initiatives, trials and campaigns for energy conservation in transport; – there is a good premise through the fact that Europe has important achievements in energy efficiency technologies; – there is a need for corroborating policies in the fields of energy, transport, environment, pricing, competition, SME developments, R&D etc.; – there are barriers against the implementation of new technologies which could be over-passed through strategic measures covering legislative, economic, administrative and political areas;

Ioan Cuncev, Enero

Biofuels - a way towards clean and efficient energy in transport,
26 Nov 2004, Bucharest

Need for energy policy in the frame of transport policy at
national level, taking into consideration the EU energy and transport policies, because: – new transport innovation means large investments which are difficult to be covered by operators using their own resources only; – there are financial, logistics and psychological barriers against new fuels that need to be solved at large scale, not only at local level; – users information on quality of new fuels and potential available services; – benchmarking of new fuels and technologies, services and operation of propulsion systems;

Ioan Cuncev, Enero

Biofuels - a way towards clean and efficient energy in transport,
26 Nov 2004, Bucharest

Need for energy policy in the frame of transport policy at
national level, taking into consideration the EU energy and transport policies, because:
– networking of users of efficiency and environment friendly energy and transport innovations from Romania and advanced EU countries. The users means policy makers, authorities, operators, infrastructure managers, R&D centers, universities, training centers etc.; – a proactive strategy for developing of efficiency energy by correlating the feed-before policy with feed-back implementation; – on long term, the development of hydrogen and fuel cells technology is possible in a cooperation network at European level. The main needs are deep and expensive research which are not possible at local level only;

Ioan Cuncev, Enero

Biofuels - a way towards clean and efficient energy in transport,
26 Nov 2004, Bucharest

Need for energy policy in the frame of transport policy at
national level, taking into consideration the EU energy and transport policies, because: – networking of policies, strategies, measures and projects are necessary first of all because the transport modes will become more and more continental, asking for energy networks at the level of European network networks; – a permanent advisory body for integration of transport and energy efficiency policies is necessary to be developed; – SME and PPP could facilitate the cooperation of market oriented operators and authorities; – need to add, among the other assessment criteria for decision-making in transport development, the energy efficiency criteria.

Ioan Cuncev, Enero

Biofuels - a way towards clean and efficient energy in transport,
26 Nov 2004, Bucharest

Cooperation in R&D between EU and Romanian Programs.
For example: – The method of accesses of Romanian R&D to the European on-going projects. – To facilitate the contacts between the recently concluded EU projects and those with a similar subject belonging to national R&D programs. – The involving the Romanian users into the EU hot problems of energy efficiency (H2 and Fuel Cell, for example). – R&D common or joint centers and networks of excellence.

Ioan Cuncev, Enero

Biofuels - a way towards clean and efficient energy in transport,
26 Nov 2004, Bucharest

• Need for more advanced theoretical R&D related to energy efficiency in the context of: – new vehicles, technologies and transport patterns: • rail-roads, ro-la, • HST, fast ships, • the aero and hydro-dynamics of fast vehicles, • navigation in restricted waters, • river ro-ro ships, • multi-shape vehicles, • SSS etc. – The research can contribute to energy efficiency in transport by investigating nonlinear processes, the structural instability of transient phenomenon etc.

Ioan Cuncev, Enero

Biofuels - a way towards clean and efficient energy in transport,
26 Nov 2004, Bucharest
Intermodality is a source of energy efficiency in transport, not only through unitized cargo and terminals (containers, ro-ro, ro-la), but also through the intelligent correlation of transport modes in traffic centers. That means global energy efficiency at supply chain level by horizontal and vertical integration of freight and traffic management systems (Themis, for ex).
Rail (FMS & TMS) ETA train ETA convoy RIS (TMS & FMS)

ID wagons

Track & Tracing

Loading

Unloading

Storage Barge

Barge

Management of the intermodality in a port Ioan Cuncev, Enero

Transshipment

Sailing


				
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