HORTICULTURAL by 8x7c5J

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									                      HORTICULTURAL
                   YOUTH SOCIETY
                        NEWSLETTER
                               FALL 2009




                                 Picture by Rad Dad



                   Youth has more need of models than of critics.



                          Editor: “Rad Dad” - Harry Wyma
                        Box 1136 – Ridgetown ON – N0P 2C0
                         e-mail wyma.harry@sympatico.ca
                               Phone: 519-674-3493

                      For recent copies of the Youth Newsletters:
                      Go to the www.gardenontario.com site and
                   click on YOUTH in the middle of the 2nd column.




Note: If you are no longer the leader, then please forward this to the proper person.
Also, I would be very pleased to be informed of any name/address changes. Thanks.
CONTENTS – hold CTRL key & CLICK the article..….... 02

ACTIVITIES
- Tongue Twister............................................................    13
- Asian Word Search......................................................       06
- Kids Corner Word Search……….........................……………                      19
- Party Snacks..........................................…….……………….              19
- Genus Genius…………………………………………….…………….....……                                    19
- What‘s in a Seed - Experiment…………………………………....                                21
- But Now the Experiment.......................….………………..…                      21
- Youth Association Competitions 2010................... 23 - 26


ARTICLES
- Life Cycle of a Butterfly…………………..…….…………………..……                              05
- Ten neat things about Dragon Flies...........……….……….                         05
- A Phrase Origin…..………………………………………………………....                                   07
- The World Beneath Your Feet.………………………..………………                                 09
- Jack O‘ Lantern......................…………………………………….…..                       11
- Creation‘s Marvelous Machine……………………………………….                                  14
- Mysterious Mushrooms..........…………………………………………                                15
- The Elegant Stinkhorn..................................................       16
- Indian Pipe Mushroom.................................................         18
- Squaw Root Mushroom.................................................          18


CRAFTS & PROJECTS
- Bug Village......................………………………………………………..                         03
- Crayon Scratching.............................….……………………….                    13
- Salt Art....................................…..…………………………………..                07
- Popsicle Stick Angel…………………………………………………….. 08
- Spoon Angel.................……………………….……………………………                             08
- Squiggly Kazoo............................………………………………….                      11
- Tree of Life Paper Quilt................................................      19
- Make Your Own Wild Wooly Sheep..............................                  13
- Mushroom Spore Prints...............................................          15
- A Warbler‘s Nest..........………………………………………..…………                               17
- Fabulous Flower Wheels..............................................          20
- Concertina Fold Butterflies.........................................          20
- Dryer Sheet Flower......................................................      21


POEMS & JOKES
- Worth Repeating..........................................................     06
- Haiku............................…………………………………………..……..                       10
- Mother‘s Boys.............................................................    13
- Tongue Twister...........................................................     13
- Considerations..…………………………………………………………..…..                                   19


RECIPES
- Liven up those Potato Carrot Recipe......................... 06
- Cowboy Fries...............................................................   06
- Lemon Roasted Greek Chicken…………………………………...                                   06
- Winter Squash, Fennel and Leek Broth….…………………… 16
- Quick Stir-Fried Snow Peas or Sugar Snap Peas…….… 16




                                                           2
BUG VILLAGE

Source: kinderart.com/crafts                       What You Do:

Objectives:                                        Safety note: Parents should handle the
                                                   glue gun as temperatures can get very hot
Here's a great craft for almost NO money!          and cause uncomfortable burns. Allowing
All you need are a few sticks, some acorn          older children to use the glue gun is
tops, rocks, and imagination! These darling        entirely up to the parent, but child should
little critters have a home of their own in        always be supervised!
this cute craft.
                                                   Natural
What You Need:
                                                   Begin by making sure the ends of the
                                                   sticks are fairly flat. You can do this by
      sticks in various sizes                     simply smooshing the ends against the
      acorn tops                                  sidewalk. Use hot glue gun to adhere the
      smooth rocks in different sizes             sticks to the block of wood, then glue the
      hot glue gun (parents must do               acorn tops to the top of each stick.
       this!)
      square or rectangular scrap of              Wash all the rocks and be sure they are
       wood                                        dry before gluing on wiggle eyes. Glue the
      matte acrylic spray sealer                  rocks to the wood in various places. Write
      small woodsy sign                           the words "Bug Village" on a small woodsy
      black fine tip craft pen                    sign and glue to the front of the piece of
                                                   wood as shown in photo.
For natural:
                                                   Colorful
      wiggle eyes
                                                   Paint the block of wood with forest green
For colorful:                                      paint. When dry, sponge on some olive
                                                   green paint to the forest green. Paint the
                                                   sticks with light brown paint. Paint some of
      stylus or toothpick                         the acorn tops with light blue and the rest
      paintbrush                                  with light green. Glue the sticks to the
      household sponge                            wood, then glue the acorn tops to the
      acrylic paint (in forest green, olive       sticks.
       green, light brown, cream, light
       blue, light green, red,                     Wash all the rocks and be sure they are
      blue, orange, yellow, pink, purple,         dry before you paint them. use various
       black, and white)                           colors to paint the rocks: blue, red, purple,
                                                   pink, green, etc. Use the stylus or
                                                   toothpick to dot on spots and/or lines to
                                                   your bugs. Dot on white spots for to make
                                                   the eyes, and a smaller black dot onto the
                                                   white spot. Glue rocks in place when they
                                                   are dry.
                 QuickTime™ and a
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          are needed to see this picture.          Create a sign by painting a small woodsy
                                                   sign with cream paint, and then shade the
                                                   edges with light brown. Use black fine tip
                                                   craft pen to write, "Welcome to Bug
                                                   Village" in the center.




                                               3
The natural Bug Village is perfect for a
boy's room while girls will adore the
colorful bugs!

THE LIFE CYCLE OF A BUTTERFLY                                       QuickTime™ and a
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Localgardener.net                                            are neede d to se e this picture.




The wonder of a butterfly goes well beyond
their pretty colours and whimsical body.
The butterfly‘s metamorphosis makes the
life cycle of the butterfly a fascinating
topic.                                                Pupal or Chrysalis Stage
                                                      In this stage the final change takes place.
Egg Stage                                             The process is still not completely
Butterfly eggs are very tiny, usually less            understood, but essentially, the caterpillar
than a millimeter across, so they often               liquefies, its structure broken down
appear as little spots and are deposited on           chemically as new structures are formed.
or near a food source, normally on a leaf or          The pupa or chrysalis is defenseless so is
stem of a plant. Some species will lay only           exclusively green, brown or grey, to blend
one egg, while others, a grouping of                  into nature, and will most likely look like a
several. After laying the eggs, the female            dried leaf, broken branch or overripe fruit.
butterfly leaves and a tiny caterpillar will          It will usually change colour on the day of
emerge. In many species, the eggs will                emergence. For the monarch butterfly, the
over winter before the larvae hatch.                  chrysalis changes to orange, while in
                                                      others, it turns clear.



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                                                                    QuickTime™ and a
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Larval Stage
This is the growth stage of the
metamorphosis, and the newly hatched
caterpillar‘s job is to eat and grow. Its first
food source is often the eggshell, which is
made of a rich fat-protein compound. As it
grows, the larvae will shed its skin for a set
number of times depending on species,
                                                      Butterfly Stage
usually around four or five times. Once the
                                                      The chrysalis stage can take days or
larvae has reached full size, it will look for
                                                      months, depending on the species. Once
a suitable place to build a chrysalis,
                                                      the butterfly is ready to emerge, it will
attaching itself to the bottom of a leaf or
                                                      lower out of its chrysalis very slowly. As
twig, or even burrowing underground. The
                                                      the butterfly leaves the chrysalis, its
caterpillar attaches itself using silk glands
                                                      compressed wings will slowly fill with
to form a little ball called the cremaster.
                                                      liquid. The butterfly will then hang upside
While condensing its body, the larvae will
                                                      down, waiting for its wings to harden.
form the outer layer of the pupa.
                                                      Gravity will pull the wings down into their
                                                      natural position as this happens. If a wing
                                                      isn‘t allowed to stretch out, for instance, if
                                                      it gets caught on a branch, it will harden
                                                      that way. The butterfly won‘t be able to fly
                                                      and will most likely die.




                                                  4
                                                     legs and brings the prey to its jaws to eat.
                                                     Because it uses its limbs for holding the
                                                     food, it cannot alight while it eats-it
                                                     doesn't have a leg to stand on!
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                                                     6. Movement. Dragonflies are the
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                                                     helicopters of the insect world. They can
                                                     move up, down, forward, backward and to
                                                     either side. They can also hover and glide.
                                                     And they can achieve high speed-as much
                                                     as 38 kilometers per hour-in an instant.
                                                     This gives them superb hunting skills.
TEN NEAT THINGS ABOUT DRAGON
FLIES
Source: Icangarden.com
There are probably at least 100 neat things
about dragonflies, so this is just a sample.
Thanks to reader Helen Williams for the
idea and for the top picture, left.

1. Water babies. Dragonflies spend most of                     QuickTime™ and a
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their lives under water as nymphs. In this              are needed to see this picture.
life stage, they use extendable jaws to
capture and eat other insect nymphs and
even some vertebrates such as tadpoles.

2. Fartin' around. Please pardon my
questionable language-it's just too good to
pass up. You see, dragonfly nymphs have
gills in their rectums, and they are able to
breathe out suddenly to propel themselves
                                                     7. Vision. Paired with the flying abilities,
forward. Seriously.
                                                     dragons have excellent vision. You may
                                                     have noticed that most of a dragonfly head
3. Transformation. The nymph of a very               is taken up by its two compound eyes.
big dragonfly can remain in that stage for           Those eyes provide a view of what's going
as long as five years, though the smallest           on in all directions. It is believed that they
ones are nymphs for only a couple of                 do not see the kind of detail we do, but
months. When the nymph is ready to                   they are incredibly adept at detecting
become an adult, it climbs up out of the             motion. According to naturenorth.com,
water and, upon exposure to the air,                 "They can detect movements separated by
begins breathing air instead of water. The           1/300th of a second! To a dragonfly, a
outer skin splits behind the head and the            movie might look like a series of still
adult climbs out of the shell of the nymph.          pictures."
It's wings fill with insect blood, and away it
flies.
                                                     8. Heat sensitive. Dragonflies need to be at
                                                     least 25 degrees Celsius to fly. When they
4. Adult food. Dragonflies are famous for            are too cool, they'll sit on a rock in the sun
eating mosquitoes but, while the adults are          to heat up, or shiver wing muscles to
happy enough to eat mosquitoes, the pests            generate heat. They can get too hot,
don't make up a large part of the diet for           though, too, and look for some shade to
the simple reason that mosquitoes are                cool down.
active at dusk while dragonflies are most
active during the day. Adult dragonflies eat
                                                     9. Getting cool. Another method some
whatever flying insects they can catch.
                                                     species use to cool down is known as the
                                                     obelisk position. If you've ever seen a
5. Eating on the run. Or in flight, really, a        dragonfly kind of perched in a handstand,
dragonfly captures its prey in flight with its       it's trying to regulate its temperature. In



                                                 5
this position, the tail points to the sun,          4 large baking potatoes
reducing the surface area of the body that          1 Tablespoon olive oil
is in direct sunlight. Clever, eh?                  2 teaspoons garlic powder
                                                    ½ teaspoon salt
10. Mixed messages. In European folklore,
dragonflies tend to be considered sinister          Scrub potatoes and cut into long wedges or
or agents of Satan. In Eastern and Native           strips about half an inch thick. Combine
North American traditions, though, they             olive oil, garlic powder, and salt in a large
get much more respect, representing                 bowl. Add potatoes and toss to coat. Place
swiftness and victory.                              potato wedges on large, lightly oiled cookie
                                                    sheet. Bake in 220ºC /425ºF oven for 20
                                                    minutes. Remove from oven, turn
                                                    potatoes, and return to oven for another
                                                    15 to 25 minutes.
LIVIN’ UP THOSE POTATO AND                          Lemon Roasted Greek Potatoes
CARROT RECIPES
Source: icangarden.com                              6 large potatoes, peeled and cut into
By Joan Airey                                       wedges
                                                    1 Tablespoon dried oregano
It‘s a custom for the grandchildren to help         ¾ cup olive oil
me plan the menu ahead of time, when we             1/3 cup lemon juice
know they are coming for a visit. When              1 ½ teaspoons seasoning salt
possible we cook the meal together as the           2 Tbsp powdered chicken soup base
kids all love to cook.                              1 ½ teaspoons garlic powder
                                                    1 Tablespoon sugar
I avoid using the deep fryer when the               Sprinkle of pepper.
children are cooking with me for safety
reasons and the following recipes are               Preheat oven to 425F. Grease a large
healthier. Fresh potatoes from the garden           rimmed baking dish or line with foil.
are delicious just boiled or barbecued.
                                                    To prepare vinaigrette, whisk together all
One medium potato with the skin can                 ingredients except potatoes until
provide two per cent of the potassium,              combined. Add vinaigrette to raw potatoes
percent of the carbohydrates, twelve per            and toss raw potatoes and toss to
cent of the fiber, and forty five per cent of       combine. Place potatoes in a single layer in
the Vitamin C needed in a day based on a            prepared pan. Bake for a total of 60-75
2000-calorie diet. The same potato is also          minutes. After 30 minutes of cooking time,
a good source of vitamin B6, thiamine,              turn the darker potatoes over. Bake for the
iron, and folic acid.                               remaining 30-45 minutes. Let stand 5-10
                                                    minutes to coo
Cowboys Fries
                                                    Carrots with Horseradish Cream Sauce
¼ cup melted butter (quarter cup)
3 Tablespoons Ketchup                               4 c. carrots, sliced length wise into sticks
1 Teaspoon chili powder                             ½ c. mayonnaise
1 Teaspoon brown sugar                              1 Tbsp. minced onion
¼ Teaspoon garlic powder (one-quarter)              1 Tbsp. prepared horseradish
Pinch of salt and pepper                            Salt and pepper to taste
4 large potatoes                                    2 Tbsp. dry bread crumbs
                                                    2 Tbsp. butter
Peel and cut potatoes into chips (French            Chopped parsley
fries). Stir above ingredients in a bowl. Add       Paprika
potatoes until totally covered with sauce.
Using a slotted spoon to place potatoes on          Cook carrots in boiling salted water until
cookie sheet covered with tinfoil. Bake at          tender. Reserve quarter cup cooking liquid.
425F for 50 minutes or until soft.                  Combine mayonnaise, cooking liquid,
                                                    onion, horseradish, salt and pepper.
Oven Fries                                          Whisk together.




                                                6
Arrange carrots in 9 inch baking dish. Pour
over sauce, top with breadcrumbs, parsley,
and sprinkling of paprika and dot with
butter. Bake uncovered for 20 minutes.
Makes 6-8 servings.
                                                            QuickTime™ and a
I cooked the carrots for eight minutes in          TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
my microwave instead of in boiling water.             are need ed to see this picture.
Worth Repeating

Lead your life so you won‘t be ashamed to
sell the family parrot to the town gossip.

CRAYON SCRATCHING
Creative with Crayons and Paper Clips
Source: crafts.kaboose.com                         An Interesting Phrase Origin


Children can draw anything they want with          The modern ―With a grain of salt‖ saying
the paper clip. Recreate glorious fireworks        dates back about 3 centuries. Simply put,
on paper for Independence Day, New                 it means that a meal is more appealing
Year's Day or any day with this crayon             when eaten with salt. Therefore an
scratching kids craft.                             improbable story may be more acceptable
                                                   by the listener if swallowed with a grain of
                                                   salt.
What you'll need:
- Crayons of various colors, one must be
  black
                                                   SALT ART
- White paper
                                                   Source: crafts.kaboose.com
- Paper clip or used pen
                                                   You can create beautiful effects with this
How to make it:                                    salt art craft. Kids enjoy coloring the salt
                                                   with food coloring before painting with it.
Color a design on the white paper with
various colors of crayons. Be sure to color        What you’ll need:
darkly.                                            - Construction paper
                                                   - Paintbrush
After the page is all colored in, color over       - Large tray or cookie sheet
the whole thing with black crayon. Press           - Plastic cup
down hard so that the black covers all of          - Egg carton – optional
the other colors.                                  - Sandpaper – optional

                                                   For each color of sand you use:
Use the paper clip or pen to scratch out
                                                   - 1/2 cup of salt
your own fireworks
                                                   - Food colouring
display
                                                   - Ziploc bag

                                                   How to make it:
                                                   Pour half a cup of salt into a Ziploc bag and
                                                   add several drops of food coloring.

                                                   Close the bag tightly; let most of the air is
                                                   out. (You can add more food coloring to
                                                   get more vibrant colors of "sand.")

                                                   Use your fingers (on outside bag) to mix
                                                   the color into the salt. Pour the salt in a
                                                   thin layer on the newspaper and let it dry.




                                               7
                                                    Instructions:
Repeat this for each color, giving each its         OPTIONAL: paint the Popsicle sticks and let
own piece of newspaper. (You can use half           dry. It looks nice if the dress (5 sticks) is
of a page.) When all colors are dry, pick up        gold or silver and the wings (6 sticks) are
the papers one at a time and pour the salt          white.
back into Ziploc bags or into separate
compartments in an egg carton.                      Make the dress (5 popsicle sticks):

Mix together glue and water in equal                Take 2 Popsicle sticks and glue them
amounts. (If you use two tablespoons of             together in a fan shape
water, use two tablespoons of glue.)
Put a piece of construction paper in the            Take 2 more Popsicle sticks and make a
tray. Use a pencil to draw the design you           fan shape in the opposite direction
want and then use the paintbrush to paint
(glue) the areas where you want ONLY THE            Push the two fans side by side and glue the
FIRST COLOR to stick.                               last Popsicle stick on top to make a Make
                                                    two wings (3 popsicle sticks each)
Use your fingers to sprinkle the first color
over the areas you painted. Wait a few              Put three Popsicle sticks together in a fan
minutes to allow the salt to stick and then         shape to make one wing
hold the paper over the tray to let the
"extra" salt fall off of the painting.              Put three Popsicle sticks together in a fan
                                                    shape to make the second wing
Pour the "extra" salt back into its container
- you can use it again. Repeat step six             Dress shape
and seven until you have all of the colors
you want in your painting. Voila! You have          Assemble the angel
created "sand" art.
                                                    Glue both wings on either side of the dress
POPSICKLE STICK ANGEL
Source: dltk-bible.com/                             Cut a photo of the child (cut around the
                                                    head) and glue onto the top
You can use regular Popsicle sticks or use          OR
craft sticks for a larger version                   Glue a flat, wood circle onto the top and
                                                    paint on facial features if desired

Materials:
                                                    Glue a piece of thread or ribbon onto the
- 11 Popsicle sticks glue                           back so you can hang it on the tree!
- small photo of child OR round, flat
  wooden circle
- optional - gold or silver or white paint or       SPOON ANGEL CRAFTS
  glitter glue                                      Source: dltk-bible.com

                                                    Materials for the spoon angel:
                                                    - a plastic spoon
                                                    - a triangle of construction paper about the
                                                      same height as the spoon
                                                    - some markers, glitter glue, sparkles or
            QuickTime™ an d a                         sequins (we used glitter glue)
   TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor                 - some scraps of wool
      are need ed to see this p icture .            - a piece of 21 cm x 28 cm / 8 ½‖ x 11‖
                                                      white paper
                                                    - tape
                                                    - glue
                                                    - small wiggly eyes - optional




                                                8
                                                   Take the white sheet of paper and cut it in
                                                   half so you have two 18 cm x 14 cm / 8 ½‖
                                                   by 5 ½‖ +/- pieces of paper. Discard one
                                                   of the pieces or use it for your next angel.

            QuickTime™ and a
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                                                   Put the paper in front of you so the 18 cm
      are need ed to see this picture.             / 8 1/2 inch side is facing you.

                                                   Fan: fold the 18 cm / 8 ½‖ side.
                                                   To fan fold:
                                                   fold about 2 cm / 3/4 inch
                                                   flip paper over
                                                   fold about 2 cm / 3/4 inch
                                                   continue until it's all folded like a fan.
INSTRUCTIONS
Cut a triangle out of the construction paper       Put a piece of tape around the center of
(older children can do this themselves.            the fan to make wings.

Decorate the triangle however you wish:            Tape the spoon to the back of the triangle
glitter glue, markers, bits of lace, sequins       paper.
and/or sparkles.
                                                   Tape the fan wings to the back of the
Set aside your triangle to dry.                    spoon. You can trim her wings down a bit
                                                   as she thought they were too big or you
Take a black marker and draw on a face.            can leave them as they are. Tape may
Younger children will prefer to glue on            work better than glue.
wiggly eyes instead of drawing the face.
                                                   Add a small piece of wool or ribbon (tape it
Take 3 or 4 strands of wool. You can tie           onto the top) so you can hang her on your
bows or braid the hair... you can make it          tree. Or you can pin her to a bulletin
long or short. Let the kids decide on the          board or glue her to the front of a
hairstyle.                                         homemade Christmas
                                                   THE WORLD BENEATH YOUR FEET
Put a knot in the top middle of the hair so        Source: Daytripping May-June 2009
it's all tied together and glue the knot to        By Hellen Lammers Helps – New Dundee
the top of the spoon.
                                                   We walk on it. We play on it. But we
We just used ordinary children's white glue        seldom think about the unseen world
to do this and it worked fine.                     beneath our feet. If we could look into the
                                                   soil we would be amazed at the abundance
Set the spoon aside (carefully) to dry.            of life we‘d fine there.

                                                   A cubic metre, about a shopping cart full,
                                                   of rich topsoil is home to a billion protozoa,
                                                   ten million nematodes, a hundred
                                                   thousand springtails, a hundred thousand
                                                   mites and a thousand earthworms.

                                                   There are more microorganisms in a
                QuickTime™ and a
      TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor             teaspoon of soil then there are people
         are need ed to see this picture.          living on earth.

                                                   Bacteria and fungi, too small to be seen
                                                   without a microscope, are the workhorses
                                                   of the soil. Most are beneficial organisms
                                                   that release the nutrients tied up in dead
                                                   plants and animals converting them into a
                                                   form plants can use. They are responsible




                                               9
for three-quarters of the decomposition              legs per segment while millipedes have
that takes place in the soil.                        two. They also differ in their eating habits.
                                                     Centipedes are meat eaters while
The soil bacteria and fungi also release             millipedes are vegetarians. Both centipedes
sticky compounds that glue the soil                  and millipedes have a curious defense
particles together into aggregates. This             mechanism. When held by a leg or two,
creates what soil scientist‘s call the soil          they release the captive leg. This diverts
architecture, which improves the soil‘s              the predator‘s attention while they make a
drainage, aeration and resistance to                 hasty retreat. Watch out for centipedes; if
erosion by wind and water.                           handled roughly they may bite and it feels
                                                     like a wasp‘s sting!
Larger soil dwelling critters such as
earthworms and beetles break up the
animal and plant debris into smaller pieces
creating more surface areas for the
bacteria and fungi to work on. These
critters also mix leaf litter and other
decaying plant and animal matter into the
soil/ In about 20 years, earthworms
completely turn over the top 20 cm / 6‖ of
soil earning earthworms nicknames,
―natures plough‖ and ―underground‖
engineers.

Twenty-seven different species of
earthworms are found ―in the wild‖ in
Canada. Some of these are shallow
dwellers creating horizontal burrows in the
soil. Others, such as the nightcrawler
(Lumbricus terrestris) make burrows one
metre / 1 yard deep in the soil. Anglers, for
their large size, prize our Canadian night
                                                     Picture by Rad Dad
crawlers or dew worms.
As a result, $ 50 million worth of dew
                                                     The cicada lives for between four and
worms picked at night from farmer‘s fields
                                                     twenty years but almost all of that time is
and golf courses in southern Ontario are
                                                     spent underground. When ready, the
exported south of the border each year.
                                                     cicada nymph digs its way to the surface.
However, we can‘t stake claim to having
                                                     The winged adult emerges and lives for
the biggest earthworms. In Australia, there
                                                     about only one week —just long enough to
are earthworms that grow 3 metres / 3
                                                     mate and lay eggs. On a hot summer day
yards in length!
                                                     you can hear the buzz of the male cicada
                                                     trying to attract the silent females.
Here are some interesting facts about a
few other common soil dwellers:
                                                     Springtails are very small, wingless insects
                                                     up to 4 mm / 1/6th ― in length. They get
                                                     their name from their long tails, which are
                                                     normally folded under their bodies, locked
                                                     in place. When the locking device releases,
                                                     the tail flips out propelling the insect. This
                                                     is how they get around.

                                                     More than 25000 species of beetles have
                                                     been identified in North America. Most are
Picture by Rad Dad                                   dark brown or black but a few few come in
                                                     eye-catching shades of metallic blue, green
To tell the difference between centipedes            purple or copper. Varying in size from 0.6
and millipedes, look at the arrangement of           to 2.5 cm / ¼ - 1‖ in length, they tend to
their legs. Centipedes have only one pair of



                                                10
hide under rocks or clumps of soil by day             The jack-o lanterns are meant to scare
and feed at night.                                    away Stingy Jack and all the other spirits
                                                      that are said to walk the earth that night.
Remember Tuck and Roll from the movie
Bug‘s Life? The pill bugs (also known as              It wasn‘t until the tradition was brought to
sow bugs or wood lice) are relatives of the           North America by immigrants that
freshwater crayfish and saltwater lobster.            pumpkins were used for jack-o‘-lanterns.
You can find them under stones or logs, or
in damp, dark places. Direct sunlight will
kill them if exposed for even sort periods of
time. They roll themselves up into a ball to
protect themselves from dry conditions and
predators. These bugs are useful; they
chew up plant material and mix it into the
top layer of the soil.

The soil is home to a great and diverse
food web with may intricate ecological
relationships. It is this balance that we rely
on to decompose leaf litter and recycle
nutrients in our forests, gardens and farm                      QuickTime™ and a
fields. So the next time you turn up a
                                                      TIFF (Un compressed) decompressor
                                                        are neede d to see this picture.
creepy crawler, appreciate this hidden
world hard at work beneath your feet.

HAIKU

I sit by a tree,
I see a leaf fall,
With a long shadow.

Jeffrfey Suzuki, age 8
Salisbury, Maryland


JACK O’ LANTERN                                       SQUIGLY CAZOO
                                                      Source: allcrafts.net
Believe it or not, in Ireland, where
Halloween began, the first jack-o‘ lanterns           Kids love making music! Make this Kazoo,
weren‘t made of pumpkins. They were                   put on some music and play along!
made out of rutabagas, potatoes, turnips,
or even beets!
                                                      What you need:
                                                      - Cardboard tubes from toilet paper rolls,
There is an old Irish legend about a man
                                                        plastic or foil wrap, paper towel
named Stingy Jack who was too mean to
                                                      - Waxed paper
get into heaven and had played too many
                                                      - Scissors
tricks on the devil to go to hell.
                                                      - Ruler
                                                      - Pencil
When he died, he had to walk the earth ,
                                                      - Markers or crayons
carrying a lantern made out of turnip with
a burning coal inside. Stingy Jack became
                                                      What you do:
known as ―Jack of the Lantern‖, or ―Jack-
                                                      Decorate your tube with markers or pencil
o‘-lantern‖.
                                                      crayons.
                                                      Cut a 12 cm / 5 ― square out of waxed
From the legend came the Irish tradition of
                                                      paper.
placing jack-o‘-lanterns made of turnips
                                                      Place the square of waxed paper on one
and other vegetables in windows or by
                                                      end of the tube and secure with an elastic.
doors on Halloween.




                                                 11
To play the kazoo, gently hum into the                           trunk out of brown construction paper
open end of the kazoo                                            using pattern. Glue the trunk to the
                                                                 blue paper. Cut out 20-25 green leaves
TREE OF LIFE PAPER QUILT                                         with zig-zag scissors using the leaf
Source: allcrafts.net                                            pattern. Punch 12 circles out of red
                                                                 construction paper then glue the leaves
In Colonial times, many evenings were                            and circles onto the blue paper for the
passed creating decorative stitching                             top of the tree.
samplers. Sewing in all forms was an
important daily task from clothing to quilts.                    Cut 4 strips of white construction paper
This project has a different twist on quilting                   3 cm / 1 1/2" wide and 26 cm/10 1/2"
by using a traditional pattern on a non-                         long. Glue to the brown paper to make
traditional surface, brown paper.                                the border. Cut the red construction
                                                                 paper into fourteen 3 cm /1 1/2"
You will need:                                                   squares. Cut each square diagonally
                                                                 into two triangles. Glue onto the white
                                                                 border.
- Large brown paper bags or brown paper
- Glue stick
- Scissors                                                       Place the batting on the square of plain
- Small zig-zag scissors                                         brown paper, then place your quilt
- 30 cm / 12" Ruler                                              pattern on top. Hold together with a
- Hole punch                                                     clothespin at each corner. Pierce the
- Red and blue plastic canvas yarn                               paper with the needle to make
- Construction paper:                                            stitching holes. Stitch layers together
- White, Blue, Red, Green, Brown                                 with blue yarn using a running stitch
- Tapestry needle                                                on the brown border between the edge
- 33 cm x 33 cm / 13" x 13" Quilt batting                        of the blue and white. Stitch around
- #2 Pencil                                                      the outside edge with red yarn and
- Spring type clothes pins                                       blanket stitch.




                                                                                           QuickTime™ and a
                                                                                  TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
                                                                                     are need ed to see this picture.




Instructions:
                                                                        QuickTime™ and a
                                                              TIFF (Un compressed) decompressor

    Cut two 33 cm x 33 cm / 13" x 13"
                                                                 are neede d to se e this picture.



    pieces of brown paper. Draw
    placement lines lightly in pencil on one
    sheet.

    Cut a 20 cm x 20 cm / 8" x 8" piece of                      Qu i ckTi me ™ an d a
                                                      TIFF (Un co mp re s se d) de co mp re s so r
                                                        a re ne ed ed to se e thi s p i ctu re .
    blue construction paper then glue to
    the center of brown paper. Cut a tree



                                                 12
                                                    Scrunch up some tissue paper and stuff it
                                                    into one end of the roll to make a head.
          QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompress or
   are needed to see this picture.                  Pour some white glue into a shallow dish

                                                    Then dip the cotton wool balls into the glue
                                                    and stick them all around the cardboard
                                                    roll.
To make a running stitch, bring the
needle and tread up through the first               Keep sticking until your sheep is woolly all
hole then down through the next.                    over.

                                                    Add some eyes (we glued black paper
                                                    circles onto the tissue paper) and make
                                                    some horns by twisting small pieces of pipe
          QuickTime™ and a                          cleaner around your finger.
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompress or
   are needed to see this picture.
                                                    Glue the horns onto the sheep using white
                                                    glue



To make a blanket stitch, bring the needle
and thread up through the first hole then
down through the next, leaving a loop.
Bring needle up through the loop, pull
                                                                             QuickTime™ and a
                                                                   TIFF (Uncompressed) decompre ssor
                                                                      are neede d to see this picture.

gently to tighten, and then push needle
down through next hole. Repeat along
edge.

MAKE YOUR OWN:
WILD AND WOOLY SHEEP
Source: kidscraftweekly.com
1
You won‘t need any fancy supplies to get
started on this activity – simply raid your
bathroom cabinet!
This soft and appealing merino is a great                                    QuickTime™ and a
                                                                   TIFF (Uncompressed) decompre ssor
                                                                      are neede d to see this picture.

project for kids who like to craft with glue
and who don‘t mind getting a bit sticky.
Be prepared for children sporting wild and
woolly fingertips by the time you‘re
finished!

YOU WILL NEED:
• Toilet paper roll
                                                    MOTHER’S BOYS
• Cotton wool balls
                                                    Source: The Country Register
• Cotton buds (q-tips)
• White glue
                                                    Yes, I know there are stains on my carpet,
• Tissue paper
                                                    The traces of small muddy boots;
• Pipe cleaner
                                                    And I see your fair tapestry glowing,
• Tape
                                                    All spotless with flowers and fruits.
DIRECTIONS
                                                    And I know that my walls are disfigured
Tape cotton buds (q-tips) on to the
                                                    With prints of small fingers and hands;
cardboard roll to make legs.
                                                    And that your own household most truly
                                                    In immaculate purity stands.




                                               13
And I know that my parlour is littered              Here‘s the trunk. Those tubes in the middle
With many odd treasures and toys,                   are dead, clogged with gums and resins.
While your own is in daintiest order,               They aren‘t as good as pipes, but they hold
Unharmed by the presence of boys.                   the tree up. The tubes on the outside are
                                                    like sieves and storage rooms. They carry
And I know that my room is invaded                  and store food that the leaves have made.
Quite boldly all hours of the day;                  That tiny living layer next to us is so small
While you sit in yours unmolested                   you wouldn‘t see it if you were kid-sized.
And dream the quiet right away.                     But it‘s the part of the tree that made the
                                                    rest — the tubes, the wood, the bark, the
Yes I know there are two little bedsides            whole trunk.
Where I must stand watchful each night.
While you may go out in your carriage,              Now we‘re in a leaf. Millions of tiny pipes
And flash in your dresses so bright.                bring water and minerals to the leaf cells
                                                    and take food back to the tree. Each cell
Now, I think I‘m a neat little woman;               has millions of green factories! They‘re all
And I like my house orderly too;                    taking water and gas, using sunlight, and
And I‘m fond of all dainty belongings,              making plant food.
Yet would not change places with you.
                                                    There are hundreds of breathing holes in
No! Keep your fair home with its order,             this one leaf (called stomata). Each has
Its freedom from bother and noise;                  tow lip-like cells that take in carbon dioxide
And keep your own fanciful leisure,                 and release oxygen and water. Oops! Out
But give me my two splendid boys.                   we go.

          — Author unknown                          Recognize the leaf? It‘s a needle! We were
                                                    in a spruce tree. See that cone? One seed
Tongue-Twister                                      from it can make another tree just like this
                                                    one.
Hi says Hilda Hippo Happily ...
Hi says Hilda Hippo Happily ...                     Pretty fantastic, isn‘t it? And that‘s just the
Hi says Hilda Hippo Happily ...                     inside view.
CREATIONS’ MARVELOUS MACHINE                        Points to ponder
Source: the Banner May 1997
By Joanne E. DeJonge                                Most conifers (spruce, pine and other fir
                                                    trees) cannot grow from a stump. They
Joanne is a writer of children‘s books as           must start from seed. Some broad-leaved
well as a Michigan State Parks ranger.              trees can start again from a stump. Should
                                                    this help us decide what trees are logged
Follow me, and we‘ll explore one of                 and how they‘re cut?
creations marvelous machines: a tree. It
runs on solar power, imports its own raw            Go Figure
materials, makes food from water and air,
and makes more machines just like itself.           How many trees do you need for a trip to
It comes in thousands of models; some               the mall?
live hundreds of years. Burrow past those
big roots. They anchor the tree, but the            One tree with broad leaves can take 13
don‘t do anything else.                             pound of carbon dioxide from the
                                                    atmosphere yearly. Each gallon of gas used
What we want is lone of those millions lof          by a car puts 19 pounds of carbon dioxide
string-thin root hairs. But they won‘t let          into the air.
you in, will they? That‘s because these tiny
threads try to take in only the water and           So how many trees are needed to absorb
minerals the tree needs. Hang on to this            the carbon dioxide from your trips to the
drop of water to sneak in.                          mall during one year? (Hint: You will need
                                                    to know how far away the mall is and how
Now were moving. 65 cm / 2‘ per minute is           many miles per gallon your car gets.)
high speed for a water drop.




                                               14
                                                   different construction paper colours in
                                                   order to make the print stand out.

                                                   For brown, gray or black gills use yellow or
                                                   white paper.

                                                   For white gills use green or red or s similar
                                                   bright colour.

                                                   Next, put a jar or bowl over top of each
                                                   cap in order to keep all drafts out. Keep
                                                   them covered overnight.

                                                   The following morning, very carefully
                                                   remove the jars or bowls and then also
Plant a Tree, Save a Tree
                                                   very gently lift the caps straight up and off
                                                   the paper. You will now find some
The average North American uses at least
                                                   interesting round spore prints underneath
five trees per year in paper and wood.
                                                   each cap. The gills will have left somewhat
What can we do about that?
                                                   of a circular pattern, like the spokes of a
                                                   wagon wheel or vanes on a windmill.
- Plant a tree. Start from seed, or buy a
  young tree.
                                                   Now you need to use the fixative or hair
                                                   spray to keep the spores from smudging.
- Use both sides of paper.
                                                   You need to be extremely careful or the
                                                   force of the spray will blow the spores
- Use cloth napkins, hankies, and towels.
                                                   away. Hold the can about 30 cm / 1 ft
                                                   away from and above the paper. Note:
- Recycle your paper and buy recycled
                                                   aim straight out and not down, this way
  paper.
                                                   the spray will fall gently downward on the
                                                   prints. Let the prints dry completely and
- Refuse to buy anything that‘s got lots of
                                                   then spray them once more, or twice, to
  packaging.
                                                   make sure they are completely protected.
MUSHROOM SPORE PRINTS
                                                   MYSTERIOUS MUSHROOMS
Mushrooms come in a variety of colours
                                                   A mushroom is the fruit of a plant with
and so do the spores they make. You can
                                                   ―branches‖ that grow underground, or in
catch the spores on paper before they have
                                                   any sort of rotting stuff as old wood or
a chance to spread around by the wind.
                                                   layers of leaves. Next time you find a
You can now make mushroom ―gill-prints‖.
                                                   mushroom, dig around it and you‘ll
                                                   discover a bunch of fine white threads all
For that you will need:
                                                   tangled together, called mycelium (my-
              -
                                                   SEAL-ee-um). The threads themselves are
- some construction paper
                                                   called hyphae (HI-fee).
- some fresh round-capped mushrooms
- a sharp knife or similar item,
                                                   The mushroom‘s main purpose in life is to
  Be Careful using the knife!
                                                   make spores, which are tiny ―seeds‖ that
- some jars, or bowls, large enough to
                                                   will grow new mushroom plants. Even big
  cover the mushroom caps
                                                   spores are no longer that a speck of dust.
- artists fixative or hairspray
- an area that is draft free
                                                   Most mushrooms have a stem and a cap. If
                                                   you turn the cap over, you‘ll probably find
Procedures:
                                                   a circle of thin, fleshy gills or hundreds of
                                                   little holes. That‘s where the spores are —
Cut of the stem where it is attached to the
                                                   millions of them, waiting for a breeze to
mushroom cap
                                                   blow them into the air.
Put the mushroom caps gill-side down on
                                                   Different kinds of mushrooms have
construction paper. Experiment with
                                                   different colours of spores. If you run your



                                              15
finger across the gills or holes, you can see
a fine powder of spores on your skin. Or,
you can take a spore print to see what
colours the ―seeds‖ are.

All mushrooms have spores, but not all
have a tem, or even a cap. If you see a
soft white or gray ball growing on the
ground, you‘ve found a puffball mushroom.
Give it a gentle poke with your finger.
Poof! Out comes a cloud of spores, just like
a puff of smoke.                                     Picture by Rad Dad

There are really thousands of kinds of               THE ELEGANT STINKHORN
mushrooms that come in a wide range of
shapes and colours and names. Its no                 Now why would Rad Dad include a picture
wonder that people have always thought               of the Elegant Stink Horn. Well there is a
that mushrooms are magical and                       very good chance that any one of you,
mysterious.                                          including youth, may find some growing in
                                                     some of the decaying wood chip type
Some of the various names are: shaggy                mulches you may have in your garden.
mane, black jelly drops, witch‘s hat, hen of
the woods, bear‘s head, beefsteak, earth             Relationship to Humans:
star, stinkhorn, man-on-a-horse, prince,
squaw root, pipe stem, etc.                          This fungus can be annoying because of its
                                                     extremely offensive smell. However, it is
Some of the various shapes are quite                 actually edible, though most people do not
unique, such as icicles, turkey tails,               desire to eat it. REMEMBER; never eat a
sponges, trumpets, bowls, pig ears, etc.             mushroom without checking with an
                                                     expert! Like all fungi, the Elegant
Some of the colours are green, orange,               Stinkhorn performs the important job of
yellow, purple, bright red and some even             breaking down old plant matter
ooze a milky liquid when you touch them.             (decomposing). Despite its odour, this
Then there are the poisonous mushrooms,              mushroom helps us by turning old trees
which have scary names as panther cap,               and leaves into good soil.
death cp, destroying angel etc.
                                                     Relationship to Nature:
Finding a variety of mushrooms may not
be overly difficult. Studying mushrooms              It is a food source for the bluebottle fly,
and making spore prints can be fun,                  Isopod, Leopard Slug, Eastern Box Turtle,
remember though that you should never                Horned Fungus Beetle, Soil Mite and the
eat a mushrooms that you find outdoors in            Fungus Gnat as well as shelter for the soil
nature. Eating just a wee bit of a poisonous         mite and Fungus gnat.
one can make you very wick or even                   ASIA WORD SEARCH
worse, it could kill you. It is only the             Source: The Ridgetown Independent News
experts who can tell the real difference
between edible mushrooms and poisonous               There are 14 Asian countries hidden
ones.                                                throughout the scrambled puzzle below.
                                                     See how many you can find and circle. The
                                                     words go horizontally and vertically as well
                                                     as backward and forward.

                                                     L   A   L   E   N    N   A   R   D   O   J     B
                                                     M   O   N   G   O    L   I   A   N   R   O     J
                                                     B   N   G   L   R    I   N   A   H   T   R     E
                                                     A   I   T   U   T    I   A   W   U   K   D     A
                                                     A   N   E   P   H    U   D   I   S   T   A     I
                                                     N   A   R   I   K    R   I   Q   A   M   N     S



                                                16
I   T   B   I    O   S   U   A   I   R      A   Y        below, try to find six ways the warbler is
H   S   M   T    R   U   S   L   B   U      S   A        tied to a certain environment.
C   I   O   H    E   S   K   A   A   I      N   L
U   K   N   A    A   I   A   P   R   T      S   A        Kirtland‘s warblers nest under jack pine
W   A   G   I    T   A   S   E   A   P      E   M        trees (HINT) that are five to six years old
A   P   L   L    A   I   D   N   I   A      K   O        (HINT). Younger trees have branches too
I   A   B   A    N   G   L   A   D   E      S   H        close to the ground. Older trees have
N   O   E   N    R   T   H   K   U   E      R   A        branches too high. These trees must cover
                                                         at least 32 hectares / 80 acres (HINT) of
E   H   S   D    E   S   M   O   A   N      G   L
                                                         land.
P   U   H   A    K   I   A   I   S   S      U   R
                                                         The soil beneath the nest must be Grayling
WINTER SQUASH, FENNEL AND LEEK
                                                         soil (HINT), which allows rainwater to drain
BROTH
                                                         from the nest quickly.
You will need:
                                                         The warbler nests in Michigan, but winters
                                                         in the Bahamas (HINT). Both in the
- 1 Butternut, pumpkin, or other winter
                                                         Bahamas and in Michigan, it‘s tied into
  squash, about 1 K / 2 pounds.
                                                         other life webs (HINT).
- 2 large or 3 small leeks, split in half
  lengthwise, dark green tops only, roughly
  chopped.                                               Parts of the web
- 1 small fennel bulb with top, roughly                  Which of these are usually threads in some
  chopped                                                bird‘s web of life? How?
- 2 or 3 sprigs fresh sage                                           -     seeds
- 2 L / 8 cups water                                                 -     bugs
                                                                     -     trees
Slice the squash in half lengthwise. Peel off                        -     parking lots
the rind, and scoop out the seeds and pulp.                          -     windows
Reserve the flesh for the soup or another                            -     bushes
dish.                                                                -     cats
                                                                     -     bug zappers
Add the squash rind, squash seeds and                                -     lawn ornaments
pulp, leeks, fennel, and sage to a stockpot.
Add the water and bring to boil over high                Did you find six ways the warbler is tied to
heat. Reduce the heat to low, an simmer,                 its environment? Write the words along the
uncovered, for 45 to 60 minutes.                         six lines. Draw pictures at the ends.

Strain the broth, and discard the solids.                That was the warbler’s life web for a
The broth may be refrigerated in a covered               long time. But thing happened.
container for up to 3 days of frozen for up
to 1 month.                                              People cut down the jack pine. Cross out
                                                         that line. They also put out natural fires.
Makes about 325 mL / 1 ½ quart                           Remaining jack pines grew too old for the
A WARBLER’S WEB                                          warbler. Cross out the second line.
Source: The Banner                                       People built houses and farms. Warblers
By Joanne E. De Jonge                                    lost their 32 hectare / 80 acre areas. Cross
                                                         out that line.
Grab yourself a pencil. You‘re going to
make a life web.

First, draw a small songbird sitting on a
nest on the ground. That‘s a Kirtland‘s
Warbler.

Draw six lines stretching away from the
web. These represent parts of the
Warbler‘s life web. In the paragraphs




                                                    17
                                                     This native plant, Indian pipe, is a fragile
                                                     herbaceous woodland wildflower of the
                                                     eastern deciduous forest of the United
                                                     States and Canada with a great range of
                                                     distribution. It lacks leaves, is parasitic on
              QuickTime™ and a                       the roots of trees, mainly oaks and beech.
    TIFF (Un compressed) decompressor                Since it lacks chlorophyll, it‘s sometimes
       are neede d to see this picture.
                                                     called ghost plant or corpse plant.

                                                     The thick, yellow to brown stalks with
                                                     cone-shaped inflorescence of whitish-
                                                     yellow nodding flowers of this non-green
                                                     parasitic plant grow in little colonies and
                                                     look like erect pine-cones. It has no leaves
Feed for the Birds                                   and grows 5 cm – 20 cm / 2 - 8" tall.
                                                     Flowering time is from May to June. It does
Take an old net bag used for onion and cut           not have true leaves, rather, simple ovate
it down to a smaller size. Make a ball of            tiny scales that appear under the flowers
beef fat, or suet and birdseed. Put it in the
bag. Tie the bag shut and string some cord
through one end. Hang the ball on a tree
branch and watch the birds some.

Here‘s a doozy. Cowbirds began Cowbirds
originally lived near buffalo, feeding on
insects the animals stirred up while
grazing. When buffalo disappeared,
cowbirds started hanging out with the cows
and found the warblers.

Warblers weren‘t created to deal with
cowbirds. Confused by the eggs, they
ended up raising cowbirds instead of
warblers. Put a knot in the other life webs
line.                                                Picture by Rad Dad

Your warbler is in trouble. What can you do          Fruits and Reproduction
to fix its life web before you have to erase
it? Thankfully people are working to                 A seed very small seed capsule contains
restore the warbler‘s web.                           many small seeds replaces each flower.
                                                     This plant spreads to new locations by
What do you think?                                   reseeding itself.

The law protects many endangered                     The suckers of the parasitic roots cause the
species. But there‘s a committee in the              formation of large rounded knobs on the
United States that can cancel that                   roots of the host tree.
protection if it costs the humans too much.
The committee is sometimes called the                It has a wider range of distribution than
―God Squad‖ because it has life-and-death            almost any modern plant, indicating it
power over endangered species.                       probably evolved during the Jurassic
What‘s ―too much‖?                                   period.
Are we all on some God Squad? How?


INDIAN PIPE
Monotropa uniflora                                   SQUAW ROOT
                                                     Conopholis Americana




                                                18
This native plant, Squaw Root or Cancer             Picture by Rad Dad
Plant, has thick, yellow to brown stalks
with whitish-yellow flowers. This non-green         There is no noticeable floral scent. A seed
parasitic plant grows in little colonies and        capsule containing many small seeds
look like erect pinecones. It has no leaves         replaces each flower. As the summer
and grows 5 cm – 20 cm / 2 - 8" tall and            progresses, the flowering spike begins to
unbranched. The corollas of young flowers           wither and becomes brown. It can persist
are initially semi-erect. Underneath each           through the winter, by which time it has
flower, there is a very small scale that            become shriveled and black.
quickly turns brown. It flowers from April
to July and prefers dry woods, most often           The root system is parasitic on the roots of
under oak trees feeding on its roots. It is         Oaks, the suckers of the parasitic roots
indifferent to light levels.                        cause the formation of large rounded
                                                    knobs on the roots of the host tree.
                                                    Because Cancer Root doesn't produce
                                                    chlorophyll, it is dependent on the host
                                                    tree for its nourishment. Small clusters of
                                                    flowering spikes often develop from the
                                                    same root system. This plant spreads to
                                                    new locations by reseeding itself.




KIDS CORNER WORD SEARCH                                              Match the flower with
Source: The Abbotsford News June ‗09                                 its Latin name:

T   S   O    X    G   F   T   Q    P   S   S   L    R   P   T          MOONFLOWER 1
B   C   N    T    X   N   U   F    R   P   O   E    T   R   Y              A ROSA
O   K   E    N    M   E   Z   E    Y   R   A   R    B   I   L        CENTIFOLIA
O   H   J    N    S   A   P   Q    Z   D   H   T    L   U   R
K   J   O    T    N   A   G   U    Q   Q   L   K    H   K   I                ORCHID 2
S   I   I    Y    P   O   R   A    A   V   W   U    L   S   C                B ANTIRRHINUM
P   O   S    S    C   Q   C   E    Z   N   P   W    O   B   N        MAJUS
N   K   W    V    I   S   U   A    L   I   Z   E    X   I   O
B   E   X    N    U   F   W   K    K   T   N   A    S   O   I                 ROSE 3
                                                                     C LAVENDULA
N   C   S    B    Q   B   Z   P    X   V   F   E    Q   G   T
                                                                     ANGUSTIFOLIA
U   J   C    U    R   U   D   V    K   C   I   F    S   R   C
W   U   Q    T    M   G   B   Y    U   R   J   H    R   A   I
                                                                     SWEET WILLIAM 4
H   W   V    B    K   M   Y   L    O   T   Y   T    C   P   F              D GERBERA
Y   E   A    V    Q   E   V   T    C   U   I   I    E   H   U        JAMESONII
Q   L   S    W    S   W   S   R    C   C   D   I    P   X   Y
                                                                               POPPY 5 *
BIOGRAPHY        BOOKS            CONNECT       FICTION                      E IPOMOEA ALBA
FUN              LIBRARY          MAGAZINES     POETRY
NEWSPAPERS       QUESTION         READ          STORIES                 BELLFLOWER 6
SUMMER           VISUALIZE                                           * F PAPAVER RHOES

GENUS GENIUS



                                               19
    CALLA LILY 7                G ZANTEDESCHIA
                                  AETHIOPICA                           Perhaps the Mount Albert
ENGLISH                                                                Youth Group can explain a
    LAVENDER 8                  H CELOSIA ARGENTEA                     few of these delicatessens
                                                                       As to what they are/were
 SNAPDRAGON 9                   I DIANTHUS BARBATUS                    made up of and how they
                                                                       are/were made....
   FOXGLOVE 10                  J PHALAENOPSIS                         ... Ants on a log, sounds
                                                                       delicious!
GERBERA
      DAISY 11                  K WISTERIA FLORIBUNDA                  CONSIDERATIONS

          LILAC 12              L SYRINGA VULGARIS                     Be careful of the words
                                                                       you say to keep them soft
 COCKSCOMB 13                   M DIGITALIS PURPUREA                   and sweet. You never
                                                                       know, from day to day,
JAPANESE                                                               which one you may have
    WISTERIA 14                 N CAMPANULA                            to eat.

PARTY SNACKS                                                           If you ever become
                                                                       depressed, play the
Party snacks, something different for each meeting.                    violin; it helps to keep
                                                                       your chin up.
Celery and cottage cheese
                                                                       If you see someone
                                                                       without a smile, give
Grape jelly and oatmeal muffins
                                                                       them one of yours.
Sunflower granola
                                                                       Feed your faith, and your
                                                                       doubts will starve to
Chocolate cupcakes
                                                                       death.
Oranges

Swedish gingerbread cookies

Honey bars

Ants on a log

Nibbling party

From a 1999 Newsletter
FABULOUS FLOWER WHEELS
Source: kidscraftsweekly.com

The wild enthusiasm and raptures that
greeted this craft is surprising, which just                                QuickTime™ and a

confirms the belief that no matter how well                       TIFF (Uncompressed) decompre ssor
                                                                     are neede d to see this picture.


you think you know them, your kids will
always take you by surprise!

YOU WILL NEED:
• paper plates
• white glue
• scissors                                          DIRECTIONS:
• different colours of crepe paper                  Cut crepe paper into pieces.
• pen or marker                                     We used pieces that were roughly 5 cm x 5
                                                    cm / 2‖ x 2‖, however, there is no need to



                                               20
be overly precise.                                                           twist about one from the fold. Make
                                                                             another twist about one centimetre from
Draw a simple geometric design onto a                                        the last one.
paper plate.
Pour some white glue onto a spare paper
plate.                                                                                         QuickTime™ and a
                                                                                     TIFF (Uncompressed) decompre ssor
                                                                                        are neede d to see this picture.




Then scrunch up a piece of crepe paper,
dip it in the glue and stick to the plate.
                                                                             - Place paper in the pipecleaner and twist
Continue with different colours until you                                    again, making sure that the pipecleaner is
have created a fabulous flower wheel.                                        holding the paper firmly in place.
                                                                             - Make a final twist about one centimetre
                                                                             from the paper and extend the ends of the
                                                                             pipecleaners to form antennae.
                                                                             - To finish off, pop beads on the end of the
                                                                             Pipecleaners.
                                            QuickTime™ and a
                                  TIFF (Uncompressed) decompre ssor
                                     are neede d to see this picture.




                                                                                                             QuickTime™ and a
                                                                                                   TIFF (Uncompressed) decompre ssor
                                                                                                      are neede d to see this picture.




1
                                                                             3
2                                                                            4
3                                                                            4
CONCERTINA FOLD BUTTERFLIES                                                  “WHAT’S IN A SEED” – EXPERIMENT
Source: kidscraftsweekly.com
                                                                             Source: By Miss B. Ean and Master C. Orn
This simple butterfly looks beautiful on                                     Note: real names are withheld – Rad Dad
both sides, making it perfect for hanging                                    (O.k. really by Rad Dad)
from a light fitting or in a doorway.
                                                                             Most horticultural experiments are done in
YOU WILL NEED:                                                               three repeats of the same project. These
• a rectangular piece of paper                                               repeats are also completely done on a
• paints or markers                                                          ―random pattern basis‖ or, completely
• pipecleaner                                                                mixed up with absolutely no consistency.
• two beads
                                                                             If the results of the three experiments are
                                                                             all similar upon completion, then you have
                   QuickTime™ and a
         TIFF (Uncompressed) decompre ssor
                                                                             qualifying reasons to believe that the
                                                                             results are conclusive as having observed.
            are neede d to see this picture.




                                                                             For this experiment we will need:
DIRECTIONS:                                                                  - 28 discarded plastic containers.
- Colour or paint a piece of paper on both                                   - Soil, or a friable soil medium that may
sides and let it dry.                                                          include some perlite, vermiculite
- Do a Concertina fold over the entire piece                                   and/or peat moss.
of paper, starting at the short edge.                                        - A total of 14 bean and corn seeds

                                                                             Procedures:
                                                                             - Put a number of holes in the bottom of
                   QuickTime™ and a
         TIFF (Uncompressed) decompre ssor
            are neede d to see this picture.                                   each container for drainage.
                                                                             - Fill the containers with the soil media.
                                                                             - Place one bead seed in 14 containers.
                                                                             - Place one corn seed in twelve containers.
- Fold a pipecleaner in half and make a                                      - Water the containers until they are



                                                                        21
  moistened well but not saturated.                   ―photosynthesis‖, which in actuality is a
- Place the containers in a normal warm               small sugar-making factory right inside the
  room setting with normal sunlight.                  true leaves.
- Keep the soil media moistened.
                                                      Remember that you need to observe and
Once they show signs of growth observe                write down all the things that are
the following:                                        happening with the corn seeds. Did the
Do the seeds come out of the soil media or            seeds come out of the soil media or stay
do they stay in the soil media?                       inside it? How did they emerge and start to
If they do come out of the soil, what                 grow, similar to the beans or different?
happens to the seed coat?
If something does happen, write down                  But now for the experiment:
what you observe.                                     Once you see reasonable signs of growth
If they do come out of the soil media:                and good development of the first true
     a. Is the seed coat removed?                     leaves, mix them up really well, both the
     b. do the seeds split in half?                   bean plants and the corn plants. This is
     c. If so, do the two halves, called              where you pick the pots at random, totally
         seed leaves or Cotyledons, change            unselective. Remember to constantly
         colour?                                      observe and write down what is happening.
     d. If they change colour, what colour
         do they change to?                           Have you written down the dates you
     e. What kind of growth follows the               seeded and when you first observed
         development of the seed leaves?              growth and at what time the true leaves
     f. Does the plant develop leaves                 developed? Those are all important factors
         called the first ―true‖ leaves?              in this or any experiment.
     g. What happens to the seed leaves
         once the ―true‖ leaves grow?

Do you think that the seeds you planted               What I want you to do now is at random
were dead and came to life after you                  select three groups of four pots of both the
planted them in the soil media and gave               beans and the corn; just pick them at
them water and other good growing                     random from any spot in the overall group
conditions?                                           and set each group of four apart.

Is it possible the seeds were alive and               Now, this is where the real experiment
viable all along but in a sort of state of            begins; I want you to do the following:
dormancy and resumed or re-started
growing when you placed them in the                   With the first set of 4 plants, cut the tops
desirable environmental conditions?                   off the plants carefully just below the seed
                                                      leaves.
Now what you might want to do is open up
some of the spare bean seeds you have                 With the second set of 4 plants, cut of the
and observe and identify what is inside.              tops of the plants carefully just above the
See if you can locate a small part at the tip         seed leaves.
that looks a bit like a small root. Well that
is what becomes the plant‘s first root,               With the third set of 4 plants, do not do
called a ―radicle‖. Closely beside it you will        anything just let them grow naturally.
observe another little piece, which will
become the first leaves.                              So now you have a few left over pots, what
                                                      to do with them. You will discard them, as
The two halves of the seed actually are the           they were just a few extra just in case all
first leaves that have food stored inside             the seeds did not germinate. Don‘t be
them to feed the first little root and as it          tempted to keep them, as that would
starts to grow also the first shoot that will         jeopardize your whole experiment.
develop and eventually produce the first
true leaves.                                          Incidentally, a good method of finding out
                                                      if your seeds are viable beforehand is to
Once the true leaves develop, they will               place them in a bowl of water and if they
start making food by a process called



                                                 22
sink they are healthy, if they float, they         - dryer sheets
are not.                                           - acrylic craft paints
                                                   - green chenille stems or pipe cleaners
So now you will find out how important             - perfume or essential oil
each part of a seed is and what happens            - vase or jar
when parts of a seedling is damaged or
removed. Will it continue to grow?

Now, I am not going to tell you what I
think may happen, remember, you are the
one experimenting. You might well have                        Qui ckTi me™ and a
                                                   TIFF (Uncompressed) d ecompresso r
some thoughts beforehand as to what                   are ne ede d to see thi s pi cture.

might happen and then see if that is what
occurred or something different.

It will be exiting to see if you have the
same results from both the beans and the
corn or if the differ in certain stages or         Dryer Sheet Flowers
aspects.                                           Instructions:

Here‘s hoping you will a lot of fun in your        1. Take two or three dryer sheets and fold
new season and learn a lot.                        them lengthwise in an accordion style,
                                                   using about 1 cm – 2 ½ cm / 1/2-1‖ strips.
Perhaps at some other time we can do an
experiment relating to ―photosynthesis‖ or         2. Fold it in half and slip the top of the pipe
roots and root hairs. That could be very           cleaner through, then twist the pipe
interesting also.                                  cleaner tightly. The rest of the pipe cleaner
                                                   becomes the flower stem.

DRYER SHEET FLOWERS                                3. Pull the layers apart and watch a flower
Source: allfreecrafts.com                          appear. Add a few drops of perfume or
By: Twila Lenoir                                   essential oil if your using used sheets or
                                                   sheets with no fragrance.
Celebrate a special by making a big
bouquet of dryer sheet flowers in a                4. Place a dollop of paint on a clean meat
rainbow of colors. Give it to brighten the         tray, and add some water. Gently brush
day for anyone special in your life.               the top edges of the flower.

You can either recycle already used dryer          5. Repeat the painting in different colors,
sheets or try brand new dryer sheets for           even make a bunch of them and present
this bouquet of dryer sheet flowers. We got        them in a pretty vase to someone special,
ours at the dollar store.                          or for a special "I love you" present.

Dryer Sheet Flowers
Supplies:
HORTICULTURAL ASSOCIATION CONVENTION @ GEORGIAN COLLEGE - BARRIE
COMPETITIONS SCHEDULE FOR YOUTH – AUGUST 13 AND 14 - 2010
RULES AND REGULATIONS:
1.      Each exhibitor must be a Youth Member of a society in good standing with the Ontario
        Horticultural Association.
2.      Each class states: Only one entre per club or Open to all youth club members.
3.      Class 15, is for highest total number of points received in the competition.
        No need to apply.
4.      Each entry must have an entry tag securely attached showing
        EXHIBITOR‘S NAME, AGE, YOUTH CLUB and DISTRICT.
        USE YOUR LOCAL HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY TAGS.




                                              23
       If you do not have tags available, please contact the Youth Chair.
Entries must be placed on Thursday August 13th between 8 - 9 p.m. or
On Friday August 14th between 8 - 9 a.m.
Judging starts at 9:30 a. m. Friday morning.
Note: NO LATE ENTRIES ACCEPTED Mail in entries must be received by June 1st.
5.     All entries must be registered with the Youth Show Clerk at the Convention,
       with 3 (three) copies of the Entry Form for each class entered, unless you have
       previously mailed the Form(s) or e-mailed a copy to the Youth Chair prior to June 1st
       (Chair will make extra copies required if Enter Form are received before June 1st).
6.     No exhibits may be removed until Sunday morning (time to be announced).
7.     Dried plant material is material from which the moisture has been removed either
       naturally or by artificial means.
8.     Judging is in accordance with the Publication: Ontario Judging Standards for
       Horticulture and Floral Design 2003.
9.     The decision of the judge(s) is final.
10.    Age groupings for Youth Competition are as follows:
       6 - 8 years     9 - 11 years        12 - 14 years   and    15 - 18 years
       These groupings apply for classes 1 to 8.
11.    Prizes are as follows:
       1st prize.... $6.00 (5 points)     2nd prize.... $5.00 (4 points)
        rd
       3 prize.... $4.00 (3 points)       4th prize... $3.00 (2 points)
        th
       5 prize.... $2.00 (1 point)
       All other Classes: prizes are stated below the class description.
       Honourable Mention ribbons may be awarded in any of the classes
       Judges Choice Ribbon, from Section C: FLORAL DESIGN
       Best in Show Ribbon, from Section B: ARTISTIC CREATIVITY
12.   Leaders: Please send your estimated list of all entries (see Attached Sheet)
with exhibitor’s name, age, section, class number, society and society’s Secretary’s
name and address to Youth Chair, Anna Peterson, Box 101, St. Marys, On., N4X 1A9
       Please estimate high, as the number of entries help determine the space
allotted for the Youth Competitions.
13.   Mail in Entries for Pre-Judging must be received NO LATER than June 1st, 2010




SECTION A:     CREATIVE WRITING                                        Pre-Judged Classes.
Entries to be received by Youth Chair (address above) by June 1st, 2010 for pre-judging.

Judging Criteria:     Subject matter: 70%             Neatness and spelling: 30%

         Class 1 and 2 – Ages 6 to 8 and 9 to 11 - not to exceed 150 words.
         Class 1 and 2 - Ages 12 to14 and 15 to 18 - should have a minimum of 150 words.
Class 1: To be composed in your own words, information may be computer/internet
               generated.
“Springwater Provincial Park” –




                                                 24
Describe the forest cover in the park and name some of the species of trees growing within
the area. One particular tree species is at the extreme northern limit of it‘s normal growing
range. Name this special species and give as many details as possible e.g. leaf shape, mature
tree (shape and size), how trees are used e.g. (landscaping, lumber etc).
Drawings, photos, and/or magazine pictures are allowed. Display in a duo-tang folder.

Class 2: To be composed in your own words, information may be computer/internet
generated.

“Fire Wood, the good, the bad, and the evil” –

Name and describe some of the insects that are harming our trees (the bad, and evil). Give
information on how to identify these insects. Give a way we can all help protect trees (the
good).
Drawings, photos, and /or magazine pictures are allowed. Display in a duo-tang folder.

SECTION B: ARTISTIC CREATIVITY

Class 3: “My Garden”                                             Open to all youth members.
Create a picture of your garden (real or imaginary) by using pressed plant material, coloured
pencils, crayons, markers and/or paints may be used. Picture may be covered with clear mac
tac or similar material.
Picture to be created on a 21 ½ x 28 cm sheet of paper suitable for project (e.g. card stock)

Class 4: “Thinking of You”                                               Pre-Judged Class.
                                                                Open to all youth members.
Create a card, using pressed plant materials, drawings and/or pictures may also be used to
enhance your card. ―Thinking of You‖ must be printed somewhere on or in the card.
Pressed plant materials, should be covered with clear mac tac or similar material.

SECTION C: FLORAL DESIGN (accessories permitted)

Class 5: “Everlasting”                                            Open to all youth members.
Create a design using dried garden and/or wayside materials and foliages in a container of
your choice. Entire design is not to exceed 30 cm in any direction.

Class 6: “Bright and Beautiful”                                    Open to all youth members.
Create a design in a mug using a variety of fresh flowers and foliage.
Entire design is not to exceed 30 cm in any direction.




SECTION D: PLANTS

Class 7: “Our Miniature Garden”          Only one entry per club, may be a combined effort.
Create a dish garden, not larger than 23cm x 33cm.
Design this garden with compatible plants, (e.g. shade loving plants with shade loving plants).

1st. prize - $6.00 + plaque      2nd $5.00 3rd $4.00     4th $3.00                 5th $2.00
Prize money and plaque awarded by Anna Peterson, St. Marys.
Anna is District 10 Director - 2005 – 2010

SECTION C:     FINE ARTS




                                              25
 Class 8: Harry Wyma Fine Arts Award                                        Pre-Judged Class
“Dragon Boat”-                                                   Open to all youth members.
Entry to be a picture and/or drawing using (crayon, paint, pencil, paper, cloth, magazine
pictures etc.). This class is to honour the ―The Dragon Boat Races‖ held annually in Barrie, on
Kempenfelt Bay.
1st prize - $10.00 + plaque          2nd prize - $8.00 3rd prize - $6.00

Prize money and plaque awarded by Harry Wyma, Ridgetown.
Harry was District 11 Director from 1983 – 1988 and OHA President in 1990
Class 9:     Don Matthews Award for Drawing and Printing.                Pre-Judged Class
                                                                Open to all youth members.
Print the following poem, adding descriptive drawings to illustrate the poem. The
poem and illustration is to be on 21-1/2 cm x28 cm white paper in black ink or other suitable
medium to produce black lettering. The drawing portion may be coloured in suitable natural
colouring.
                                      The beauty of the trees,
                                       the softness of the air,
                                    the fragrance of the grass,
                                            speaks to me.
                                   The summit of the mountain,
                                      the thunder of the sky,
                                            speaks to me.
                                     The faintness of the stars,
                                         the trail of the sun,
                                         the strength of fire,
                                 and the life that never goes away,
                                          they speak to me.
                                        And my heart soars.
                                                                          -Chief Dan George.
 st                                     nd                      rd
1     prize - $10.00 + plaque       2        prize - $8.00     3     prize - $6.00

Prize money and Plaque awarded by Don Matthews, Harriston.
Don was District 7 Director from 1991 – 1996 and OHA President in 1998.
Class 10: Maisie Bray Award                     Only one entry per club, may be a combined effort.

“Wild Flowers” – Black-eyed Susan Rudbeckia hirta.
On a poster tell a story, with printed, or written commentary (may be computer/internet
generated) and descriptive illustrations of the Black-eyed Susan, Rudbeckia hirta.
Give as many details as you can find about this plant. Give both common and botanical name.

Judging Criteria:      Subject matter: 70%                Neatness and spelling: 30%
 st                         nd
1     prize - $10.00       2     prize - $ 8.00          3rd prize - $ 6.00
Maisie Bray came from Lion’s Head and was District 8 Director from 1978 – 1983


SECTION D: SPECIAL AWARDS and COMPETITIONS for YOUTH CLUB LEADERS

Class 11: Ruby Bryan Award -                                           Only one entry per club.
In a scrapbook provide a descriptive account of the youth club activities for 2009. This should
include a pictorial and illustrative description and narrative about specific subjects, meetings
and projects. There is no limitation to size. May be done by the youth leader.
Project to be judged on content only. Bring to Convention for competition.

1st prize - $10.00 + plaque       2nd prize - $ 8.00           3rd prize - $ 6.00




                                                    26
Ruby Bryan came from Englehart and was District 12 Director from 1964 -1969 and
OHA President in 1972

Class 12:   Frances Lemke Award -              $25.00                    Pre- Judges Class
                                                                     Only one entry per club.
A cash award will be given annually to the youth garden club that, in the estimation of the
youth committee, has been the most active and innovative. It will be based on the 2009
(Calendar Year) Youth Club Program and Activity Report.
The attached page is a suggested format to use when submitting this report.
Frances Lemke came from Pembroke and was District 2 Director from 1959 – 1964
and OHA President 1967

Class 13: Nothers Awards and Identification Ltd.                     Only one entry per club.
Based on a public project undertaken by a Youth Club. Provide information, which is to
include various pictures with illustrative descriptions and narrative, about a public project
undertaken by the youth club. The contents are to describe the project before, during and after
completion. Projects may be those of patio planters on public locations, tree plantings, or any
related public planting.
1st prize - $12.00 + plaque 2nd prize - $10.00            3rd prize - $ 8.00

Class 14: Ruby Lobban High Points Award
This award is based on the highest points received by a youth club from entries presented at
the Convention
1st prize - $15.00     2nd prize - $10.00              3rd prize - $ 5.00
Ruby Lobban came from Owen Sound and was District 8 Executive from 1974 – 1983

SPECIAL CNE Entry Info
This is a special competition for OHA Youth members to enter at the CNE. Entries can be
made ahead of time and then mailed to the CNE for arrival before August 1st of the current
year. Theme is “White Pine”, Ontario‘s provincial tree.
Drawing to include the entire tree, cone shape, number of needles, trunk/bark and root etc.
plus the printed name, including botanical name. It is to be composed on firm board type
material (e.g. Bristol board). Size: to be standard letter paper 21.5cm x 28cm (8-1/2‘x11‖).
Drawing may be done in any media (pen, pencil crayon, crayon, etc) and it must be able to be
mailed.
Entries to be received by August 1, 2010 at Horticultural Competitions (Youth), C.N.E.,
Exhibition Place, Toronto, Ontario M6K 3C3. Provide a return envelope with return address for
mailing. C.N.E. will provide return postage.
Note: Entries must have youth name and society return mailing address on back for their
return. Class entry, “O.H.A. Youth Entry”, is to be included on the back of each entry
Prizes are 1st - $5.00; 2nd - $4.00; 3rd - $3.00; H.M. - $2.00.
For CNE information call Paula at the CNE-416-263-3835 or Dave Money – 416-497-3788.




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