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Presidency

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									           The Presidency & Judiciary
I.    Presidency
                                     Key Terms
    A. Rankings & Popularity
    B. Qualifications & the    • Cabinet
         Constitution          • Pocket Veto
II. Roles/Functions
    A. Administrative
                               • Treaty-making
    B. Domestic Policy         • Executive Agreement
    C. Foreign Policy          • War Powers Act
    D. Military
    E. Symbolic                • Pardon
III. Judiciary                 • Judicial Review
    A. Qualifications &
         Constitution
    B. “Job”
       Ranking The Presidents


#1 Abraham Lincoln (1861-65)
#2 Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933-1945)
#3 George Washington (1789-1797)

Source: Ranking the Presidents, Ridings & McIver
      (1997)
       Ranking The Presidents

Other Important Presidents:
      #4 Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809)
      #9 Dwight Eisenhower (1953-1961)
      #15 John F. Kennedy (1961-1963)

Source: Ranking the Presidents, Ridings & McIver
      (1997)
       Ranking The Presidents

The Worst Presidents:
      #32 Richard Nixon (1969-1974)
      #38 Ulysses S. Grant (1869-1877)
      #41 Warren Harding (1921-1923)

Source: Ranking the Presidents, Ridings & McIver
      (1997)
Are you generally satisfied with the way things are
going in the US at this time, or generally
dissatisfied?


       Generally Satisfied         25.4%
       Generally Dissatisfied 74.6%




 Source: September, 2010 Student Survey at
 WSCC
Do you approve or disapprove of the way
Barack Obama is handling his job as president
in general?


     Approve                37.3%
     No Opinion             29.4%
     Disapprove             32.5%



Source: September, 2010 Student Survey at
WSCC
Do you approve or disapprove of the way
Barack Obama is handling economic
conditions?


     Approve               29.4%
     No Opinion            29.4%
     Disapprove            39.7%



Source: September, 2010 Student Survey at
WSCC
Do you approve or disapprove of the way
Barack Obama is handling relations with other
nations?


     Approve                38.1%
     No Opinion             41.3%
     Disapprove                  18.3%



Source: September, 2010 Student Survey at
WSCC
         Presidential Approval: Obama, Bush & Clinton

       Sept, 2010               37%   Approval Rating
       June 2010                50%   Approval Rating
       Jan 2010                 36%   Approval Rating
       Sept, 2009               39%   Approval Rating
       Jan, 2009                13%   Approval Rating
       Sept 2008                21%   Approval Rating
       Jan 2008                 16%   Approval Rating
       Sept, 2006               24%   Approval Rating
       Sept, 2004               30%   Approval Rating
       Sept, 2003               34%   Approval Rating
       Jan, 2003                51%   Approval Rating
       Sept, 2002               62%   Approval Rating
       Jan, 2002                79%   Approval Rating
       Sept, 2001               39%   Approval Rating
       June, 2001               18%   Approval Rating
       Jan, 2001                48%   Approval Rating
       Sept, 1998               31%   Approval Rating




Source: Student Surveys at WSCC from 1998-2010
Qualifications & Constitution

Age              35
Birth            Born in the USA

Residency        Resident of USA
                 for 14 years
Salary           $400,000
   Presidential Salary/Income Comparison




                   Angelina Jolie =     Alex Rodriguez
                      $27 mill.           = $33 mill.


Obama = $400,000
                                                            Lawrence Ellison
                                                                (Oracle)
                                                            $556 mill. in 2009


                   Harrison Ford =    Aubrey McClendon
                      $65 mill.         (Oil Executive)
                                       $112 mill. in 2008
    Presidents & Constitution
Who was the first president to die while in
office?
        William Henry Harrison (1841)
Line of Succession to the Presidency


#1 Vice President
#2 Speaker of the House of Representatives
#3 President Pro-tempore of Senate
#4 Secretary of State
#5 Secretary of Treasury
#6 Secretary of Defense
#7 Attorney General
             Constitution & Vice
                Presidency
If there is a vacancy in the Vice Presidency:

  1. The President nominates a new candidate.
  2. The candidate must be confirmed by a
     majority vote in both the House and Senate.
        Role #1: Administrative

• The President appoints or nominates 3,000-
  4,000 people to administrative positions.
• Examples:
  – Ambassadors to other nations
  – Cabinet positions (most important set of
    advisors & policy-makers)
Obama Cabinet                Attorney General
   Officials                   Eric Holder


     Secretary of State
      Hilary Clinton


                           Secretary of Treasury
                              Tim Geithner
    Secretary of Defense
       Robert Gates
       Role #2: Domestic Policy
1. The President submits a proposed budget
   to Congress each year.
2. Presidents often propose legislation if
   someone in Congress sponsors it.
   a) About 50% of all laws passed are first
      proposed by the President.
    Three Options for the President


#1 Sign the Bill   It becomes law.

#2 Veto the Bill   Can be overridden by Congress.

#3 Nothing         If the President does nothing
                   and 10 working days pass, the
                   bill becomes law. If Congress
                   adjourns within the 10
                   working days, it becomes a
                   Pocket Veto
             Presidents & Vetoes
   President     Regular Pocket Vetoes
                 Vetoes Vetoes Overridden
Washington          2      0       0
Jefferson           0      0       0
A. Jackson          5      7       0
FDR                372    263      9
Reagan             39     39       9
George HW Bush     29     15       1
Clinton            36      1       2
George W. Bush     11      1       4
Obama               0      1       0
         Role #3: Foreign Policy

1. Presidents provide vision for overall US
   foreign policy.
2. Negotiate Treaties

    • 2/3 Majority vote in Senate is needed to ratify.
           Executive Agreement
   (Ensures Presidents Control Foreign Policy)

• Agreement between US President and another
  country, but doesn’t require Senate approval.
• Not binding for future Presidents.
                 Presidents & Military
George Washington                        Bill Clinton
                    Dwight Eisenhower




Andrew Jackson      George H.W. Bush    George W. Bush
         Role #4: Military Leader

The President is “Commander in Chief of the Army
and Navy of the United States, and the Militia of the
several states.”
     BUT: Only Congress can declare war.
             Military Leadership
             & War Powers Act

The President can send troops into combat if:
   1. Congress declares war.
   2. There is a crisis, the President may act
      alone for 60-90 days.
   3. Congress specifically gives the President
      the authority to send troops into combat.
    Text of Joint Resolution Authorizing
           Use of Force: 9/15/01
Passed 96-0 in Senate and 420-1 in House of Representatives

   • “A) That the President is authorized to use all
     necessary and appropriate force against
     those nations, organizations, or persons he
     determines planned, authorized, committed,
     or aided the terrorist attacks that occurred on
     September, 11, 2001, or harbored such
     organizations or persons, in order to prevent
     any future acts of international terrorism
     against the United States by any such
     nations, organizations or persons.”
  Text of Joint Resolution Authorizing the Use of
      Force against Iraq. Passed 10/11/02
   Passed 77-23 in Senate and 296-133 in House of Reps
• “Authorizes the President to use the U.S. armed
  forces to: (1) defend U.S. national security against the
  continuing threat posed by Iraq; and (2) enforce all
  relevant Security Council resolutions regarding Iraq.”
• It also directs the President to inform the Speaker of
  the House and the Senate President pro-tem within 48
  hours of having used this authority.
• President must also report to Congress at least every
  60 days on relevant matters.
       Role #5 Symbolic Leader

• President = Head of State

• The President has the power to pardon
  anyone convicted of Federal crimes.


  – “…he shall have Power to grant Reprieves
    and Pardons for Offences against the
    United States, except in Cases of
    Impeachment.”
       Role #5 Symbolic Leader




Obama Hosting A State Dinner    Bush Throwing
                               Out The First Pitch
                The Judiciary

Selection process for Supreme Court Justices and
Federal Judges:

    1. The President nominates a candidate.
    2. The US Senate must confirm the
       candidate by a majority vote.
                 The Judiciary


Qualifications     None.



                   But, usually, they have a law
                   background and are members of
                   the President’s party.
                  The Judiciary



Judicial Review

      The authority to declare laws or actions of
      government officials to be unconstitutional.
           The Presidency & Judiciary
I.    Presidency
                                     Key Terms
    A. Rankings & Popularity
    B. Qualifications & the    • Cabinet
         Constitution          • Pocket Veto
II. Roles/Functions
    A. Administrative
                               • Treaty-making
    B. Domestic Policy         • Executive Agreement
    C. Foreign Policy          • War Powers Act
    D. Military
    E. Symbolic                • Pardon
III. Judiciary                 • Judicial Review
    A. Qualifications &
         Constitution
    B. “Job”

								
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