Fruit Crop Advisory Team Alert

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					April 29, 2008 -- Vol. 23, No. 4

                                    Section 18 specific exemption granted for Agry-Gent
                                    for fire blight control
                                    George Sundin, Plant Pathology
                                        The EPA has granted a Section 18 Specific
                                    Exemption for the use of Agry-Gent 10-W
                                    (gentamicin) for the control of the blossom
Fruit Crop                          blight phase of fire blight. This use is for
                                    orchards where streptomycin-resistant fire blight
Advisory                            bacteria are present. The Section 18 is applicable
                                    to Berrien, Cass, Kent, Oceana, Ottawa, and Van                          Oozing caused by fireblight.
Team Alert                          Buren counties. An amendment to the Section          type of irrigation system.
                                    18 also includes Ionia and Newaygo counties.              4. Do not apply gentamicin as the
In this issue                       Growers in Ionia and Newaygo counties must           first spray of the season. It should be
Tree fruit news                     have both the original Section 18 and the            applied only after the first spray of
                                    amendment letter in hand while they are making       registered antibiotics (streptomycin and/or
 Section 18 specific exemption     any Agry-Gent applications.                          oxytetracycline).
  granted for Agry-Gent for fire        The conditions and restrictions of the                5. Do not make consecutive applications
  blight control                    Section 18 specific exemption appear to be           of gentamicin.
 Bacterial canker and cold         identical to those effective in 2007. These               6. Do not use in orchards in which the
  spring temperatures               include the following:                               soil has been fertilized with animal manure.
 New fungicide labels for use in       1. A maximum of 7,000 acres of apples            This restriction addresses concerns that
                                    can be treated. Apply gentamicin only when           gentamicin resistance could be transferred to
  apples and stone fruit            the pathogen is resistant to streptomycin.           E. coli bacteria present in animal manure.
 Control options for mites in          2. Agry-Gent 10-W should only be applied              7. Upon expiration of the exemption,
  fruit crops                       when the fire blight state experts and/or            all unopened and unused product must be
Small fruit news                    disease forecasting model determine that the         returned to the dealer where purchased or to
 Blueberry insecticide             weather conditions favor disease epidemics.          the manufacturer.
                                    Thus, the use of this material is limited to              Agry-Gent 10-W (gentamicin), from
  label update                      epidemic conditions; if these conditions are         Gowan, is an alternative antibiotic for fire
 Hoplia beetles chewing on         not present this year, other fire blight control     blight management. Agry-Gent 10-W will
  blueberry flower buds             materials such as Mycoshield should be used.         work equally on streptomycin-resistant
Other news                              Authorization for use will come from             and streptomycin-sensitive strains. The
                                    Michigan State University fruit horticultural        label rate is 3.5 lbs./acre. A maximum of
 Regional reports                  educators and tree fruit disease specialists via     two applications of Agry-Gent 10-W will
 Weather news                      web, radio, recorded message, telephone, email       be allowable during the bloom period in
                                    and handout. Code-a-phone messages (see              2008 (check code-a-phone updates for use
                                    numbers below) are the preferred method to           authorization). Agry-Gent must not be used
                                    get information on use authorizations. Code-         as the first spray of the season. A first spray
                                    a-phone numbers are as follows: Berrien, Cass,       of registered antibiotics (Mycoshield and/or
                                    and Van Buren counties (269-657-6380 or 269-         streptomycin) must be applied. Also, do not
                                    944-1477 x805); Kent, Newaygo, and Ottawa            make consecutive sprays of Agry-Gent. This
                                    counties (616-451-8065); Oceana county (888-         material may be sensitive to pH and thus the
                                    345-0515). Authorizations will be specific to        pH of the spray solution should be buffered
                                    county affected.                                     to 6.0 to 6.5. In addition, do not use Agry-
                                        3. A maximum of two applications of              Gent 10-W with other spray materials with
                                    Agry-Gent can be made at a rate of 3.5 lbs/          clay-based carriers such as Captan as the
                                    acre. Applications are restricted to ground          clay can bind up the gentamicin rendering it
Next issue May 6                    equipment and cannot be made through any             less effective. IPM
       ------------------------------------- Fruit Crop Advisory Team Alert - April 29, 2008

Bacterial canker and cold spring temperatures
Nikki Rothwell and Erin Lizotte, NWMHRS and George Sundin, Plant Pathology
    Bacterial canker is caused by the         canker on cherry. However, sweet cherry      broken dormancy and are in the pre-
bacterium Pseudomonas syringae, and           tissues are extremely sensitive to copper,   bloom stage (bud swell through white
this pathogen can infect sweet and tart       and the sprays must be adequately timed      bud), copper rates should be reduced to
cherry and plums throughout Michigan.         to reduce P. syringae inoculum without       25-35 percent of the dormant rate. Up
This disease is most problematic in           causing phytotoxicity. If the trees are      to two copper applications with a one
sweet cherries, and epidemics often           still in the dormant stage, two copper       week interval should be used at this
occur in conjunction with cold, frost-        applications can be applied at 1-2 week      time. In tart cherries, copper compounds
prone weather in the spring. Freezing         intervals at a rate 1.2-2 lbs of metallic    can be used at the 1.2-2 lb actual copper
temperatures can also dispose cherry          copper with either one pint of spray oil     rate at bud burst with weekly repeated
tissues to bacterial canker infection,        per 100 gallons of water or 6-9 lbs of       applications until late May. Some of
especially if the freeze event is             hydrated lime per acre. Copper products      these later sprays may result in some
followed by wet weather. Therefore,           sprayed during the dormant stage             leaf yellowing, bronzing, and potentially
growers should be particularly diligent       should have good retention properties        defoliation. Adding hydrated lime at
about early bacterial canker control          to enhance disease control as longer         6-9 lbs/acre will reduce the phytotoxic
in the coming weeks after these cold          residuals for copper should translate into   effects of copper.
spring temperatures.                          an extended period of bacterial disease          Citation: Rosenberger, D. 2007.
    Early copper sprays are the most          suppression after the spray is applied       Early season copper sprays. Scaffolds
common methods of control for bacterial       (Rosenberger, 2007). If the trees have       Fruit Journal. April 9. 16:4. IPM

New fungicide labels for use in apples and stone fruit
Georg Sundin, Plant Pathology
    Two fungicides with new labels            for resistance management.                   effective for resistance management.
for apple this spring are Indar (Dow              Inspire Super MP is also a systemic,          Adament 50WG (Bayer) has a new
Agrosciences) and Inspire Super MP            SI fungicide. This fungicide will be         label this spring for use in stone fruit.
(Syngenta). Two formulations of Indar         packaged together with Vangard, an           This fungicide is a pre-mix of two
(75WSP and 2F) are labeled for use            anilinopyrimidine fungicide with a           active ingredients (tebuconazole and
against apple scab, powdery mildew,           different mode of action. A multi-pack       trifloxystrobin) that we already knew
cedar apple rust, sooty blotch and            will be sold containing two 40 oz. jugs,     as Elite and Flint with the Flint name
flyspeck. Indar is a systemic, sterol-        one of which is labeled Inspire Super        now changed to Gem. Adament 50WG
inhibitor (SI) fungicide. Remember that       MP and the other is labeled Vangard.         at the 6 oz/acre rate has provided very
resistance to SI fungicides in the apple      These are to be mixed together, resulting    good control of cherry leaf spot in trials
scab pathogen is widespread in Michigan.      in enough material to spray 10 acres at      at the Northwest Michigan Horticultural
We tested isolates from a few orchards        a 4 oz/acre rate of Inspire and 4 oz/acre    Research Station. IPM
in Kent and Oceana counties last year         rate of Vangard. The active ingredient
and found high levels of SI resistance.       of Inspire (difenoconazole) is also more
Indar is more effective in controlling        effective in controlling SI-resistant scab    Small fruit meetings
SI-resistant scab strains than other SI       strains than other SI fungicides. Since                   IPM
fungicides, however, the fungicide should     the product is tank-mixed with Vangard,       Twilight blueberry meeting
be tank-mixed with an EBDC fungicide          the two modes of action should be             Bloom meeting
                                                                                            May 14 from 6:00-8:00PM
                                                                                            Van Buren County, Cornerstone Ag
Control options for mites in fruit crops
                                                                                            Southwest grape IPM meeting
John Wise, Rufus Isaacs and Larry Gut, Entomology                                           May 21 from 10:00 AM to 12:00
                                                                                            PM Lawton, MI (Cronenwett Farms)
    Mites can be significant pests of fruit   on page 3 is designed to summarize            2:00-4:00 PM Benton Harbor
crops. There is an array of miticides         several key variables that can help you       (Berrien County Extension office)
available for control of the European red     determine which miticides are optimal
mite (ERM), two-spotted spider mite           for your integrated pest management           For more information or questions,
(TSSM) and rust mites (RM)(apple and          program. IPM                                  please contact, Paul Jenkins
pear rust mites, pear blister mite, plum                                                    (, Rufus Isaacs
nursery mite, blueberry bud mite), but                                                      ( or Annemiek
their performance characteristics are                                                       Schilder (
not all alike. The accompanying table
   Fruit Crop Advisory Team Alert - April 29, 2008                                   --------------------------------- 

Control options for mites in fruit crops
                                                             Life stage
 Compound           Fruit crop             Mites             target            Seasonal timing        Residual activity
 Superior, Stylet   Oils all above         ERM, RM           egg/larvae        Early (pre-bloom)      4-6 weeks
 Lime-Sulfur        pome, stone            RM3               motiles*          Early (delayed-        4-6 weeks
 Savey              pome, stone            ERM               egg/larvae        Early***               8-12 weeks
                    pome, stone,           TSSM              egg/larvae        Mid (or threshold)**   6-8 weeks
 Onager             stone fruits        TSSM                 egg/larvae        Mid (or threshold)**   6-8 weeks
 Apollo             pome, cherry, peach ERM                  egg/larvae        Early***               8-12 weeks
                                        TSSM                 egg/larvae        Mid (or threshold)     6-8 weeks
 Zeal               pome                ERM                  egg/larvae        Early***               8-12 weeks
                    pome, strawb, grape TSSM                 egg/larvae        Mid (or threshold)**   6-8 weeks
 Agri-Mek           pome, plum, grape, ERM, RM               motiles*          Early****              8-12 weeks
                    strawberry          TSSM                 motiles*          Mid (or threshold)     6-8 weeks
 Envidor            pome, plum, grape ERM, RM                egg, motiles*     Early**** or thres.    8-12 weeks
                    stone fruits        TSSM                 egg, motiles*     Mid (or threshold)     6-8 weeks
 Nexter             pome, stone1, grape ERM, RM              motiles*          Mid (or threshold)**   6-8 weeks
                                        TSSM                 motiles*          Mid (or threshold)     6-8 weeks
 Portal             pome                ERM, RM              motiles*          Mid (or threshold)**   6-8 weeks
                                        TSSM                 motiles*          Mid (or threshold)     6-8 weeks
 Kanemite           pome                ERM                  motiles*          Mid (or threshold)**   6-8 weeks
                    pome, strawberry    TSSM                 motiles*          Mid (or threshold)     6-8 weeks
 Acramite           pome, peach, plum ERM                    motiles*          Mid (or threshold)**   6-8 weeks
                    pome, peach, plum, TSSM                  motiles*          Mid (or threshold)     6-8 weeks
 Danitol            apple, grape        ERM                  motiles*          Mid (or threshold)**   4-6 weeks
                    apple, grape,       TSSM                 motiles*          Mid (or threshold)     4-6 weeks
 Brigade            pear                ERM                  motiles*          Mid (or threshold)**   4-6 weeks
                    pear, grape,        TSSM                 motiles*          Mid (or threshold)     4-6 weeks
 Oberon             strawberry          TSSM                 egg, motiles*     Mid (or threshold)     4-6 weeks
 Vendex             pome, stone         ERM                  motiles*          Mid (or threshold)**   4-6 weeks
                    pome, stone, grape, TSSM                 motiles*          Mid (or threshold)     4-6 weeks
 Endosulfan         pome,stone,         RM3                  motiles*          Mid (or threshold)**   4-6 weeks
                    blueberry 2

 Sulforix           pear, blueberry     RM3                  motiles*          Late (post-harvest)    4-6 weeks

* Motile forms include mite larvae, nymph and adult stages.
** Optimally used petal fall through fifth cover when mites reach threshold.
*** Optimally used pre-bloom through first cover.
**** Optimally used petal fall through second cover.
  300-day PHI for cherry
  post-harvest only for blueberry
  including pear blister mite
       ------------------------------------- Fruit Crop Advisory Team Alert - April 29, 2008

Blueberry insecticide label update
Rufus Isaacs and John Wise, Entomology
    Guthion WP (azinphosmethyl) is still            MSU and the Michigan blueberry           states a minimum of 30 gallons of water
registered for use during 2008. The EPA’s      industry have formed a Guthion                should be used from ground equipment
plan for phasing Guthion out of blueberry      Phaseout Task Force to develop and            and 10 gallons if applying by air.
production starts taking effect this season.   evaluate alternatives and prepare the         Intrepid has a 7-day PHI.
Guthion is still registered, but here are      industry for this change. Details of              Assail 30SG (acetamiprid) is
the main label restrictions that blueberry     the group’s activities can be seen at         registered for use in blueberries for
growers need to be aware of:                         control of aphids and leafhoppers at
 The seasonal limit is reduced from 3.0       htm. This website contains minutes of         2-5-5.3 ounces per acre. It is in the
to 2.5 pounds/acre.                            the last meeting, and the priorities for      same chemical class as Provado, the
 Maximum single application remains           research, education, and regulatory           neonicotinoids, but it has a wider range
at 1.5 pounds/acre.                            issues developed at that meeting. MSU         of pest activity that includes moth
 Aerial application is still allowed.         is currently working with blueberry           pests. A higher range (4.5 - 5.3 ounces
 7 day REI and 7 day PHI, except in U-        industry leaders to secure funding to         per acre) is registered for use against
pick fields (30 or more days, depending        address these priorities.                     cranberry and cherry fruitworms,
on the rate used – see label for details).          This spring and summer, MSU              Japanese beetle, blueberry maggot and
 Buffer zone to bodies of water is 60         Extension will hold a series of IPM           some other insect pests. We have seen
ft for ground application and 150 ft for       meetings and fruitworm management             good to excellent control of these pests
aerial application.                            will be a main topic of the meeting on        in small plot trials conducted at the
 Buffer zone to occupied dwellings or         May 14.                                       Trevor Nichols Research Station, and
recreational areas is 60 ft.                        Intrepid 2F (methoxyfenozide) has        we are looking forward to gaining more
    One important practical implication        received a supplemental label for use in      experience at commercial farms this
of the new restrictions is that if you plan    blueberry and other bush berry crops.         season. Assail 30SG has a 1-day PHI. It
on using two sprays of Guthion after           This is an insect growth regulator and is     is also labeled for use on strawberries,
bloom for fruitworm control, if the first      a more active version of Confirm. If you      other bush berries and cane berries, and
spray is at the 1.5 pound rate, the next       have used Confirm in recent years for         can be applied by ground or air.
can only be 1 pound. Another option is to      control of fruitworms, you should expect          Delegate WG (spinetoram) is a new
apply 1.25 pounds twice if you have high       better performance from this product.         insecticide from the same chemical
fruitworm pressure and need to apply at        It is safe for bees, allowing application     class as SpinTor (the spinosyns) and is
high rates. Of course, one application at      during bloom and it provides good             highly effective against lepidopteran
1-1.5 pounds or a 1 pound rate applied         residual control of moth larvae with high     pests. It is labeled at 3-6 oz per acre
twice would be allowed too. These              worker safety and a good environmental        for armyworm, cranberry fruitworm,
changes are the first of the restrictions      profile. Intrepid is registered for control   leafroller, and spanworm control in
affecting Guthion in blueberry that will       of many of the most economically-             blueberries, with a 3-day PHI.
continue to limit the use through 2012.        important blueberry moth pests                    Danitol 2.4 EC (fenpropathrin) is a
By September 30 of that year, EPA’s plan       including cherry fruitworm, cranberry         new pyrethroid insecticide labeled for
has Guthion restricted completely from         fruitworm, obliquebanded leafroller,          cranberry fruitworm, plum curculio,
blueberries. The next significant changes      and gypsy moth. Tussock moth is not           blueberry maggot and Japanese beetle.
are in 2010, when the seasonal limit will      on the label, but this product will be        It has a 3 day PHI, and in our on-farm
drop to 1.5 lb, and no aerial application      very effective for that pest if applied       trials at Michigan blueberry farms
will be allowed.                               with good coverage when the larvae are        during 2007 this product provided good
    Given the Guthion phase-out plan,          still small. While the label indicates 16     beetle control for a week when applied
testing alternative options for fruitworm      ounces per acre for most of these pests,      using aerial or by ground application.
control on some of your fields would be        this is a very high rate and I expect a           Labeled late in 2007, Mustang Max
prudent this year. Look in next week’s         high level of control at 12 ounces per        (zeta-cypermethrin) is a pyrethroid
edition of the Fruit CAT Alert for an          acre. As with Confirm, this insecticide       insecticide registered for leafroller
article on monitoring and management           must be applied with excellent coverage       control. Activity on other insects
of fruitworms that will provide                to be effective: the larvae must eat the      is expected, but we have very little
information on the various options             residue, or it needs to be in contact with    experience with this insecticide in
available.                                     the eggs to work. For example, the label      blueberry. It has a 1-day PHI. IPM

Hoplia beetles chewing on blueberry flower buds
Rufus Isaacs, Entomology
   The warm weather over the past few          scarab beetles we find in Michigan            flower beetle (Hoplia trifasciata) and
weeks has brought out one of the earliest      blueberry fields. This species is a Hoplia    the adults feed on young buds and can
   Fruit Crop Advisory Team Alert - April 29, 2008                                    --------------------------------- 

also feed on flowers. Hot spots have         also do not know whether damaged buds
been reported in Holland and West            or flowers can still set fruit.
Olive, but they have been seen in a few           There is no well-studied threshold
other regions further south. In 2007,        for this beetle in blueberry. As a rough
the beetles were active during bloom,        threshold, if more than 2 percent of
but our recent sunny hot days have           flower buds are eaten completely off,
warmed the soil and brought them out         you should consider control. This is
early. They prefer flower buds and leave     based on 2 percent of a typical yield
ragged feeding on the buds and on the        being worth more than the cost of
flowers from their feeding. We have also     an application. In fields of concern,
trapped these beetles in the white traps     sample a representative 10 bushes
used for monitoring fruitworms.              spread throughout the field and sample
     These beetles have marks on each        ten flower buds on each bush to give
elytra (wing covering) and are a little      100 buds sampled. If more than two
hairy. This distinguishes them from rose     of these buds are eaten and beetles are      Hoplia beetles feeding on blueberry flowers
chafer or Japanese beetle which also         still active, consider an application of     during 2007.
emerge later. Hoplia beetles may be tan      one of the insecticides that work well       insecticide with long residual activity
or grey and they are usually here for just   against Japanese beetle. Be aware that       runs the risk of causing harm to bees. A
a short time, especially in hot weather.     there are no insecticides registered         week from bloom, avoid broad spectrum
It is not known how much economic            for use in blueberry for Hoplia flower       insecticides. Spray insecticides only if
damage they can do, but the number of        beetle that have this beetle on the label.   this pest is causing economic levels of
flowers or buds affected is usually a very   Also be aware that we are approaching        damage. IPM
small percentage of the total number. We     blueberry bloom and any application of

                                             brought cooler temperatures. Morning         is brown rot. This disease requires
                                             temperatures Monday fell to freezing         wet and warm conditions, 5 to 6 hours
                                             and below causing light damage to            of wetness at 70ºF. Peaches are less
                                             fruit. Tuesday morning was warmer, but       susceptible after bloom.
                                             Wednesday morning is forecast to fall            Sweet cherries bloomed last week
                                             to 25ºF. Freeze injury would occur at        and the leaves are emerging. Sweet
                                             temperatures below 29ºF to the mid-20s       cherries are very susceptible to brown
                                             depending on the crop, so we anticipate      rot and easily get the disease through
                                             damage in the frost prone areas              their development. Once the leaves
                                             tomorrow. We expect cool temperatures        are out and fully developed, they are
                                             this weekend. The forecast is for dry        susceptible to cherry leaf spot.
 1 – Southwest                               conditions with highs in the 50s and 60s         Tart cherries are blooming. Tart
                                             and lows near 40ºF. Rain showers should      cherries seldom get blossom brown rot
Mark Longstroth, Bill Shane,                 begin Friday with a wet weekend.             unless the temperature conditions are
                                                                                          very good.
                                             Tree fruit                                       In plums, Japanese plums bloomed
                                                 Tree fruits are blooming and would       last week and are now at petal fall.
Weather                                      be damaged by temperatures below             European plums are blooming. Stanley
    Eleven days of warm temperatures         28ºF. Insect activity increased last week.   plums are beginning to bloom. As shoot
with highs in the 70s and lows near          Oriental fruit moth were caught and          growth begins, growers need to protect
50ºF moved plant growth quickly. Most        biofixed last week. This was only a          against black knot.
plants are greened up and many new               light flight and the cool weather            Apples are at pink. King bloom of
leaves have emerged. Soils began to          has shut down the traps. We often see        early varieties such as Idared and Zestar
dry out quickly with the warm, dry,          this where we get biofix and then cool       are open. Rain on Saturday, April 19, at
windy weather. Significant rain fell         weather shuts down trap catch. Unless        green tip, was an apple scab infection
in Berrien County and the southwest          you are monitoring your own orchards         for Berrien County and much of the
portion of the region Saturday, April 19.    and caught a significant number of           surrounding area. Symptoms from this
A little more rain fell Thursday, April      moths, we recommend that early season        infection should be visible at the end of
24 and Saturday, April 26. Rainfall          Oriental fruit moth controls be timed        the week. For the rains last week, the
amounts were generally light, less           on biofix on moth catch after this cool      wetting periods and the temperatures
than a tenth of an inch, and these rains     period. Redbanded leafroller are flying.     were marginal for some areas with the
represented marginal infection events            Apricots were blooming last week         wetting period being a little short for the
for some diseases. With the warm             and are now generally in the shuck.          temperature, so infection could easily
weather, our GDD accumulation has                Peaches are blooming. Oriental           have occurred in your orchard if it was
moved close to average. The passage          fruit moth were caught and biofixed last     wet longer or a little warmer. Prebloom
of cold fronts Sunday and Monday             week. The main worry during bloom
  6     ------------------------------------- Fruit Crop Advisory Team Alert - April 29, 2008

                                                                    Grapes, from          the likelihood of cutworm damage.
                                                                    April 1                    New strawberry leaves are out and
 Southwest Michigan GDD totals March 1 through April 27                                   flower trusses are emerging from the
 Location              GDD 42          GDD 45        GDD 50           GDD 50              ground in southern Berrien. If the flower
                                                                                          buds are in the ground, they will be
 SWMREC:                321            253           165               159                damaged at 10ºF. Once the buds emerge
 Lawton:                347            277           183               178                they are damaged at temperatures below
                                                                                          20ºF. Many strawberry growers protected
 Fennville:             282            219           141               137                Monday night using sprinklers.
                                                                                               Raspberry and blackberry leaves
scab sprays are effective in completely      Mummyberry mushrooms are out and             are unfolding and new primocanes are
covering the flower and stems in the         last Thursday’s rain was a mummyberry        emerging. In fall bearing plantings where
cluster. It is harder to get good coverage   infection with 8 hours of leaf wetness       all the shots have been removed, the new
inside the flower cluster, after blossoms    at about 60ºF. Mummyberry sprays             primocanes are about 6 inches tall.
have opened. Prebloom pink sprays are        immediately following freeze events are           Cranberry beds are greening up and
also focused on leafroller larvae, spotted   very effective.                              tip buds are swelling and beginning to
tentiform leafminer and rosy apple aphid         Grapes buds are opening. Juice           burst.
control.                                     grapes are at bud burst and wine grapes
    Pears are at first bloom. Pear psylla    are a little behind at swollen bud           Miscellaneous
are laying eggs. Growers should protect      development stages. At this bud stage,           Lots of bees have been moved
against pear scab.                           injury would occur at temperatures in        into the area to pollinate crops. Last
                                             the high 20s. There is still time to apply   week growers were planting trees and
Small fruit                                                                               applying fungicide sprays.
                                             dormant sprays of copper, sulfur to
    Blueberry fruit buds are at pink                                                          The next Monday Fruit Update
                                             varieties that are not sensitive to these
bud. Early varieties are nearing bloom.                                                   meeting will be Monday, May 5 at the
                                             materials. This cool weather will slow
Bluecrop is at early pink bud and Jersey                                                  Fruit Acres Farm in Berrien County. IPM
                                             grape bud development and increase
is at bud burst. New shoots are growing.

 – Southeast                                eastern part of the state. Exceptions        our top soils are a bit on the dry side,
                                             to this were Lapeer County and then          for the most part we have more than
Bob Tritten                                  a few stations in the Thumb that had         adequate amount of subsoil moisture.
                                             temperatures in the 26ºF to 29ºF             Most fruit growers have been planting
Weather                                      degree range. I think the fruit crop         tree and small fruits and are wrapping
    Our late start to the 2008 growing       development was slow enough in those         up that process. These growers are now
season has now been reversed with a          regions that there most likely will          looking for some good rains to get those
string of 11 warm days and nights to         not be an issue with frost and freeze        plants off to a good start.
push our season ahead of normal. Based       injury. In Flint area, we had a rooftop          Early in my career as a district
on degree days, I think that our season      frost that occurred just before sunrise.     horticulture educator, I had several
is now running 5 to 7 days ahead of          Based on the weather predictions for         well seasoned fruit growers share their
normal, and based on flowering stage         tonight, I expect to see one more night      observations over their many seasons
we are about a week ahead of normal.         of potential frost and freeze concerns,      as to the strength and viability of our
As a horticulturalist, it has been very      with low temperatures dropping a few         fruit flower bud and crop based on
interesting and yet a bit frightening to     degrees lower than this morning. In          their observation of how forsythia have
see fruit growth and development occur       looking at the 10 to 14 day forecast, it     flowered that seasoned. Over the years,
so rapidly over the last two weeks.          appears that we are through the worse        I have come to see that there is a great
    Cold temperatures last night and         potential freeze issues.                     deal of truth in observing the vigor
this morning are in the low to mid-30’s          Our region has missed several good       of the forsythia bloom and to make a
for most reporting stations across the       rains over the last three weeks. While       projection on the viability and abundance
                                                                                          of our fruit crop. This year’s forsythia
Southeast Michigan growing degree day totals for March 1 to April 28                      bloom has been wonderful as I observe
 Location                        GDD42              GDD45              GDD50              flowering from across the region. As I
                                                                                          look at the potential fruit crop across the
 Commerce (Oakland)              301                236                152                region, I would also say that we are off to
 Emmett (St Clair)               279                226                145                a start of a great season.
 Flint (Genesee)                 321                262                174                Tree fruits
                                                                                             Apples in the southern part of the
 Lapeer (Lapeer)                 316                253                170                region are at pink and with warmer
 Petersburg (Monroe)             311                242                155                temperatures expected later in the
                                                                                          week, I would anticipate bloom by late
 Romeo (Macomb)                  304                240                153
   Fruit Crop Advisory Team Alert - April 29, 2008                                      --------------------------------- 

this week or over the weekend. In the             Peaches are at pink to first bloom            Strawberries have grown very
central (Flint) and northern part of the      in many varieties. There are no pest          nicely over the last two weeks with
district, apples are at late tight cluster    problems this time. Remember the              the warm temperatures. Strawberries
to red bud, with the anticipation of first    need for brown rot control sprays fairly      in the Flint area were showing flower
bloom to take place a week from now.          quickly.                                      buds emerging from the crown. I
There are a variety of small larvae that          Sweet cherries are at full bloom          expect that strawberry growers in the
I have been seeing in low numbers;            across the region, with most growers          south on warmer sites frost-protected
these include fruit tree leafroller, tufted   reporting full bloom on April 24-26.          last night. Tonight’s cold weather may
apple bud borer and green fruitworm.          Since bloom opened at many farms,             be the first time that most growers will
I am beginning to catch oriental fruit        we’ve had cool temperatures and a             frost-protect strawberries. Strawberries
moth in traps, however the numbers are        distinct lack of bee activity. This is a      are in need of moisture at many farms
below threshold. I am just beginning          major concern at this time of the year in     across the region. I do not see any
to catch a few plum curculio, however         sweet cherries. Sweet cherry blossoms         tarnished plant bug or strawberry
the numbers have been fairly low.             stand a chance of being injured in            clipper activity.
Redbanded leafroller trap catches             tonight’s frost/freeze event.                     Raspberries are showing a fair
are in the range of 50 to 60, which is            Tart cherries are in full bloom with      amount of tissue development. Fall
fairly typical for this time of year. I am    most growers reporting full bloom on          red raspberries have now emerged
seeing some good numbers of spotted           April 27. Again there has been a distinct     from the ground with 2 to 4 inches
tentiform leafminer in traps, some well       lack of good pollinating weather in tart      of new growth. I continue to see tip
over threshold. I am not seeing any           cherries. I am also concerned about           burn on summer red, purple and black
European red mite egg hatch. There are        brown rot sprays. Tart cherry blossoms        raspberries as a result of winter injury.
a good number of predators in apples          stand a chance of being hurt in tonight’s         Blueberries are currently at ¼-
for this early in the season.                 frost/freeze event.                           inch green to early pink bud, with a
    Pears are mostly at white bud. I              Plums are at popcorn to first bloom.      wonderful crop of berries coming along
expect to see bloom over the weekend          Many growers reported having an               this year. Many growers are wrapping up
at most farms. Pear psylla adult activity     extensive amount of black knot in plum        the pruning program on blueberries this
has been heavy over the extended warm         over the last season.                         last week. I am seeing a fair amount of
period. Late last week I began to see egg                                                   blueberry stem gall wasp gall growth at
                                              Small fruits
laying of pear psylla.                                                                      several farms across the region. IPM

 – Grand Rapids Area                         about a week ahead of average from            Most are in the second instar stage.
                                              the warmer-than-normal weather of             Overall, obliquebanded leafroller
Phil Schwallier, Amy Irish Brown,             last week. The cooler weather lately is       numbers are very low this year as
Carlos Garcia-Salazar                         moving degree day accumulations back          they’ve been controlled very well over
                                              closer to normal.                             the past few years.
Tree fruit growth stages                                                                        Redbanded leafroller started flying
    Most apples are in the tight cluster      Tree fruit                                    late last week.
stage and will probably stay there for            A moderate apple scab infection               Aphids are active. Both apple grain
the next several days until some warmer       was recorded for the general Grand            aphids and rosy apple aphids have been
weather comes back. With the current          Rapids area over the course of the day        seen.
weather forecast, it’s looking like we        on Friday, April 25. Lesions could be             Once this cooler spell breaks, I
might reach pink in some early apple          found from this infection as early as         would expect Oriental fruit moth to
varieties early next week.                    May 7. Apple scab spore counts were           start flying. Mating disruption works
    Early sweet cherry varieties are in       very high. Average per rod was nearly         especially well for Oriental fruit moth,
full bloom. Peaches are just coming into      7,500. This is a very high number of          so get those ties up right away if you’re
bloom. Pollination could be a concern         spores for this early in the season and my    using it in peaches or apples. It’s not too
with the very cool days because honey         monitoring equipment is in a commercial       early to start putting pheromone ties up
bees won’t be very active. Bumblebees         block of Macs that had some scab last         for codling moth in apples as well.
have been observed working fruit              year, but not a devastating amount.
blossoms.                                     According to degree days for apple scab       Small fruit
    Recent overnight lows have been           spore development, we were at about 15            There is good news for the
hovering near freezing to a couple of         percent spore maturity when the infection     blueberry industry regarding pest
degrees below 32°F. It looks like we          started, so we’re just getting started. The   control tools. After several years of
might be in for some cold temperatures        models suggest we’re at about 27 percent      research and development, in 2008 we
on the morning of Wednesday, April 30         spore maturity as of April 29.                will start evaluating in commercial fields
that could give us some bud damage                European red mite eggs can be             a newly developed cranberry fruitworm
for many or most of our tree fruit crops      found, but numbers appear to be normal        phenology model. The model was
especially in low frost pockets.              so far. No egg hatch has been observed.       developed with data collected for five
    Degree day accumulations at the               Obliquebanded leafroller larvae have      years in 12 blueberry farms: 4 in Ottawa,
Sparta weather station are running            been observed feeding in terminals.           3 in Allegan and 5 in Van Buren County,
  8     ------------------------------------- Fruit Crop Advisory Team Alert - April 29, 2008

and validated in 8 farms in 2007. This      was greater when weather data to           the classroom portion of the program
model is a growing-degree-days-driven       calculate degree-day accumulation          and on May 15, 2008 we will offer the
predictive model that will allow growers    was collected next to the pheromone        first hands-on field training. This will be
to better synchronize the application of    traps used to monitor the Cranberry        conducted at the MSU Trevor Nichols
insecticides with the critical window for   fruitworm population dynamics. When        Research Station in Fennville, Michigan.
controlling this blueberry pest.            the testing site was more than a mile      Former trainees are welcome. For more
     The Cranberry Fruitworm Phenology      away from the weather station, accuracy    information about this event call Dr.
Model requires the use of pheromone-        decreased but still predicted population   Carlos Garcia-Salazar at 616-846-8250
loaded traps to monitor the emergence of    dynamics within an acceptable range        or Dr. Anamaria Gomez-Rodas at 269-
the overwintering cranberry fruitworm       (1-2 day difference between predicted      561-5040.
male moths, and the daily growing           and observed population dynamics).              Regarding the market for
degree day accumulation above 50°F.         Timing application of insecticide          blueberries, as of April 29, prices for
For this, it is necessary to install a      using the degree-day model will allow      the 2008 blueberry harvest coming from
weather recording device (a portable        growers to accurately time sprays for      Florida and Chile are in the range of
weather station or a simple maximum         cranberry fruitworm and increase the       $28-$30 per flat (12 4.4 oz cups). So we
and minimum thermometer) near to            effectiveness of Confirm and other         expect prices to remain high for the rest
the monitoring pheromone traps or           reduce-risk insecticides replacing         of the season.
use the nearest weather station. So far,    organophosphorous insecticides such
                                                                                       Strawberry issues
results of our validation trials showed     as Guthion. The following table shows
                                                                                           We are completing the development
that our degree-day model was very          some important events in the life cycle
                                                                                       of the curriculum for the Strawberries
accurate in predicting the emergence        of the cranberry fruitworm.
                                                                                       IPM Scouting training. It is possible
of overwintering cranberry fruitworm            Regarding the 2008 Blueberry
                                                                                       that we may have a final version by
moths and egg-laying dynamics at            IPM Scout training, we had 40 people
                                                                                       the end of the summer. Advances also
all testing sites. However, accuracy        registered. So far, we have completed
                                                                                       include the development of a Pocket
Life events of the cranberry fruitworm predicted with GDD (Base 50° F)                 Guide for IPM Scouting in Strawberries.
                                                                                       In this effort, Annemiek Schilder and
                        Degree-days base (50°F      Degree-day accumulation            Rufus Isaacs are taking the lead. The
Life stage or event
                        since March 1)              from Biofix                        development of both the Strawberry
                                                                                       IPM Scouting curriculum and the pocket
First spring male moth 375 ± 20                     0                                  guide is an effort involving our partners
                                                                                       from Ohio State University. This project
First eggs              460 ± 20                    85 ± 20                            has been supported by an USDA Risk
Egg hatch               714 ± 60                    339 ± 60                           Management Agency partnership
                                                                                       agreement. IPM

 – West Central                            between 2 to 5 degrees colder than         extent of the bud damage will be known
                                            a night before. Manistee County            in about a week or so.
Mira Danilovich                             (Bear Lake) was the warm spot in the           Apples are in advanced stages of
                                            region with temperatures as low as         tight cluster with indication of one or
Weather and crop development                28.2ºF; in Oceana and Mason counties       two flowers beginning to separate. In
    This has been quite a change in         temperatures dropped to 25.8ºF and         some more protected, warmer areas or
weather. After almost two weeks of          27ºF, respectively. Some of the low        sandy knolls, first pink is showing on
very nice and unusually warm, almost        spots or known “frost pockets” might       king blooms in Idareds.
summer-like temperatures this cool-         have had lower temperatures. The               This last rain event that started
down seems even colder. The last            weather forecast calls for yet another     April 24 and ended April 26 resulted
two nights have been particularly of        frosty night tonight. Clear skies and      in moderate apple scab infection for
concern when the temperatures dropped       no wind are favoring radiation freeze.     Oceana and Mason counties and heavy
down below freezing. Automated              Fans or any other devices that will        infection period in Manistee County. At
weather stations are showing that           facilitate cold air movement ought to be   the beginning of the wetting period (rods
last night (April 28) was anywhere          implemented for frost protection. The      were replaced April 25 at noon), we
                                                                                       had our first spore discharge (85 spores
West Central Michigan growing degree day totals from March 1 to April 27               per rod). By the end of the wetting
 Location        DD42         DD45           DD50             Rainfall since 4/1       event (rods replaced April 27), we had
                                                                                       the average of 3600 spores per rod.
 Hart            250          193            121              3.91                     Historically, tight cluster has been the
 Ludington       214          165            100              3.98                     critical phenophase with the peak scab
                                                                                       spore discharge. This year has been no
 Manistee         264         208            135               4.07                    exception.
   Fruit Crop Advisory Team Alert - April 29, 2008                                       --------------------------------- 

    Pears are in open cluster.               referred to as bacterial gummosis               oxychloride) applications will work
    Peaches are showing 0.5-inch green.      and bacterial blast is an opportunistic         better and be less phytotoxic than copper
    Plums are in open cluster.               disease that moves in after the freeze          sulfate alone. It will provide suppression
    Tart cherries are in open cluster.       event like we had in the last couple of         of thebacteria (Pseudomonas sp.)
    Sweet cherries are from open cluster     nights. Besides sweet cherries, it attacks      population, a contributor to spur and
to white bud and plus-5 percent bloom        other stone fruit (peaches, plums) and          shoot death after the frost event. IPM
depending on the location.                   pears. At this stage of development,
    Bacterial canker or as it is also        fixed copper (copper hydroxide, copper

 – Northwest                                in the low to mid-70’s. Temperatures            or in warm sites. Growers are finishing
                                             dropped over the past weekend, and              up pruning, and there is lots of planting
Nikki Rothwell, Duke Elsner,                 recent nighttime temperatures have              currently underway. Conditions for
Erin Lizotte, Rob Sirrine                    hovered around the freezing point with          planting have been good with last
                                             the cold night temperature predictions,         Friday’s significant rainfall. Honey bee
Growing degree day accumulations at          growers are concerned about potential           hives have been placed into many cherry
NWMHRS                                       bud damage. Recent weather events               orchards in the region.
   GDD42               223                   have come hand in hand with windy                   Things are still pretty quiet in the
   GDD50               107                   conditions. Growing degree days                 northwest region. Spotted tentiform
                                             accumulated up to this point are similar        leafminer are showing up in traps here
                                             to 2007, but overall, we have collected         at the station. We are also seeing a
Growth stages at NWMHRS on April
                                             more growing degree days this season            few obliquebanded leafroller larvae in
28 at 8:00 AM.
                                             than our 18-year average. We also               apples. With the heavy rain over the
    Apples are in tight cluster.
                                             received considerable rainfall on April         weekend, we saw moderate to heavy
    Bartlett pears are at green cluster.
                                             25, over 1.5 inches.                            apple scab infections predicted.
    In sweet cherries, Hedelfingen and
                                                                                                 We are receiving additional reports
Napoleon are at early white bud. Gold        Tree fruit                                      of San Jose scale in sweet cherries, an
are at late bud burst.                           Tree development has moved along            emerging problem in our region. The
    Tart cherries are at bud burst.          quickly with the past week’s warm               weather has also made bacterial canker
    Apricots are at first bloom.             temperatures. On April 14, cherry trees         a concern, especially on sweet cherry.
    Plums are at early green cluster.        were still in the dormant stage, and ten        If we have the drop in temperature
    Grapes are at early bud swell.           days later, trees were at the bud burst         predicted, it may predispose tissue to
                                             stage. Apricots are in early bloom here
Weather and crop development                                                                 bacterial infection. IPM
                                             at the station, and we see a bit of white
   Last week’s weather was extremely
                                             on sweet cherry buds in early varieties
warm for April, and most days were

Weather news
Jeff Andresen, Agricultural Meteorology and Geography
    High pressure across the central         A warm front extending eastward from            again by next Monday. Temperatures
United States will dominate our weather      an area of low pressure in the central          will warm from below normal levels
for the next couple of days, while a         Great Plains will approach the state            Tuesday to slightly above normal
weather system over the western United       by early Thursday morning, bringing             levels by Friday, with highs ranging
States will bring an extended period of      the chance for showers to western               from the low 50’s north to near 60ºF
unsettled weather to the region for the      and southern sections of the state.             south Wednesday increasing to a range
end of the work week and much of the         The low pressure will move slowly               from 56ºF north to near 70ºF south
upcoming weekend. With cool and very         northeastward through Michigan by               by Friday. Low temperatures should
dry air over the state overnight Tuesday,    late Saturday or Sunday, bringing               increase from lows in the upper 20’s
April 29 into Wednesday morning, a           an extended chance for showers and              to low 30’s Wednesday morning to
widespread radiation-type freeze is          thunderstorms through Sunday. Best              the mid-40’s north to low 50’s south
likely, with minimum temperatures            chances for rainfall statewide will             late in the week. Slightly cooler
dropping to the upper 20’s across most       be late Thursday, Friday and early              temperatures are likely next weekend,
fruit production areas of the state. A few   Saturday. Precipitation totals through          with highs in the mid-50’s to low 60’s
mid-20’s are possible in lower-lying         Sunday will range from 0.5-inch in far          and lows in the upper 30’s to low or
marginal fruit sites.                        northern sections of the state to more          mid-40’s.
    By mid-day Wednesday, the                than 1-inch (some totals approaching                Further ahead, medium-range,
center of the high pressure will drift       2 inches are possible) across the               forecast guidance suggests a series
east of Michigan, leading to warmer          southern Lower Peninsula.                       of upper air troughs moving from the
temperatures on southwesterly winds.             Fair and drier weather is expected          western United States eastward into
  10     ------------------------------------- Fruit Crop Advisory Team Alert - April 29, 2008

the Midwest, with an active storm      near normal temperatures and above         forecaster confidence is considered
track across the Great Lakes region.   normal precipitation totals. Due to some   lower than normal. IPM
Both 6-10 day and 8-14 day outlooks    disagreement among the models used
covering May 4-8 and 6-12 call for     in the development of the outlooks,

                           ACTUAL AND PREDICTED DEGREE-DAY
                        ACCUMULATIONS SINCE MARCH 1 2008 (*)

                     BASE 42 BE DEGREE-DAYS        BASE 50 BE DEGREE-DAYS
   OR              AS OF 04/28     BY     BY      AS OF 04/28    BY     BY
 DISTRICT           2007 2008     05/03 05/08      2007 2008    05/03 05/08
WEST UP NORMS**            123     161    204              48     68      91
  MARQUETTE          150    94     105    138        58    33     36      48
EAST UP NORMS               73     103    137              20     30      44
  CORNELL            176   108     118    151        71    41     43      52
  SSMARIE            134   148     162    207        54    60     63      77
N.W. LP NORMS              164     211    262              64     86    113
  BEULAH             245   253     274    332       102   127    135    160
  BINGHAM            221   234     253    307        95   119    126    150
  NORTHPORT          174   196     212    257        66    96    102    121
  OLDMISSION         206   214     231    281        82   107    114    135
N.E. LP NORMS              144     187    235              56     76    101
  ALPENA             193   218     235    282        83   105    111    131
  ROGERCITY          160   218     235    282        66   109    115    136
W. CENT. LP NORMS          210     265    324              91    119    152
  FREMONT            304   282     308    372       142   141    152    182
  HART               272   272     297    359       118   132    142    171
  LUDINGTON          269   261     285    344       112   122    131    158
CENT. LP NORMS             230     286    347             100    130    166
  ENTRICAN           290   278     305    373       138   137    149    183
E. CENT. LP NORMS          228     283    344              98    127    161
  BADAXE             222   290     318    390        96   153    166    202
  SAGINAW            310   293     321    394       142   150    163    198
S.W. LP NORMS              292     357    427             136    173    213
  BHARBOR            388   324     356    434       189   165    179    218
  FENNVILLE          328   288     316    386       149   144    156    190
  GLENDORA           399   324     356    434       194   161    175    212
  GRANDJUNC          421   361     396    484       213   189    205    249
  HOLLAND            397   353     388    473       195   188    204    248
  KENTCITY           336   324     356    434       162   161    175    212
  SPARTA             314   288     316    386       145   145    157    191
  WATERVLIET         399   324     356    434       194   161    175    212
S. CENT. LP NORMS          282     347    415             133    170    210
  BELDING            309   298     327    404       148   148    160    197
  COLDWATER          349   310     341    420       169   155    168    206
  ELANSING           349   315     346    427       164   163    177    217
S.E. LP NORMS              266     327    394             119    152    190
  DETROIT            411   382     417    503       196   196    211    254
  FLINT              365   373     407    492       176   201    217    261
  MILFORD            321   295     322    389       149   151    163    196
  ROMEO              329   311     340    410       161   151    163    196
  SALINE             380   325     355    428       185   166    179    215
  TOLEDO             455   339     370    447       233   170    183    220

* Since weather data for some agricultural stations are not available prior to
  April 1st, GDD values for those stations during February and March are estimated
  with closest available station data.
** District normals were calculated as the mean of daily GDD totals at
   several stations within each district for the period 1951-1980.
   Fruit Crop Advisory Team Alert - April 29, 2008                           --------------------------------- 11

      Michigan State University Cooperative Agricultural Weather Service
                 Cumulative Precipitation Summary For 04/28/2008

                                      PRECIPITATION TOTALS SINCE

                     04/22/2008       04/15/2008       04/01/2008       04/01/08
                    (last week)    (last 2 weeks)   (last 4 weeks)   (since Apr.1)

STATION      DIST      Actual     Actual
                                      Dev.     Actual   Dev.   Actual   Dev.
                                      Norm.             Norm.           Norm.

MARQUETTE     WU         0.16       0.90   -0.28     5.17    3.05     5.17       3.05

CORNELL       EU         0.23       0.45   -0.85     3.21    0.89     3.21       0.89
SSMARIE       EU         1.20       1.27   -0.03     3.62    1.30     3.62       1.30

BENZONIA      NWL        2.01       2.01    0.71     4.57    2.10     4.57       2.10
BEULAH        NWL        2.13       2.13    0.83     3.85    1.38     3.85       1.38
BINGHAM       NWL        1.78       1.78    0.48     3.94    1.47     3.94       1.47
NORTHPORT     NWL        2.05       2.05    0.75     4.19    1.72     4.19       1.72
OLDMISSION    NWL        1.06       1.06   -0.24     3.38    0.91     3.38       0.91

ALPENA        NEL        0.27       0.27   -0.98     2.04   -0.33     2.04     -0.33
ROGERCITY     NEL        0.57       0.57   -0.68     2.35   -0.02     2.35     -0.02

FREMONT       WCL        1.16       1.16   -0.47     3.40    0.53     3.40       0.53
HART          WCL        2.09       2.39    0.76     4.80    1.93     4.80       1.93
LUDINGTON     WCL        1.49       1.49   -0.14     3.98    1.11     3.98       1.11
LUDINGTON     WCL        1.49       1.49   -0.14     3.98    1.11     3.98       1.11

ENTRICAN      CL         0.37       0.37   -1.26     1.59   -1.18     1.59     -1.18

BADAXE        ECL        0.07       0.07   -1.29     1.53   -0.82     1.53     -0.82
SAGINAW       ECL        0.13       0.13   -1.23     1.55   -0.80     1.55     -0.80

BHARBOR       SWL        0.43       0.56   -1.22     2.50   -0.62     2.50     -0.62
FENNVILLE     SWL        0.31       0.31   -1.47     2.56   -0.56     2.56     -0.56
GLENDORA      SWL        0.57       0.62   -1.16     2.89   -0.23     2.89     -0.23
GRANDJUNC     SWL        0.36       0.38   -1.40     2.53   -0.59     2.53     -0.59
HOLLAND       SWL        0.81       0.81   -0.97     1.73   -1.39     1.73     -1.39
KENTCITY      SWL        0.57       0.62   -1.16     2.89   -0.23     2.89     -0.23
SPARTA        SWL        0.90       0.90   -0.88     2.96   -0.16     2.96     -0.16
WATERVLIET    SWL        0.57       0.62   -1.16     2.89   -0.23     2.89     -0.23

BELDING       SCL        0.36       0.36   -1.33     2.93   -0.03     2.93     -0.03
COLDWATER     SCL        0.20       0.22   -1.47     2.05   -0.91     2.05     -0.91
ELANSING      SCL        0.10       0.10   -1.59     1.71   -1.25     1.71     -1.25

DETROIT       SEL        0.07       0.08   -1.62     0.83   -2.18     0.83     -2.18
FLINT         SEL        0.02       0.02   -1.68     1.54   -1.47     1.54     -1.47
MILFORD       SEL        0.05       0.05   -1.65     1.35   -1.66     1.35     -1.66
ROMEO         SEL        0.21       0.21   -1.49     1.27   -1.74     1.27     -1.74
SALINE        SEL        0.23       0.23   -1.47     1.28   -1.73     1.28     -1.73
TOLEDO        SEL        0.11       0.16   -1.54     1.74   -1.27     1.74     -1.27
The Fruit Crop Advisory Team (CAT) Alert is
brought to you by:
                                                                                                The Crop Advisory
MSU Extension and Agricultural Experiment Station Field Staff                                   Team Alerts are published
Robert Tritten, District Educator - SE Michigan
Mark Longstroth, District Educator - SW Michigan                                                by the Michigan State
Dr. Bill Shane, District Educator - SW Michigan and Horticulture Specialist                     University IPM Program
Dr. John Wise, Research/Extension Coordinator -Trevor Nichols Research Complex
Amy Irish-Brown, ICM Fruit Educator -West Central Michigan                                      Joy Neumann Landis, editor
Phillip Schwallier, District Educator - Clarksville Horticulture Experiment Station             Andrea Buchholz, assistant editor
Dr. Mira Danilovich, District Educator - West Central Michigan
Dr. Duke Elsner, ANR Educator - Grand Traverse & Kalkaska Counties                              Crop Advisory Team Alert
Dr. Carlos Garcia-Salazar, Small Fruit Educator - Ottawa County                                 subscriptions are $35 or free on the
Dr. Nikki Rothwell, Station Coordinator - NW Michigan Horticultural Research Station            Internet at:
Erin Lizzotte, District Educator - NW Michigan Horticultural Research Station                   To subscribe or for information:
Rob Sirrine, Extension Director, Leelanau County                                                Crop Advisory Team Alerts
                                                                                                243 Natural Science Bldg.
                                                                                                Michigan State University
MSU Extension Campus Specialists                        MSU is an affirmative-action,           East Lansing, MI 48824
Dr. Annemiek Schilder, Plant Pathology (small fruit)    equal-opportunity employer.             (517) 353-4703
Dr. George Sundin, Plant Pathology (tree fruit)         Michigan State University Exten-        E-mail:
Dr. Larry Gut, Entomology (tree fruit)                  sion programs and materials are
Dr. Rufus Isaacs, Entomology (small fruit)              open to all without regard to race,     Additional support provided by the
                                                        color, national origin, gender,
Dr. Jeff Andresen, Geography/Agric. Meteorology         gender identity, religion, age,
                                                                                                MSU Fruit Area of Expertise Team.
Dr. Ron Perry, Horticulture                             height, weight, disability, political
Dr. Eric Hanson, Horticulture                           beliefs, sexual orientation, marital
David Epstein, Integrated Pest Management Program       status, family status or veteran
Paul Jenkins, Small Fruit Education Coordinator         status.

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