FASD and Education An Ontario Perspective

Document Sample
FASD and Education An Ontario Perspective Powered By Docstoc
					  FASD and Education
 An Ontario Perspective


     FASEout Presentations
   February 17, 2006 - Ottawa
Mary K. Cunningham B.Ed. P.H.Ec.



           FASEout Project 2006
             www.faseout.ca
    Acknowledgements
Mary Cunningham is a parent of a young
adult with ARND. She has been learning
about FASD from her daughter and her
students since 1998.
Diane Malbin, (Oregon) Donna Debolt
(Lethbridge), Chris Margetson (Guelph),
Bonnie Buxton (FASworld Toronto), Cheryl
Duquette (Ottawa), Laura Spero(London)
Alberta Government – Education ministry
               FASEout Project 2006
                 www.faseout.ca
  Presenter Information
Parenting consultant and FASD advocate
Retired from 30 years in education system as a
teacher, department head and consultant
Has two young adult children, one with ARND
Is married to another retired educator
Co-author of Parenting in Canada, 2003
Co-founder of ON Coalition for Parenting Ed.
Lives in Kitchener, ON cunninghammary@rogers.com
                 FASEout Project 2006
                   www.faseout.ca
 FASD and Education
An Ontario Perspective
 1-Educational Success for
Students Affected by FASD

 2-Advocating Successfully
 within the School System

          FASEout Project 2006
            www.faseout.ca
    Educational Success for
     Students with FASD
1- Introduction
2- FASD 101 for Educators
3- What FASD Looks Like at School
4- Brain Damage = Behaviour
5- How Secondary Effects Develop
6- Success for Students with FASD

               FASEout Project 2006
                 www.faseout.ca
FASD is an umbrella term for:
                     Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
                     (FAS) (obvious to all)

                     Partial Fetal Alcohol
                     Syndrome (pFAS)

                     Alcohol Related
                     Neurodevelopmental
                     Disorder (ARND)

                     ARBD, Static Encephalopathy
           FASEout Project 2006
             www.faseout.ca
FASD and Education?
Have I seen FASD yet?




      FASEout Project 2006
        www.faseout.ca
  Alcohol Use In Pregnancy
50% of pregnancies are
unplanned
17% to 25% of women
reported drinking
alcohol during their last
pregnancy
7% to 9% reported
drinking alcohol
throughout their last
pregnancy
         Canadian National Survey



                         FASEout Project 2006
                           www.faseout.ca
          What about Dad?
A father‟s drinking does not cause
FASD…BUT:

  Drinking and drug use can damage sperm
  causing subtle neurological damage such as
  impulsivity,learning disabilities, attentional
  problems & (lower birth weight)

  When a father drinks he influences the
  mother‟s drinking

                   FASEout Project 2006
                     www.faseout.ca
      Co-occurring Mental Illnesses

ADD/ADHD is often diagnosed
(Reactive) Attachment Disorder (R-AD)
Bi-Polar Disorder/Depression
Conduct Disorder (CD)
Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD)
(Kathryn Page – 2002- Ctr. For Families, Children & Courts)

                             FASEout Project 2006
                               www.faseout.ca
        FASD in Education Facts
 Health Canada notes that 1% of live births are FASD-
affected. (This is probably low). This means at least 300,000
Canadians are living with FASD

 FASD is one of the most common birth defects in North
America

 FASD is the most common cause of developmental delay in
North America

 IF YOU ARE AN EDUCATOR YOU HAVE DEALT WITH FASD

                         FASEout Project 2006
                           www.faseout.ca
Most Students with FASD are
         Invisible




           FASEout Project 2006
             www.faseout.ca
     The Usual FASD Story
JK/SK – unduly quiet or aggressive and
unruly (ADD/ADHD-like)

May slip through cracks at first –
Level 2 – “C” evaluations

By 4-6 serious learning problems are obvious:
reading, math, science

May be a “Safe School” nightmare with
frequent suspensions
                  FASEout Project 2006
                    www.faseout.ca
    The Usual FASD Story
By grade 7 or 8 is dropped by achieving
friends who can see disabilities
Picks up with peers with similar problems
School skipping, no homework, school failure
Petty crime, drugs, alcohol use, early sexual
activities
Early school dropout or expulsion – first sign
of marginalized adulthood

                 FASEout Project 2006
                   www.faseout.ca
   If you are an educator
You have dealt with students who have
FASD

You will deal with students who have
FASD for the rest of your career

So, what‟s to be done?
              FASEout Project 2006
                www.faseout.ca
 Reframe The Behaviour

IT IS NOT THAT THEY WON‟T,

       THEY CAN‟T


         FASEout Project 2006
           www.faseout.ca
Brain Damage = Behaviour Change
         (Donna Debolt)
      Prenatal Exposure to Alcohol Causes
      Permanent Damage to the Brain




                FASEout Project 2006
                  www.faseout.ca
       FASD = Information
      Processing Disabilities
FASD is an extremely serious and debilitating
information processing learning disability

A student could have any or all of these deficits:

1.   Input- recording of information from the
        senses
2.   Integration- process of interpreting the
               input
3.   Memory- storage of information for later
            use
4.   Output- producing answers, responses,
                     FASEout Project 2006
                       of work
          completion www.faseout.ca
  Two Common Reactions
   Processing Difficulties

1- Total shut down and turn off
   May be confused with ADD

2- Hyperactive acting out
  May be confused with ADHD

 ADHD is frequently misdiagnosed!
                FASEout Project 2006
                  www.faseout.ca
 Brain Damage = Behaviour
Our brain is like a computer “CPU” and it
controls our behaviour

When the “CPU” gets the wrong data or
processes data incorrectly dysfunctional
behaviour results

 A FASD-affected brain will not recover so
 those around it must adapt and serve as
“external” brains
                 FASEout Project 2006
                   www.faseout.ca
 What might an information
processing disorder feel like?
Imagine: loud music is blaring, the lights are
buzzing and you are wearing a scratchy wool
sweater over your bare skin, (Dorothy
Shwab, Manitoba)
This is how it feels for a student with FASD,
Exactly what would you actually learn under
these circumstances?
How would you act under these conditions?

                 FASEout Project 2006
                   www.faseout.ca
Primary Effects a Teacher Might See
                  (A-L-A-R-M) activities
Adaptation - trouble stopping or starting
Language - talk a “great line”, but don‟t “get it” when
people try to talk to them
Attention – ADD/ADHD frequently misdiagnosed
Reasoning – don‟t understand abstract ideas, eg. math
Memory - „sketchy‟-on and off, has big gaps, don‟t learn
from experience…same mistakes over and over

IT IS NOT THAT THEY WON‟T;THEY
              CAN‟T
                      FASEout Project 2006
                        www.faseout.ca
       Brain Damage Causes
            Dysmaturity
A confounding but classic sign of FASD

Student appears to be functioning at different,
inconsistent ages, for example:
    Chronologically 18 Socially 12
    Emotionally 8        Cognitively 9

Research is starting to show that individuals with
FASD tend to get as mature as they are going to, or
get “caught up” by age 35, too late for the school
system, but still a ray of hope for parents
                   FASEout Project 2006
                     www.faseout.ca
                 Dysmaturity Concept – Students with FASD
                   Frequently Show Many Different Ages


       SKILLS

Expressiveness (Talking)

  Understanding Ideas

Money & Time Concepts

   Emotional Maturity

    Physical Maturity

    Reading ability

      Social Skills


   Living (Life) Skills




                                  How Old He/She MAY act in each skill area
                              FASEout Project 2006 findings
                                 Adapted from research        of Streissguth, Clarren et al by D. Malbin 94
                                www.faseout.ca
Will Students Outgrow FASD?
             NO
They may have life-long problems with:
          - Learning
          - Remembering
          - Thinking things through
          - Getting along with others

     Brain damage is permanent!
                 FASEout Project 2006
                   www.faseout.ca
The Worst Case Scenario:
Secondary Effects Develop




         FASEout Project 2006
           www.faseout.ca
  Students With FASD Often:
Are bullied and stigmatized
Have trouble finding friends
Do not achieve at school
Disappoint people around them
Are disappointed in themselves
Develop very poor self esteem

             FASEout Project 2006
               www.faseout.ca
Then FASD creates Secondary
 Behaviours (Malbin, 2004)
Primary FASD behaviours are those that
most clearly reflect underlying damage to
brain structure and function (slides 29 ff)

Secondary FASD behaviours are
defensive and develop over time in
response to a non-supportive
environment, the individual suffers from a
chronic inability to “fit in”
                FASEout Project 2006
                  www.faseout.ca
          Secondary Behaviours
              An Educator Might See at School

Inappropriate humour                Bullied, Teased
Class clown                         Fighting, Outbursts
Isolated, Few friends               Running away, Avoidance
Pseudo-sophisticated- trying        Sexually „inappropriate‟ to
to pass as “OK”                     point of being
Irritability,Resistance,            dangerous
Fatigue, Arguments                  Depressed, Suicidal
Anxious,Fearful,                    Co-occurring Diagnoses
Overwhelmed                         School Failure, Expulsion
Poor Self Esteem                    – grade 9/10
Unrealistic Goals
                        FASEout Project 2006
                          www.faseout.ca
      Secondary Effects of FASD
                            (1996-Washington State)

       Alcohol/Drug                                     Percentage of Adults with
         Problems                                       Fetal Alcohol Spectrum
Innappropriate Sexual                                   Disorder who have specific
     Behaviour                                          Secondary Disabilities

Trouble with the Law

 Suspended/Expelled
     from School
        Employement
         Difficulties
   Dependent Living
    Arrangements

       Mental Health


                        0   20        40          60    80        100

                                 FASEout Project 2006
                                   www.faseout.ca
                Review
Alcohol in utero can cause both physical and
neurological damage to the fetus
Neurological (brain) damage is the root of
most FASD problems faced by schools
Brain damage causes very serious learning
disabilities which lead to primary behaviours
If left untreated primary behaviours turn into
serious secondary behaviours and a
marginalized adulthood (see Streissguth,
1996)
                 FASEout Project 2006
                   www.faseout.ca
   The Best Case Scenario:
Success for Students with FASD




           FASEout Project 2006
             www.faseout.ca
    Change the Paradigm
If they could they would -”It is not that
students with FASD won‟t, they can‟t”
Understanding this will change your attitude
and they will notice your support Behaviour =
Brain Damage
Diabetics need insulin, paraplegics need
wheel chairs, students with FASD have
permanent brain damage and need you to
deal with this irreversible fact
“Learn to love the student you got, not the
one you wanted” FASEout Project 2006
                 www.faseout.ca
There IS a silver lining…

ALL STUDENTS WITH FASD
HAVE INNATE STRENGTHS
   AND COMPETENCIES


         FASEout Project 2006
           www.faseout.ca
 Recognize ability not disability!
ALL people with FASD excel in some or all of the
following areas:
         ART     MUSIC             POETRY

    MECHANICS          “HANDS-ON” SKILLS

   WORKING WITH CHILDREN & ANIMALS

       COMPUTERS & TECHNOLOGY

           COMPETITIVE SPORTS

                  FASEout Project 2006
                    www.faseout.ca
      Multiple Intelligences
Howard Gardner is the theorist behind “MI”, this is
especially useful for students with FASD
Everybody has some of each of the 9 intelligence
groups. Find out what you are good at and work at
getting better. Don‟t beat yourself up about your
weaknesses.
Multiple Intelligence development is especially
important for students with FASD. Good for self
esteem development too
“Google” Howard Gardner + Multiple Intelligences

                  FASEout Project 2006
                    www.faseout.ca
      Multiple Intelligences
  Verbal – Interpersonal             – Visual

  Kinesthetic - Musical – Naturalistic

  Intrapersonal - Mathematical – Existential

Every student has some of each. Discover and
  develop your best ones!
                  FASEout Project 2006
                    www.faseout.ca
Typical Strengths and Abilities
Hands on learners                  Express themselves
Kinesthetic, energetic             well verbally
Learn by doing and                 Good with animals,
repeatedly shown                   children, mechanics,
Good long term visual              computers, and the arts
memory
                                   Friendly, affectionate,
Value fairness and
can be rigidly moral,             loving, loyal, gentle,
comforted by rules                determined, sensitive
and orderliness                   and compassionate

                   FASEout Project 2006
                     www.faseout.ca
Teaching Students with FASD
FASD strategies will not hurt students so
when in doubt or waiting for diagnosis go
ahead and use these strategies
The ideas in this presentation are an
introduction only and teachers should be
aware that an endless repertoire can be
developed. There is no magic formula.
All these Special Education strategies
are just good teaching. They work for
almost any student with learning
disabilities.

                FASEout Project 2006
                  www.faseout.ca
              In General
Head off trouble, nip escalating stimulus
overload before the child explodes
Provide constant supervision, preventing a
crisis is easier than cleaning it up
These students need “external brains”
All the expectations in curriculum won‟t be
met, teach life skills and blend in academics
Teaching life skills that others learn by
osmosis must be multimodal,repeated and
compelling (ESSENTIAL)
                 FASEout Project 2006
                   www.faseout.ca
   Some Starter Strategies
Reduce stimulation, provide quiet places for
them to de-stress as needed
Go slowly-”10 s children in a 1 s world”
Hands on learning, focus on strengths
Foster interdependence not independence
Repeat, re-teach, repeat, re-teach, repeat…
Carpe diem- Enjoy today, do a day at a time


                FASEout Project 2006
                  www.faseout.ca
   More Starter Strategies
Do not ask “why” – they don‟t know
If things go wrong try differently, not harder
Make transitions as easy as possible
Use visuals as often as possible
Break everything into steps, do 1 at a time
Remember that students with impairments
teach life lessons to everybody else


                 FASEout Project 2006
                   www.faseout.ca
  External Brains (S. Clarren)
  Help the child reframe their world
  Provide crutches for an invisible disability
  Provide pro-active and intervention strategies
  Assist the child to process information and to
  respond more appropriately

If you are physically disabled you need a
   wheelchair.
If you are blind you need a seeing eye dog.
If you are a child with FASD you need an external
   brain.
                   FASEout Project 2006
                     www.faseout.ca
People Who Understand




       FASEout Project 2006
         www.faseout.ca
“Teaching Students with FASD
 Building Strengths, Creating
            Hope”
The following website is INVALUABLE:
www.education.gov.ab.ca/k_12/specialneeds/fasd.asp
Western Canada is “light years” ahead of us
in all aspects of FASD understanding,
prevention and intervention (education)
Do not try to re-invent the wheel, go to the
above Alberta website for the newest and
best resource on successful education for
students with FASD
You may print for free – 165 pages in length
                     FASEout Project 2006
                       www.faseout.ca
“Teaching Students with FASD
 Building Strengths, Creating
            Hope”
Introduction
Chapter 1: What is FASD?
Chapter 2: Key Program Planning Concepts
Chapter 3: Positive Classroom Climate
Chapter 4: Students‟ Needs
Appendices A, B & C (excellent resources)
Bibliography and Index


                FASEout Project 2006
                  www.faseout.ca
             Ideally……..
We will substantially reduce the incidence

of FASD in the future…….How?

By spreading the Zero 4 Nine message


                FASEout Project 2006
                  www.faseout.ca
    Zero 4 Nine Messages
No known amount of alcohol can be
consumed safely during pregnancy.
There is no known safe time to drink alcohol
in a pregnancy
A pregnant woman has a choice, her baby
does not.
A pregnant woman may need help from her
spouse and peers not to drink.
Avoid alcohol when planning a pregnancy or
breast feeding*
                FASEout Project 2006
                  www.faseout.ca
FASD Prevention in Education
The place to get the “0 for 9” message out so
it will stick is to students before can drink
legally

OCMPE – The Ontario Coalition for Mandatory
Parenting Education wants all high school
students take and pass a parenting
course before graduation; FASD messaging
will be embedded.

Fewer babies in the stream!
                FASEout Project 2006
                  www.faseout.ca
     For More Information
Please feel free to contact the presenter at
 cunninghammary@rogers.com
 or 519-893-7393 (Kitchener, Ontario)

The internet is a valuable source of
information, search under “fetal alcohol
spectrum disorder”
www.education.gov.ab.ca/k_12/
specialneeds/fasd.asp (excellent resource)

                   FASEout Project 2006
                     www.faseout.ca
The End of Part One
     RECESS!



      FASEout Project 2006
        www.faseout.ca
 FASD and Education
An Ontario Perspective


2-Advocating Successfully
within the School System


         FASEout Project 2006
           www.faseout.ca
     Successful Advocacy in
       the School System

1-Advocacy and Advocates
2-Parent and School Relationships
3-Getting a Diagnosis of FASD
4-FASD Has NO Special Ed category!
5-Emphasize the Positive
6-Strategies for Successful Education
                FASEout Project 2006
                  www.faseout.ca
        FASD Advocacy?
Advocacy is active support; especially
the act of pleading or arguing for
something

An advocate is a person who pleads
for a cause or promotes ideas

Students with FASD need advocacy and
advocates to have any success in today‟s
schools         FASEout Project 2006
                  www.faseout.ca
    Who Can Advocate for
         Students?
Teachers
Parents and/or caregivers

Anyone else who works with students in a
school – professionals, paraprofessionals
       - others working in the school

Anyone who understands schools and FASD
has the potential to be a good advocate for a
student with FASD
                FASEout Project 2006
                  www.faseout.ca
Involve the Whole School……
 Ideally ALL the people who work in
 a school from the administrators
 and teaching staff to the custodians,
 community coaches and lunch room
 supervisors will understand the
 realities of FASD and be prepared
 to recognize and properly support
 students who may have (or just look
 like they might have) FASD.
                  FASEout Project 2006
                    www.faseout.ca
    Whole School Efforts
FASD 101 professional development
for everybody

Use of whole school programs like
TRIBES ™

“With All Due Respect” Ronald Morrish
(Font Hill, ON)
              FASEout Project 2006
                www.faseout.ca
Involve the Whole Community
1.   Establish an FASD Task Force and Support Team at the board
     level
2.   Educate all school staff personnel about FASD.
3.   Build community awareness about FASD.
4.   Be prepared to support parents and teachers caring for FASD
     children.
5.   Implement changes in the school environment and academic
     programming
6.   Get diagnostic facilities in the community.
7.   Refer children for FASD testing.
8.   Revisit administrative procedures regarding safe schools.
9.   Set up a personal advocate for each child with FASD


                         FASEout Project 2006
                           www.faseout.ca
   A Delicate Balancing Act
The squeaky wheel gets the grease?
                   OR
The squeaky wheel gets changed?

One always catches more flies with sugar
than vinegar

Each school will have different limits
                 FASEout Project 2006
                   www.faseout.ca
 Most FASD experts such as
Malbin or Debolt acknowledge
that many parents of children
with FASD give the impression
       of being „crazy‟

Most parents will obsess to get
     their children served
            FASEout Project 2006
              www.faseout.ca
 Parent/School Relationship
“FASD parents” are the ultimate, 24 hour front-line
workers and desperately need your support

These parents only appear to be crazy; they are
almost overwhelmed and super stressed

Professionals are often tempted to assume that
(undiagnosed) FASD is the result of ineffective
parenting and family dysfunction.

The family with FASD is often dysfunctional because
of FASD not the other way around
                   FASEout Project 2006
                     www.faseout.ca
   Duquette et al Research
 School Experiences of Students with Fetal Alcohol
Spectrum Disorder Duquette, Cheryll and Emma J.
Stodel (U of Ottawa) in Exceptionality Education
Canada, vol 15, #2, 2005, pp.51-75
Examined „factors leading to persistence in school
among students with FASD from perspectives of the
students & their parents‟
Relatively small sample (24), all children adopted
The “high maintenance parent” appeared to
foster success; parental advocacy is strongly linked
with persistence and graduation among students with
FASD
Parents studied FASD & then educated teachers
                   FASEout Project 2006
                     www.faseout.ca
   Elements Related to School
    Success (Duquette et al)
Caring teachers who understood FASD and made
accomodations led to more success

Parents obtained psychological testing and used
diagnoses to access services and to provide an
underlying reason for student difficulties

Specialized programs and paraprofessionals,
when needed, were related to success

Most parents advocated strongly and provided
„encouragement‟ at home
                   FASEout Project 2006
                     www.faseout.ca
        Parent Advocates
Need to remember that teaching has been
designated as just slightly less stressful than
air traffic control – the most stressful
occupation in that study

Teachers are responsible for all the students
in their classes not just your child – who may
be taking a lot more energy than the others

                 FASEout Project 2006
                   www.faseout.ca
Summer holidays DO NOT make
up for 10 months of extremely
stressful teaching. They merely
allow most teachers to continue
            teaching
      the next September

            FASEout Project 2006
              www.faseout.ca
Educators on the other hand will
do well to remember that every
   student has parents and/or
caregivers who understand their
  individual needs better than
          anyone else

            FASEout Project 2006
              www.faseout.ca
An involved parent or caregiver
    for a child with FASD is
 generally going to know a lot
  about FASD and should be
  considered as an “expert”

           FASEout Project 2006
             www.faseout.ca
It should never come to this…



          FASEout Project 2006
            www.faseout.ca
Parents, schools fight $1.8 Billion special needs war – Dec. 5/05 (Star)
HELEN HENDERSON
LIFE C OLUMNIST (THE STAR)


Gordon Martin is 9 years old. Over the past two years, he has arrived home from school on several occasions with feces in his lunch bag
and disturbing marks on his skin. In October, he was expelled for disruptive behaviour.

His mother has been banned from all school board properties and                                           accused of uttering profanities and
making false allegations against staff and students. The Martins moved to a smaller house, cashed in their retirement savings and got
help f rom community garage sales to pay for a specially trained support therapist to help in class with their son, who is autistic. The school
asked the therapist to stay out of the classroom.

Gordon's mother says his behaviour at school — X School in X was a response to how he
was treated there. The school calls her complaints "baseless."
Welcome to the war zone that is special education in Ontario………

………As in many cases examined by the Star,         communication between family and school board broke
down completely, an           issue the working committee intends to address. "We have to do better at communicating," says co-chair
Kathleen Wynne, parliamentary assistant to (Gerrard) Kennedy.

           third party who knows how to get past the emotion, because common sense gets lost in emot ion" — parents
"Maybe we need a
whose children have gone through the system or retired teachers, for example.




                                                          FASEout Project 2006
                                                            www.faseout.ca
Does my Student have FASD?
Teachers should only assess and NOT diagnose

All of the primary behaviours related to FASD can
have other causes and every “problem student” does
not have FASD - this is a critical concept

FASD can be picked up even in ECE settings

If you see several or all behaviours request an
immediate psycho-educational assessment

While you are waiting use FASD strategies. They will
help almost all learning disabled students
                    FASEout Project 2006
                      www.faseout.ca
Most Students with FASD are
         Invisible




           FASEout Project 2006
             www.faseout.ca
Physical Birth Defect Indicators
Most can be also caused by factors other than
                   alcohol
Brain damage                     Long, smooth philtrum
Heart defects                    Short palpebral fissures
                                 Thinned upper lip
Blood vessel defects
                                 Skeletal (eg.clinodactyly)
Hearing/ear problems
                                 Club foot
Kidney deformities
                                 Cleft lip and palate
Uro-genital defects
                                 Dental abnormalities
Small head size
                                 Growth abnormalities
Scoliosis (skeletal)


                  FASEout Project 2006
                    www.faseout.ca
Primary Behaviours Related to
    Neurological Damage
 Learning                       Cognition/aural slow
 Attention                      Inability to generalize
 Judgment
                                Executive Functioning
 Memory
                                Social Perception
 Performance (varies)
 Impulsivity                    Boundaries (touching)
 Abstract Concepts              Sleeping Problems
 Communication                  Eating Problems
 “Lack of Conscience”           Learning is affected
             (A-L-A-R-M       PLUS)

                  FASEout Project 2006
                    www.faseout.ca
      Getting A Diagnosis
Psycho-educational testing is the first step
If „psych‟ testing suggests major learning
disabilities the next step is medical testing
FASD diagnostic testing is done by a full
interdisciplinary medical team
A medical diagnosis of FASD diagnoses the
child but the mother is also included so a
diagnosis of FASD is a “diagnosis for two.”

                 FASEout Project 2006
                   www.faseout.ca
Diagnosis – The Earlier the Better!
Diagnosis should bring special programs for a child
(and disability support for an adult)
Labelling may bring some understanding of self
and helps stop self-blame
Demonstrates that the individual needs special
treatment. Intervention MUST follow diagnosis
Increases social awareness of FASD which may
eventually reduce the stigma associated with it
Individuals diagnosed early get fewer secondary
behaviours related to chronic frustration

                   FASEout Project 2006
                     www.faseout.ca
 Missing an Early Diagnosis
Unless they have serious behaviour problems
pre-school and primary students with FASD
will often be missed because their cognitive
limitations have not yet been challenged

Parents MUST be believed when they
describe what is going on at home – the
earliest clues will be found there

                FASEout Project 2006
                  www.faseout.ca
Psycho-educational Testing
Average IQ for full FAS is 74
IQ range for full FAS is 20-130
Average IQ score for FASD is 90
However, an IQ score in the normal range is
misleading as many people with FASD are
unable to perform at levels indicated by their
IQ scores. (Streissguth, 1996)
Educational success is more than just IQ

                 FASEout Project 2006
                   www.faseout.ca
Psycho-educational Testing
A full battery of psycho-educational tests is
needed, Verbal and Peformance IQ testing
will be part of this testing
Full battery psycho-educational testing will
reveal very obvious skewing if FASD exists
If possible, testing which tests two functions
at the same time will often reveal highly
useful results
Plan an IEP which maximizes strengths and
minimizes weaknesses
                 FASEout Project 2006
                   www.faseout.ca
       The Ideal Situation
Ideally the child with FASD will get early
diagnosis and his/her Parents/Caretakers,
Physician, Educators, Therapists, Social
Support Workers and mentors will meet at
the school level and begin to develop a
realistic, life-long plan of communication and
care to minimize the development of
secondary disabilities

We all need to work towards this situation

                 FASEout Project 2006
                   www.faseout.ca
FASD as a Learning Disability
In Ontario FASD is not recognized as a
specific learning disability

Many parents feel their children would be
better served if FASD was treated as a
specific learning disability

In light of the Auton decision (June 2004) in
the Supreme Court of Canada it is unlikely to
be recognized as a specific learning disability
any time soon
                 FASEout Project 2006
                   www.faseout.ca
FASD as a Learning Disability
Governments are beginning to realize
they definitely can not afford to
recognize FASD which is almost twice
as common as ASD and far more costly
in the long run

Recognizing FASD as a specific learning
disability would open a “Pandora‟s Box”

              FASEout Project 2006
                www.faseout.ca
FASD as a Learning Disability
Recognizing FASD as a Special Education
category could open the door to recognition
as a disability and Sections 7 and 15(i) of the
CCRF could kick in

Your child or student needs help NOW not
when the “right thing” finally happens.

You child can‟t wait while you lobby!

                 FASEout Project 2006
                   www.faseout.ca
Then Why Diagnose FASD?
A student‟s educators MUST know they are
dealing with FASD

USE EXISTING Ontario Special Education
categories with FASD in mind– They will work

An advocate must help teachers to
understand how to deal with the behaviour
caused by brain damage. Be prepared to
teach educators about FASD
                FASEout Project 2006
                  www.faseout.ca
WE CAN EFFECTIVELY SERVE
 STUDENTS WITH FASD IN
        ONTARIO!

         FASEout Project 2006
           www.faseout.ca
Celebrate Strengths, Minimize
        Weaknesses
This is the good news and reason to hope: a
basis for intervention and educational success
exists
Fostering innate strengths and minimizing
weaknesses is the basis of success for
students with FASD
Success has been shown to prevent
defensive secondary behaviours in affected
students
                FASEout Project 2006
                  www.faseout.ca
 Individual Education Plans
Plan an IEP from the „psych‟ test results,
if possible plan it WITH the teacher(s)and
caregivers
Teachers, who are mere mortals, must
be able to follow this plan without
jeopardizing their other 20+ students or
their own health
Re-assess IEP frequently and fine tune if
possible
Include others for support: caregivers, EA,
mentors, buddies, anyone in „circle of
support‟ (external brains)
                   FASEout Project 2006
                 www.faseout.ca
            Learning Styles
Most students with FASD are first and foremost
tactile or “hands-on” learners. This helps with their
need to move. Learning in context is easiest and
most efficient for most of them

Visual learning is the next easiest style for most
students with FASD. “A picture is worth a 1000
words” has a whole new meaning for FASD!

Least of all, students with FASD are auditory
learners. This does not work well for most of them
(but teachers will still have to talk.)

                    FASEout Project 2006
                      www.faseout.ca
Typical Strengths and Abilities
Hands on learners                  Express themselves
Kinesthetic, energetic             well verbally
Learn by doing and                 Good with animals,
repeatedly shown                   children, mechanics,
Good long term visual              computers, and the arts
memory
                                   Friendly, affectionate,
Value fairness and
can be rigidly moral,             loving, loyal, gentle,
comforted by rules                determined, sensitive
and orderliness                   and compassionate

                   FASEout Project 2006
                     www.faseout.ca
 Educational Environments for
     Students with FASD
1- Special class or school just for students with
diagnosed FASD (David Livingston in Winnipeg)
(video available, profiled on The National)

2- Home Schooling
www.edu.gov.on.ca/extra/eng/ppm/131.html

3- Regular Classroom with integrated special
education and withdrawal where necessary
With proper planning most students with FASD can
be accommodated in a regular classroom
(challenging but doable) Project 2006
                   FASEout
                     www.faseout.ca
Most Important – Reframe the
      Behaviour you see
 If they could they would -”It is not that
 students with FASD won‟t, they can‟t”
 Understanding this will change your attitude
 and they will notice – you support them
 Behaviour = Brain Damage
 Diabetics need insulin, paraplegics need
 wheel chairs
 Students with FASD have permanent brain
 damage and need you to respect them for
 what they are, they can‟t survive without this
                  FASEout Project 2006
                    www.faseout.ca
  Interventions for Success
Dealing with FASD Information Processing Deficits

Structure is critical- structure with clear and
predictable routines is paramount,gentle transition

Supervision/Monitoring – external brain may be
needed 24/7- or be a telephone call away

Simplicity-simple, brief directions – repeat them

Steps- break everything down, written/visuals

Context- if teaching a skill do it where it will happen
– generalization is often difficult
                    FASEout Project 2006
                      www.faseout.ca
     Start with the Classroom
           Environment
The classroom learning
 environment has the most
 effect on students’ abilities
 to learn within the settings
 we provide. This includes
 its organization, its
 management, and its
 emotional components.
Use the acronym
 S-C-O-R-E-S

                        FASEout Project 2006
                          www.faseout.ca
                 Scores
Supervision
 Close supervision to keep students safe
 and out of trouble - 24/7 (Recess too!)
Structure
Teach students that every day has a consistent
and routine structure to it
Simplicity
 Keep rules, routines and directions simple
 Give directions orally and in visual form

                 FASEout Project 2006
                   www.faseout.ca
               SCores
Communication
-Regular and frequent communication
between home and school
-Students are taught and reminded how to
communicate feelings and needs to teacher,
peers and others
Consistency
-Routines, rules and consequences are
 consistent
 -Steps to complete a task are given in the
 same way every time
                FASEout Project 2006
                  www.faseout.ca
                ScOres
Organization
 The school helps students to become
organized by teaching and reinforcing
sequential organization strategies – repeat,
repeat, repeat

Classroom is organized – a place for
everything and everything in its place

The lessons and the day are organized

                 FASEout Project 2006
                   www.faseout.ca
                  ScoRes
  Rules
- Simple, concrete and easy to follow
  eg.– “Don‟t hit” ; rather than abstract
  eg. “Be kind” or “Stay safe”
- All staff use the same words for each rule and
   follow the same rules
- Check to see whether students know and
   understand what the rules mean
- Consequences are followed up
- Consequences applied immediately and
   consistently taking into consideration students
   disabilities

                   FASEout Project 2006
                     www.faseout.ca
                 ScorEs
Expectations
-Focus on life skills/social skills vs academics
-Realistic, attainable, and easily understood
 -Modified/take into consideration the special
 needs of students
-Clearly specify what is to be expected and
 accomplished on any given assignment
-Limit the amount of work, including
 homework

                  FASEout Project 2006
                    www.faseout.ca
                ScoreS
Self Esteem
-Students feel accepted, valued and safe
 -Positive encouragement is given in a
  consistent way each day
 -Student‟s strengths are explored to help
  them cope with the frustration of things
  they cannot do
-Students are reassured that they are not
 bad even though their behaviour is
 unacceptable and needs improvement
                 FASEout Project 2006
                   www.faseout.ca
 More Classroom Strategies
Minimize visual/sensory overload
Tone down colors – paint walls light
blue/grey
Reduce/remove clutter
Clearly define areas- use lines on floor
or colored tiles
Provide visual cues – sequencing
Keep classroom as simple as you can

               FASEout Project 2006
                 www.faseout.ca
     Attention Strategies
Use as few words as you can
Use auditory/visual cues and prompts
Focused teaching areas (One activity
only)
Use separate seating/carrels/dividers
Repeat/Reteach/Repeat
Reinforce, Recognize, Encourage and
Support
Vary background sounds and activities –
soft music or silent activity followed by
physical activity
               FASEout Project 2006
                 www.faseout.ca
  Strategies for Transitions
Prepare for transitions – use visual
and/or auditory cues
Have an agenda for the day on the
board for the students to see
Routine!!
If you are aware of a change in routine,
alert ahead of time and practice new
steps
Practice – Repeat – Re-teach
Have a digital clock visible
Warn or remove before fire drills
               FASEout Project 2006
                 www.faseout.ca
    “Discipline” Strategies
Focus on solutions not problems
Positive incentives
Reinforce the value of failure
Recognize and celebrate little successes
Firm, consistent, clear rules
Consistent follow through
Emphasize responsibility for own
choices
Encourage positive self-talk
De-emphasize cause/effect
              FASEout Project 2006
                www.faseout.ca
   Strategies for Dealing
    with Hyperactivity
Recognize triggers – read body
language – nip outbursts in the bud
Brain Gym
Provide regular breaks and allow
cocooning in a quiet place
Provide clay, kushy balls or anything
soft to be held and manipulated by hand
for the child to keep at his desk so that
he/she may sit a little longer
Make use of weighted vests (dentist)

               FASEout Project 2006
                 www.faseout.ca
“Teaching Students with FASD
 Building Strengths, Creating
            Hope”
The following website is INVALUABLE:
 www.education.gov.ab.ca/k_12/specialneeds/
fasd.asp
Western Canada is “light years” ahead of us
in all aspects of FASD understanding,
prevention and intervention (education)
Do not try to re-invent the wheel, go to
the above Alberta website for the
newest and best resource on successful
education for students with FASD
                                   165
You may print for free – 2006 pages in length
                   FASEout Project
                  www.faseout.ca
    What‟s Next for FASD?
Current Trends in FASD :
Intervention - Understanding FASD and
helping individuals with FASD and their care-
givers to be Successful
Prevention – Messaging – “Zero 4 Nine”,
There is no safe level of alcohol in pregnancy,
etc.
Research- FASD is quickly becoming a
hot research topic – early times as yet

                 FASEout Project 2006
                   www.faseout.ca
     For More Information
Please feel free to contact the presenter at
cunninghammary@rogers.com
or 519-893-7393 (Kitchener, Ontario)

The internet is a valuable source of
information, search under “fetal alcohol
spectrum disorder”

www.education.gov.ab.ca/k_12/
specialneeds/fasd.asp (excellent resource)

                  FASEout Project 2006
                    www.faseout.ca
 Thank you for your attention
 to and interest in helping to
   understand, prevent and
intervene in the lives of those
       living with FASD
                              Mary K. Cunningham




           FASEout Project 2006
             www.faseout.ca

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:26
posted:11/24/2011
language:English
pages:107