Transformational and Charismatic Leadership by YIMO682

VIEWS: 166 PAGES: 29

									 Transformational and
Charismatic Leadership

       Chapter 4
“When dealing with people, let us remember
  we are not dealing with creatures of logic.
  We are dealing with creatures of emotion,
  creatures bustling with prejudices and
  motivated by pride and vanity.”

                         Dale Carnegie
  Transactional Leadership
Transactional
– Traditional leadership
– Lower level of leadership
– Assists with organizational stability
Transformational Leadership
Transformational Leadership
– Change agent
– Inspire change and innovation
– Potent and Complex
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
         Self Actualization

           Self Esteem

     Belonging and Love Needs

           Safety Needs

        Physiological Needs
  Dimensions of Transactional
         Leadership
Transactional Leadership Factors
– Contingent reward:
    Provide rewards for effort
    Recognize good performance
– Management by exception:
    Maintain status quo
    Intervene when subordinates do not meet
    acceptable performance levels
    Initiate corrective action to improve performance
Dimensions of Transformational
         Leadership
Charisma:
– Provide a vision and a sense of mission
– Inspire and build trust and respect
Individualized consideration:
– Exhibit considerate and supportive behavior directed toward
  each individual subordinate; coach and advise
Inspiration:
– Communicate high expectations
– Use symbols to focus efforts and enhance understanding of
  goals
Intellectual Stimulation:
– Promote innovative ways of viewing situations
– Stimulate intelligent problem solving and decision making
   Primary Characteristics of
   Transformational Leaders
Creative
Interactive
Visionary
Empowering
Passionate
             Creative
Seek out new ideas, products and ways of
performing tasks
Cannot be content with things remaining
the same
              Creativity
Capacity to create and manipulate
symbols (chemical formulas, sentences,
drawings)
Referred to as divergent or lateral thinking
Refined through vertical thinking
Wallas’ Steps to Problem Solving
Preparation
Incubation
Illumination
Verification
Characteristics of the Creative
Hard working and persevering
Independent thinkers
Comfortable with complexity and
ambiguity
   Adam’s Creative Blocks
Perceptual Blocks
Emotional Blocks
Cultural and Environmental Blocks
Intellectual and Expressive Blocks
             Interactive
Great Communicators
– JFK
– Ronald Reagan


Involvement with followers
– Management by Wandering Around
– Regular Meetings
              Visionary
Communicating the Vision
Nanus’ Characteristics of Effective Visions
– Attracts commitment and energizes people
– Creates meaning for followers
– Establishes a standard of excellence
– Bridges the present and the future
       Vision Statements
Transformational leader’s behavior
Vision statement vs mission statement
Specific yet provide guidance
Guides actions of members
           Empowering
Need capable followers
Delegating decision making
Increasing individual autonomy
 5 Key Dimensions of Trust
Competence
Openness and Honesty
Concern for Employees
Reliability
Identification
           Passionate
Committed to work
Chang says most important competitive
advantage
   Charismatic Leadership
Perspectives on Charismatic Leadership
– Sociological Approach
– Psychoanalytical Approach
– Political Approach
– Behavioral Approach
– Attribution Approach
– Communication Approach
      Sociological Approach
Max Weber
Charisma in Greek means “gift”
Five key components
– A leader with extraordinary vision, almost magical,
  talents
– An unstable or crisis situation
– A radical vision for providing a solution to the crisis
– A group of followers attracted to the extraordinary
  leader because they believe they are linked through
  the leader to powers that exceed usual limits.
– A validation, through repeated success, of the
  extraordinary leader’s talents and power.
  Psychoanalytic Approach
Zaleznik
– Managers different from leaders
– Leaders bring about change, take risks and
  arouse emotions
Freud
– Intense follower identification is explained by:
    Regression
    Transference
    Projection
        Political Approach
Not always in agreement on who is
charismatic
Schweitzer says there are different types:
– Giants
– Luminaries
– Failures
– Aspirants
         Political Approach
Willner looks at charisma on the basis of
the leader-follower relationship:
– Attribute divine or semi-divine qualities to their
  leaders
– Believe that their leaders have supernatural
  abilities
– Offer absolute devotion and obedience
– Are loyal
      Behavioral Approach
Use a set of behaviors to define it
Compare those that are charismatic with
those who are not
House and Bass’ Propositions:
– Leader Behaviors
– Leader-Follower relations
– Elements of the charismatic situation
      Attribution Approach
Conger and Kanungo look at charisma
from the perceptions of the followers:
– Possess a vision that is unique, yet attainable
– Act in an unconventional manner
– Demonstrate personal commitment and risk
  taking
– Demonstrate confidence and expertise
– Demonstrate personal power
  Communication Approach
Authors say communication is the most
important element
Charismatic Leaders excel in all three
functions of communication
– Relationship builders
– As Visionaries
– As Influence Agents
      Dark Side of Charisma
Ethical Charismatic               Unethical Charismatic
Leader                            Leader
– Uses power to serve others      – Uses power only for
– Aligns vision with followers’     personal gain
  needs and aspirations           – Promotes personal vision
– Considers and learns from       – Censures critical or
  criticism.                        opposing views
– Encourages followers to         – Demands own decisions
  question leader’s view            accepted without question
– Coaches, develops and           – Insensitive to follower’s
  supports followers                needs
– Relies on internal moral        – Relies on convenient
  standards                         external moral standards
Significant Abuses Contributing to
        Leadership Failure
Failure of vision
Misarticulation of goals
Poor management practices

								
To top