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					Unit 9 -- World War II

            VUS.10 -11, 12a
WWII Vocabulary
                                     Dec. 7, 1941
     Adolf Hitler                   island hopping
     Lend-Lease Act
     Destroyers for bases deal      El Alamein
     Manchuria                      Stalingrad
     United Nations                 D-Day
     Midway                         Nisei regiments
     Iwo Jima and Okinawa
     Hiroshima and Nagasaki         Bataan Death March
     Tuskegee Airmen                genocide
     Battle of Britain              Final Solution
                                     Nuremburg Trials
                                     rationing
                                     war bonds
                                     Marshall Plan
                                     Selective service
                                     Internment camp
                                     Geneva Convention
World War II : the beginning
(Europe)
World  War II officially began
 with Hitler’s invasion of Poland
 from the west in Sept.1939.

Shortly after, the Soviet Union
 invaded Poland from the east, and
 the Baltic States.
During   the first two years, the US
 stayed officially neutral as
 Germany overran France, most of
 Europe, and pounded Britain from
 the air (The Battle of Britain)
In mid-1941, Hitler turned on his
 former partner and invaded the
 Soviet Union
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Despite  strong isolationist
 sentiment at home, the US
 increasingly helped Britain. It
 gave war supplies (Lend-Lease)
 and old warships (Destroyers for
 bases) to Britain in exchange for
 military bases in the Caribbean
 and Bermuda.
FDR   compared it to

 –“ lending a garden
  hose to a next-door
  neighbor whose house
  is on fire”
During   the 1930s a militaristic
 Japan invaded and brutalized
 Manchuria and China as it sought
 military and economic domination
 over Asia
The US refused to recognize
 Japanese conquests in Asia and
 imposed an embargo on oil and
 steel to Japan. TENSIONS
The US and Japan negotiated to
 avoid war.
While negotiating with the US,
 Japan carried out an air attack on
 the US naval base at Pearl Harbor,
 on DEC. 7TH, 1941
The  attack killed several
 thousand Americans and
 destroyed much of the
 American Pacific fleet.
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FDR   called it:
 –“a date that will live in
  infamy”
He will ask Congress to declare
 war on Japan.
Hitler will honor a pact with
 Japan and declare war on the US.
The debate over isolationism in
 the US was over. World War II
 was truly a world war now and
 the US was fully involved.
Allied Strategy
America  and its Allies (Great
 Britain and the Soviet Union)
 followed a “Defeat Hitler
 First” strategy.
Most American military resources
 were targeted for Europe.
In the Pacific, American military
 strategy called for an “Island
 Hopping” campaign.
The US would seize islands closer
 and closer to Japan and use them
 for air raids on Japan.
We would also cut off Japanese
supplies by using submarine
warfare against Japanese
shipping
Germany’s strategy
Germany   hoped to defeat the
 Soviet Union quickly and gain
 control of their oil fields.
Also hoped to force Britain out of
 the war with a bombing campaign
 and submarine warfare.
Hoped   to end it before
 American industrial and
 military strength could turn
 the tide
Japan’s strategy

Japaninvaded the Philippines and
 Indonesia after Pearl Harbor.
 They planned to invade Australia
 and Hawaii.
Japan’s leaders hoped America
 would accept Japanese
 predominance in South Asia and
 the Pacific rather than commit to a
 bloody costly war to reverse their
 gains
Major Battles and Turning Points

 North  Africa
   –El Alamein--German forces
    threatened to seize Egypt and
    the Suez Canal. The Germans
    were stopped by the British.
**This  prevented Germany
 from gaining access to
 Middle Eastern oil and
 possibly attacking the
 Soviets from the south
Europe
 –Stalingrad--Hundreds of
  thousands of German soldiers
  were killed or captured in a
  month long siege of the Russian
  city
.**This  prevented
 Germany from capturing
 Soviet oil fields and
 turned the tide against
 Germany in the east
–Normandy--(D-Day) American
 and Allied troops led by Gen.
 Dwight D. Eisenhower landed in
 German occupied France on
 June 6, 1944.
Despite  heavy German opposition
 and heavy American casualties,
 the landings were successful and
 the liberation of western Europe
 from Hitler had begun
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         Holocaust
Genocide--the    systematic and
 purposeful destruction of a racial,
 political, religious or cultural
 group

Final Solution--Germany’s
 decision to exterminate all Jews
Affected   Groups
 –Jews             Poles
 –Slavs        Gypsies
 –Undesirables (homosexuals,
  mentally ill, political dissidents)
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Significance--In the Nuremberg
 Trials, Nazi leaders and others
 were convicted of war crimes.
The Nuremberg trials emphasized
 individual responsibility for
 actions during a war, regardless of
 orders received.
The  trials led to an increased
 demand for a Jewish homeland
 (Israel)
A new Jewish country will be
 founded in 1948
Asia
 –Midway--In the “Miracle of
  Midway” American naval forces
  defeated a much larger Japanese
  naval force. A Japanese victory
  would have allowed the
  Japanese to invade Hawaii.
The  American victory ended
 the Japanese threat to Hawaii
 and began a series of
 victories in the island
 hopping campaign.
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Iwo  Jima and Okinawa--
 American victories on the two
 island brought the US even closer
 to Japan but at the cost of
 thousands of American lives and
 even more Japanese lives.
Japanese  soldiers fought fiercely
 over every square inch of the
 islands and Japanese soldiers and
 civilians committed suicide
 rather than surrender
Hiroshima  and Nagasaki--because
 we faced terrible casualties of
 both the Americans and Japanese
 if we had to invade the Japanese
 home islands, President Truman
 ordered the use of the atomic
 bomb on both cities.
**Tens  of thousands of people
 were killed in both cities, but it
 convinced the Japanese leaders
 to surrender.
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Geneva Convention
Attempted to ensure the humane
 treatment of prisoners of war. It
 established rules to be followed
 by all nations

It   still exists today.
The  treatment of prisoners in the
 Pacific often reflected the savagery
 of the fighting there.
In the Bataan Death March--
 American POWs suffered brutal
 treatment by the Japanese after their
 surrender in the Philippines
Japanese  soldiers often
 committed suicide rather than
 surrender
The  treatment of prisoners in
 Europe more closely followed
 the ideas of the Geneva
 Convention
Japanese  Americans were
 relocated to internment camps
Internment affected Japanese
 American populations along the
 West Coast. The Supreme Court
 upheld the government’s right to
 act against Japanese Americans
 living on the West Coast of the
 US.
Reasons  for internment
1. Strong anti-Japanese
 prejudice on the West Coast

2. False belief that Japanese
 Americans were aiding the
 enemy
Apublic apology was
eventually issued by the US
government. Financial payment
was made to survivors.
  War at HOME
Success  in the war required the
 total commitment of the nation’s
 resources. On the home front,
 public education and the mass
 media promoted nationalism
Economic    Resources--The US
 government and industry forged a
 close working relationship to
 allocate resources effectively
1. Rationing was used to
 maintain the supply of products
 essential to the war effort
2. War bonds and the income tax
 were used to finance the war.
3. Businesses retooled from
 peacetime to wartime production
 (ex.--car manufacturing to tank
 manufacturing)
Human   resources
1. More women and minorities
 entered the labor force as men
 entered the armed forces

2.  Citizens volunteered in support
 of the war effort.
Military Resources
The draft/selective service was
 used to provide personnel for the
 military
Minority participation
African-Americans   generally
 served in segregated military units
 and were assigned to non-combat
 roles.

They  demanded the right to serve
 in combat rather than support
 roles
There  were two all- minority units
 in particular--Tuskegee Airmen
 and Nisei regiments

Tuskegee   Airmen--African-
 American pilots who served with
 distinction in Europe
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Nisei Regiments--Asian-
 Americans earned high
 number of decorations earned
 in fighting in Europe
Communication     codes of the
 Navajo Indians were used as code.
 It was an oral, not written,
 language
*It was impossible for the
 Japanese to break
Mexican-Americans fought but in
 non-segregated
Minority   units suffered high
 casualties and won numerous
 unit citations and individual
 medals for bravery in action
Contributions  to a war effort
 come from all segments of a
 society. Women entered into
 previously male job roles as
 African Americans and others
 struggled to obtain desegregation
 in the armed forces and end
 discriminatory hiring practices.
Women    increasingly participated
 in the work force to replace men
 serving in the military (ex.--Rosie
 the Riveter)
They typically participated in the
 military in non-combat roles
 (WAACS and WAVES, and
 nurses)
African   Americans migrated to
 cities in search of jobs in the war
 plants

They campaigned for victory in
 war and equality at home
The  US government maintained
 strict censorship of reporting the
 war.

Public morale and ad campaigns
 kept Americans focused on the
 war effort
The  entertainment industry
 produced movies, plays, and
 shows that boosted morale and
 patriotic support for the war
 effort as well as portrayed the
 enemy in stereotypical ways.
  WW II aftermath

 The  Soviet Union occupied most of
  Eastern and Central Europe, eastern
  Germany and North Korea
 German was divided (partitioned)
  into four zones. The US, Great
  Britain, France and the Soviet Union
  each controlled a zone
 The  US, GB, and FR will combine
  their zones into a democratic self-
  governing country called West
  Germany
 East Germany will be created and
  dominated by the SU for the next
  40+ years. It will be communistic
 Japan will also be occupied by the
 US. It will also adopt a democratic
 government based on the US model.
 It becomes a strong ally of the US in
 the region.
  Marshall Plan
 Because  Europe lay in ruins, the US
  will launch an economic aid program
  called the Marshall Plan.
 We provided massive amounts of
  financial aid to rebuild Europe.
 We did this to prevent the spread of
  communism.
    United Nations
 A new world peace organization was
  formed near the end of WWII.
 It was to prevent future global wars.
 The US will play a prominent role in
  the UN.
 The UN’s headquarters are located in
  New York City.

				
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posted:11/24/2011
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