Africa and the Atlantic Slave Trade by liwenting


									Africa and the Atlantic
     Slave Trade

       Chapter 20
Atlantic Slave Trade - Portugal
 Established forts
 Dual trade
 Africans acquired goods, slaves
 Portuguese received ivory, pepper, animal skins, gold
 Gold Coast – kingdom of Benin
 Conversion to Christianity
 1441 – first slaves brought to Portugal
Atlantic Slave Trade
 1450-1850: 12 million Africans were taken across Atlantic
 10-11 million actually made it
 80% came over in later century
 Brazil received 40%
 U.S. was only area that had a positive growth rate
 Saharan slave trade – women slaves
 Atlantic slave trade – young men for hard labor
Triangular Trade
African Societies
 Many forms of slavery existed in Africa
 Nonegalitarian society
 Land was controlled by the state
 Atlantic trade opened new opportunities to slave-holding
African Politics
 Majority of west and central African states were unstable
 European presence shifted power from Africa
 Guns, horses, iron, cloth, tobacco – slave trade was
 directed along the coast due to these European goods
Southern Africa – White Settlers
 1652 Dutch East India Company established a colony at
 the Cape of Good Hope
 Cape Colony depended on slave labor
 1800, Cape Colony had 17,000 Afrikaners
                         26,000 slaves
 1815, Britain took over Dutch Company
Zulu Rise to Power
 Nguni people had a new leader in 1818: Shaka
 Military leadership
 Shaka’s Zulu kingdom became center for political and
 military organization
 Shaka was assassinated in 1828, but his ideas lived on
 Zulu power remained in black Africa until late 1800s
Slavery: Impact on Africans
 Destruction of previous life in Africa
 1/3 of slaves died on voyage over
 Horrific conditions aboard slave ships
 – Ex. Dutch slave ship, 700 of 716 Africans died aboard
 Middle Passage
 Africans were able to bring their culture, language, belief,
 tradition, and memories with them
 Shortage of female slaves
 Religious conversion
 Resistance was common in Latin America
African Slave Societies
 Plantation labor
 Slaveholder hierarchy:
  – Free whites
  – Free people of color
  – Slaves
 Creole and mulatto slaves were given more opportunities
 Also more likely to win their freedom
Abolition of Slavery
 Jean-Jacques Rousseau of France – philosopher
 Adam Smith of England – political economist
 William Wilberforce – abolitionist movement
 British slave trade was abolished in 1807 to the Americas
 1888, slavery was finally abolished in Brazil

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