Farm Management Handbook Of Kenya by hedongchenchen

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									        FARM MANAGEMENT HANDBOOK OF KENYA



                        VOL. II



– Natural Conditions and Farm Management Information –


                      2nd Edition



                      PART A

          WEST KENYA




                    Subpart A1


           Western Province
This project was supported by the German Agency for
            Technical Cooperation (GTZ)
                                                            Ministry of Agriculture


                                    FARM MANAGEMENT HANDBOOK OF KENYA
                                                 VOL. II


                                – Natural Conditions and Farm Management Information –
                                                       2nd Edition



                                                                   PART A
                                                       WEST KENYA
                                                        Subpart A1
                                                      Western Province
                                                                            by

                                                            Dr. Ralph Jaetzold
                                                       Prof. emeritus of Geography,
                                                       University of Trier / Germany

                                                     Helmut Schmidt
                                         Former Farm Management Research Officer
                                   from the former German Agricultural Team of the GTZ
                                           in the Ministry of Agriculture, Nairobi

                                                          Dr. Berthold Hornetz
                                                     Prof. of Agricultural Geography,
                                                      University of Trier / Germany

                                                           Dr. Chris Shisanya
                                                         Prof. of Agroclimatology,
                                                           Dept. of Geography
                                                        Kenyatta University, Nairobi



    Contributions to the 1st Edition by: C.M. Kang´e & J.G.M. Muasya – assessment of farm management data; Dr. Mechthild Kronen – soil require-
    ments list; Prof. Dr. H. Kutsch – computing of crop-water relations for yield probabilities; F.N. Muchena, B.J.A. van der Pouw, W. Siderius and
    W.G. Sombroek – basic soil maps; H. Ritz – district climate tables; R. Swoboda – execution of Small Farm Survey; C.G. Wenner & S.N. Njoroge
    – soil conservation.
    Contributions to the 2nd Edition by: G. Awinyo – digitizing of soil maps into GIS; Th. Buettel – support by analyzing remote sensing data; M.
    Fiebiger – rainfall data analysis, probability calculations, yield probabilities by simulation programs; Heike Hoeffler – project coordination in GTZ
    Nairobi; Philip Karuri – assistance in the Farm Survey; Elizabeth Kimenyi & Anne Njoroge – coordination of farm survey; M. Mueller – calculation
    and diagrams of growing periods, ENSO influence; Dr. Anne W. Muriuki & J.N. Qureshi – soil and fertiliser recommendation maps and informa-
    tion; Dr. Dorothy Mutisya – crops and fodder list; Birgit Schmidt – basics for maintaining and regaining soil fertility; Joshua Shivachi – analysing
    the Farm Survey data using SPSS software; J. Wieczorek – computerization of climatic and fertiliser maps, tables and diagrams for GIS and printing;
    W. Zettelmeyer – computing farm data.




4
Farm Management Handbooks of Kenya

VOL. I                 Labour Requirement Availability and Costs of Mechanisation

VOL. II                Natural Conditions and Farm Management Information
Part II/M              General Part (Methodology)

Part II/A              WEST KENYA
Subpart A1             Western Province
Subpart A2             Nyanza Province

Part II/B              CENTRAL KENYA
Subpart Bl             Rift Valley Province, Middle and Southern Part
Subpart B2             Central Province

Part II /C             EAST KENYA
Subpart C1             Eastern Province, Middle and Southern Part
Subpart C2             Coast Province

VOL. III               Farm Management Information - Annual Publications
Part III/A             Agriculture Land, Holdings and Farm Statistics
Part III/B             Costs and Prices, Gross Margins, Cash Flows and Farm Models

VOL. IV                Production Techniques of Livestock Enterprises

VOL. V                 Production Techniques and Economics of Horticultural Enterprises




In addition, there are District Farm Management Guidelines produced by the District Agricultural Offices

Publisher Ministry of Agriculture, Kenya, in Cooperation with the German Agency for Technical
Cooperation (GTZ)

VOL. II is supplemented by CD-ROMs with the information and maps in a Geographical
Information System. Additionally there are wall maps of the Agro-Ecological Zones per district group
(= the former large districts) for offices and schools.




Vol. II/A Printed by , Nairobi 2005
Design & Layout by Harrison Musyoka, PHV Studios, Nairobi.




                                                                                                         5
    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
    for the Support to the First Edition

    In compiling this Handbook, we have relied on the support of many officers from a variety of institutions
    too numerous to mention, who made available their data and experience. We would like to thank them for
    their invaluable assistance.

    I would also like to thank my colleagues, the Research Officers, the District Land and Farm management
    Officers, for their cooperation, and a special thank you to those who typed the draft edition.

    Our particular thanks go to Prof. Dr. Ralph Jaetzold, University of Trier, for his selfless support in compil-
    ing this handbook and for his assessment of the natural conditions including land and population. His deep
    understanding of the needs of agricultural extension officers and farmers was a great asset. Our thanks also to
    Dr. H. Kutsch, University of Trier, who computerized a large and complex amount of information involved
    in establishing the AEZs.

    Many thanks also to the staff of the Geographical Department of the University of Trier, Germany, for their
    major effort in drawing up maps of outstanding quality, the centrepiece of the work.

    Helmut Schmidt
    Farm Management Research Officer
    Nairobi, May 1982




    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
    for the Support to the Second Edition

    In revising this Handbook, various personalities and institutions were relied upon to provide the necessary
    data required to update the previous data sets. In this regard, we would like to sincerely thank them for their
    invaluable input in the exercise.

    Special thanks go to the Ministry of Agriculture staff who undertook the Farm Surveys to elucidate on the
    fundamental changes that have taken place in farming at the household level.

    We are indeed very grateful to the people of Germany, who despite their limited financial resources, have
    continued to support Kenya. Of importance here is the German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ)
    and the German scientists who have been working for Kenya over the years. Last but not least, thanks to Mr.
    Reimund Hoffmann, the PSDA Coordinator, Nairobi, whose office ably managed the Handbook revision
    project.

    Chris Shisanya                                                        Elizabeth Kimenyi
    Prof. of Agroclimatology                                              Assistant Director of Agriculture
    Dept. of Geography                                                    FMD, MOA
    Kenyatta University, Nairobi                                          Kenya
    Nairobi, January 2007                                                 Nairobi, January 2007




6
PREFACE to the Second Edition

Institutional memory is of paramount importance for planning and development. For any research or agricultural extension
to be successful, information on the natural farming potential is equally important.

In an effort to consolidate research - extension work of many years, the first edition of the Farm Management Handbook
(FMHB) of Kenya Vol II (Natural conditions and farm management information), which described the conditions of the
Kenyan farming community at that time, was produced in 1982/83. The handbook was in three parts i.e.:

                  A – for Western Kenya (Western and Nyanza provinces)
                  B – for Central Kenya (Central and Rift Valley provinces).
                  C – for Eastern Kenya (Eastern and Coast provinces)

For more than two decades, the handbook has proved very valuable to researchers, planners, extensionists, developers etc.
This is a document that has been sought for enormously and hence the need to revise it in order to accommodate the changes
that have taken place in our country since the production of the first edition. Some of these include: changes in the admin-
istrative boundaries, opening up of new farming areas due to population pressure, etc.

This second edition has been produced on the basis of Provincial administrative boundaries for the six Provinces i.e. West-
ern, Nyanza, Rift Valley, Central, Eastern and Coast. The information will be availed in hard copies and in CD – ROMS to
facilitate updating any future changes.

It is not possible to acknowledge the contribution of all the individuals who made this edition a reality but I need to men-
tion the following:

Thanks to the Ministry of Agriculture staff, especially the Agribusiness Department formerly Farm Management Division
staff at the headquarters (Mrs. E. W. Kimenyi, Mr. F. N. Nderitu, Mrs. A.W Njoroge, Mrs. A. W. Wanyama and Mr. P. T
Karuri), and the District staff, for their selfless contribution; Prof. Chris Shisanya, leader of the revision team, for his tireless
efforts and guidance; Prof. Ralph Jaetzold for his enormous knowledge on the definition of the agroecological zones and his
great contribution to their mapping; Mr. George Awinyo (German Technical Cooperation (GTZ) – Private Sector Develop-
ment in Agriculture (PSDA)) for his expertise and contribution in the area of Geographical Information Systems (GIS).

I also wish to thank the GTZ who have facilitated the production of this edition both financially and by the use of their
personnel, specifically the late Prof. Werner von der Ohe who supported the idea of the revision, and Mr. Reimund Hoff-
mann (GTZ – Programme Manager Private Sector Development in Agriculture PSDA), for supporting and taking up the
task to completion.




Dr. Wilson Songa, OGW

AGRICULTURE SECRETARY

                7
Nairobi, May 2007




                                                                                                                                 7
8
                                                TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                                                                                           Page
Acknowledgement for the Support to the First Edition                                                       5
Acknowledgement for the Support to the Second Edition                                                      5
Preface to the First Edition                                                                               6
Preface to the Second Edition                                                                              7
List of Abbreviations                                                                                      11
Introduction to the Second Edition                                                                         12
1.         G E N E R A L PA RT F O R W E S T E R N P R O V I N C E
 1.1          EXPLANATION OF THE EVALUATION OF THE NATURAL POTENTIAL
      1.1.1      The Agro-Ecological Zonation for Kenya1)                                                  15
                 Table I: Agro-Ecological Zones of the Tropics in Kenya                                    16
                 Table II: Subzones According to Growing Periods for Annual Crops                          18

      1.1.2      Major Soils in Western Province                                                           20
                 Table III: A Broad Estimate of the Dominant Characteristics of the Major Soil
                              Classification Units in Kenya                                                 22
                 Table IV: Soil Requirements List for Crops in Western Province                            23
     1.2     PRESERVING THE NATURAL POTENTIAL FOR THE FUTURE OF WESTERN PROVINCE
      1.2.1 Beware of Degrading the Areas of Natural Vegetation in the Agro-Ecological Zones
            to Maintain Water, Firewood and Even Medicinal Resources as well as
            the Grazing Potential!                                                                         28
      1.2.2     Maintenance, Replenishment and Improvement of
                Soil Fertility in Western Province                                                         29
      1.2.3     Physical Soil Conservation                                                                 32
      1.2.4 The Potential of Agroforestry to Improve and Restore the Fertility of Nutrient-
            depleted Soils of Western Province                                                             37

2.         WESTERN PROVINCE
     2.1      INTRODUCTION                                                                                 39
                Table V: Population Projections for Western Province per District                          39
                Table VI: Absolute Poor Households and Persons in Western Province Per District            39

     2.2      RAINFALL AND AGROECOLOGICAL ZONES OF WESTERN PROVINCE                                       41
                Table VII: Agro-Ecological Zones with approx. rainfall figures and altitudes for those
                          in Western Province of Kenya                                                     42

     2.3      THERMAL BELTS
              Limits, Temperature Increase, Temperature Differences                                         43
                Table VIII: Temperatures and AEZ-Belts from Rift Valley Province to
                            Western Province (except SW)                                                   44

     2.4      THE IMPORTANCE OF FERTILISER AND NUTRIENT RECYCLING
              IN WESTERN PROVINCE                                                                          45
                Table IX: The Decrease (%) of pH and Potassium in Typical Soils of Western Province as a
                          Sample for the Rapid Loss of Nutrients (During 5 Years of Maize
                            Cultivation at the FURP Experimental Sites)                                    46




                                                                                                                  9
     2.5      POSSIBLE CROPS AND VARIETIES                                                                                         46
                Table X: Agro-Climatological Crop List for Western Province of Kenya                                               47
                 Table XI: Bioclimatologically Suitable Grasses and Other Fodder Crops for the Agro-
                           Ecological Zones in Western Province                                                                    60

3.         D I S T R I C T I N F O R M AT I O N A N D S TAT I S T I C S
     3.1      GENERAL REMARKS ON THE LAND USE POTENTIALS AND FERTILISER
              RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE DISTRICTS                                                                                    65
     3.2      BUSIA & TESO GROUP OF DISTRICTS
              TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                                    67
     3.3      BUNGOMA & MT. ELGON GROUP OF DISTRICTS
              TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                                    141
     3.4      BUTERE-MUMIAS, KAKAMEGA, LUGARI & VIHIGA GROUP OF DISTRICTS
              TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                                    221


1)
     System Ralph Jaetzold. Method of calculation of growing periods and yield probabilities out of crop-soil water relations by
     Horst Kutsch, Berthold Hornetz and Chris Shisanya see General Part (Methodology) of Vol. II/M




10
List of Abbreviations                                  l          =   long
                                                       LU         =   Kenyan Livestock unit of 300 kg
 AEZ      = Agro-Ecological Zone
                                                       M          =   Midland
 AEU      = Agro-Ecological Unit
                                                       m          =   medium
 add.     = additional
                                                       m.         =   mid, middle
 a. o.    = and others
                                                       mat.       =   maturing
 a.s.l.   = above sea level
                                                       max.       =   maximum
 av.      = average
                                                       min.       =   minimum
 b.       = beginning, begin
 bl.      = black                                      MSS        =   Marketing Support Services

 br       = bimodal rainfall                           NARS       =   National Agricultural Research Station

 C.       = Cooperative                                norm.      =   normally

 ca.   = circa, around                                 O.         =

 CAZRI = Central Arid Zone Research Institute
         (Jodhpur, India)
                                                       p          =   permanent

 CL    = Coastal Lowland                               pa         =   per annum (= per year)

 comp.    = composite                                  p., per.   =   period

 DLC      = Dry Land Composite Maize                   PET        =   Potential Evapotranspiration

 cv.      = cultivar, cultivated variety               pl.        =   planting

 e.       = end                                        pr.        =   precipitation
                                                                      Private Sector Development of
 E0       = evaporation of a water surface             PSDA       =
                                                                      Agriculture (recent Project of GTZ)
 F.       = Farmer, Farmers                            r.         =   rains, rainy season

 FAO      = Food and Agriculture Organization of the   res.       =   resistant
            United Nations
 f. i.    = for instance                               R.         =   Reserve

 For.     = Forest                                     s          =   short

 FURP     = Fertiliser Use Recommendation Project
            of the GTZ (1986-91)
                                                       sec.       =   secondary

 GIS      = Geographical Information System            St., Stn. =    Station

 gr.      = growing; with crop name: green             TA         =   Tropical Alpine
            Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammen-      TCF        =   Total crop failure
 GTZ      = arbeit (the German Agency for Technical
            Cooperation with Developing Countries)     t          =   temperature; with yields: tons
 H        = Highland; with crop name: hybrid           tr         =   trimodal rainfall
 h.       = heavy                                      U          =   Upper
 ha       = hectar                                     u          =   uncertain
 i        = intermediate rains                         ur         =   unimodal rainfall
 i.e.     = item est (latin) = it means                v          =   very
 IL    = Inner Lowland                                 var.       =   variety
 IRACC = Information Research and Communication
         Centre                                        y.         =   year
 ISFM = Integrated Soil Fertility Management           <          =   less than
 KARI     = Kenya Agriculture Research Institute       >          =   more than
 KCB      = Katumani Composite Maize B                 ~          =   about, nearly, around
 KSS      = Kenya Soil Survey                          &          =   and
 L        = Lowland, lower                             ^          =   followed by a...




                                                                                                               11
     INTRODUCTION to the Second Edition

     1. In general, the Kenyan farmer is well informed as to the potential of his own land, the labour force of
          his family and the production techniques to be used when planting crops cultivated for generations. In
          the past, this was a perfectly satisfactory situation, but today, the farmer is called on to feed a rapidly
          increasing population and earn a major share of vital foreign currency through exports, i.e. he / she has
          to shoulder the cost of economic development in Kenya, in particular in the urban areas. Therefore
          the farmer is the most important person for the basis and the future of the nation. Traditional farming
          methods are no longer capable of meeting all the demands made on the farming community; widespread
          application of scientific methods is required, but knowledge of these methods is obtained, compiled and
          stored elsewhere, out of reach of the farmer.

          The Handbook has been compiled primarily to assist the agriculture field advisor, who often has little
          scientific training but who is the most important officer in rural development. Extension work is
          organised within political units, i.e. location, division and district, and therefore information has been
          compiled according to AEZs per district resp. district groups, which in some cases has led to repetition.
          The layout and approach of the book has to be seen in this context.

          A large number of officers working in many different Ministries and institutions for rural development
          are also increasingly in need of information about farming as their contact with practical farming is often
          very low. But the handbook is designed for the interested farmers too, especially the young ones.

          On the research side, it is not always clear what the needs of the farming community are. This results
          in an increasing amount of research distant to farmers, especially on-station-research, which swallows
          resources urgently needed to find answers to more pressing problems; on-farm investigations (together
          with the farmers) we therefore need more and more.

          Information flow from research to the farmer, and vice versa, and among the various institutions in-
          volved in rural development is seriously hampered by the lack of a common source of reference.

          Output of agricultural produce could be considerably increased if the knowledge already accumulated
          in Kenya is available to the farmer. The work output of the planning officer could also be doubled and
          its quality substantially improved if he had this knowledge on hand, which would go a long way towards
          improving the welfare of the rural population.

          The increasing demand for information and communication calls for increased efforts to make the in-
          formation accumulated available.

     2. This transfer of “know-how” to those who need it is a major task and can not be achieved by the Farm
          Management Division (FMD) of the Ministry of Agriculture alone - it requires a joint effort. The Farm
          Management Division has now made a major effort to establish and compile information required by
          the farmers and those who work for the farming community.

          This information was published in five volumes of the Farm Management Handbook of Kenya of which
          Vol. II “Natural Conditions and Farm Management Information”1 is the centrepiece, first published in
          1982/83. Now it is a long time out of print but still very much looked for. In spite of very few funds
          available for it, a new edition was prepared since 2003.



     1
       Farm management information which depends largely on financial facts had to be excluded, like gross margins, cash flows, farm models. It is pub-
     lished by the FMB occasionally and can be obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture, Kilimo House.




12
3. The Farm Management Approach is the most reliable method yet developed to assist farming. It is
     therefore very desirable that other institutions try to make use of the system. The use of the Handbook
     is compulsory for all officers of the Ministry of Agriculture. Due to pressure of other work and very few
     funds, the new edition of the Handbook had to be done as a sideline job2. Farm management informa-
     tion in particular is incomplete and there is much scope of improvement. Assistance and suggestions are
     most welcome.

     It is of course evident that the information given cannot be blindly applied but requires assessment for
     its relevance to the actual case. Much of it, especially fertilizer recommendations, will be replaced within
     the next ten to twenty years. It is important to take note of these replacements.

     The information is given per district and per subzones of the Agro-Ecological Zones, but the diversity of
     the farms in any AEZ and the limitations of the data base make it essential to evaluate the data supplied
     i. e. it is most important to read the accompanying explanations and to compare each subzone with the
     soil pattern to adjust the information to the different Agro-Ecological Units.

4. The Vol. II of the Farm Management Handbook consists of the following parts:
        a) A West, B Central, and C East Kenya, divided in seven smaller, better manageable subparts
                     by six provinces and a general part
           and it is supplemented by
        b) Large AEZ maps of the district groups printed in colour (scale mainly 1:250 000) as wall
           maps for offices and schools
        c) A data bank and CD ROMs with a Geographical Information System (GIS) of all
           important agro-ecological information for each spot. All items are kept by the Ministry of
           Agriculture.
   It was not possible to compile a complete list of authors of the sources used as in most cases they were
   unknown. Most information used and/or included was established or compiled by persons working
5. in the Kenyan Civil Service or for the Government; thus the Kenyan Government owns the product of
   their work. We all are grateful to them.

   The value of these books containing the natural conditions should not be overestimated.The yield poten-
   tials of the Agro-ecological subzones are only a rough guide. First of all the soils of the Agro-ecological
6. units in the subzones must be carefully considered to evaluate their suitability and ability to improve
   and sustain their fertility, resp. Secondly the marked conditions play an important role in the decision
   what is suitable at a certain place at present times. Therefore the agro-economic conditions must always
   be considered in analysing the natural potentials of the Agro-Ecological Zones for recommendations
   ordecisions.3




2
  It was impossible to assess the large amount of statistical data in detail. - Also there was not enough time and money to undertake a new differenti-
ated farm survey. Only a few questions, mainly about the possible increase of yields by good farm management could be placed systematically by the
Agriculture Officers in typical Agro-Ecological Units.
3
 Jaetzold, R.: The Agro-ecological Zones of Kenya and their agro-economical dynamics. Materialien zur Ostafrikaforschung, Vol. 6, Geographische
Gesellschaft, University Trier 1987.




                                                                                                                                                         13
        One of the examples of reduced economic use of the natural potential of Agro-Ecological Zones by
        worsening of the infrastructure is cotton. Mismanagement in the cotton cooperatives and the cotton
        board caused long delays and sometimes even reduced payments to the cotton farmers. This discouraged
        the planting of cotton very severely, especially where small farmers had often occurred debts of produc-
        tion means. So for many years there were large parts of the cotton zone without cotton in Kenya until
        a new initiative by the government encouraged cotton planting even beyond the cotton zones. Former
        cotton farmers have planted additional maize for market. The maize price has increased considererably
        since 1990 due to population increase and famine. It should be kept high by the Government to encour-
        age farmers to plant enough to ensure national food security. Famine disasters are occurring, when a low
        maize price discouraged planting and then a drought diminished yields.

        A general problem is the competition of maize with sorghum and millets, which increase the risk of
        famine in marginal areas. A high maize price encourages maize planting in the sorghum and millet zones
        instead of the more drought-resistant sorghum and millet varieties requiring less water. Only if the alti-
        tude is above 800 m maize outyields sorghum and millets, and only as long as there are at least 250 mm
        of well distributed rainfall during the growing season. But the higher risk with maize is taken because
        people rely on internationally aided famine relief in case of crop failure.

        Due to social change and mobility, a farmer who eats sorghum and millet is considered backward in
        many countries. Due to changing nutritional habits, maize flour is also preferred to sorghum and millet
        flour, which can be slightly sour, and the demand and price for these small grains is generally dropping.
        Finally the loss by birds is less with maize than with most small grain cereal varieties, and the children
        who in former times had to chase the birds away have now to go to school. In a situation where maize
        fetches at least 50% more money than sorghum or bulrush millet, the advice of the agro-ecologists to
        plant more sorghum and millet is not taken up in the marginal foot plains of the highlands of East and
        North East Africa. Therefore maize is planted as a staple food also beyond the economic limits of maize
        cultivation in the AEZ 5. Partly it would be more realistic to call it Livestock-Marginal Maize Zone
        instead of L.-Millet or L.-Sorghum Zone, but we keep to the well known system. In the drier parts of
        Zone 5 farmers now realise that grass seeding in fenced plots is profitable.

     7. In the first edition of this handbook 1982/83 the main focus was to adjust agriculture to the different
        climate conditions in an optimum way. This goal has been achieved to a great part. But in the meantime
        the decreasing soil fertility due the agro-mining by overpopulation has become the main problem. Re-
        cycling of exploited nutrients is a must for the long term survival of the country.

     8. The population pressure has brought about hunger in search for land, even in the risky areas shown in
        the first edition of the Handbook. It is now time to demonstrate the risks and chances that exist in these
        marginal areas, i.e. “chance -cropping”.




                              Our best wishes to the hard working farmers of Kenya
                                          The editors and the authors


                                                                                 Nairobi and Trier, June 2006




14
1.1 EXPLANATION OF THE EVALUATION OF THE
    NATURAL POTENTIAL

1.1.1 METHOD OF THE AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONATION by Ralph Jaetzold

Simple agro-ecological zones were established by FAO in 19781. They are suited to make decisions in in-
ternational and long term agricultural policy. In order to give advice to farmers in the districts a more dif-
ferentiated system showing yield probabilities and risks as well had to be developed:

1. The zone groups are temperature belts (Table I) defined according to the maximum temperature limits
    within the main crops in Kenya can flourish; cashew and coconuts for the lowlands, sugar cane and
    cotton for the lower midlands, Arabica coffee for the upper midlands (usually known as “Highlands”
    - the term ‘midlands’ is used here to denote their central importance), tea for the lower highlands, py-
    rethrum for the upper highlands. The highest zone is high altitude rough grazing i.e. tropical alpine (or
    afro-alpine) vegetation. The threshold values of annual mean temperatures have been established along
    similar lines to those of H.M.H. Braun2 but supplemented by limiting factors for many crops e.g. mean
    minimum temperatures, frost, etc.

2. The main zones (Table I) are based on their probability of meeting the temperature and water require-
    ments of the main leading crops i.e. climatic yield potential, calculated by computer (see General Part).
    The zones are roughly parallel with Braun’s climatic zones of the Precipitation/Evaporation Index, but
    there are differences according to the influence of the length and intensity of arid periods, a factor also
    considered by the computer programme. In a first order the average annual precipitation is compared
    with the average annual evapotranspiration.The name of the main zones refer to potentially leading
    crops, many of them can be grown in some other zones, too:

    Maize zones: LH 1-3; UM 1-4; LM 1-4 (+5); L 2-4 (+5)
    Hybrid maize in zones: LH 1-3; UM 1-3; LM 1-3
    Wheat in zones: UH 2-3; LH 2-4
    Unirrigated rice in zones: L 1-3; LM 1-2
    Irrigated rice in zones: L 1-6; (7); LM 1-6, (7)
    Sorghum in zones: UM (1-3), 4-5; LM (1-3), 4-5; L (1-3), 4-5
    Finger millet in zones: LH (1-3); UM (1-3), 4; LM (1-3), 4, (5); L (1-3), 4, (5)
    Groundnuts in zones: LM (1-2), 3-4; L (2-3), 4
    Cotton in zones: LM (2), 3-4; L (2), 3-4




1
FAO (1978): Report on the Agro-ecological Zones Project. Methodology and Results for Africa. (= World Soil Resources Rep., 48/1), Rome.
2
Kenya Soil Survey, (1982): Exploratory Soil Map and Agro-Climatic Zones Map of Kenya, scale 1:1 000 000, Rep. E 1, Nairobi.




                                                                                                                                          15
16
       ( ) mean that in these zones the crop is normally not competitive to related crops (f.i. dwarf millets to
       maize)
       Livestock is possible in all zones. Decreasing stocking rates from 1 to 7 (from 0.4 ha up to more than
       25 ha per livestock unit of 300 kg)
       The colours assigned to the main zones become lighter at cooler higher zones altitudes (Table I). Addi-
       tionally they become more red in the drier climates. Rain starts earlier at higher altitudes. This is due to
       the fact that with the same amount of water, the production of biomass is still less in cooler altitudinal
       climates. Also, the chances to ripe a crop before the end of the rainy seasons become smaller in these
       higher belts because of the increasing length of growing periods. Therefore, the Ranching Zone which
       covers Zone 6 in the Lowlands occurs already in Zone 5 in the Lower Highlands and even in Zone 4 in
       the Upper Highlands.

3. For the necessary information to farmers, these main zones are divided into subzones according to the
       yearly distribution and the length of the growing periods on a 60% probability factor i.e. the given
       length of the growing period should be reached or surpassed in at least 6 out of 10 years (Table II).
       “Growing periods” are defined as seasons with enough moisture in the soil to grow most crops, starting
       with a supply for plants to transpirate more than 0.5 ETo, coming up to > ETo (in the ideal case) during
       the time of peak demand, and then falling down in the maturity phase again (calculated by the computer
       programme WATBAL)3. The length is normally given in decades (i.e. a ten day period) for medium
       soils. Figures are also available for heavy and light soils4, and they are also considered in the computer
       programmes MARCROP5 and WOFOST6 for the yield potential.
       These programmes compare the water requirements curves of almost all the main crops (as provided
       by the FAO 19777 and 19798), re-calculated by H. KUTSCH for Kenyan varieties and adapted to the
       different agro-climates, with the rainfall occurrences in Kenya from 1930 to 19909, in decades (10 day
       periods), and their effects on the water supply to the root zone for 3 soil groups and 3 plant population
       densities. On this basis, an ecological land use potential has been drawn up for each subzone, showing
       climatic yield expectations and chances.
       The length of the growing period is the key to selecting the right varieties of annual crops within an agro-
       ecological zone. The symbols used for the length of the growing periods are straightforward:

       vl = very long
       l = long
       m = medium
       s = short
       vs = very short




3
WATBAL.MODULE 1. It was developed by H. Kutsch and H.J. Schuh (1983): Simplified computer-based modelling of water balance in
defined crop stands.- In: L. Reiner & H. Geidel (eds.) (1983): Informationsverarbeitung Agrarwissenschaft. Miinchen.
4
Heavy soil means heavy loam; clay may have less available water for plants. Light soil means loamy sand.
5
=WATBAL.MODULE 2 & 3. Callibrated for Kenya by B. Hornetz (see Hornetz and Shisanya in General Part), based on the mathematical ap
proach of Kutsch and Schuh , described in the first edition of the Farm Management Handbook of Kenya (1982), Vol. II, Part A, p. 17-28.
6
See R. Rotter (1993): Simulation of the biophysical limitations to maize production under rainfed conditions in Kenya: Evaluation and applica-
tion of the model WOFOST.- (= Materialien zur Ostafrika-Forschung, 12), Geographische Gesellschaft Universitat Trier.
7
FAO (1977): Crop Water Requirements.- (= Irrigation and Drainage Paper, 24), Rome.
8
    FAO (1979): Yield Response to Water.- (= Irrigation and Drainage Paper, 33), Rome.
9
If there were enough completely recorded years, the standard period 1961-90 was used. Recent data were not available in reasonable quantities or
 too expensive. Only for important stations they were used.




                                                                                                                                                   17
     These are further differentiated to give further information for choosing the variety with the most adequate
     growing period by the use of combined terms like “short to medium”, “medium to long”, etc. (Table II).
     If it is not desirable to subdivide the growing period in this way, the letter “f ” for “fully” occurs before the
     symbol for the period.
     The growing period formula is put in brackets if there is a weak performance i.e. although the moisture
     content is sufficient for growth, the peak demand which is ETo is not satisfied in the right time.
     Where there are two rainy seasons per annum (bimodal rainfall areas), this is shown by a plus sign (+) be-
     tween the two growing periods to show the yearly pattern.
     If there is no distinct arid period of at least three decades (30 days) between humid growing periods, the sign
     “A” is introduced i.e. both periods are bridged together. Expressed in words, it means “... followed by”.
     TABLE II: SUBZONES ACCORDING TO GROWING PERIODS FOR ANNUAL CROPS

                                           Length of growing periods1                         Samples of combination during
         Formula Cropping seasons
                                           exceeded in 6 out of 10 yrs.                            the year in Kenya

         p        normally permanent more than 364 days
         vl       very long                285 – 364 days
         vl/l     very long to long        235 – 284      „
         l/vl     long to very long        215 – 234      „
         l        long                     195 – 214      „
         l/m      long to medium           175 – 194      „
         m/l      medium to long           155 – 174      „
         m        medium                   135 – 154      „
         m/s      medium to short          115 – 134      „
         s/m      short to medium          105 – 114      „
         s        short                      85 – 104     „
         s/vs     short to very short        75 – 84      „
         vs/s     very short to short        55 – 74     „
         vs       very short                 40 – 54     „
         vu       very uncertain           min. gr. p. < 6 out of 10 y.


     Additional information:
     ur = unimodal rainfall,
     br = bimodal rainfall,
     tr = trimodal r.
     i = intermediate rains (at least 5 decades more than 0.25 ET0)4
     ( ) = weak performance of growing period (in most decades less rain than ET0)
     + = distinct arid period between growing periods
     A = no distinct arid period between growing periods (“followed by”)
     f = full, i.e. no subdivision of growing periods, for inst. fm means 115 - 174 days




     1
      Growing period = enough moisture for cereals and legumes from seed to physical maturity. Figures show the time in which rain and stored soil
       moisture allow evapotranspiration of more than 0.5 ET0 (in medium soils of at least 60 cm depth), enough for most crops to start growing.
       During main growing time they need more of course (about full potential evapotranspiration ET0).
     2
      Lowlands and Lower Midlands, in UM, LH and UH 65 - 74 days
     3
      Lowlands, in LM 45 - 54 days, in UM 50 - 64 days, in LH and UH 55 - 64 days
     4
       That means moisture conditions are above wilting point for most crops



18
4. The climatic agro-ecological zones are printed on soil maps, derived from the Kenya Soil Survey Maps
        of the Districts in the Fertilizer Use Recomm. Project of the GTZ, to show the mosaic of agro-ecological
        units within the zones. In final maps the soil units were roughly shaded where experiments have shown
        which inputs are needed for higher fertility (see maps of Fertiliser Recommendations and Farm Survey
        Areas).

        The soil should be considered as closely as possible. The Fertiliser Use Manual of KARI10 makes the re-
        sults of the FURP applicable for farmers. For many areas special reports from the Kenya Soil Survey also
        exist. The average yield expectations given for the Agro-ecological Zones of a district only show what is
        climatically possible (on prevailing soils) when other conditions are optimized.

5. Therefore, many other factors apart from soil and climate have to be considered such as technologically
        standard, possibilities of additional irrigation11 and so on. From the given agro-ecologically land use
        potential for each AEZ it has to be chosen carefully what is economically and sociologically reasonable
        for the time being12.The agro-ecological zones are illustrated by rainfall and water requirement diagrams.
        The curves in the diagrams are calculated or if proper data are not available they are estimated for
        optimum water requirements of crops from seeding to physical maturity. Harvest is later according to
        ripening stage, but then the plants need little or even no water.




10
     A.W. Muriuki and J.N Qureshi: Fertiliser Use Manual. A comprehensive guide on fertiliser use in Kenya. Kari Nairobi 2001.
11
  Artificial irrigation possibilities are normally not yet considered in the land use potentials of Agro-ecological Zones, because they go beyond the
climatic natural potential. Nevertheless, we are able to calculate if requested decadically water requirements of irrigated crops for defined sites.
12
   R. Jaetzold: The Agro-Ecological Zones of Kenya and their Agro-Economical Dynamics. (= Materialien zur Ostafrika-Forschung, 6), Geogra-
phische Gesellschaft Universitat Trier 1987.




                                                                                                                                                       19
     1.1.2 MAJOR SOILS IN WESTERN PROVINCE
           According to the international FAO classification
     Acrisols
     Acrisols are acid soils with a low base status, which are strongly leached but less weathered than Ferralsols.
     They are developing mainly on basement rocks like granites, but also on colluvium from quarzites. The base
     saturation (BSP) of the B horizon is less than 50 %; thus indicating low fertility.
     The most common type is called orthic, but they also appear as humic (with an umbric A horizon, rich
     in humic substances), plinthic (containing plinthites) or ferralo-chromic (with ferralitic properties due to
     stronger weathering or high chroma).

     Arenosols
     Arenosols are coarse, weakly developed mostly sandy soils with an identifiable B horizon and a clay content
     of less than 18 %. They are developing on colluvial substrates from basement rocks. In Western Kenya
     Arenosols appear as ferralic types with high sesquioxide contents.

     Cambisols
     Cambisols are brown (forest) soils with cambic B horizons as major feature; layers are differentiated and
     changing characteristically due to their (relatively) young age. In Western Kenya they are developing
     mainly on basement rocks, but also on other various parent materials like igneous and metamorphic rocks.
     Cambisols are less weathered than most of the other soils of the humid tropics and contain quite high
     amounts of illites and montmorillonites (as clay minerals), minerals (like phosphate, potassium etc.) as well
     as juvenile materials.
     Usually they appear as ferralic and chromic types, indicating that strong weathering is going on.

     Ferralsols
     Ferralsols are strongly weathered soils of the humid tropics with oxic horizons. Soil fertility is low to very
     low due to low mineral contents, kaolinites (as clay minerals) and a low Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC)
     of less than 16 me/100 g of clay. They are developing mainly on basement rocks like granites, gneisses and
     quarzites, but also on igneous rocks (like trachytes, syenites, phonolites etc.).
     The most common types in Western Kenya are the orthic and rhodic ones (with red to dusky red oxic B
     horizons).

     Fluvisols
     Fluvisols are recent alluvial soils of the floodplains with depositional rather than pedogenetic profiles and
     mostly a high fertility due to high amounts of organic/humic and mineral substances as well as loamy and
     sandy fractions.

     The common eutric type possesses a high base content with a BSP of more than 50 %.

     Gleysols
     Gleysols are soils of the bottomlands and swamps with hydromorphic properties dominating within the upper
     50 cm. They develop on igneous as well as basement rocks, but also on alluvial and colluvial deposits.
     Most common is the dystric type with a low base status and a BSP less than 50 %. Mollic Gleysols contain
     mollic A horizons, the vertic type has vertic properties.
     Histosols
     Histosols are organic soils of the bottomlands and swamps (like peats), imperfectly drained and mostly with
     a low fertility due to low base saturation of less than 50 %.



20
Lithosols
Lithosols are shallow soils of less than 10 cm depth developed on hard rocks of different origin. Very often
they also appear as a result of strong soil erosion.

Luvisols
Luvisols are strongly leached soils (lessivés), having argillic B horizons with a relatively high base status and
BSP of more than 50 %. In Western Kenya they normally develop on basement rocks like granites, but also
on igneous rocks and colluvium. Most common is the orthic type.

Nitosols
Nitosols develop on tertiary and even older basic igneous rocks (like basalts, tuffs etc.) and contain emerging
argillic horizons with prominent shiny clay skins. They are soils with normally high fertility due to high
contents of montmorillonites (as dominating clay minerals), minerals and available soil water as well as a
high Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC).
The dystric type has a moderate fertility with a relatively low base status and a BSP of less than 50 %; the
mollic type is more fertile and has a mollic A horizon.

Planosols
Planosols are soils with an albic E horizon, hydromorphic properties and a slowly permeable B horizon,
developing on different parent materials of the bottomlands.
They appear as dystric (with a low base status and BSP of less than 50 %) and eutric types (high base status
and BSP more than 50 %).

Regosols
Regosols are weakly developed soils from unconsolidated materials like igneous and basement rocks, often
combined with Lithosols. Dystric types with a low base status and BSP less than 50 % are as common as
eutric ones with a high base saturation of more than 50 %.

Solonchaks
Solonchaks are saline soils located on beach ridges along Lake Victoria. They are infertile due to an imperfectly
drainage, salinity and sodicity.

Vertisols
Vertisols (“Black Cotton Soils”) are dark montmorillonite-rich, poorly drained cracking clays of the
bottomlands with peloturbation processes. The clay content is higher than 30 %. They develop on alluvial
and colluvial materials (so called “secondary Vertisols”) as well as on basic rocks (like basalts; so called
“primary Vertisols”). Usually they contain high amounts of CaCO3 and other minerals with a high CEC due
to the montmorillonitic clay minerals.
The predominant pellic type is characterized by a low chroma of less than 1.5.



Reference:
Landon, J.R. (Ed., 1991): Booker Tropical Soil Manual.-Longman Group, London, New York




                                                                                                                    21
22
     TABLE III: A BROAD ESTIMATE OF THE DOMINANT CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MAJOR SOIL CLASSIFICATION UNITS IN KENYA

      Major soil       Texture        Texture               Org.matter                                                                  Water
      class,unit       subsoil        topsoil    Depth      Content of    pH (water)   Drainage   Workability        Fertility          holding       Remarks
                                                            topsoil                                                                     capacity
      Ferralsols       Clay           clay       variable   variable      variable     good       moderate to good   low                moderate
      Luvisols         Clay           variable   variable   variable      above 5.5    moderate   moderate to good   low to moderate    moderate
      Acrisols         Clay           variable   variable   variable      below 5.5    moderate   moderate to good   low                moderate
                                                                                       to good
      Arenosols        Sand           sand       variable   low           variable     good       good               low to very low    low to very
                                                                                                                                        low
      Nitosols         Clay           clay       deep       moderate to   variable     good       good               moderate to high   moderate to   Kikuyu Red
                                                            high                                                                        high          loam
      Phaeozems        Clay           variable   variable   high          above 5.5    good       good               high               high          Prairie soils
      Andosols         Clay           clay       deep       moderate to   variable     good       good               high               high          Volcanic Ash
                                                            high                                                                                      soils
      Rendzinas        Clay           clay       variable   high          above 5.5    good       good               high               high

      Cambisols        Variable       variable   variable   variable      variable     moderate   moderate to good   moderate to high   variable      young soils
                                                                                       to good
      Fluvisols        Variable       variable   variable   variable      variable     variable   variable           moderate to high   variable      Alluvial soil
                                                            low to                                                                                    Black Cotton
      Vertisols        Clay           clay       variable   moderate      variable     poor       poor               moderate to high   high          soils cracking
                                                                                                                                                      clay
      Planosols        Clay           variable   variable   low to        variable     poor       moderate to poor   low to moderate    moderate to   Vlei soils
                                                            moderate                                                                    low
                                                                                                                                                      non saline or
      Xerosols         Clay           variable   variable   variable      above 5.5    variable   variable           variable           variable      sodic soils of dry
                                                                                                                                                      region.
      Solonchaks       Clay           variable   variable   variable      above 7      variable   variable           variable           variable      saline soils
      Solonetz         Clay           variable   variable   variable      above 7      poor       poor               low                variable      sodic
                                                                                                                                                      (alkali)soils
      Regosols         Clay           variable   variable   moderate to   variable     variable   variable           variable           variable
                                                            high
      Rankers          Clay           variable   variable   variable      below 5.5    variable   variable           variable           variable
      Lithosols        Rock           variable   very       variable      variable     variable   variable           variable           very low      very shallow
                                                 shallow                                                                                              soils
      Gleysols         Clay           clay       variable   moderate to   variable     poor       poor               variable           moderate to   poorly drained
                                                            high                                                                        high          soils
      Greyzems         Clay           variable   variable   moderate to   variable     moderate   moderate           moderate to high
                                                            high                       to poor    moderate
                                                                                                                                                            H.M.H. Braun
     variable = more than 3 classes
TABLE IV: SOIL REQUIREMENTS LIST FOR CROPS IN WESTERN PROVINCE

Crops                     Preferred texture   pH        Drainage             Remarks
GRAIN CROPS
                                                                             Not on very acid soils,
Maize                                                   Free draining        not on water logged soils
                          light to medium     5.5-8.0
(Zea mays)                                              soils                at least moderately fertile
                                                                             soils.
                                                                             In waterlogged conditions
                                                        Moderately well
Wheat                     light to medium     6.5-8.0   to well drained      very poor yields,
(Triticum aestivum)                                                          moderately to highly
                                                        soils
                                                                             fertile soils.
Durum wheat                                             Well drained         Moderately drought
(Triticum durum)          light to medium     6.5-8.0   soils.               tolerant.
                                                                             Tolerates salinity,
Triticale
                          medium to heavy     6.5-8.0   Well drained soils   moderately drought
(Triticum x secale)                                                          tolerant
                                                                             Intolerant in
Barley                    medium              6.5-8.0   Well drained soils   waterlogging, tolerates
(Hordeum vulgare)                                                            salinity (-1%),
                                                                             moderately fertile soils

Oats                      medium              6.5-8.0   Moderately           Also on poor soils
(Avena sativa)                                          drained soils

Foxtail millet                                                               Quickly growing but not
(Setaria italica)         medium              5.0-8.0   Well drained soils   very drought tolerant

Proso millet              medium              5.0-8.0   Well drained soils   Some varieties drought
(Panicum miliaceum)                                                          tolerant

Bulrush millet            light to medium     5.0-8.0   Well drained soils   Drought tolerant and
(Pennisetum typhoides)                                                       tolerates salinity

Finger millet             medium              6.5-8.0   Moderately           Turcana varieties drought
(Eleusine coracana)                                     drained soils        tolerant


Sorghum                                                 Moderately well      Low to moderately fertile
                          medium to heavy     4.5-8.5   to well drained
(Sorghum vulgare)                                       soils                soils

LEGUMINOUS
CROPS

Tepary beans
(Phasolous acutifolius)   medium              6.0-7.5   Well drained soils   Drought tolerant

Cow peas                  light               5.0-7.5
                                                        Free drainage
                                                                             Drought tolerant
(Vigna unguiculata)                                     soils

Moth beans
                          medium to light     6.0-7.5   Well drained soils   Drought tolerant
(Vigna aconitifolia)

Green grams               medium              6.0-7.5   Well drained soils   Drought tolerant
(Vigna aureus)
Black grams               medium              6.0-7.5   Well drained soils   Drought tolerant
(Vigna mungo)



                                                                                                           23
     TABLE IV: Continued

      Crops                     Preferred texture   pH          Drainage             Remarks
      Chick peas = Yellow       heavy (“Black       5.0-7.5     Moderately to        Fairly drought tolerant
      grams (Cicer arietinum)   Cotton soils “)                 well drained soils

                                                                                     Not drought tolerant,
      Beans                                                     Free draining        need moist soil
                                medium              6.0-7.5
      (Phaseolus vulgaris)                                      soils                throughout the growing
                                                                                     period.

      Bonavist beans=Njahi                                                           Very drought tolerant
                                medium              6.0-7.5     Well drained soils
      (Dolichos lablab)

      Trop.lima beans                                                                Grows well also on
      (Phaseolus lunatus)       various             6.0-7.0     Well drained soils   infertile soils

      Horse beans               medium              5.5-7.5     Moderately to        Drought tolerant
      (Vicia equine)                                            well drained soils

      Horse grams                                               Moderately to
                                medium              5.5-7.5                          Drought tolerant
      (                   )                                     well drained soils

                                                                Well drained         Until harvesting the
                                                                                     soil must be moist, but
      Groundnuts                light               6.2-7.5     to somewhat          sensitive to impeded
      (Arachis hypogea)                                         excessively          drainage; moderately
                                                                drained soils
                                                                                     fertile soils.

                                                                                     Soil aeration must be
                                                                                     adequate, not on heavy
      Bambarra nuts             light               6.2-7.5     Well drained soils   soils with pans; thrive
      (Voandzeia subterranea)
                                                                                     better than groundnuts on
                                                                                     poor soils.

                                                    5.5-7.5
      Garden peas                                                                    Some Fertilizer good for
      (Pisum sativum)           medium              (see        Well drained soils   start
                                                    beans)
      Pigeon peas                                   5.0-7.5
      (Cajanus cajan)           light               No info.    Free drainage        Fairly drought tolerant

                                                    5.5-7.5     Moderately well
      Soya beans                medium              (opt.6.0-   to well drained      Moderately fertile soils
      (Glycine max.)                                6.5)        soils

      OIL SEED CROPS


                                medium (heavy)      6.0-8.0     Moderately           Very drought tolerant
      (Helianthus annuus)                                       drained soils

      Linseed                                                   Moderately
      (Linum usitatissium)      medium              5.5-7.5     drained soils        Drought tolerant

      Rai                                                       Moderately
                                medium to heavy     6.0-8.0                          Drought tolerant
      (Brassica juncea)                                         drained soils
      Rapeseed                                                  Moderately
      (Brassica napus)          medium              5.5-7.0     drained soils        Not drought tolerant




24
TABLE IV: Continued

 Crops                    Preferred texture   pH        Drainage              Remarks
 Simsim (Sesamum          light to medium     6.0-7.5   Free draining         Moderately drought
 indicum)                                               soils                 tolerant

                                                                              Tolerates salinity,
          Carthamus       medium              6.0-8.0   Moderately            moderately drought
 tinctorius)                                            drained soils
                                                                              tolerant

                                                                              Moderately drought
 Castor                                                 Free draining
                          medium              6.0-7.5                         tolerant, not on saline
 (Ricinus communis)                                     soils
                                                                              soils.

 TUBER CROPS

 Sweet potatoes           various (well                 Various but           Drought tolerant, need
                                              various   planted on ridges
 (Ipomea batatas)         drained areas))                                     moderately fertile soils
                                                        in swamps

 Irish Solanum                                          Free draining         Not so drought tolerant,
                          light to medium     4.5-8.0                         need good supply of
 (Dolanum tuberosum)                                    soils                 nutrients


                                                                              Very drought tolerant,
                                                                              not on very stony or
 Cassava                  light to medium     various   Free drainage         shallow soils, sensitive to
 (Manihot esculenta)                                    soils                 impeded drainage, thrives
                                                                              also on less fertile soils


 Taro-Cocoyam                                           Tolerates             Grows especially well on
                          light to medium     4.5-8.0                         riverbanks, demands a
 (Colocasia antiquorum)                                 waterlogging          fertile soil
                                                        Moderately to
 White Guinea yam         medium              4.5-7.0   weakly drained        Moderately fertile soils.
 (Dioscorea rotundata)                                  soils
 Greater yam                “                   “          “                    “
 (D.alata)

 Yellow Guinea yam          “                   “          “                    “
 (D.cayenensis)

 FIBRE CROPS


                                                        Well drained          Tolerates salinity (0,5-
 Cotton                                                                       =0,6%); moderately to
 (Gossypium hirsutum)     medium to heavy     6.0-8.0   soils, sensitive to   high fertile soils; should
                                                        impeded drainage
                                                                              contain bor




                                                                                                            25
     TABLE IV: Continued

      Crops                      Preferred texture   pH        Drainage             Remarks
      Flax                                                     Moderately
      (Linum usitatissimum)      medium              5.5-7.5   drained soils

                                                               Moderately
                                 medium              5.5-7.5
      (Phormium tenax)                                         drained soils

                                                                                    On heavy soils it is
                                                               Well to
                                                                                    necessary to form
      Sisal (Agave sisalana)     medium              5.5-7.5   moderately           cambered beds or to dig
                                                               drained soils
                                                                                    ditches for drainage.

      OTHER CASH CROPS AND FRUITS

      Avocadoes
                                 medium              6.0-7.5   Well drained soils   Not on saline soils
      (Persea americana)

                                                                                    Best places are fertile
                                                               Well to              volcanic or alluvialsoils.
      Bananas
                                 light to medium     5.0-7.0   moderately well
      (Musa paradisiaca)                                       drained soils.       soil aeration must be
                                                                                    adequate, moderately to
                                                                                    highly fertile soils.

                                                                                    Soil aeration must be
                                                                                    adequate, sensitive
      Citrus                     light to medium     5.0-7.0   Well drained soils   to impeded drainage,
      (Citrus spp.)
                                                                                    moderately to highly
                                                                                    fertile soils.

                                                                                    Soils must allow
                                                                                    reasonable water
                                                                                    retention; very sensitive
      Coffee/Arabica             medium              5.3-6.0   Free drainage        to CaCO3 (more than
      (Coffea arabica)                                         soils
                                                                                    earth)moderately to
                                                                                    highly fertile soils

                                                                                    Grows well in a wide
                                                                                    range of various soils if
      Coffee/Robusta
                                                                                    they are well drained;
      (Coffea canephora var.     medium              5.0-6.0   Well drained soils
      robusta )                                                                     sensitive to CaCO3 and
                                                                                    CaSO4 like Arabica
                                                                                    coffee.

      Deciduous fruit trees                                                         If the soil is deep they
      (apples, peaches, pears)   medium              4.5-7.0   Well drained soils   tolerate also lighter or
                                                                                    heavier soils.

      Macadamia nuts                                           Free drainage
      (Macadamia spp.)           medium              5.0-6.0   soils

      Pyrethrum
      (Chrysanthemum             medium              5.6-7.5   Well drained soils
      cinerariaefolium)




26
TABLE IV: Continued

Crops                     Preferred texture   pH          Drainage             Remarks

                                                                               Sensitive to water
                                                                               logging;groundwater
                                                                               should be below1m
                                                          Moderately well
Sugarcane                                                                      depth. On heavy soils
                          light to medium     5.0-7.0     to well drained
(Saccharum spp.)                                          soils                cambered beds, ditches or
                                                                               furrows must be formed
                                                                               for drainage. Moderately
                                                                               fertile soils

                                                                               Soil with good water
                                                                               retaining capacity is
                                              4.0-6.0     Free draining        essential, very sensitive
Tea (Camellia sinensis)   medium
                                              (4.5-5.5)   soils                to CaCO3 (0%) and
                                                                               CaS04 (0%),grows also
                                                                               on less fertile soils

                                                                               Not on heavy or/and
                                                                               saline soils, very sensitive
Tobacco (Nicotiana        medium
                                              (5.0)5.5-
                                                          Well drained soils   to CaCO3 (>1% of the
tabacum)                                      6.5
                                                                                                     4


Tung Oil
(Aleurites fordii)        medium              4.5-6.5     Well drained soils




                                                                                                              27
     1.2      PRESERVINGTHENATURALPOTENTIALFORTHEFUTUREOFWESTERN
              PROVINCE

     1.2.1 BEWAREOFDEGRADINGTHEAREASOFNATURALVEGETATIONINTHEAGRO - ECO-
           LOGICALZONESTOMAINTAINWATER,FIREWOODANDEVENMEDICINALRESOURC-
           ES AS WELL AS THE GRAZING POTENTIAL!

     The Agro-Ecological Zones 0-3 are originally zones of forest according to the natural vegetation. AEZ 0
     corresponds to ever wet evergreen rainforest, AEZ 1 to evergreen rainforest, 2 to seasonal rainforest because of
     one or two dry months. AEZ 3 has three to five dry months, it corresponds to seasonal semi-deciduous moist
     forest or a high grass - broad leaved trees savannah which might be caused edaphically on waterlogging soils
     (mbugas) or very poor leached senile soils, both unsuitable for most trees; on other soils it might be a sec-
     ondary vegetation caused by fire. The grass - tall as a man - is supressing young trees, and if it is set ablaze,
     it produces a lot of heat that kills most of the trees.

     AEZ 4 corresponds to woodland, it is either deciduous in subzones with unimodal rainfall as in West Kenya
     and in Tanzania, or hard-leaved evergreen in bimodal rainfall subzones with two dry seasons as in East Kenya,
     where plants by hard or hairy leaves try to avoid loosing them two times a year. The grass grows to about
     1 m tall. Forests (and woodlands) are necessary also for the agriculture outside, because they minimize quick
     surface-runoff and store water in their deep, unhardened soils to supply it to wells, creeks and streams dur-
     ing the dry seasons. Therefore Mt. Elgon Forest must be conserved. Forest protection is necessary for other
     reasons too: Firewood collection (not cutting!), timber, medical plants and genetic resources. Therefore
     Kakamega Forest has to be conserved too apart from the biological reasons. A network of forest reserves is
     necessary to conserve biodiversity.

     A network of protected areas is also a must for the drier Agro-Ecological Zones 4-6.The corresponding
     natural vegetation in AEZ 5 is a short grass savannah with small leaved thorny trees and bushes. There is more
     grass on fine coarsed soil of volcanic ashes as found on the Laikipia Plateau, and more bush on red loams
     or stony soils. Zone 6 is bushland with very short but still perennial grass, therefore it is suitable for ranching
     - if the grass (the standing hay for the dry season) is not eradicated by overgrazing. In Zone 7 only annual
     grasses and herbs grow, it can only be used nomadically with a base in Zone 6.

     Good management of the remaining natural vegetation by farmers especially herders is important: In AEZ 3
     it is necessary to avoid burning which kills the regrowth of trees and ecologically valuable bushes. But the
     main danger here is overgrazing which puts the balance between grass and bushes to the bush side. Bush en-
     croachment can finally finish the grazing potential. This is the same danger in AEZ 4 and 5 but with shrubby
     species (shrub encroachment, thorny in AEZ 5). In the first stage, poisonous or bitter herbs not eaten by
     livestock thrive abundantly, leading to some sort of ‘’green degradation’’.
     In AEZ 6 the eradication of grass by overgrazing promotes at first dwarf shrubs (dwarf shrub encroachment),
     then in the better subzones thorny low shrubs grow up. The grazing potential has severely decreased, only
     goats as browsers remain. In a final stage, due to overuse and soil denudation, the shrubs disappear and
     desertification becomes evident. Reseeding fenced plots before it is so bad is now practised. Originally semi-
     desert indicates Zone 7, full desert Zone 8.

     Zones 5-8 are not existing in Western Province, therefore their problems do not need further discussion here.
     But in Zone 3 and 4 where grazing is still common, another problem is aggravating the soil degradation. The
     animals return the nutrients through their dung, which can be used to fertilise the fields once more.




28
1.2.2 MAINTENANCE,REPLENISHMENTANDIMPROVEMENTOFSOILFERTILITYIN
      WESTERN PROVINCE

Soil fertility depletion has been described as the major biophysical root cause of the declining per-capita
food availability in smallholder farms in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with a decline from 150 to 130 kg per
person over the past 35 years in production1. In the densely populated Western Province it went down to 60
kg for cereals! Emerging evidence attributes this to insufficient nutrient inputs relative to exports, primarily
through harvested products, leaching, gaseous losses and soil erosion. This results in yields that are about
2-5 times lower than potential. Adequate and better solutions to combat nutrients depletion where known,
are often limited in application because of the dynamics and heterogeneity of the African agro-ecosystems
in terms of biophysical and socio-economic gradients. This calls for system-specific or flexible recommenda-
tions, rather than monolithic technical solutions such as blanket fertilisation recommendation.

Despite diversity of approaches and solutions and the investment of time and resources by a wide range
of institutions, soil fertility degradation continues to prove to be a substantially intransigent problem, and
as the single most important constraint to food security in the continent2. For example, soil loss through
erosion is estimated to be 10 times greater than the rate of natural formation. Return to investment in
soil fertility has not been commensurate to research outputs3. Farmers are only likely to adopt sound soil
management if they are assured of return on their investment. Integrated soil fertility management (ISFM)
is now regarded as a strategy that helps low resource endowed farmers, mitigate many problems and the
characteristics of poverty and food insecurity by improving the quantity and quality of food, income and
resilience of soil productive capacity.

Essentially, ISFM is the adoption of a systematic conscious participatory and broad knowledge intensive
holistic approach to research on soil fertility and that embraces the full range of driving factors and conse-
quences such as biological, physical, chemical, social, economic and political aspects of soil fertility degra-
dation. The approach advocates for careful management of soil fertility aspects that optimise production
potential through incorporation of a wide range of adoptable soil management principles, practices and
options for productive and sustainable agroecosystems. It entails the development of soil nutrient manage-
ment technologies for adequate supply and feasible share of organic and inorganic inputs that meet the
farmers’ production goals and circumstances. The approach includes other important aspects of the soil
complex; soil life, structure and organic matter content. The approach integrates the roles of soil and water
conservation; land preparation and tillage; organic and inorganic nutrient sources; nutrient adding and
saving practices; pests and diseases; livestock; rotation and intercropping; multipurpose role legumes and
integrating the different research methods and knowledge systems. The approach also includes a social and
economic dimension.

The increasing adoption of ISFM as a long-term perspective and holistic approach derives its success on the
emergence of a consensus on its guiding principles. This paradigm is closely related to the wider concepts
of Integrated Natural Resources Management (INRM), thereby representing a significant step beyond the
earlier, narrower concept and approach of nutrient replenishment/recapitalization for soil fertility enhance-
ment. ISFM thereafter embraces the full range of multiple options (MPOs) and driving factors and con-
sequences (namely: biological, physical, chemical, social, economic and political), of soil degradation in
different farming systems and land types. The ISFM MPOs may include:
    a) Integrated Nutrient Management (INM), which is the technical backbone of ISFM approach. It
          entails integrated use of organics as well as in-organic sources of plant nutrients; as well as the en
          tirety of possible combinations of nutrient-adding practices and nutrient saving techniques. The
          latter INM is perceived as the judicious manipulation of nutrient inputs, outputs and internal
          flows to achieve productive and sustainable agricultural systems4.
    b) Integrating the beneficial and deleterious effects of the relationship between abiotic factors (includ
          ing tillage, soil and water management) and biotic stresses (including integrated pest and disease
          management; integrated crop management).



                                                                                                                   29
        c)    Integration of crop and livestock production.
        d)    Integration and greater productive use of local and indigenous knowledge, innovations,practices
              and resources and science knowledge based-management system.
        e)    Integration of policy and institutional framework, as well as on-site and off-site (landscape)
              effects.

     Fertiliser is a term used to refer to any inorganic or organic material, natural or synthetic in origin that is
     added to soil or other growing media to supply plant nutrients. Inorganic or mineral fertilisers originate
     from ores, air, sediments or ashes. Organic fertilisers originate from organic materials such as animal or hu-
     man waste and compost. Fertilisers may be in solid, liquid or gaseous forms. The mineral nutrient content
     and solubility of a fertiliser in water determines its efficiency. Plant fertiliser use efficiency is influenced by
     climate (e.g. temperature and rainfall) and soil factors such as soil pH, mineral content and humus5. Gener-
     ally, the nutrient content of organic fertilisers is usually lower than that of inorganic fertilisers but it is more
     stable and not so much endangered by outwash or insoluble fixation (phosphorus to iron).

     Most inorganic fertilisers are mined from ores or sedimentary deposits, except for those that contain nitro-
     gen (N) which is synthesized with high energy input from the air. Because of the high element concentration
     and high solubility of the inorganic fertilisers, their beneficial effects on plant growth are quick and easy to
     recognise. There are two types of mineral fertilisers on the Kenyan market: straight and compound. Straight
     fertilisers contain one nutrient while compound fertilisers contain two or more nutrients. Every inorganic
     fertiliser has a particular grade. The fertiliser grade refers to the percent nutrient content of nitrogen, phos-
     phorus and potassium. Nitrogen is expressed in % N, phosphorus as % phosphate (P2O5) and potassium as
     % potassium oxide (K2O). It is mandatory that this N-P-K (i.e. N-P2O5-K2O) information be displayed on
     the outside of each fertiliser bag. For example, the fertiliser 17:17:17 contains 17% nitrogen, 17% P2O5 and
     17% K2O in every 100 kilograms of fertiliser. The remaining 49 kilograms in the fertiliser is filler material.
     Important inorganic fertilisers found in the Kenyan market include: Ammonium sulphate (SA), Calcium
     ammonium nitrate (CAN), Urea, Single Super Phosphate (SSP), Triple Super Phosphate (TSP), Phosphate
     rock, Muriate of Potash (MOP), Sulphate of Potash, Lime (calcium carbonate).

     Some common organic fertilisers used in replenishing soil fertility in Kenya include bone meal, crop resi-
     dues (e.g. maize stover, bean trash, napier grass trash, tree/hedge cuttings) animal manure (e.g. cattle, sheep,
     goat, pig, poultry) and compost6. The nutrient contents in manure vary enormously depending on the
     source, method of processing, application and storage. Herbaceous legumes too are commonly used as green
     manure in Kenya. Usually, the legume is grown in pure stand and cut just before full bloom (or flowering
     stage), while the N content is at or near the maximum. After wilting the leaves, the green manure is incorpo-
     rated with the soil to facilitate decomposition. Grain legumes can also contribute to a soil’s nitrogen budget
     when included as part of the rotation because of the nitrogen left behind in the roots and residue remaining
     after removal of the seed. In addition to herbaceous legumes, several tree species also fix nitrogen thereby
     substantially increasing the nitrogen capital of the soils. The most notable ones used for agroforestry are fast
     growing and belong to the following genera: Leucaena, Calliandra, Erythrina, Gliricidia and Sesbania. Slow
     growing nitrogen fixing fixing trees include: Albizia, Inga, Acacia and Faidherbia albida. Some soils need
     inoculation with the nitrogen fixing bacteria which make nodules on the roots of the Leguminosae family.
     Another green manure shrub worth mentioning is Tithonia diversifolia. Although not a legume itself, Titho-
     nia is considered an excellent green manure because of its ability to accumulate plant nutrients quickly, its
     rapid decomposition.

     Improved fallow systems offer a quick way to regenerate soil fertility because they require shorter fallow pe-
     riods than natural fallow and the only investment required is seed. The plant species of choice should be fast
     growing high nitrogen fixers. Where soil fertility has declined tremendously, the performance of improved
     fallow can be increased by supplying the other limiting nutrients (other than nitrogen e.g. potassium and
     phosphorus) to the improved fallow. In Western Kenya, it has been proved scientifically that fields sown to
     maize and beans in which the improved fallow was Crotolaria gramiana or Tephrosia vogelii was used had



30
higher economic return than where natural fallow was used or the continuous cropped fields6. The improved
fallow was most beneficial when phosphorus (a limiting nutrient in the region) was applied at the time of
planting the fallow. Extending improved fallow systems for soil fertility improvement should be reasonably
easy in Kenya given that many smallholder farmers know the value of leaving land to fallow naturally. But
with small and diminishing acreage per farm in Western Province, for example, there is almost no land left
to regenerate in a fallow period.

Conventional wisdom maintains that food security in Africa and Kenya in particular will be achieved by
presenting smallholder farmers with a “basket” of crop and land management options from which they may
choose the practices that best suit their site-specific needs and socio-economic conditions7. Several different,
and often competing, soil fertility management “recommendations” for maize-legume intercrops are offered
to farmers in Kenya through a variety of outreach activities.

These options include “Green Revolution” fertiliser technologies (FURP), soil nutrient replenishment
with rock phosphate (PREP), fortified composting (COMP), relay intercropping with Lablab purpureus
(LABLAB), staggered-row intercropping (MBILI) and short-term improved Crotolaria grahamiana fallows
(IMPFAL). These management options have been examined in western Kenya along with maize control re-
ceiving no external inputs over three growing seasons7. Data were collected on crop yield, input costs, labour
requirements and crop returns. Averaged over three seasons, production costs were (PREP = $119/ha1) >
(FURP = $101) > (MBILI = $98) > (COMP = $95) > (LABLAB = $74) > (IMPFAL = $67) > (No inputs
= $62). Average maize yield (LSD0.05 = 0.2) ranged between 1.5 tha1 (No inputs) and 2.8 tha1 (MBILI).
Average legume yields (LSD0.05 = 27) ranged between 203 kg ha1 (No input bean) to 500 kg ha1 (MBILI
bean). Overall benefit cost ratios (LSD0.05 = 0.17) were FURP (2.22) = No inputs (2.28) < COMP (2.48)
= LABLAB (2.52) < IMPFAL (3.03) < MBILI (3.44). Clearly all these “recommended” technologies offer
potential to many farmers in West Kenya, and Kenya at large, but the ability of farmers to provide the neces-
sary input costs and labour remains uncertain. Perhaps it is time we focussed attention upon how farmers’
“basket of options” is filled rather than how full it has become.




NOTES:
1
 Nandwa, S.M. (2003): Perspectives on soil fertility in Africa. In: Gichuru ET AL. (Eds.). Soil fertility Management in Africa: A Regional Perspec-
tive. Academy Science Publishers (ASP) & Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility of CIAT (TSBF), Nairobi, pp. 1-50.
2
 Sanchez, P.A. and Leaky, R.R.B. (1997): Landuse transformation in Africa: Three determinants for balancing food security with natural resource
utilization. European Journal of Agronomy, 7: 1-9.
3
African Highlands Initiative (AHI) (1997): Phase 1 Report. ICRAF, Nairobi.
4
 Smaling, E.M.A., Fresco, L.O. and De Jager, A. (1996): Classifying, monitoring and improving soil nutrient stocks and flows in African Agricul-
ture. Ambio, 25: 492-496.
5
Humus can store the given nutrients 25 times better than a senile tropical soil, thus preventing the outwash by heavy rains.
6
 Muriuki, A.W. and Qureshi, J.N. (2001): Fertiliser Use Manual: A comprehensive guide on fertiliser use in Kenya. Kenya Agricultural Research
Institute (KARI), Nairobi, p. 149.
7
 Woomer, P.L. (2004): Cost and return on soil fertility management options in western Kenya. Abstracts of the International Symposium of the
African Network for Soil Biology and Fertility (AfNET) of TSBF institute of CIAT, Yaounde, Cameroon, May 17-21, 2004,
pp. 147-148.




                                                                                                                                                      31
     1.2.3 PHYSICAL SOIL CONSERVATION
           By C. G. Wenner and S.N. Njoroge

     Classification of land
     The land of a farm can be classified as to slope and soil, with the different classifications needing different
     considerations:
        1) Flatland, sloping less than 2%, can usually be farmed without any special soil conservation mea-
        sures except contour farming.
        2) On gentle slopes between 2 and 12% terracing is not obligatory according to the present Agricul-
        ture Act, but terracing is usually desirable on slopes exceeding 5%. In semi-arid areas and in areas with
        erodible soils, even slopes less than 5% (2 – 5%) usually need to be terraced.
        3) On slopes exceeding 12%, but not exceeding 55%, terraces (preferably developed bench terraces)
        should be used if the depth of the soil is more than about 0.75m. For very steep slopes modified bench
        terraces are recommended, i.e. narrow ledges cut into the slope, suitable for fruit trees, fodder trees, forest
        trees and coffee.
        4) Slopes exceeding approximately 55% should be covered with grass and/or forest. Under certain
        conditions it might be permissible to cultivate tea, sugar cane or bananas with a layer of trash on the
        ground.
        5) Soils which are rocky, stony or shallow, should be used as pasture or for forest or they should have
        stone terraces.

     Soil conservation in general
     The basic protection of soil against erosion is good farm management:
       1) Ploughing and planting along the contour
       2) Rotation of crop and grass
       3) Manure favouring the growth of crops
       4) Leaving crop residue on the ground
     On slopes, good farm management by itself is not sufficient and it has to be combined with terraces.

     Terraces
     Terraces can be made by machinery or, usually, by hand.

     Terraces made by machinery
     Mechanised soil conservation can only be used on slopes which are not too steep (preferably 2 – 12%). Two
     types of terraces are used:
        1) The channel terrace
        2) The ridge terrace
     The V-shaped terrace, on one or both sides of a ridge, will usually be filled up by sediment and will thus
     develop into a bench terrace. But this could as well have developed from a grass strip.

     Terraces made by hand
     Terraces can develop from:
         1) unploughed strips
         2) Grass planted in one or two rows
         3) Trash lines laid along the terrace line
     In the strips, water flows will be distributed between the grass stems and most of the water will be infiltrated
     into the ground.
     To hasten the formation of a bench terrace you can make a ridge by digging a channel (2 feet wide, 2 -3 feet
     deep) and throwing the soil uphill, using the so-called “Fanya Juu” method.
     Bench terraces are usually preferable to channel terraces, as the benches change the degree of slope. They also
     retain eroded soil, moisture and nutrients.



32
Length of terraces
Terraces should not, if possible, be many hundreds of metres long. More than 400 m should be avoided.

Gradient of terraces
Terraces can be level or graded. Level terraces should be constructed on gentle slopes in permeable soils in
dry areas. For graded terraces the following gradients are recommended: in erosion resistant soils (clay) 1%,
normally 0.5% and in erodible soils (silty, sandy) 0.25%.




                                                                                                                33
     Vertical interval between terraces
     The vertical interval (V.I.) between terraces depends on the slope and has been calculated in three different
     ways in Kenya:

     A/ The ordinary formula-V.I. (in m) = ( (% of slope/4) + 2) ) x 0.3

     B/ The bench formula-V.I. (in m) = ( (% of slope/ 8) + 4) ) x 0.3

     C/A constant V.I. of 1.5-1.8 or 0.75-0.90m (5-6 or2.5-3 feet) .

     The method selected depends on the slope:
        5-12% A, B or C,
         but the horizontal interval is preferably not greater than 24m (80 feet) on erodible soils.
        12-35% B or C
        35-55% C or modified bench terraces.
     As shown above, a constant vertical interval (method C), corresponding to the eye height of a man can be
     used on slopes between 5% and 55%. The vertical interval will vary with the eye height of the person setting
     out of the terraces, i.e between 5 and 6 feet (1.5 and 1.8m). Such variation can be disregarded in setting out
     terraces. If terraces are needed on slopes between 2% and 5%, see table. The vertical intervals will then be
     less than the height of a person, because the horizontal interval should be a maximum of 24 m (80 feet):

             Slope       Vertical interval         Horizontal interval
             %           in meters in feet         in meters       in feet

             2              0.5        1.7             24            80

             3              0.7         2.3             24           80

             4              1.0         3.3             24           80

             5              1.2         4.0             24           80

     Horizontal interval between terraces
     The horizontal interval (H.I.) between terrace edges (grass strips) is calculated as H.I. =(V.I. x 100)/% of
     slope
     If the V.I. is expressed in feet, the H.I. will be in feet.
     If the V.I. is expressed in meters, the H.I. will be in meters.

     CUTOFF DRAINS
     In general
     Large water flows coming from outside a farm have to be diverted from the farm by a cut off drain, e.g.
     collecting water from a hillside, or preventing water from a plateau from flowing down a terraced slope, or
     taking care of water from a roadside ditch .
     Cutoff drains should be dug only when there is evidence of large water flows which cannot be stopped
     through normal terracing. Below the banks of terraces channels can be excavated instead of making cutoff
     drains.

     In the survey of a cutoff drain, you should start with the outlet point. If you cannot discharge the water in a
     safe way do not dig any cutoff drain. Before measuring and setting out the pegs, you should walk along the
     proposed cutoff drain, checking that the drain is properly sited regarding houses, cultivation, rocky ground
     etc.
     Do not dig any cutt off drain if the farmers do not agree to do terracing below the drain and to maintain


34
the channel by removing the soil sedimentation. Special forms should be used.

Length of cutoff drains
As in terracing cutoff drains should usually not be larger than 400m. If it is difficult to find a natural wa-
terway within 400m, it might be better to make the cutoff drain essentially longer than 400 m instead of
digging an expansive artificial waterway.




                                                                                                             35
     1.2.4    THEPOTENTIALOFAGROFORESTRYTOIMPROVEANDRESTORETHEFERTILITYOF
              NUTRIENT-DEPLETED SOILS OF WESTERN PROVINCE

     The fertility and productivity of the soils in the densely populated western Kenya is low and on the decline
     in most of the Agroecological Zones. Deficiencies of N, P and Potassium are widespread. Because of this,
     crop yields are low and on the decline. Maize yields (the staple food crop) are generally less than 1ha-1 in a
     season1. With declining soil N, the build up of Striga hermonthica, a parasitic weed of many cereals including
     maize, increases2. The net effect of all this has been the decline in production of crops and food shortages in
     western Kenya which has the potential to produce enough for its increasing population.

     Overcoming soil fertility depletion is fundamental to increasing maize yields in western Kenya. Over the
     last fourteen years, the World Agroforestry Centre (WAC) and its national collaborators in western Kenya,
     the Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI) and the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) have
     been evaluating several technologies that could restore soil fertility and improve productivity. From the
     various technologies evaluated thus far, improved fallows (synonymous with planted fallows) of fast grow-
     ing leguminous trees and shrubs has emerged as a technology that can improve soil fertility and crop yields
     remarkably. These have spawned enthusiasm among researchers, extension staff and farmers in the region.
     Consequently, wide-scale testing, experimentation and adaptation of this technology by farmers is going
     on3.

     While improved fallows can improve crop yields in N-limited soils, its effects are little in P limited soils that
     cover a large area of the region4. Unlike N, trees do not obtain P from the air. For P-limited soils, therefore,
     input of P is necessary to integrate with improved fallows technology to improve crop yields. The options for
     P sources are either inorganic P fertiliser or direct application of reactive phosphate rock (PR). This chapter
     provides some highlights on the processes by which improved fallows may improve soils fertility in western
     Kenya and highlights their effects on crop yields.

     Natural fallows for one to two seasons generally do not improve soil fertility and crop yields significantly in
     western Kenya although this effect is likely to be site and fallow specific. Natural fallows can, however, be
     improved by introduction and planting of fast growing leguminous trees and shrubs. Improved fallows of
     leguminous trees or shrubs accumulate N in their biomass through biological N2 fixation, capture of subsoil
     nitrogen unutilised by crops, and interception of nitrogen leached beyond the crop rooting zone5. Legumi-
     nous trees and shrubs such as Sesbania sesban have been reported to fix large quantities of nitrogen6. This N
     can benefit crops through the recycling of tree leaf and root litter. Nutrients captured by trees from below
     the rooting zone of annual crops can also become an input when transferred to surface soil in the form of leaf
     litter, roots and prunings of tree leaves and branches7. Additionally, tree fallows can increase labile fractions
     of soil organic matter, which supply nutrients to crops after fallows8.

     Among the various processes by which trees may improve soil nutrients, deep uptake of N from the subsoil
     has received considerable investigation. Nitrate-N accumulates in soils with acid subsoil rich in iron oxides
     and low organic matter. These soils can have appreciable anion sorption capacity, which enables the reten-
     tion of leached nitrate-nitrogen9. An accumulation of nitrate at a depth of 0.5 to 2 m has been observed
     under unfertilised maize on acid soils in western Kenya10. The accumulation of subsoil nitrate in soils of
     western Kenya is attributed to greater formation of nitrate by mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM)
     than uptake of N by unfertilised maize11. The excess nitrate can then leach to the subsoil where it is sorbed
     on positively charged soil surfaces10, which act as a “chemical safety net” retarding the downward movement
     and leaching loss of nitrate. Unfertilised maize because of shallow rooting and poor growth is not able to
     take up this subsoil nitrate.

     It has been shown that S. sesban improved fallow grown in rotation with maize in western Kenya can rap-
     idly root into this “chemical safety net” and take up the sorbed nitrate that was inaccessible to unfertilised
     maize10,11. Nitrate at a depth of 4 m was 51 kg N ha-1 for a 15-month S. sesban fallow, as compared to 199


36
kg N ha-1 for unfertilised maize. The maximum rooting depth was 1.2 m for maize, whereas roots in the
15-month old S. sesban extended below 4 m. Sesbania sesban was also more effective than a natural grass
fallow in extracting subsoil water, suggesting less leaching loss of nutrients under S.sesban than uncultivated
fallows.

On acidic soils in western Kenya without chemical and physical barriers to rooting in the top 4 m, the exis-
tence of a direct relationship between the demand of trees for N and the magnitude of nitrate uptake from
the subsoil12. Fast-growing trees such as Sesbania sesban and Calliandra calothyrsus reduced soil nitrate in the
top 2 m by about 150 to 200 kg ha-1 by eleven months after establishment12.

The choice of species for planted fallows and systems depends on adaptation of the species to the biophysical
and socio-economic conditions of a given site. Several species with potential for planted fallows in western
Kenya have been identified and appropriate management practices for their integration into the farming
system developed13. Some of the promising species are: Crotolaria grahamiana, Tephrosia vogelii and Sesbania
sesban. Sesbania is native to the region and is particularly popular with farmers because of its soil fertility
improving properties and for firewood. The other two species are recent introductions. These species are
relay-sown in standing maize during the long rainy season (May), 4 to 5 weeks after sowing.

Relay cropping minimises negative effects of the trees on the crops and allows the trees to benefit from crop
husbandry practices such as fertiliser application and weeding. It also permits tree growth to be extended for
two seasons. When the crop is harvested at the end of the first season (July-August), the trees are left to grow
during the second season (six-months long) until they are cut in February or March and the cropping cycle
is repeated. The cycle is repeated as long as necessary to improve the fertility and productivity of the soil.
Once the trees are cut, wood is removed and the leaf and small twigs are left on the field and incorporated
into the soil during land preparation. Depending on how much weed control was achieved during the fallow
period, it is possible to plant the crop with no or minimum tillage when the fallows are cut.

Several studies in western Kenya suggest that improved fallows of one-to-three seasons can increase soil fer-
tility and improve yields. In one on-station study1 at an NPK-deficient site, a six-month fallow of Sesbania,
Tephrosia, Crotolaria, and Cajanus cajan increased maize yield by 35 to 128% compared with continuous
maize with no fertiliser application. This indeed, has exciting prospects for many farmers in the area with
fewer other options for improving crop yields. Maize yield was highest after fallows of Sesbania (3.5 t ha-1)
and Tephrosia (3.6 t ha-1) and similar for fallows of Crotolaria, Cajanus and natural fallow (2.7 t ha-1). Maize
yield was lowest for the continuous cropping systems (2.0 t ha-1), although it was higher than the typical
yield of 1.0 t ha-1 or less for such a system. The fallows showed considerable residual effects on the subse-
quent crops, which ranged from 36% for natural fallow to 44% with sesbania. This could have important
implications on the economic evaluation of the technology.

The potential of short-duration improved fallows has also been assessed on farm, under farmer’s own man-
agement conditions. In a study1 on N and P-deficient sites, six-month fallows of Crotolaria and Tephrosia in-
creased maize yields by 31 to 36% compared with continuous cropping without addition of N and P. Maize
yield from non P addition soil was similar for that from Crotolaria and Tephrosia fallows (2.5 vs 2.3 t ha-1)
but higher than the farmers’ no-input control (1.6 t ha-1). With the addition of P as a Triple superphosphate
(TSP) at the rate of 20 kg ha-1, maize yield of all systems increased considerably for Crotolaria (0.9 t ha-1) for
Tephrosia (1.2 t ha-1) and for the control (0.6 t ha-1) compared to non P addition. Although short duration
improved fallows are promising, the magnitude of their effect on crop yield depends to a large extend on
how much leaf biomass and the fallow species produce and the quantity of nutrients recycled with it. More
leaf biomass means more nutrients recycled and generally increased yields in nutrient limited soils.

In conclusion, improved fallows with leguminous species are a promising technology for improving maize
yields in nutrient-depleted soils of western Kenya. There are, however, three major concerns that need to
be noted. First, they cannot overcome the severe soil P deficiency that limits crop yields in the yields in the



                                                                                                                     37
     area for which the use of inorganic P is inevitable. Phosphorus can be supplied either through commercially
     available P sources such as TSP or direct application of reactive phosphate rock such as Minjingu rock from
     northern Tanzania. Once P deficiency is overcome, then the N required for moderate crop yields could be
     met through the improved fallows of Sesbania, Crotolaria and Tephrosia. Besides N, improved fallows (espe-
     cially with Sesbania) can also overcome K deficiency, especially if it becomes a limiting factor when N and
     P deficiencies are ameliorated.




     NOTES:
     1
       Swinkels, r.a., Franzel, s., Shepherd, k.d., Ohlsson, e. and Ndufa, j.k. (1997): The economics of short rotation improved fallows: evidence
     from areas of high population density in western Kenya. Agricultural Systems 55: 99-121.
     2
       Oswald, a., Frost, h., Ransom, j., Kroschel, j.k., Shepherd, k.d. and Sauerborn, j. (1996): Studies on the potential for improved fallow using
     trees and shrubs to reduce Striga infestations in Kenya. Proceedings of the 6th Parasitic Symposium. Cordoba.
     3
       Rao, m.r., Niang, a., Kwesiga, a., Duguma, b., Franzel, s., Jama, b. and Buresh, r.j. (1998): Soil fertility replenishment in sub-Saharan Africa:
     new techniques and the spread of their use on farms. Agroforestry Today 10(2): 3-8.
     4
       Braun, a.r., Smaling, e.m.a., Muchugu, e.i., Shepherd, k.d. and Corbett, j.d. (eds.) (1997): Maintenance and improvement of soil produc-
     tivity in the highlands of Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar and Uganda. An inventory of spatial and non-spatial survey and research data on natural
     resources and land productivity. AHI Technical Report Series 6. ICRAF, Nairobi.
     5
       Buresh, r.j. and Tian, g. (1997): Soil improvement by trees in sub-Saharan Africa. Agroforestry Systems 38: 51-76.
     6
        Rao, d.l.n., Gill, h.s. and Abrol, i.p. (1990): Regional experience with perennial Sesbania in India. In: Macklin, b. and Evans, d.o. (eds.).
     Perennial Sesbania species in Agroforestry. NFTA, Waimanalo, Hawaii, USA, pp. 189-198
     7
       Schroth, g., Kolbe, d., Pitty, b. and Zech, w. (1995): Searching for criteria for the selection of efficient tree species for fallow improvement,
     with special reference to carbon and nitrogen. Fertiliser Research 44: 87-99.
     8
       Barrios, e., Kwesiga, f., Buresh, r.j. and Sprent, j. (1997): Light fraction soil organic matter and available nitrogen following trees and maize.
     Soil Science Society of America Journal 61: 826-831.
     9
       Cahn, m.d., Bouldin, d.r. and Cravo, m.s. (1992): Nitrate sorption in the profile of an acidic soil. Plant and Soil 143: 179-183.
     10
        Hartemink, a.e., Buresh, r.j., Jama, b., and Janssen, b.h. (1996): Soil nitrate and water dynamics in Sesbania fallows, weed fallows and maize.
     Soil Science Society of America Journal 6: 568-574.
     11
        Mekonnen, k., Buresh, r.j. and Jama, b. (1997): Root and inorganic nitrogen distributions in Sesbania fallow, natural fallow and maize fields.
     Plant and Soil 188: 319-327.
     12
        Jama, b.a., Buresh, r.j., Ndufa, j.k. and Shepherd, k.d. (1998): Vertical distribution of roots and soil nitrate: tree species and phosphorus effects.
     Soil Science Society of America Journal 62: 280-286.
     13
        Niang, a., Gathumbi, s. and Amadalo, b. (1996): The potential of short-duration improved fallow for crop productivity enhancement in the
     highlands of western Kenya. In: Mugah, j.o. (ed.). People and Institutional Participation in Agroforestry for Sustainable Development. Proceedings
     of the 1st Kenya Agroforestry Conference. KEFRI, Nairobi, pp. 218-230.




38
2.           WE STE RN P ROVI N C E
2.1          INTRODUCTION

Western Province consists of eight districts namely: Bungoma, Busia, Mt. Elgon, Kakamega, Lugari, Teso,
Vihiga and Butere-Mumias. With a total land area of 8,264 km2, it is one the most densely populated re-
gions in Kenya. Following the 1999 household census1), average population density stood at 406 persons/
km2, with Vihiga district registering the highest population density of 886 persons/km2, while Mt. Elgon
had the least population density of 143 persons/km2. According the government projections2) using logisti-
cal regression functions, population pressure will still remain a significant characteristic in Western province
(Table V). Therefore exhaustion of land as well as its fragmentation will continue being common and as such
leading to extreme poverty3) (Table VI).

TABLE V: POPULATION PROJECTIONS FOR WESTERN PROVINCE PER DISTRICT
(Source: CBS, 1999: 33)
       District        2000     2001      2002      2003      2004      2005      2006      2007      2008        2009      2010
 BUNGOMA             932,817   964,910   997,357 1,030,126 1,063,180 1,096,486 1,129,037 1,162,203 1,195,989 1,230,395 1,265,425
 BUSIA               391,668   401,859   412,069   422,286   432,498   442,692   452,468   462,381   472,433     482,622   492,948
 MT. ELGON           141,399   143,509   145,564   147,561   149,496   151,366   153,036   154,698   156,352     157,997   159,632
 KAKAMEGA 641,539              662,824   684,322   706,009   727,863   749,861   771,315   793,164   815,409     838,052   861,093
 LUGARI              229,559   237,176   244,868   252,628   260,448   268,320   275,996   283,814   291,774     299,876   308,121
 TESO                191,008   195,023   199,009   202,961   206,874   210,743   214,379   218,046   221,746     225,476   229,237
 VIHIGA              527,135   540,735   554,355   567,980   581,594   595,180   608,199   621,399   634,781     648,343   662,085
 BUTERE-
                     500,076   508,347   516,454   524,385   532,128   539,671   546,534   553,398   560,262     567,124   573,981
 MUMIAS
 WESTERN            3,532,944 3,604,850 3,676,133 3,746,697 3,816,448 3,885,290 3,949,742 4,014,702 4,080,160 4,146,107 4,212,532




TABLE VI: ABSOLUTE POOR HOUSEHOLDS AND PERSONS IN WESTERN PROVINCE
          PER DISTRICT
            District             Households below poverty3) line 1999              Individuals below poverty3) line 1999
 BUNGOMA                                            78,547                                           453,836
 BUSIA                                              36,703                                           191,896
 MT. ELGON                                          11,469                                            69,918
 KAKAMEGA                                           56,562                                           312,444
 LUGARI                                             18,783                                           111,801
 TESO                                               17,200                                            93,974
 VIHIGA                                             47,487                                           258,315
 BUTERE-MUMIAS                                      48,323                                           246,947
 WESTERN                                           315,074                                           1,739,131



1)
   Population and Household Census (1999), Counting Our People for Development: Population Distribution by
   Administrative Areas and Urban Centres, Volume I, Republic of Kenya.
2)
   Analytical Report on Population Projections (Vol. VII), Kenya 1999 Population and Housing Census
3)

     individuals] to meet their basic needs including land, employment, food, shelter, education, health etc” cited from Poverty
     Reduction Strategy Paper (September, 2001) p.13, CBS.
According to the Central Bureau of Statistics categorisation of agricultural land potential, the entire Prov-
ince falls under high potential given that its annual rainfall average is above 857.5 mm. Considering the


                                                                                                                                     39
     Agro-Ecological Zones and soils, not all have high potential. The Marginal Cotton Zone has a medium
     potential and the senile depleted soils a low one.

     The statement “high potential” of the CBS also does not consider the rainfall distribution. Considering it,
     the Funyula and Budalangi Division fall under ASAL ecosystems with erratic rainfall in the second rainy
     season.

     Because of the more or less continuous rainfall in the wetter Agro-Ecological Zones, it is difficult to decide
     when the short rains start and planting occurs both before and after their onset. There is no reason to divide
     the growing time into two defined periods, but nevertheless it is possible to plant two early maturing crops
     instead of one late maturing. To express this in the tables, “or two” is written after the symbol of the length
     of the growing period (Table 4), in some wet areas with trimodal rainfall even “or three” (see Kakamega
     District).

     The soils are generally not fertile because there is very little volcanic or other young parent material. Most
     are senile, diluted, some, as in Busia, even with latertite horizons. The soil maps and descriptions are derived
     from the soil maps of the Kenya Soil Survey1). The symbols are simplified to make it easier for non-specialists
     to use them and an introduction is given to the soils of each districts.

     Because of the soil problem, it must be remembered that the average yield expectations given for the AEZ
     show only what is climatically possible (on prevailing soils) when other conditions are optimized. In most
     places in West Kenya therefore, a lot of manure and fertiliser is needed to reach these yield figures, and weed-
     ing is also a big problem because of heavy witchweed (Striga) infection. Good husbandry, crop protection
     and rotation are also essential for combating diseases (especially fungus in the wet climate) and insect pests.
     Many nematodes in the soil reduce growth and yields of crops, especially of bananas. Phytosanitary aspects
     can only be touched here, more information is necessary by a special handbook about pests and diseases.2)

     A further difficulty is that West Kenya is far from the markets. Therefore one has to select carefully from
     the list of given ecolgical land-use possibilities what is economically reasonable. The annual crops are listed
     in the following order: cereals; pulses; tubers; oil seed; real cash crops; fruits and vegetables3). The perennial
     crops are listed more or less according to their importance. Some crops may not fit into the traditions. This
     has to be considered when trying innovations.

     Very little information exists about pasture and forage apart from the real rangeland (Pratt and Gwynne
     1977) 4), which is scarce here. Therefore all recommendations given are only a very rough guide, and fodder
     cultivation depends on may factors besides climate and soil. Livestock units (LU) in our estimated stocking
     rates are 300 kg, which is for smallholders with partly indigenous cattle more realistic and understandable
     than the former Standard Stock units (SSU) of 1000 lb (450 kg) introduced by the British.




     1)
        The soil maps have the same base of KSS as those used in the FURP and in Muriuki, A.W. and Qureshi, S.N.: Fertiliser Use
        Manual. KARI, Nairobi 2001.
     2)
        Some information can be found in the Small Holder Farming Handbook, published by the IRACC and Marketing Support
        Services Ltd., Nairobi 1997.
     3)
        It was impossible to list all vegetables which may be grown in each AEZ. Information abou vegetables not mentioned may be
        found in Vol. V of the handbook or required from Simlaw Seed Company, Box 40042, Nairobi.
     4)
        Pratt, D.J. and Gwynne, M.D. (Eds.): Rangeland Management and Ecology in East Africa. London 1977.




40
2.2     RAINFALL AND AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES OF WESTERN PROVINCE

Western Province has the most evenly rainfall distribution of Kenya. The annual averages range between
900 and 2200 mm. The reason is that after the convectional rainfall of the first rainy season (March - May),
the normally long dry season (June - October) receives heavy rains too with a peak in August - September.
They are caused by a convergence of the daily Lake winds, attracted by the daily heating up of the land, with
the Trade winds from the East. This circulation has also a downward and therefore dry component near the
Lake, but the effect in diminuing the rainfall is much smaller than in Nyanza Province because the shore is
stretching mainly parallel to the Trade winds.

These middle rains may be called already second rainy season. The eastern type of it with the main rainfall in
November-December is almost disappearing in West Kenya, only a small peak remains. But here the rain-
fall and the stored moisture in the soil are generally so high that in most areas we have permanent growing
conditions (see Zone 1, Diagrams of Kakamega) or almost permanent ones (Zone 2). Near the Lake shore,
in the Northwest and in the Northeast, the rains from October to December are small and unreliable. This
may cause semiarid conditions up to February, changing Zone 3 even to Zone 4.

The soil conditions have to be considered very closely. For instance in the Sugar cane Zone, only the Agro-
Ecological Units with suitable soils give profitable results. Generally under humid conditions, the perma-
nent leaching of the soils is a serious problem aggravated by the high population densities and therefore
overuse of the land for food production over the years.




                                                                                                                 41
42
2.3      THERMAL BELTS

Limits
In West Kenya the altitudinal limits are about 200 m higher than in East Kenya because it is situated at the
leeward side of the central highlands regarding the trade winds from the ocean, and due to the heating up
of the big elevated land-mass of the Victoria Basin.
The thermal belts of the Agro-Ecological Zones have no sharp limits here. The threshold temperatures and
the corresponding altitudes are generalized figures in order to establish the zonal system. In reality there are
variations: For instance the Sugar Cane Zone in Western Province has an upper limit in the AEZ-system at
21°C annual average, which means at an altitude of about 1460 m. However, it can be planted up to 1600
m in favourite places where other positive factors compensate the lower yield and sugar content of increasing
altitudes. Ecologically it may grow up to 2000 m, but the general economic limit is around 1500 m.

Temperature Increase
A new observation for W-Kenya is that since the first edition of the Farm Management Handbook (1982,
data up to 1980) the upper altitudinal limits have risen ca. 90 m due to the global warming. Partly bad is,
that the lower limits of some crops like coffee or wheat have risen too, therefore some farmers in these areas
run into difficulties due to lower quality or more crop diseases.
The temperature there has risen 0.5°C during 20 years; for instance the annual mean at Eldoret Met. Station
as a typical sample west of the Rift Valley was 16.6°C in the period 1956 - 80, it rose to 17.1° in 1981 - 98,
and the warming process is still continuing. Considering an average temperature gradient of 0.65°C per 100
m as typical for Northwest Kenya, the corresponding altitude difference of 0.5°C is ca 75 m, and adding the
temperature increase of the last years we have more than 90 m uplift of thermal crop limits since the time
before 1981. Especially in Kakamega District it has resulted in a shift of AEZ boundaries.

Temperature Differences
Some differences visible in Table VIII between the belt limits in different Agro-Ecological Zones are explain-
able by vegetation differences: The limits are higher outside forests or dense perennial crops (like tea) because
of more heating up of the atmosphere by a higher percentage of bare soil; The stations in LH 3 (maize and
grass) have 55 m higher limits than the stations in LH 1 (forest or tea), and even 75 m compared to the
forest stations in UM 3. The open field UM 4 station Kitale shows even 110 m higher limits of the Upper
Midland Belt than those UM 3 stations. The upper limit of the Lower Midland Belt is in the Cotton Zone
about 60 m higher than in the Sugar Cane Zone. This has to be considered in making local land use recom-
mendations.




                                                                                                                   43
     TABLE VIII: TEMPERATURES AND AEZ – BELTS FROM RIFT VALLEY TO WESTERN
                 PROVINCE (except SW)
                                                              Altitude      Ann. Mean1
         Station No.         Name                                                                   AEZ – Belt
                                                                 m              °C
                             Kericho Hail
         9035279                                                2182           16.9       LH 1          2000 – 2470 m
                             Res. Station
                             Kericho Timbilili
         9035244                                                2134           16.1       LH 1          1875 – 2300 m
                             Tea Res. Station
                             Kapenguria
         8835033                                                2134          16.32       LH 1          1975 – 2400 m3
                             Chewoy.
                                                                                         Av. LH 1       1950 – 2390 m
                             Eldoret, Institute
         8935133                                                2134           17.3       LH 3          2020 –2480 m
                             of Agriculture
                             Eldoret
         8935181             Met. Station                       2084           17.1       LH 3          1950 – 2410 m

                                                                                         Av. LH 3       1985 – 2445 m
                             Turbo Forest
         8935170                                                1859           18.3       UM 3          1450 – 1910 m
                             Nursery
                             Nzoia Met. Site
         8934138             (Forest Station)                   1840          18.42       UM 3          1450 – 1910 m3

                                                                                         Av. UM 3       1450 – 1910 m4
                             Kitale
         8835024                                                1890           18.8       UM 4          1560 – 2020 m
                             Met. Station
                             Mumias
         8934133                                                1302           22.1       LM 1          10105 – 1465 m
                             Sugar Company
                             Chemilil
         9035274                                                1269           22.2       LM 1          10005 – 1450 m
                             Sugar Company
                             Busia Alupe
         8934161                                                1220          22.22       LM 1         10055 – 1470 m3
                             Cotton Res. Station
                             Kibos
         9034105             Sugar Res. Station                 1214           22.5       LM 1          9805 – 1440 m

                                                                                         Av. LM 1      10005 – 1460 m4
                             Ahero Kano
         9034086                                                1219           22.8       LM 3          10305 – 1490 m
                             Irrig. Scheme
                             Kibos
         9034081                                                1173           23.2       LM 3          10455 – 1505 m
                             Cotton Res. Station
                             Kadenge
         8934140                                                1168           23.3       LM 3          10605 – 1520 m
                             Yala Swamp
                             Bunyala
         8934139             Irrig. Scheme                      1145           22.8       LM 3          10305 – 1490 m

                                                                                         Av. LM 3       10405 – 1500 m




     1
       Records since 1981 unless otherwise stated.
     2
       Up to 1981
     3
       > 0.5°C upwarming since 1981 is considered in rising of the belt.
     4
       Forest stations have lower temperatures.
     5
       Theoretical figure, actual lowest altitude in West Kenya is 1135 m.




44
2.4     THE IMPORTANCE OF FERTILIZER AND NUTRIENT RECYCLING
        IN WESTERN PROVINCE

Except for the volcanic deposits around Mt. Elgon and an old volcanic layer near Kakamega Town, soils in
Western Province have mainly developed on basement rocks, which are normally not rich in nutrients. The
heavy rains of the humid and semi humid climates there have leached the soils considerably for millions
of years. Today a dense population needs to cultivate continuously; thus the nutrient content of the soils is
diminishing at a dangerous rate concerning the sustainability of human nutrition basis (see Table IX).
Fallow years or even forest periods for the partial restoration of the nutrients are normally not possible due
to the high population pressure.

Artificial fertilization can increase the yields of food crops considerably, as the Fertilizer Use Recommendation
Project (FURP, 1987-1992) and the Fertilizer Extension Project (FEP, 1993-1994) have shown. But for sus-
tainable farm management it is necessary to combine it with nutrient recycling by any kind of farm manure,
crop residues, even human excrements (under hygienic control!) and ashes of cooking fires. The addition of
cost-effective microbiological substrates like EM (Effective Microorganisms), rhizobia and mycorrhizae to
farm manure or soils directly is delivering reasonable results to soil fertility (see e.g. Hornetz/Shisanya/
Gitonga, 2000) 1).

The figures in Table IX (and also others from the FURP experiments) demonstrate that continuous cultiva-
tion is depressing the pool of macro- and micronutrients like potassium in the soil. PH-figures are lowered
too by the exhaustion of calcium, magnesium and other micronutrients by crop roots; thus enabling herbs
and forbs to penetrate cultivated areas/shambas more and more. Artificial fertilizers seem to accelerate the
decrease of pH as well as the diminution of the other nutrients because of the intensification of crop growth
(Table IX). During the FURP experiments the loss of potassium, for instance, was five times higher with
NP fertilizer than without (see Control). Potassium could be given artificially too (if payable by the small-
holders), but - as recent experiments and potassium studies in Western Kenya demonstrate - a fertilisation
with K is only resulting in profitable maize yields on volcanic soils (like Nitisols; Table IX) (see Kanyanjua/
Ayaga/Keter/Okalebo, 2005)2). However, it was also found out that the increase of K fertiliser on soils
developed on basement rocks is not profitable due to lack of Ca and Mg (as well as the high infestation of
Striga harmonthica in maize fields) (see Kanyanjua/Ayaga/Keter/Okalebo, 2005). Other vanished micro-
nutrients normally cannot be added because most of them are not yet known or measured consequently. Al-
together the permanent cultivation without nutrient recycling means finishing of the vital natural resources
by agromining.

Additional farm yard manure diminishes the decrease in some cases, but not enough. In other cases it in-
creases the loss due to its high N content, which favours crop growth too. In any case manuring must be
supplemented as much as possible by other organic materials and ashes for recycling the nutrients.




                                                                                                                   45
     TABLE IX: THE DECREASE (%) OF PH AND POTASSIUM IN TYPICAL SOILS
               OF WESTERN PROVINCE AS A SAMPLE FOR THE RAPID LOSS OF
               NUTRIENTS (during 5 years of maize cultivation at the FURP experimental sites)

                                                                               Decrease of pH                          Decrease of K
             FURP Site                     Soil               AEZ
                                                                             Contr.1       Fert.2                  Contr.1         Fert.2
            Kakamega
          Western Agric.            Dystric-mollic
           Res. Station                                       UM 1        -2.6 %             -10.2 %              -4.3 %               -20.5 %
                                       Nitisol
           (Kakamega
             District)
              Mwihila
             (Kakamega              Dystric Nitisol           LM 1        -2.7 %              -4.2 %             -16.7 %               -38.1 %
              District)
          Vihiga-Maragoli             Chromic to
                                                              UM 1        -7.8 %              -7.8 %             -15.0 %               -23.8 %
          (Vihiga District)         orthic Acrisols
           Bukiri-Buburi           Rhodic to orthic
                                                              LM 3        -6.0 %              -9.5 %             -25.0 %               -33.3 %
          (Busia District)           Ferralsols
     1
         Control: without fertilizer and/or manure
     2
         Fertilization: 75 kg N and 75 kg P per ha and year
     1)
          see: Hornetz, B., Shisanya, C.A. and Gitonga, N.M. (2000): Studies on the ecophysiology of locally suitable cultivars of food crops and soil
          fertility monitoring in the semi-arid areas of Southeast Kenya.- (= Materialien zur Ostafrika-Forschung, Heft 23), Trier
     2)
          see Kanyanjua, S.M., Ayaga, G.O., Keter, J.K. and Okalebo, J.O. (2005): Effects of Potassium use on land under pressure. Farmers change
          attitude towards fertiliser.- The East African, 16th - 22nd of May 2005, page 10




     2.5           POSSIBLE CROPS AND VARIETIES
     To have the right seed at the right time on the right place is the basis of agriculture development. Therefore
     many crops and varieties are listed here. Most of them are commercially available, although this means they
     are very difficult to get for the poor farmers in areas far from big centers. Many seed centers with credit
     facilities are necessary.

     In Table X the differentiation of the growing period in physical maturity and in harvest was only made for
     the main food crop maize because for other crops the data are unknown or scattered. The chapter includes
     additionally a Table XI with fodder crops. As natural grazing becomes scarce and the rest is destroyed by
     overuse, planting of grasses, legumes, fodder trees and shrubs is an essential task for survival.

     Several listed crop varieties are in experimental stage, not yet available. Others are mentioned here as
     possibilities for the future. They are either already successful in other countries or have a promising potential
     so that experiments with them should be done or repeated. One of these is the wild native tuber crop
     Marama bean (Tylosema esculentum) of the Kalahari which has also edible seeds.

     Very early maturing foxtail and hog millets and moth beans are bred in the Central Arid Zone Research
     Institute (CAZRI) in Jodhpur, India, as well as rai (Brassica juncea), an oil seed crop related to rapeseed.
     These are crops growing with 150 – 180 mm in two months or less. The yield potential cannot be high with
     such a short vegetative cycle, but they are security crops if the 2nd rainy season becomes too short which is
     possible in zone LM 4 near the Lake.

     In the AEZ-potentials of the districts, such new crops are printed in italics to indicate that something still
     has to be done for their introduction resp. distribution.



46
     TABLE X: AGRO-CLIMATOLOGICAL CROP LIST FOR WESTERN PROVINCE OF KENYA
     Growing period    Crop/variety 1) (or place of breeding)   Av. No. of days to      Altitudes according   Required well          Opt. yields 4)
     (approx.)                                                  phys. maturity/         to growing periods    distributed rain-
                                                                to harvest              (m asl)2)             fall in growing
                                                                (Range according                              period resp. p. yr.
                                                                to altitudes)                                 (mm; min.-opt.)3)

     GRAIN CROPS
     Short             MAIZE/e.mat.: KCB                        85 – 105 / 100 – 120    700 – 1500            260 – 450              3 500 kg/ha
                       Maseno Double Cobber; Maseno77           85 – 105 / 105 – 125    1000 – 1600           500 – 750              4 000 kg/ha
                       Double 78 Cobber
                       PH 1                                     80 – 110 / 100 – 130    1000 – 1500           400 – 700              4 500 kg/ha
                       PH 4                                     80 – 115 / 110 – 135    1000 – 1500           450 – 750              5 400 kg/ha

     Short to medium   MAIZE/e.mat: KH634A                      90 – 110 / 110 – 130    1400 – 1800           450 – 700              5 000 kg/ha

     Medium            MAIZE/m.mat.: H 511                      100 – 130 / 100 – 150   1000 – 1800           450 – 700              5 200 kg/ha
                       H 515                                     “ – “ / “ – “            “ – “               480 – 750              5 850 kg/ha
                       EMCO 92 SR5), H 513                      120 – 150 / 135 – 165   1200 – 1800           450 – 700              5 500 kg/ha
                       PAN 52436); PAN 677)                     120 – 150 / “ – “       800 – 1800            500 – 750              7 500 kg/ha
                       MAIZE/m.mat.: PHB 30H83                  135 – 165 / 150 – 180   1000 – 2000           500 – 1600             8 000 kg/ha
                       MAIZE/
                       MAIZE/m.mat.: PAN 5195; PAN 5355         120 – 150 / 135 – 165   1000 – 1800           500 – 700              5 000 kg/ha
                       (Pannar PTY); C 5051 (Monsanto PYT)
                       MAIZE/m.mat: H622                        140 – 155 / 160 – 190   1200 – 1700           550 – 880              5 400 kg/ha
                       MAIZE/m.mat: PAN 99; WH 501              140 – 155 / 160 – 180   1000 – 2000           500 – 800              7 500 kg/ha

                       MAIZE/
                       MAIZE/m.mat: WH 904;WH509; H519;         150 – 180 / 170 – 200   1000 – 1700           500 – 750              6 000 kg/ha
                       MAIZE/m.mat: H623                        150 – 165 / 170 – 195   1200 – 1700           600 – 950              6 300 kg/ha
                       MAIZE/l.mat: H612; 613                   160 – 180 / 190 – 220   1500 – 2100           600 – 950              6 000 kg/ha
                       H614; H625                               150 – 180 / 180 – 205   1500 – 2100           650 – 1000             8 000 kg/ha
                       H6210, H62138)                           150 – 180 / 180 – 205   1500 – 2100           680 – 1050            10 500 kg/ha
                       MAIZE/l. mat. H 7801                     165 – 185 / 195 – 220   1500 – 2100           700 – 1100             7 800 kg/ha

                  g
     Medium to long    MAIZE //l.mat: H614D; H626               165 – 190 / 190 – 230   1500 – 2100           600 – 950              8 500 kg/ha
                       H627, H628, KH600 -11D                     “ – “ / “ – “           “ – “                 “ – “                9 000 kg/ha
                       H6212                                      “ – “ / “ – “           “ – “                 “ – “               10 500 kg/ha
                       PAN 691; PAN 683; H611D; WH699           180 – 230 / 230 – 270   1700 – 2400           700 – 1100             7 000 kg/ha
                       MAIZE/l.mat: H629; H6211                 170 – 220 / 220 – 250   1500 – 2100           600 – 950              9 500 kg/ha
                       MAIZE/l.mat: H613D                       180 – 230 / 230 – 270   1500 – 2100           700 – 1100             8 000 kg/ha

     Long to medium    MAIZE/l.mat: H611                        180 – 200 / 225 – 245   1800 – 2100           600 – 900              5 900 kg/ha




47
48
     Growing period        Crop/variety 1) (or place of breeding)   Av. No. of days to            Altitudes according         Required well         Opt. yields 4)
     (approx.)                                                      phys. maturity/               to growing periods          distributed rain-
                                                                    to harvest                    (m asl)2)                   fall in growing
                                                                    (Range according                                          period resp. p. yr.
                                                                    to altitudes)                                             (mm; min.-opt.)3)

     Short to medium       FINGER MILLET/m.mat: P224; Gulu E;       90 – 120                      1150 – 1750                 380 –800              2 000 kg/ha
                           Lanet/FM 1
                           Local                                    100 – 160                     0 – 2400                    500 – 900             3 500 kg/ha

     Very short to short   PROSO MILLET/v.e.mat. Serere             55 – 65                       800 – 1300                  200 – 280             2 800 kg/ha

     Short to very short   FOXTAIL MILLET/e.mat. 1 Se 285           65 – 80                       800 – 1300                  220 – 320             3 000 kg/ha

     Short to medium       FOXTAIL MILLET/m.mat: Kat/Fox-1          90 – 120                      250 – 1500                  380 – 800             1 800 kg/ha

     Short to very short   SORGHUM/v.e. mat. 1S 8595                75 – 105                      0 – 1500                    200 – 430             3 800 kg/ha

     Short                 SORGHUM/e.mat. Serena                    85 – 110                      0 – 1500                    220 – 480             3 500 kg/ha
                           SORGHUM/
                           SORGHUM/e.mat. Seredo                    90 – 105                      250 – 1750                  320 – 590             2 700 kg/ha
                           KARI Mtama-1                             90 – 105                      250 – 1800                  230 – 450             3 400 kg/ha
                           Gadam                                    90 – 115                      0 – 1500                    230 – 450             2 000 kg/ha
                           SORGHUM/m.mat:2K 17;IS 76                90 – 120                      250 – 1500                  230 – 450             2 300 kg/ha

     Medium to short                      IS
                           SORGHUM/m.mat.:IS 8193                   120 – 145                     500 – 1600                  320 – 590             2 500 kg/ha
                           ISZ 1955                                 120 – 145                     500 – 1600                  330 – 600             2 800 kg/ha
     Medium to long        SORGHUM/l.mat.: E 1291 (stock feed)      160 – 180                     0 – 1500                    400 – 800             9 000 kg/ha

     Medium                RICE/ m.mat: Basmati 217 *               120 – 160                     < 1300                      800 – 2000*           4 600 kg/ha
                           Faya S.L.                                120 – 160                     < 1300                      800 – 1200*           9 000 kg/ha
                           Basmati 370                              120 – 160                     < 1300                      800 – 2000*           5 300kg/ha
                           IR 2035 –25-2, IR 8, IR 22 *             120 – 160                     < 1300                      800 – 2000*           5 500 kg/ha
                           IR 2793- 80-1, IT 257 *                  120 – 160                     < 1300                      800 – 2000*           6 400 kg/ha
                           BW 96                                    120 – 160                     < 1300                      800 – 2000*           9 000 kg/ha
                           UP 254                                   120 – 160                     < 1300                      800 – 2000*           6 400 kg/ha
                           AD 9246                                  120 – 160                     < 1300                      800 – 2000*           5 100 kg/ha
                           IR 19090                                 120 – 160                     < 1200                      800 – 2000*           5 800 kg/ha
                           * resistant to Blast
     Medium to long        RICE/m.mat: Ci cong Ai; TGR 78;          120 – 180                       < 1200                    800 – 2000*           5 000 kg/ha
                           BW 196; WaBis 675                                             (all in lowland swampy areas)   *incl. irrigation water

     Short to long         GRAIN AMARANTH/                          90 – 180                      0 – 2900                    190 – 800             3 000 kg/ha
                           diff. species
     Growing period        Crop/variety 1) (or place of breeding)   Av. No. of days to   Altitudes according   Required well         Opt. yields 4)
     (approx.)                                                      phys. maturity/      to growing periods    distributed rain-
                                                                    to harvest           (m asl)2)             fall in growing
                                                                    (Range according                           period resp. p. yr.
                                                                    to altitudes)                              (mm; min.-opt.)3)

     LEGUMINOUS CROPS
     Very short to short   BEANS/v.e.mat.: Katheka                  60 – 65              900 – 1600            230 – 430             1 200 kg/ha
     Short to very short   BEANS/e.mat.: Rosecoco (GLP 2)           70 – 90              1000 – 2000           250 – 450             1 800 kg/ha
                           Mwitemania (tol. to halo blight)         60 – 90              900 – 1600            230 – 430             1 200 kg/ha
                           New Mwezi Moja9)                         75 – 90              1000 – 1500           230 – 430             1 000 kg/ha
                           KK 8, KK 14; KK 15; KK 20, KK 2210)      75 – 90              1500 – 1800           250 – 450             1 800 kg/ha

     Short                 BEANS/m.mat.: Canadian Wonder            90 – 105             1200 – 1800           250 – 450             1 300 kg/ha
                           (GLP-24 / TBC21)

     Short to medium       Pinto Bean (GLP- 92)                     90 – 115             1000 – 1500           200 – 270             1 200 kg/ha
                           Cuarentino                               90 – 110             800 – 1500            250 – 450             2 500 kg/ha

     Medium to short       Cuarentino                               110 – 135            1500 – 1800           250 – 450             2 500 kg/ha

     Very short to short   MOTH BEANS (CAZRI Jodhpur) 11)           60 – 90              0 – 1500              180 – 400             1 600 kg/ha

     Short to medium       HORSE BEANS                              100 – 140            0 – 1800              400 – 750             2 500 kg/ha

     Very short to short   COWPEAS/v.e.mat. Katuli                  70 – 90              0 – 1500              200 – 400             1 900 kg/ha

     Medium                COWPEAS/m.mat.: Emma                     120 – 150            0 – 1500              250 – 500             2 300 kg/ha

     Long to very long     HORSE GRAMS                              210 – 240            0 – 1500              180 – 350             1 500 kg/ha

     Short to medium       DOLICHOS BEANS/m.mat:KAT/ DL-2           105 – 120            0 – 2000              200 – 700             2 500 kg/ha
                           AT/DL –3                                 105 – 120            0 – 2000              230 – 730             2 800 kg/ha

     Medium to long        CLIMBING BEANS/ m.mat:Flora;             120 – 150            1500 – 2200           450 – 1500            2 000 kg/ha
                           Vuninikingi; Umubano, Ngwiuinurare

     Short to medium       PIGEON PEAS/e.mat: 422; 423              110 – 130            0 – 1500              370 – 600             1 400 kg/ha

     Medium to short       PIGEON PEAS/m.mat: Composite             120 – 140            0 – 1500              400 –650              2 000 kg/ha

     Short to medium       FIELD PEAS                               90 – 120             1800 – 2300           250 – 450             3 000 kg/ha




49
50
     Growing period        Crop/variety 1) (or place of breeding)   Av. No. of days to   Altitudes according   Required well         Opt. yields 4)
     (approx.)                                                      phys. maturity/      to growing periods    distributed rain-
                                                                    to harvest           (m asl)2)             fall in growing
                                                                    (Range according                           period resp. p. yr.
                                                                    to altitudes)                              (mm; min.-opt.)3)

     Short                 CHICK PEAS = YELLOW GRAMS                85 – 100             0 – 1500              200 – 390             1 500 kg/ha

     Short to very short             /
                           SOYA BEANS/e.mat.: Nyala, Gazelle        75 – 100             800 – 1500            350 – 500             2 500 kg/ha

     Short                 SOYA BEANS/e.mat.: Black Hawk            80 – 110             0 – 1200              350 – 600             2 300 kg/ha

     Short to medium       SOYA BEANS/e.mat.: Black Hawk            110 – 130            1200 – 1800           350 – 600             2 300 kg/ha
                           SOYA BEANS /e.mat.: Magoye12),           100 – 120            0 – 1800              450 – 700             3 900 kg/ha
                           TGX 1869, TGX 1893

     Medium                SOYA BEANS/m.mat.:Hill                   130 – 150            0 – 2000              400 – 750             2 000 kg/ha
                           Perry – 41                               130 – 150            0 – 2000              400 – 750             1 800 kg/ha
                           Red Tanner                               130 – 150            0 - 2000              400 – 750             1 800 kg/ha

     Short to medium       BAMBARRA GROUNDNUTS/e.mat.:              100 – 120            800 – 1500            300 – 600             1 500 kg/ha
                           from Zambia 13)

     Medium                GROUNDNUTS/m.mat.:Homa Bay               120 – 150            0 – 1500              500 – 700               770 kg/ha
                           GROUNDNUTS/m.mat.:Selere 116 (white)     120 – 150            0 – 1500              500 – 700             1 250 kg/ha
                           GROUNDNUTS/
                           GROUNDNUTS/m.mat.: Altika                120 – 150            0 – 1500              500 – 700             900 kg/ha
                           GROUNDNUTS/l.mat.: Mwitunde              130 – 160            0 – 1500              350 – 650             2 500 kg/ha
                           (partly rosette resistant)

     Medium to very long   TARWI (Lupinus mutabilis) 14)            150 – 330            1800 – 3600           450 – 1500            2 800 kg/ha

     OIL SEED CROPS

     Short                 SUNFLOWER/e.mat. Hybrid S 345            85 – 110             0 – 1500              280 – 550             1 900 kg/ha

     Medium                SUNFLOWER/m.mat: H 067                   130 – 140            1500 – 2400           350 – 650             2 000 kg/ha
                           Kenya Fedha; Kenya Shaba                 130 –135             1000 – 2300           300 – 600             3 000 kg/ha
                           H 894                                    125 – 135            1500 – 2400           350 – 650             2 000 kg/ha
                           H 893; H 898; H 903                      130 –135             1500 – 2400           350 – 650             2 000 kg/ha
                           PAN 7352                                 120 – 150            1000 – 2200           300 – 600             1 900 kg/ha

     Medium to long        SUNFLOWER/m.mat: Kenya White             140 – 175            1500 – 2300           350 – 700             2 200 kg/ha
     Growing period        Crop/variety 1) (or place of breeding)   Av. No. of days to   Altitudes according   Required well         Opt. yields 4)
     (approx.)                                                      phys. maturity/      to growing periods    distributed rain-
                                                                    to harvest           (m asl)2)             fall in growing
                                                                    (Range according                           period resp. p. yr.
                                                                    to altitudes)                              (mm; min.-opt.)3)

     Medium                LINSEED                                  120 –150             1800 – 2700           300 – 600             1 400 kg/ha

     Medium to short       RAPESEED/m.mat: Midas, SV 69/1229;       125 – 140            1800 – 2700           300 – 600             1 850 kg/ha
                           SV Gulle

     Medium                RAPESEED/l.mat: Nilla, SV 71/1225        140 – 155            1800 – 2700           350 – 700             2 100 kg/ha

     Medium                SAFFLOR                                  120 – 150            1200 – 1800           250 – 400             2 000 kg/ha

     Medium                CASTOR/Dwarf                             130 – 170            500 –1500             350 – 800             1 200 kg/ha

     Perennial             CASTOR/C-15                              more than 365        0 –2100               400 – 650             1 200 kg/ha

     Medium                SIMSIM/m.mat: White                      120 – 140            0 – 1500              400 – 500               750 kg/ha
                           Morada                                   120 – 140            0 – 1500              400 – 500               900 kg/ha

     ROOTS/TUBER CROPS
     Very short to short   SWEET POTATOES/v.e.mat. local            60 – 90              0 – 1800              350 – 650             8 000 kg/ha

     Medium to per.        “         “         /m.mat. local        120 – 180            0 – 1800              500 – 900             18 000 kg/ha


     Short to medium       SWEET POTATOES/e.mat.: KSP 20            90 –120              250 – 1750            500 – 900             20 000 kg/ha
                           (Wanjugu); KSP 11; CIP 42
                           SPK 004                                  90 – 120             1300 – 2000           500 – 900             13 000 kg/ha
                           Kembo 10                                 90 – 120             1300 – 2000           500 – 900             16 000 kg/ha

     Medium (per.)         SWEET POTATOES/m.mat.: SPK 013           120 – 150            1200 – 1400           500 – 900             21 000 kg/ha
                           Mugande                                  120 – 150            1300 – 2000           500 – 900             15 000 kg/ha

     Very long to per.     “         “         /l.mat.: local       270 and more         0 – 1700              750 – 1250            35 000 kg/ha

     Perennial             “         /l.mat. local                  540 – 720            0 – 1500              1100 – 3000           40 000 kg/ha




51
52
     Growing period           Crop/variety 1) (or place of breeding)   Av. No. of days to   Altitudes according   Required well         Opt. yields 4)
     (approx.)                                                         phys. maturity/      to growing periods    distributed rain-
                                                                       to harvest           (m asl)2)             fall in growing
                                                                       (Range according                           period resp. p. yr.
                                                                       to altitudes)                              (mm; min.-opt.)3)

     Perennial                CASSAVA/l.mat.: Kaleso (4610/27)         365 – 540            < 1500                500 – 1000            25 000 kg/ha
                              I 2200; Tereka; Serere; CK 1
                              TMS 60142; BAO
                              KME 1; Muchericheri                      365 – 420            250 – 1500            500 – 1000            20 000 kg/ha
                              KME 61                                   365 – 420            250 – 1500            500 – 1000            35 000 kg/ha
                              SS 4 and Migyera15)                          “                    “                     “                     “
                              MM 96/1871, MM 96/4466, MM 96/ 5280,         “                    “                     “                     “
                              MM 95/018316)

     Short                    POTATOES/e.mat. Annet                    75 – 90              1500 – 1800           350 – 600             30 000 kg/ha

     Medium                   POTATOES/m.mat.:Desiree; Dutch robijn    120 – 150            1600 – 2600           350 – 630             35 000 kg/ha

     Short to long            YAM BEAN (Mexico)                         90 – 270            0 – 1800              500 – 1500            60 000 kg/ha

     Long to very long        TARO, COCOYAMS/Colocasia esculenta       180 – 300            900 – 1800            1250 – 2000           15 000 kg/ha

     Perennial                TARO / perennial var.                    more than 365        0 – 1800              1300 – 2300           20 000 kg/ha

     Long to perennial        WHITE GUINEA YAM                         180 – 300            0 – 1800              1000 – 1500           30 000 kg/ha

     Very long to perennial   GREATER YAM                              240 –300             0 – 1800              1400 – 1800           45 000 kg/ha

     “           “            YELLOW GUINEA YAM                        300 and more         0 – 1800              1200 – 1800           40 000 kg/ha

     FIBRE CROPS
     Medium to long           COTTON/ e.mat.: UKA 59/240               120 – 150            0 – 1400              500 – 700             1 945 kg/ha
                              COTTON/ e.mat.: BPA 75                   120 – 150            0 – 1400              500 – 700             2 150 kg/ha
                              COTTON/ e.mat.: KSA 81M; HART 89M        120 – 150            0 – 1400              500 – 700             2 000 kg/ha
                              ROSELLE                                  130 – 180            0 – 1500              1000 – 1800           3 500 kg/ha

     Long                     COTTON/ unimodal var.long staple         170 – 210            0 – 1450              550 – 950             2 000 kg/ha
     Growing period          Crop/variety 1) (or place of breeding)       Av. No. of days to   Altitudes according   Required well         Opt. yields 4)
     (approx.)                                                            phys. maturity/      to growing periods    distributed rain-
                                                                          to harvest           (m asl)2)             fall in growing
                                                                          (Range according                           period resp. p. yr.
                                                                          to altitudes)                              (mm; min.-opt.)3)

     HORTICULTURE CROPS
     Very short         FRENCH BEANS/e.mat.:I.Kutuless (J12)              45 – 60              1000 – 1800           350 – 680             5 000 kg/ha
                        Monel;Maasai; Coby; Nerina; Vernadon;             42 – 56              1000 – 2100           350 – 680             4 000 kg/ha
                        Morgan; Samantha; Gloria; Amy; Paulista;
                        Claudia; Supper Monel; Espada;
                        Bobby (Groffy and Skill)

     Very short to short     CABBAGES/e.mat.:Golden acre                  56 – 70              800 – 2000            500                   40 000 kg/ha
                             Copenhagen market; Red acre                  63 – 70              800 – 2000            500                   50 000 kg/ha
                             Sugar loaf;                                  77 – 91              800 – 2000            500                   60 000 kg/ha
                             Gloria F1 (Hybrid); Glory of Enkhuizen       70 – 84              800 – 2000            500                   50 000 kg/ha

     Short to medium         CABBAGES/m.mat. Fortuna; K – Y cross;        91 – 112             800 – 2000            500                   100 000 kg/ha
                             Red rock
                             Prize drumhead                               105 – 112            800 – 2000            500                   60 000 kg/ha
                             Tristar                                      98 – 119             800 – 2000            500                   90 000 kg/ha

     Very short to short     LETTUCE/e.mat.: Butter Head; Leaf Lettuce;   45 – 90              800 – 2300            400 – 600             10 000 kg/ha
                             Romaine Lettuce

     Medium to long          ONIONS/l.mat.:Red Creole; Red Tropicana;     150 – 180            0 – 1900              500 – 700             17 000 kg/ha
                             Tropicana F1 Hybrid; White Creole;
                             Texas Early Grano; Green Bunching;
                             Bombay red; Yellow Granex F1 Hybrid

     Short to medium         TOMATOES/ e.mat.:Roma VF;                    90 – 120             500 – 2000            300 – 500             34 000 kg/ha
                             Rubino; Parmamech; Parma VF; Nema 1401;                                                 350 – 600             100 000 kg/ha
                             Picardor; Spectrum; Nema 1400; Nema 1200;
                             Sun Marzano; Rutgers 10X Hybrid; Roma Nova;
                             Rio Grande; Ponderosa; Hot Set; Best of all;
                             BWN 21; Zawadi; Fortune Maker a.o.

     Short to medium         CARROTS/m.mat.:Chantenay                     90 – 120             500 – 2000            300 – 500             4 000 kg/ha
                             Nantes                                       90 – 120             500 – 2000            300 – 500             8 000 kg/ha
                             Oxheart                                      90 – 120             500 – 2000            300 – 500             20 000 kg/ha




53
54
     Growing period        Crop/variety 1) (or place of breeding)         Av. No. of days to            Altitudes according   Required well         Opt. yields 4)
     (approx.)                                                            phys. maturity/               to growing periods    distributed rain-
                                                                          to harvest                    (m asl)2)             fall in growing
                                                                          (Range according                                    period resp. p. yr.
                                                                          to altitudes)                                       (mm; min.-opt.)3)

     Very short to short   GARDEN PEAS/e.mat.: Green feast;               56 – 84                       > 750                 400 – 500             4 000 kg/ha
                           Alderman; Onward; Earlicrop

     Short                 MAIZE BABY CORN/e.mat.:Panar;                  90                            up to 2400            > 250                 10 000 kg/ha
                           Baby Asian; Kalahari; Silver queen;
                           Early extra sweet; Early Sunglow; Kandy Corn

     OTHER CASH CROPS AND FRUITS

     Perennial             MACADAMIA/ MRG –20                             Dur. to 1st harvest: 5yrs     1400 – 1550           750 – 1200            46 kg/tree/year
     “                     MACADAMIA/EMB – 1                              Dur.to 1st harvest: 5yrs      1500 – 1750           750 – 1200            42 kg/tree/year
     “                     MACADAMIA/EMB – 3                              Dur. to 1st harvest; 5yrs     1750 – 1900           750 – 1200            42 kg/tree/year
     “                     MACADAMIA/KRG- 15                              Dur. to 1st harvest: 5yrs     1500 – 1750           750 – 1200            40 kg/tree/year
     “                     MACADAMIA/ MRG 2; KMB 4;                       Dur. to 1st harvest: 5 yrs    1500 – 1650           750 – 1200            40 kg/tree/year
                           MRG 25; TTW 2
     “                     MACADAMIA/ MFU 2; MRU 24;                      Dur. to 1st harvest: 5 yrs    1650 – 1900           750 – 1200            40 kg/tree/year
                           KMB 25; MRU 25

     “                     TEA/AHP S15/10                                 Dur. to 1st harvest: 4yrs     1100 – 2200           1250 – 1800           5 000 kg/ha
     “                     TEA/TRF 6/8; 7/14; 11/4; 303/178               Dur. to 1st harvest: 3-4yrs   1600 – 2300           1250 – 1800           3 500 kg/ha
     “                     TEA/TRF 7/3                                    Dur. to 1st harvest: 3-4yrs   1600 – 2300           1250 – 1800           3 000 kg/ha
     “                     TEA/TRF 12/12                                  Dur. to 1st harvest: 3-4yrs   1600 – 2300           1250 – 1800           3 800 kg/ha
     “                     TEA/TRF 12/19                                  Dur. to 1st harvest: 3-4yrs   1600 – 2300           1250 – 1800           3 900 kg/ha
     “                     TEA/TRF 31/8; 303/259                          Dur. to 1st harvest: 3-4yrs   1600 – 2300           1250 – 1800           4 200 kg/ha
     “                     TEA/AHP PMC 61; 2; 3; 45; 46; 51; 59           Dur. to 1st harvest: 4yrs     1100 – 2200           1250 – 1800           3 000 kg/ha
                           AHPCG 29E30; AHP KP 47/7
                           AHP MN 11/96
     “                     TEA/AHP PMC 67; AHP CA 609                     Dur. to 1st harvest: 4yrs     1100 – 2200           1250 – 1800           2 000 kg/ha
                           AHP MN 11/96; AHP CG 17/81
                           AHP MN2 10/51
     “                     TEA/AHP SKM 30/52; AHP SC 12/28;               Dur. to 1st harvest: 4yrs     1100 – 2200           1250 – 1800           5 000 kg/ha
                           AHP CHM 61/60; AHP SF 186
                           AHP SC 12/29; 20/13; 31/37; 11/1; 11/9
     “                     TEA/TRF 31/11                                  Dur. to 1st harvest: 3-4yrs   1600 – 2300           1250 – 1800           3 200 kg/ha
     Growing period   Crop/variety 1) (or place of breeding)        Av. No. of days to             Altitudes according   Required well         Opt. yields 4)
     (approx.)                                                      phys. maturity/                to growing periods    distributed rain-
                                                                    to harvest                     (m asl)2)             fall in growing
                                                                    (Range according                                     period resp. p. yr.
                                                                    to altitudes)                                        (mm; min.-opt.)3)

     Perennial        TEA/ TRF 303/259; 56/89; 303/999              Dur. to 1st harvest:           1600 – 2300           1250 - 1800           3 000 kg/ha
                      TRF 303/179; 303/186; 337/138; 337/3 3-4yrs
                      TRF 338/13; 347/26; 347/314
     “                TEA /TRF 7/9; 303/178                         Dur. to 1st harvest: 3-4yrs    1600 – 2300           1250 – 1800           3 600 kg/ha
     “                TEA/TRF 108/82; 100/5; 54/40; 303/152         Dur. to 1st harvest:.3-4yrs    1600 – 2300           1250 – 1800           3 100 kg/ha
     “                TEA/AHP CG 28U864; 28V929                     Dur. to 1st harvest: 4yrs      1100 - 2200           1250 – 1800           4 000 kg/ha
     “                TEA/AHP S 1/99                                Dur. to 1st harvest: 4yrs      1100 - 2200           1250 – 1800           2 000 kg/ha
      “               TEA/ TRF 303/216                              Dur. to 1st harvest: 3-4yrs    1600 – 2300           1250 – 1800           3 900 kg/ha
     “                TEA/TRF 303/577                               Dur. to 1st harvest:.3-4yrs    1600 – 2300           1250 - 1800           4 300 kg/ha
     “                TEA/TRF 303/231; 303/1199                     Dur. to 1st harvest: 3-4yrs    1600 – 2300           1250 – 1800           3 400 kg/ha
     “                TEA/ TRF 303/156                              Dur. to 1st harvest: 3-4yrs    1600 – 2300           1250 – 1800           3 300 kg/ha
     “                TEA/GW EJULU-LGWK6/8; TRF 301/5               Dur. to 1st harvest: 3-4yrs    1600 – 2300           1250 – 1800           4 000 kg/ha
     “                TEA/TRF 301/4                                 Dur. to 1st harvest: 3-4yrs    1600 – 2300           1250 – 1800           4 100 kg/ha

     “                COFFEE/Arabica K7; SL28;                      Dur. to 1st harvest:.2-3yrs    1400 – 2000           > 1150                2 000 kg/ha
                      SL 34; Ruiru 11
     “                COFFEE/Robusta                                Dur. to 1st harvest: 3–4 yrs   600 – 1500            1100 – 2000           3 000 kg/ha

     “                SUGAR CANE/ CO 421, CO 467                    Dur. to 1st harvest.           1100 – 1600           1250 – 1800           100 t/ha
                                                                    20 – 24 months
     “                SUGAR CANE/ CO 617                            Dur. to 1st harvest            1100 – 1600           1250 – 1800           100 t/ha
                                                                    16 – 20 months
                      SUGAR CANE/ CO 945                            Dur. to 1st harvest            1100 – 1600           1250 – 1850           110 t/ha
                                                                    20 – 24 months
     “                SUGAR CANE/ EAK 69-47                         Dur. to 1st harvest            1300 – 1600           1250 – 1800           95 t/ha
                                                                    20 – 22 months
     “                SUGAR CANE/ EAK 71 - 402                      Dur. to 1st harvest            1300 – 1600           1250 – 1800           98 t/ha
                                                                    over 20 months
     “                SUGAR CANE/ KEN 82 - 216                      Dur. to 1st harvest >20m.      1100 – 1600           1300 – 2000           124 t/ha
     “                SUGAR CANE/ KEN 82 - 219                      Dur. to 1st harvest >20m.      1100 – 1600           1300 – 2000           109 t/ha
     “                SUGAR CANE/ KEN 82 - 401                      Dur. to 1st harvest >20m.      1100 – 1600           1300 – 2000           112 t/ha
     “                SUGAR CANE/ KEN 82 - 808                      Dur. to 1st harvest >20m.      1100 – 1600           1300 – 2000           118 t/ha
     “                SUGAR CANE/ KEN 83 - 737                      Dur. to 1st harvest            1200 – 1600           1300 – 2000           113 t/ha
                                                                    18 – 20 months




55
56
     Growing period   Crop/variety 1) (or place of breeding)   Av. No. of days to        Altitudes according   Required well       Opt. yields 4)
     (approx.)                                                 phys. maturity/           to growing periods    distributed
                                                               to harvest                (m asl)2)             rainfall in
                                                               (Range according                                growing period
                                                               to altitudes)                                   resp. per year
                                                                                                               (mm; min.-opt.)3)

     Perennial        SUGAR CANE/ CO 1148                      Dur. to 1st harvest       1100 – 1600           1250 – 1800         110 t/ha
                                                               20 – 22 months
     “                SUGAR CANE/ N 14                         Dur. to 1st harvest       1100 – 1600           1400 – 2000         112 t/ha
                                                               20 – 24 months
     “                SUGAR CANE/ CO 945                       Dur. to 1st harvest       1300 – 1600           1400 – 2000         90 000 kg/ha
                                                               18 – 20 months
     “                SUGAR CANE/ KEN 82-401                   Dur. to 1st harvest       1100 – 1600           1400 – 2000         85 000 kg/ha
                                                               15 – 19 months
     “                SUGAR CANE/ KEN 82-808; 82-216           Dur. to 1st harvest       1100 – 1600           1400 – 2000         95 000 kg/ha
                                                               15 – 19 months
     “                SUGAR CANE/ KEN 82-247                   Dur. to 1st harvest       1100 – 1600           1400 – 2000         87 000 kg/ha
                                                               15 – 19 months
     “                SUGAR CANE/ KEN 82-219                   Dur. to 1st harvest       1100 – 1600           1400 – 2000         84 000 kg/ha
                                                               15 – 19 months
     “                SUGAR CANE/ KEN 82-737                   Dur. to 1st harvest       1100 – 1600           1400 – 2000         97 000 kg/ha
                                                               15 – 19 months

                      PYRETHRUM/4743                           Duration to peak prod.    1800 – 2100           950 – 1300          600 kg/ha
                                                               9 – 10 months
     “                PYRETHRUM/3092                           Duration to peak prod.    1900 – ?              950 – 1300          600 kg/ha
                                                               9 – 10 months
     “                PYRETHRUM/Ks/71/96; Ks/71/6; 72/43       Duration to peak prod.    1700 – ?              950 – 1300          900 kg/ha
                      Mo/74/122; K218                          9 – 10 months
     “                PYRETHRUM/Sb/65/58                       Duration to peak prod.    1900 – ?              950 – 1300          1 350 kg/ha
                                                               9 – 10 months
     “                PYRETHRUM/Ma/71/423; L/75/477            Duration to peak prod.    2200 – ?              950 – 1300          1 000 kg/ha
                      Mo/74/443                                9 – 10 months
     “                PYRETHRUM/Ks/75/313; 75/336              Duration to peak prod.    1700 – ?              950 – 1300          1 100 kg/ha
                                                               9 – 10 months
     “                PYRETHRUM/Ks/70/64                       Duration to peak prod.    1700 – ?              950 – 1300          1 000 kg/ha
                                                               9 – 10 months
                                                               9 – 10 months
     “                PYRETHRUM/K235                            Duration to peak prod.   1700 – ?              950 – 1300          600 kg/ha
                                                               9 – 10 months
     Growing period   Crop/variety 1) (or place of breeding)       Av. No. of days to              Altitudes according   Required well       Opt. yields 4)
     (approx.)                                                     phys. maturity/                 to growing periods    distributed
                                                                   to harvest                      (m asl)2)             rainfall in
                                                                   (Range according                                      growing period
                                                                   to altitudes)                                         resp. per year
                                                                                                                         (mm; min.-opt.)3)

     Perennial        PAWPAW/Honey Dew; Kifu; Mountain;            Dur. to 1st harvest: 1 yr       0 – 1000              1000 – 1500         35 000 kg/ha
                      Solo; Sunrise Solo; Waimanalo

     “                PINEAPPLE/Wild Cayenne;                      Dur. to 1st harvest:            1350 – 1800           750 - 1800          100 000 kg/ha
                      Smooth Cayenne                               18 - 24 months

     “                AVOCADO/ Fuerte, Haas, Wabal, Puebla         Dur. to 1st harvest:            1500 – 2000           1000 – 1500         27 000 kg/ha
                                                                   3 yrs., to full yield 10 yrs.

     “                APPLE/e.mat: Winter Banana; Rome             Dur. to 1st harvest: 7yrs       2000 – 3000           1000 – 1800         20 000 kg/ha
                      Beauty; King of Thompkin County

     “                PEACHES/ Texas; Hall’s Yellow 13-17;         Dur. to 1st harvest:            1600 – 2300           1000                20 000 kg/ha
                      Babcock; Frandkin; Florida Sun               3-4 yrs

     “                BANANAS/Uganda Green (Matoke)(Cook.);        Dur. to 1st harvest:            0 – 2000              1000                17 000 kg/ha
                      Valery; Lacatan; Giant Cavendish (Sweet)     15 – 18 Months
                      Paz; Dwarf Cavendish; Wanjare (Sweet);
                      Uganda Red; Muhato; Mukubu: Gitigi (Sweet)

     “                SWEET ORANGE/Washington Navel;               Dur. to 1st harvest: 3-4yrs     1000 – 1800           > 900               26 000 kg/ha
                      Hamlin; Valencia; Pineapple

     “                GRAPE FRUIT/ March Seedless;                 Dur. to 1st harvest: 3-4yrs     0 – 1500              > 900               26 000 kg/ha
                      Red blush
                      Duncan; Thomson                              Dur. to 1st harvest: 3-4yrs     1000 – 1500           > 900               26 000 kg/ha

     “                MANDARIN/Satsuma; Kara                       Dur. to 1st harvest: 3-4yrs     0 – 1500              > 900               26 000 kg/ha

     “                LIME/Mexican; Tahiti; Bears                  Dur. to 1st harvest: 3-4yrs     0 – 1500              > 900               26 000 kg/ha

     “                LEMON/Eureka; Lisbon; Villafranca            Dur. to 1st harvest: 3-4yrs     1000 – 1500           > 900               30 000 kg/ha
                      Rough Lemon                                  Dur. to 1st harvest: 3-4yrs     0 – 1500              > 900               30 000 kg/ha




57
58
     Growing period                Crop/variety 1) (or place of breeding)            Av. No. of days to             Altitudes according      Required well       Opt. yields 4)
     (approx.)                                                                       phys. maturity/                to growing periods       distributed
                                                                                     to harvest                     (m asl)2)                rainfall in
                                                                                     (Range according                                        growing period
                                                                                     to altitudes)                                           (mm; min.-opt.)3)

     Perennial                     GUAVA/ Malherbe; Fan Retief;                      Dur. to 1st harvest: 1- 3yrs   0 – 2000                 > 900               47 000 kg/ha
                                   Hong Kong Pink; Ruby X Supreme;
                                   Beautmont; WK-11-26; Kahua Kula

     “                             MANGOES/ Ngowe; Borible; Batawi;                  Dur. to 1st harvest: 4–5yrs    0 – 1500                 650 – 1500          15 000 kg/ha
                                   Apple; Kessington; Haden Dodo;
                                   Vandyke; Tommy Atkins

     Short                         WATERMELON/Charles Gray; Congo;                   80 days                        up to 1500               400 – 600           20 000 kg/ha
                                   Fairfax; Sugar Baby; Chilean Black;
                                   Tiffan Hybrid; Honey Dew; Cresso F1;
                                   Crimson Sweet

     Short to medium               TOBACCO/ e.mat
                                   Speight G 28; E2; NC95
     “                             TOBACCO/ e.mat:/Fire-cured/                       60 – 75 days         “            < 1400                380 - 400           1 000 kg/ha
                                   Heavy Western



     NOTES:

     1)
       v.e.mat.           = very early maturing variety                     For some crops, esp. wheat, it is wise to use several varieties to spread the risk
     e.mat.               =     early    “          “                               (see recommendations of Nat. Research Stations)
     m.mat.               =     medium “           “
     l.mat.               =      late      “            “
     v.l.mat.             = very late      “            “
     2)
          Most suitable altitudes. Growing periods increase upwards and decrease downwards beyond the noted ranges until ecological limits are reached.
     3)




     4)

     5)
          Resistant to Streak
     6)
          Tolerant to Grey Leaf Spot, resist. to lodging, good husk cover.
     7)
          Resistance to Maize Streak Virus, tolerant to low Nitrogen levels, drought tolerant, good husk cover.
     8)
        Resistant to Folia diseases and pests. Good husk cover hence good storage. Sweet for roasting and ugali. Very popular.
     9)
        Lower yields but more resistance.
     10)
         All these 5 varieties are resistant to bean root rot and bean stem maggot.
     11)
           Gives also very good fodder or hay (7-10 t hay/ha, see Nat. Ac. of Sc.: Trop. Legumes. Washington 1979, p. 77. Increases nitrogen in the soil
     12)
           Nodulates well with indigenous soil bacteria.
     13)
         Major germplasm center at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture/Ibadan, Nigeria. Drought tolerant and thrive in poor soils.
     14)
         Information see Nat. Ac. of Sc.: Trop. Legumes. Washington 1979, p. 86-92
     15)
         Both varieties are resistant to ACMD.
     16)
           All these MM varieties were in 2005 still experimental but promising for resistance.




59
     TABLE XI: BIOCLIMATOLOGICALLY SUITABLE GRASSES AND OTHER FODDER CROPS FOR
               THE AGRO- ECOLOGICAL ZONES IN WESTERN PROVINCE

     1. UPPER HIGHLAND ZONES (above 2300 ma.s.l.)

     Here Forest Reserve


     2. LOWER HIGHLAND ZONES (in W. Province between 1 900 and 2 300m.a.s.l.)

     Grasses:
     Kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum)                            LH 1,2
     Nandi setaria ( Setaria sphacelata)                               LH 1,2,3
     Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) up to 2050 m
     Var. Pokot Rhodes                                                 LH 1,2
     Var. Mbarara Rhodes                                               LH 2,3
     Var. Masaba Rhodes                                                LH 2,3
     Var. Elmba Rhodes                                                 LH 2,3,4
     Var. Boma Rhodes                                                  LH 2,3,4
     Teff (Eragrostis tef)                                             LH 2,3,(4)
     Guatemala (Tripsacum laxum)                                       LH 1, 2,3
     Napier (Pennisetum purpureum)
     cv. Clone 13                                                      LH 1,2
     cv. Bana                                                          LH 1,2,3,(4)
     Giant setaria (Setaria splendida)                                 LH 1,2,3
     Andropogon (Andropogon gayanus)                                   LH 2,3
     Rye grass (Lolium perenne)                                        LH 1,2,3

     Root crops:
     Sweet potato vines (Ipomea batatas)                               LH 1, 2,3
     Fodder beets (Beta vulgaris)/var. alba DC                         LH 1,2
     Fodder radish (Raphanus sativus)                                  LH 1,2
     Yam bean (Pachyrhizus tuberosus) not above 2000m                  LH 1,2,3 (4)

     Legumes:
     Louisana white clover (Trifolium repens)                          LH 1,2
     Green leaf desmodium (Desmodium intortum)                         LH 1,2
     Silver leaf desmodium (Desmodium uncinatum)                       LH 1,2,(3)
     Lotononis (Lotononis bainesii)                                    LH 2,3, (4) not domesticated in
                                                                                   Kenya yet
     Subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum)                      LH 3,4
     Shrubby stylo (Stylosanthes scabra)
     cv. Seca                                                          LH 1, 2,3
     cv. Fitzroy                                                       LH 1, 2,3
     Calopo (Calopogonium mucunoides)                                  LH 3
     Lucerne (Medicago sativa)
     cv. Hunter river                                                  LH 1,2

     cv. Trifecta                                                      LH 1,2
     Purple vetch (Vicia benglanesis)                                  LH 2,3
     Glycine (Neonotonia wightii)
     cv. Cooper                                                        LH 3, 4,5
     cv. Tinaroo                                                       LH 3, 4,5
     Winter (Australian)                                               LH 3
     Alsike clover (Trifolium hybridum)                                LH 3
     Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens)                                     LH 3,4
     Lablab bean (Lablab purpureus)
     cv. Rongai                                                        LH 3,4


60
cv. K1002                                              LH 3,4
Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis)                       LH 3,4
Sunhemp (Crotalaria ochroleuca)                        LH 3,4
Lupins (Lupinus albus) cv. Ultra                       LH 1,2
Lupins (Lupinus angustifolia)                          LH 1,2

Trees
Calliandra (Calliandra calothyrsus)                    LH 2,3
Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala)
cv. K8                                                 LH 1,2,3
cv. Peru                                               LH 1,2,3
cv. Cunningham                                         LH 1,2,3
                      Tithonia diversifolia)           LH 2,3


3. UPPER MIDLAND ZONES (between 1 500 and 1 900m)

Grasses:
Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum)
Clone 13                                               UM 1,2,3
cv. Bana                                               UM 1,2,3,4
Nandi setaria ( Setaria sphacelata) in higher places   UM 1,2,3
Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) in higher places
Var. Pokot Rhodes                                      UM 1,2
Var. Mbarara Rhodes                                    UM 2,3
Var. Masaba Rhodes                                     UM 2,3, (4)
Var. Elmba Rhodes                                      UM 2,3,4
Var. Boma Rhodes                                       UM 2,3,4
Star grass (Cynodon dactylon)                          UM 1,2,3
Sudan grass (Sorghum sudanense)                        UM 2,3, (4)
Maasai love grass (Eragrostis superba)                 UM 3,4
Guinea grass (Panicum maximum)                         UM 1,2,3
Giant panicum (Panicum maximum)/var. Makueni           UM 3,4
Columbus grass (Sorghum halepense)                     UM 1,2, 3,
Enteropogon (Enteropogon macrostachyus)                UM 4,5
Plume chloris (Chloris roxburghiana)                   UM 4,5
Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) cv. Marigat           UM 4,5
Rye grass (Lolium perenne)                             UM 1,2,(3)
Andropogon (Andropogon gayanus)                        UM 4,5

Root crops:
Sweet potato vines (Ipomea batatas)                    UM 1, 2,3,4
Flemingia vestita                                      UM 1,2 (3)
Yam bean (Pachyrhizus tuberosus)                       UM 1,2,3,4
Psoralea patens / P.cinerea                            UM 3,4

Legumes:
Siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum)                   UM 2,3,4
Common stylo (Stylosanthes guanensis)
cv. Alupe Composite                                    UM 1,2 (3)
cv. Cook                                               UM 1,2 (3)
Green leaf desmodium (Desmodium intortum)              UM 1,2
Silver leaf desmodium (Desmodium uncinatum)            UM 1,2,(3)
Glycine (Neonotonia wightii)
cv. Cooper                                             UM 2,3,4
cv. Tinaroo                                            UM 2,3,4
               Clitoria ternatea)                      UM 1,2,(3)
Townsville lucerne (Stylosanthes humilis)              UM 2,3,(4)


                                                                     61
     Barrel medic (Medicago truncatula)                     UM 3,4,(5)
     Moth bean vines (Vigna aconitifolia)                   UM 4,5
     Tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides)                 UM 1,2,3
     Lucerne (Medicago sativa)
     cv. Baronet                                            UM 3, 4,5

     cv.Vernal                                              UM 4,5
     Stylo (Stylosanthes scabra)                            UM 1, 2, 3, 4 (5)
     Carribean stylo (Stylosanthes hamata) cv. Verano       UM 3,4
     Shrubby stylo (Stylosanthes scabra)
     cv. Fitzroy                                            UM 4
     cv. Seca                                               UM 4
     Stylo (Stylosanthes scabra) cv. fruticosa 41219A       UM 4
     Lablab bean (Lablab purpureus)
     cv. Rongai                                             UM 3,4
     cv. K1002                                              UM 3,4
     Archer axillaris (Macrotyloma axillare) cv. Archer     UM1, 2, 3
     Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens)                          UM1, 2,3,4
     Calopo (Calopogonium mucunoides)                       UM 3,4
     Purple vetch (Vicia benghalensis)                      UM 3,4
     Lupins (Lupinus albus cv. Ultra)                       UM 1,2,3
     Lupins (Lupinus angustifolia)                          UM 1,2,3
     Centro (Centrosema pascuorum) (under experiment)
      cv. cavalcade                                         UM 4
      cv. virginianum                                       UM 4
     Aechynomene americana cv.Glenn (under experiment)      UM 4
     Macrotyloma (Macrotyloma africanum)                    UM 3,4,5
     Alsike clover (Trifolium hybridum)                     UM 4,5
     Cassia (Chamaecrista rotundifolia cv.Wynn)             UM 2,3 (4)
     Alysicarpus rugosus CPI 14384 (under experiment)       UM 3,4
     Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis)                       UM 3,4
     Sunnhemp (Crotalaria ochroleuca)                       UM 3,4
     Desmanthus virgatus CPI 144576 (under experiment)      UM 3, 4

     Trees and shrubs:
     Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala)
     cv. Peru                                               UM 1,2,3,4
     cv. K8                                                 UM 1,2,3,4
     cv. Cunnigham                                          UM 1,2,3,4
     Saltbush (Atriplex nummularia)                         UM 4,5,(6)
     Gao tree (Acacia albida)                               UM 4,5,(6)
     Sesbania (Sesbania sesban)                             UM 1,2, 3(4)
     Mulberry (Morus alba)                                  UM 1,2,3 (4)
     Calliandra (Calliandra calothyrsus)                    UM 1,2,3
                           Tithonia divesifolia)            UM 2,3
     Mesquite (                  )                          UM 5,6
     Algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis)                         UM 5,6


     4. L0WER MIDLAND ZONES (between 900 and 1500m a.s.l)

     Grasses:
     Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum)                    LM 1,2,3,(4)
     Maasai love grass (Eragrostis superba)                 LM 3,4
     Guinea grass (Panicum maximum)                         LM 2,(3)
     Giant panicum (Panicum maximum)/var. Makueni           LM 3,4
     Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris)                       LM 3,4,(5)



62
Enteropogon (Enteropogon macrostachyus)                                     LM 5,6
Guatemala (Tripsacum laxum)                                                 LM 1,2,3
Plume Chloris (Chloris roxburghiana) cv. horse tail                         LM 3, 4,5,6
Columbus grass (Sorghum halepense )                                         LM 2, 3, 4

Root crops:
Sweet potato vines (Ipomea batatas)                                         LM 2,3,4
Flemingia vestita                                                           LM 1,2,3, (4)
Psoralea patens/P.cinerea                                                   LM 3,4,(5)

Legumes:
Common stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis)
cv Alupe Composite                                                          LM 1,2,3
cv. Cook                                                                    LM 1,2,3
              Clitoria ternatea)                                            LM 1,2,(3)
Siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum)                                        LM 2,3,4
Glycine (Neonotonia wightii)
cv. Cooper                                                                  LM 1,2,3,4
cv. Tinaroo                                                                 LM 1,2,3,4
Townsville stylo (Stylosanthes humilis)                                     LM 2,3,(4)
Moth bean vines (Vigna aconitifolia)                                                LM 4,5
Cow pea (Vigna unguiculata)                                                 LM 4,5
Sunnhemp (Crotalaria ochroleuca)                                            LM 2,3
Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens)                                               LM 2,3,4
Lablab bean (Lablab purpureus)
cv Rongai                                                                   LM 2,3,4
cv K1002                                                                    LM 2,3,4
Lupins (Lupinus albus) cv. Ultra                                            LM 2,3
Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis)                                            LM 2,3,4
Stylo (Stylosanthes scabra) cv. Fruticosa 41219A                            LM 4,5
Desmanthus virgatus CPI 144576                                              LM 4,5
Centro (Centrosema pascuorum)
cv. Cavalcade                                                               LM 4,5
cv. Virginianum                                                             LM 4,5
Centro (Centrosema pubescens)                                               LM 2,3,4
Aeschynomene americana cv.Glenn                                             LM 4,5
Macrotyloma (Macrotyloma africanum)                                         LM 3,4,5
Cassia (Chamaecrista rotundifolia cv.Wynn)                                  LM 4,5

Trees and shrubs
Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala)
cv Peru                                                                     LM 3,4
cv. K8                                                                      LM 3,4
cv. Cunnigham                                                               LM 3,4
Saltbush (Atriplex nummularia)                                              LM 4,5,(6)
Gao tree (Acacia albida)                                                    LM 4,5,(6)
Mesquite (                    )                                             LM 5,6
Algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis)                                              LM 5,6
                        Tithonia diversifolia)                              LM 1, 2,3
Sesbania (Sesbania sesban)                                                  LM 1,2,3,4
Gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium)                                              LM 2,3,4
Leucaena diversifolia                                                       LM 2,3,4


Sources: Kenya National Crop Variety List, Kenya Plant Health Inspectorate Service (KEPHIS) 2003;
         Kenya Agricultural Research Institutes’ Annual Reports.




                                                                                                    63
64
3.      DISTRICT INFORMATION AND STATISTICS
3.1      GENERAL REMARKS TO THE LAND USE POTENTIALS AND FERTILIZER
         RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE DISTRICTS
The land use potentials given in the following pages are climatically based. Good husbandry, crop protection
and rotation are also essential, especially for combating diseases (for instance fungus in the wet climates)1)
and insect pests. The yield expectations given in the AEZ are only valid if these farm management standards
are optimal and the soils are suitable and well manured resp. fertilised.

It must be remembered that the classification of yield potentials in > 80 % = very good, 60–80 % = good,
40-60 % = fair and 20-40 % of the optimum = poor (under field conditions) is still a rough calculation or
even only an estimate (for those crops for which exact water requirements are not yet available).

The growing seasons and yield potentials are calculated for medium textured soils, if not otherwise stated.
For heavy soils they are roughly 1-2 decades longer (if the agro-humid period is not weak), on light soils
about one decade shorter.2) There are very good volcanic soils in this region but also very poor ones which
need considerable improvement. The soil maps and descriptions are derived from the district soil maps of the
Kenya Soil Survey in the Fertiliser Use Recommendation Project of the GTZ. The symbols are simplified to
make it easier for non-specialists to use them. An introduction is given to the soils of each district group.

The crop potentials are basically calculated by the computer program MARCROP (name from MARginal
CROPs) of Berthold Hornetz 3). The annual crops in the potentials are listed in the following order: cereals;
pulses; tubers; oil seed; real cash crops; fruits and vegetables4). The perennial crops are listed more or less
according to their importance. Detailed Tables for the (by computer simulation calculated) yield potentials
are prepared only for the marginal and semiarid zones near the fringe of rainfed cultivation (because of
limited funds, space and time). The calculation could not include cotton because there exists no specific
water requirement profile for the bimodal variety. The calculation of the growing periods for the subzones
and diagrams is done by the basically, more related program WATBAL (name from WATer BALance) of
B. Hornetz and H. Kutsch. As a more zonal climatic program, it does not consider the deep rooting of
specific crops. Therefore it can be possible, that even with a too short growing period a specific crop can yield
something due to deep roots still reaching moisture.

Some new crops are recommended, e.g. the early and very early maturing varieties of foxtail millet or
bambarra groundnuts, or the perennial drought resistant crops buffalo gourds and Marama beans5). The
information available about them is still limited but they may be suitable for drier areas beyond the limits of
reliable maize cultivation. Although these new crops may not fit into the present nutrition patterns, customs
will change due the population pressure on food supplies.

Very little information exists about pasture and forage apart from real rangeland (Pratt and Gwynne 1977)6).
The recommendations given are therefore only a very rough guide, and fodder cultivation depends on many
factors besides climate and soil. The main problems outside the largescale farming area and Maasailand
are overgrazing and soil erosion, which are destroying the means of livelihood of coming generations. The
livestock unit (LU) in our estimated stocking rates is 300 kg liveweight (a local bull or nine sheep or eleven
goats). This is for smallholders with partly indigenous cattle a more realistic figure nowadays than the
Standard Stock Unit (SSU) of 1000 lb (450 kg) introduced by the British. The LU corresponds to the
Tropical Livestock Unit (TLU) which means a local cow of the Tropics (250 kg).

Some remarks to the Fertiliser Recommendation Tables: The increase of yield by the two fertilising elements
Nitrogenium and Phosphorus is not sustainable. For such a productivity, for instance, every 1,000 kg of
maize need a replacement7) of 25 kg N (partly naturally: H2NO3 synthesis by lightning, N fixing nodulation
of rhizobias on beanroots), 4 kg P and 24 kg Potassium (K2CO3), additionally Calcium, Magnesium, and


                                                                                                                  65
     Micronutrients like Bor, Copper, Cobalt, Molybdenium and others. If in the tables these elements are
     not marked, it means they were not yet in deficit during the years of the experiments of the Fertiliser
     Use Recommendation Project of the GTZ and KSS 1987-92. But since this time, continuous cultivation
     without sufficient fertilising and manuring may have caused deficiencies.
     Cassava which is now spreading at the exhausted soils still needs for sustainability of yields per 10,000 kg7)
     30 kg N, 10 kg P, 70 kg K, 20 kg Ca and 10 kg Mg. Groundnuts are a demanding crop, 1,000 kg of
     unpeeled nuts need 60-70 kg N, 5-6 kg P, 40-50 kg K, 20-30 kg Ca and 8-17 kg Mg plus micronutrients.

     Higher fertiliser rates as recommended may become uneconomic, at least after some years, because enforced
     production by two fertilisers only brings the others more quickly to the yield limiting minimum content in
     the soil. Recycling of taken nutrients by any way (even excrements) is the final answer to achieve sustainable
     soil fertility for coming generations.

     1)
        Phytosanitary aspects could not be considered here, see special handbooks like that from IRACC mentioned below or the Crop
        Protection Handbook.
     2)
        Heavy soil means heavy loam, clay may have less available water for plants.
     3)
        Details see Hornetz, B., Shisanya, Chr. & Gitonga, N.: Crop water relationships and thermal adaptation of kathika beans
        (Phaseolus vulgaris) and green grams (Vigna radiata) with special regard to temporal patterns of potential growth in the drylands
        of SE-Kenya.- Journal of Arid Environments 48, 2001,
     4)
        It was impossible to list all vegetables which may be grown in each AEZ. Information about vegetables not mentioned may
        be found in Vol. V of the Handbook, or obtained from IRACC: Small Holder Farming. Handbook for Self Employment.-
        Marketing Support Services Ltd., Nairobi 1997.
     5)
        Buffalo gourds and Marama beans produce big tubers after some seasons. Bitter substances may be washed out by salty water.
         Seeds contain protein and oil but there is little or no flowering in the Inner Tropics. Marama beans see Nat. Academy of
         Sciences: Tropical Legumes. Washington, D.C. 1979; Buffalo gourds see Nat. Academy of Science: Underexploited Plants with
         Promising Economic Value. Washington 1975. New information is obtainable in the internet. Seeds may be ordered from the
         experimental stations: Very early mat. millet from Central Arid Zone Research Institute (C.A.Z.R.I.) in Jodhpur, India; buffalo
         gourds from University of Tuscon, USA; Marama beans from Botanical Garden in Windhoek, Namibia.
     6)
        Pratt, D.J. and Gwynne, M.D. (Eds.): Rangeland Management and Ecology in East Africa. London 1977.
     7)
        Figures by chemical analyzis of the crop, averages printed in international handbooks. They are approximates, depending on
        varieties too.




66
                                                                                     BUSIA & TESO           1



3.2       BUSIA AND TESO DISTRICTS GROUP

                                                TABLE OF CONTENTS                                       District Page

      3.2.1   Natural Potential                                                                               3
               Introduction                                                                                   3
               Average Annual Rainfall Map                                                                    4
               Table 1: Rainfall figures                                                                       5
               Table 2: Temperature Data                                                                      5
               66% Reliability of Rainfall of Firts Rainy Season                                              6
               66% Reliability of Rainfall of Middle Rains and Second Rainy Season . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
               Table 3: Average Potential Evapotranspiration                                                  8
               Table 4: Climate in the Agro-Ecological Zones                                                  8
               Agro-Ecological Zones and Subzones Map                                                         9
               Agro-Ecological Zones and Subzones (=Legend to the AEZ Map), with Land Use
               Potentials and Water Availability &Requirement Diagrams                                       10
               Busia and Teso Districts Soils Map                                                            14
               Soil Distribution, Fertility and Major Characteristics of Busia and Teso Districts            15

      3.2.2 Population and Land                                                                              19

               Busia District
               Table 5: Population in Busia District Per Division and Location                               19
               Table 6: Composition of Households in Busia District Per Division and Location                20
               Table 7: Available Land Area in Busia District per AEZ and Household                          20

               Teso District
               Table 8: Population in Teso District Per Division and Location                                21
               Table 9: Composition of Households in Teso District Per Division and Location                 22
               Table 10: Available Land Area in Teso District per AEZ and Household                          22

      3.2.3   Agricultural Statistics                                                                        23
               Development and Trends of Major Cash Crops in Busia District                                  23
               Table 11: Busia District Sugarcane Area, Production and Yield Trends                          23
               Development and Trends of Major Cash Crops in Teso District                                   23
               Table 12: Teso District Cotton Area, Production and Yield Trends                              23
               Distribution of Farming Activities During the Year Per Week and Agro-ecological Zones 24
               Tables 13 a-m: Farming Activities in the Agro-Ecological Zones                                24-29

      3.2.4   Farm Survey in Busia and Teso Districts                                                        31
               Table 14: Farm Survey Areas in Busia and Teso Districts                                       31
               Busia and Teso DistrictsFarm Survey Areas and Fertiliser Recommendations Map                  32
               Tables 15 a-h: Assets, Land Use, Farming Intensity and Inputs                                 33-39


                                                                                                                        67
     BUSIA & TESO             2


                   Tables 16 a-h: Cropping Pattern                                                                                          41-47

       3.2.5 Introduction to the Actual Land Use Systems and Potential Intensification
             by Better Farm Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49


                   Busia District
                   LM1 l^m i of the Lower Midland Sugarcane Zone                                                                            49
                   Tables 17 a-d: Increase of Yields by Better Farm Management                                                           50 - 56
                   LM2 l^(m/s) i of the Lower Midland Marginal Sugarcane Zone                                                               51
                   LM3 m/l^(s/sv) of the Lower Midland Cotton Zone                                                                          53
                   LM4 (m/s) + vu of the Lower Midland Marginal Cotton Zone                                                                 55


                   Teso District
                   LM1 l^m i of the Lower Midland Sugarcane Zone                                                                            57
                   Tables 17 e-h: Increase of Yields by Better Farm Management                                                           58 - 64
                   LM2 l^(m/s) i of the Marginal Sugarcane Zone                                                                             59
                   LM3 m/l^(s) of the Lower Midland Cotton Zone                                                                             61
                   LM3 m/l^(s) of the Lower Midland Cotton Zone                                                                             63

       3.2.6     Fertiliser and Manure Recommendations for Important Agro-Ecological Units                                                  65
                   Busia and Teso Districts Maps of Important Agro-Ecological Units                                                         66
                   Tables 18 a-h: Fertiliser and Manure Recommendations:                                                                67 - 74
                    LM1 p or two, UIG1 of the Sugarcane Zone                                                                                67
                    LM1 l^m i, UIS1 & UISA of the Sugarcane Zone                                                                            68
                    LM1 l^m i, UID1 of the Sugarcane Zone                                                                                   69
                    LM2 l^(m/s) i, UIGA1 of the Marginal Sugarcane Zone                                                                     70
                    LM3 m/l^(s) & m^(s or s/vs), UlIA & UlI1 of the Cotton Zone                                                             71
                    LM2 l/m^(s/m) & LM3 m/l^(s), PnG1 & UmG2 of the Marginal Cotton Zone                                                    72
                    LM4 (m/s) +(vu), SA2 with UlIA of the Marginal Sugarcane and Cotton Zone                                                74




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                                                                                                                 BUSIA & TESO                  3


3.2.1 NATURAL POTENTIAL

INTRODUCTION

The agro-ecological zonation of the Busia and Teso district group is typical for the districts around the
eastern part of Lake Victoria. The daily heating of the land causes raising of the air. The deficit near the
ground is filled by wind from the cooler lake carrying moisture inland. Rainstorms in the raising air
develop during the afternoon. This lifted air in high altitude streams back to the lake and drops already
near the shore. Falling air means dry air. Therefore the difference concerning rainfall between the lake shore
and the interior is 900 to 1500 mm when comparing the annual averages. Regarding the 66% reliability,
it is 400 to 900 mm in Budalangi and Funyula in Zone LM 4, during the first rainy season and from less
than 150 to 800 mm during the second rainy season, dropping again slightly in the northern parts.

In the wetter areas it is difficult to divide the seasons (see Diagram of Butula) because there is no clear gap
between them. If we write in zone LM 1 l^m this means that “a long cropping season is followed by a
medium one”, it is one possibility to divide the more or less continuing growing period provided that
second planting is intended to start in beginning of September. The planting may start earlier if fields are
already empty, or it starts later if crops of the first rainy season continue into the second rains. In the wetter
subzone of LM 1 this is usual, therefore “or two” is written to express the various possibilities of growing
cycles included.

Busia is the most westerly district of Kenya but no longer remote due to the tarmac roads from Kisumu
and Eldoret. There are large sugar cane zones to be developed1 and potential cotton areas.
The poor soils are the main problem, often underlain by hard-pans. There is need to grow commercail tree
species like Casuarina, Grevillea and Mangoes to help break the hard pans. Cassava, which is now very
common, should not be the only answer to the poor soil conditions. More legumes, for instance bambarra
groundnuts which grow on very poor soils and accumulate nitrogen, more cattle manure and compost are
essential. For the recycling of human sewage, use of filter matter from sugarcane factories as a way must be
found in future to fully utilise these alternatives.

Nematodes are a serious danger to bananas. There are important, well suited crops resistant to nematodes,
i.e. roselle of the herbiscus family. Striga (witchweed) is a problem for cereals. A chance to fight it is by more
ploughing in order to sow a trap crop (sorghum) and to plough it in with the ungerminated Striga plant.
Research has already come up with herbicide treated Imazarytil resistant (IR) maize and KSTP 94 that are resis-
tant to Striga. The best cereals that could be grown here without any problem are: finger millet varieties P224,
U15 and Gulu-E.

The differences in the annual average rainfall and in the 66% reliability of rainfall can also be seen in the
reliability of the duration of the growing periods (see Table 4): The Marginal Cotton Zone (LM 4) has
a growing period of 130 days and a very uncertain one. Only 45 days are fairly sure. The wetter subzone of
the Sugar Cane Zone (LM 1), however, has a growing period of 215 days or more followed by a 130 - 150
days period.

The annual average temperature is between 21.0° and 22.7°C. Humidity of the air is relatively high due to
the lake. The potential evapotranspiration is 1 800 - 2 030 mm per year for both districts.




1
    LM 1 and 2 on suitable soils, see J.P.Mbuui: A preliminary evaluation on the suitability of the area of Busia District for Sugar cane development.
    Kenya Soil Survey P. 18, Nairobi 1975.




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     BUSIA & TESO   4




70
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BUSIA and TESO Districts

TABLE 1: RAINFALL FIGURES
         from selected typical stations having at least 15 years of records
                                Agro Ecol.               Annual
                                                                                                                Monthly rainfall
    No. and       Name of       Zone&      Kind of       rainfall
                                                                                                                   in mm
    altitude      Station       Subzone records            mm
                                                                        J          F          M      A      M      J      J     A        S     O          N        D
8933026        Port Bunyala     LM 4        Average        947          48         59         134    191    136    48    33     48     47      68         90   44
1250 m         L. Viet. Cath. M. (m/s)+(vu) 66%1           830          14         40         115    162    120    40    22     36     37      55         70   30
8934030        Nangina          LM 3        Av.           1420          47         49         127    213    178    84    78    113    126      144    144      71
1219 m         Cath. Mission    m^(s)       66%1          1278          17         38         115    190    161    65    56     93    105      124    111      52
8934037        Lukoli           LM 2        Av.           1613          38         58         143    241    234   116    96    118    106      140    214      110
                                ^                 1
1225 m         Dispensary       lmi         66%           1473          12         11         103    179    130   101    73     41     88      126    133      57
8934039        Butula           LM 1        Av.           2016          65     126            159    290    315   177    124   178    169      164    146      108
                                                  1
1295 m         Cath. Mission    p or two    66%           1790          34         54         115    263    241   132    82    132    120      121    116      68
8934105        Busia, Farmers   LM 1 - 2    Av.           1690          62         79         141    267    236   111    68    128    151      164    173      80
1220 m         Training Centre l^m i        66%2          1585          32         37         100    205    132   100    54     49    105      120    125      50
8934110        KolanyaBoy‘s     LM 2        Av.           1522          60     121            156    202    219    98    121   134    132      124    137      59
                                    ^             2
1505 m         Sec. School      1/m (s/m)   66%           1360          25         50         110    155    121    83    90     60     95      98     105      40
8934111        Angorai          LM 3        Av.           1354          45         66         133    220    191    89    83    103     89      135    108      56
1501m          Chief‘s Centre   m/l^(s)     66%2          1220          18         25         90     165    105    75    60     35     70      102        85   39
8934116        Amukura          LM 2        Av.           1597          50         83         107    229    218   120    95    112    126      150    136      71
1262 m                          1^(m/s) i   66%2          1315          20         30         75     170    120   102    70     40     95      128    105      47
8934155        Amagoro          LM 3        Av.           1428          56         75         156    201    208   101    85    119     96      121    132      60
1220 m                          m/l^(s)     (14y.only)
8934156        Nambale          LM 1        Av.           1885          68         92         186    278    307   116    87    124    157      157    173      92
                                ^                 2
1190 m                          lmi         66%           1690          34         40         120    250    245   101    68     80    110      115    120      55
8934161        Alupe Cotton     LM 1        Av.           1901          69     105            190    297    292   111    99    156    169      158    179      87
                                ^                 2
1220 m         Research Stat.   lmi         66%           1700          35         42         125    260    250   100    75    105    125      120    120      53
8934191        Port Victoria    LM 4        Av.           1027          48         67         148    152    133    50    46     63     61      68         87   64
                                                  2
1240 m         Forest Station   (m/s)+(vu) 66%             900          15         48         130    120    118    40    31     48     45      55         68   47


1
2
    Estimate of this reliability by correlation, no detailed data available for enough years.



TABLE 2: TEMPERATURE DATA

    No. and         Name of                  Kind of                                               Temperature in°C                                 Belt
                                    AEZ1
    altitude        Station                  records        J       F        M          A M            J     J     A     S     O     N       D Yr. limits

            Busia Alupe        Mean max.                   30.0 30.4 30.0 28.7 27.9 27.4 27.2 27.7 27.0 29.1 28.4 29.3 28.6
                                                                                                                            1470 m
    8934161    Cotton          Mean temp.                  23.0 23.1 22.9 22.6 22.1 21.6 21.4 21.6 20.9 22.6 22.2 22.6 22.2
                          LM 1                                                                                               LM 2
    1220 m Research. Stn.
                               Mean min.                   15.9 15.7 15.7 16.5 16.3 15.8 15.6 15.5 14.7 16.0 15.9 15.8 15.8 1000 m
            (data - 1980)
                               Abs. min.                   10.6 8.5          8.5        9.0    9.0    8.0   6.3    6.7   7.2   6.2   7.5     7.8    6.2



1
    AEZ = Agro-ecological zone
2
    The upwarming of ca. 0.5°C since 1981 is considered in rising the limits.




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     BUSIA and TESO Districts
     TABLE 3: AVERAGE POTENTIAL EVAPOTRANSPIRATION
                                                               Average Potential Evapotranspiration ET0 in mm                           Av. Rainfall
                                               1
          No. and                          Type                                                                                         Year     %
          altitude   Name of Station       AEZ       J     F     M     A    M     J     J     A     S     O      N      D     Year       in       of
                                                                                                                                        mm       ET0

         8934161     Alupe Cotton          calc.     175 159 169 146 140 129 128 141 143 164 149 167 1811 1901 105%
         1220 m      Research Stn.         LM 1

         8934105     Busia Farm.          interp. 176 158 173 149 148 128 133 143 149 160 149 165 1831 1690                                      92%
         1220 m      Training C.          LM 1-2

         8934037     Lukoli               interp.    176 160 175 153 148 127 133 146 150 163 153 168 1853 1613                                   87%
         1225 m      Dispensary            LM 2

         8934030     Nangina Cath.        interp.    187 170 184 159 150 135 138 151 158 174 162 176 1944 1420                                   73%
         1219 m      Mission               LM 3

         8934111     Angorai              interp.    180 163 179 157 149 129 134 148 152 166 155 170 1883 1354                                   72%
         1501 m      Chief´s C.            LM 3

         8933026     Port Bunyala L. interp.         197 181 195 163 151 141 142 157 165 186 171 184 2033                               946      47%
         1250 m      Vict. Cath. M.   LM 4


     1
         Type of eruation: calc. = calculated by formula of Penman & McCulloch (1965) with albedo for green grass 0.2; interp. = interpolated from
         neighbouring stations, considering altitude and rainfall difference.
         AEZ = Agro-Ecol. Zone, explaining table see general part.




     TABLE 4: CLIMATE IN THE AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES
                                                                          66% reliability         60% reliability of cereal and
             Agro-                                    Ann. mean Ann. av.
                                         Altitude1                          of rainfall 2            legumes growing period
          Ecological       Subzone                   temperature rainfall
                                           in m
             Zone                                       in°C                                                 3
                                                                 in mm 1st rainy s. 2nd rainy s. 1st rainy s. 2nd rainy s. Total4
                                                                                  in mm        in mm          in days        in days          in days
     LM 1                 p or two                                   1800-2000   800-900      650-800     215 or more       130 - 150     345 - 365
     L. Midland
                                         1200-1440    22.2 – 21.0
     Sugar Cane
     Zone                 l^m i                                      1650-2000   750-900      550-750     195 or more       120 - 130     315 - 325

     LM 2                 l^(m/s)i                                   1550-1800   650-800      480-650     190 or more       110 - 120     300 - 310
     Marginal
                          l/m^(m/s)i 1200-1350        22.3 - 21.4    1450-1650   650-700      550-580     180 or more       105 - 120     285 - 300
     Sugar
     Cane Zone            l/m^(s/m)                                  1420-1450   600-650      460-480     170 or more       105 - 115     275 - 285
                          m/l^(s)                                    1200-1420   500-650      400-460      155 - 175        85 - 104      240 – 270
     LM 3
                          m^(s or
     L. Midland                          1140-1500    22.7 - 21-0 1200-1450      530-650      300-550      150 - 170         80 - 90      230 – 260
                          s/vs)
     Cotton Zone
                          m+(vs/s)                                   1100-1200   480-530      200-300      135 - 155         55 - 80

     LM 4
     Marginal             (m/s)+(vu) 1135-1200        22.7 – 22.3    900-1100    <400-480     100-220      115 - 135          <55
     Cotton Zone


     1
       If less than the potential, suited elevations towards the limits are lacking in the zone here.
     2
       Amounts surpassed normally in 10 of 15 years, falling during the agro-humid period which allows growing of
        most cultivated plants.
     3
       More if growing cycle of cultivated plants continues into the period of second rains.
     4
       Only added if rainfall continues at least for survival (>0.25 ET0) of most long term crops.



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                   75
     BUSIA & TESO        10


                    AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES AND SUBZONES
     LM         =   LOWER MIDLAND ZONES
     LM 1       =   Lo we r Mid la n d S u g a r C ane Zone
     LM 1       =   Lower Midland Sugar Cane Zone with permanent cropping possibilities, dividable in two
     p or two       variable cropping seasons.
                    Potential see Butere-Mumias District because main area is there.




     LM 1       = Lower Midland Sugar Cane Zone with a long cropping season followed by a medium one and
     l^m i        intermediate rains
                    Ve r y g o o d y i e l d p o t e n t i a l ( a v. > 8 0 % o f t h e o p t i m u m ) 1
                    1st rainy season, start norm. F. but reliable end of March: Early & med. mat. sorghum; m. mat.
                      potatoes, yam beans
                    Whole year , best planting time March: Pawpaws, guavas
                    G o o d y i e l d p o t e n t i a l ( a v. 6 0 - 8 0 % o f t h e o p t i m u m ) 1
                    1st rainy season: M. mat.maize H 622, 623 or 625 - 29 (60-70%) 2, late mat. sorghum like E 1291
                        yellow yams (F.-O./N.); sweet pepper, kales, Chinese cabbage, spinach, cabbage, chillies,
                        egg plants (to 2nd rainy season), pumpkins
                     nd
                    2 rainy season , start undistinctly end of Aug.: Maize H 513 & 515, m. mat. sorghum; e. mat.
                      Chinese cabbage, spinach, onions
                    Whole year: Sugar cane, bananas (nematodes danger) 3, tea in upper places (70-80%, but
                      medium to low quality), Robusta coffee 3, avocadoes, late mat. cassava




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                                                                                    BUSIA & TESO            11


                F a i r y i e l d p o t e n t i a l ( a v. 4 0 - 6 0 % o f t h e o p t i m u m ) 1
                1st rainy season: Cotton (med. quality)
                2nd
                    and late mat. bambarra groundnuts (in light soils, and even in poor ones); cabbage
                Whole year: Mangoes 4, taro, citrus 4
                Pasture and forage
                Around 0.5ha/LU on sec. pasture where originally there has been a moist submontane forest;
                down to 0.1 ha/LU feeding Napier (Bana) grass, banana leaves and Siratro (start of planting
                middle - end of Feb.: fair yields, start beginning - end of March: good yields).


LM 2        =   Ma rg i n a l S u g a r Ca n e Zone
LM 2        =   Marginal Sugar Cane Zone with a long cropping season followed by a (weak) medium to short
l^(m/s) i       one and intermediate rains

                Ve r y g o o d y i e l d p o t e n t i a l
                1st rainy season, start norm. mid. F. to b. of March: Early mat. sorghum like Serena (March

                    Black Hawk; sweet potatoes, onions, yam beans, e. mat. cassava
                Whole year: Pawpaws
                Good yield potential
                1st rainy season: M. mat. maize like H 623 2
                    millet; m. mat. beans 5 like Cuarentino, pigeon peas (March-F.), late mat. rosette resistant
                    groundnuts like Mwitunde (in light soils); cotton (med. quality); sweet pepper, tomatoes,
                    cabbages, kales roselle
                2nd rainy season , start Aug.: Bulrush millet, m. mat. sorghum, ratoon sorghum (S.-Aug.); e. mat.
                    beans like Rosecoco (GLP 2), green grams; onions, kales, tomatoes
                Whole year: Bananas (nematodes danger) 3, pineapples, sisal
                Fair yield potential
                1st rainy season: rice, bambarra nuts (in light soils, even in poor ones), cowpeas; tobacco
                2nd rainy season: Maize H 513 & 515; pigeon peas (Sep.-July), cowpeas, m. mat. groundnuts like
                    Serere 116; sweet potatoes; simsim; cabbages; cotton (July-Feb.) 6
                    HS 345
                Whole year: Sugar cane (on less suitable soils marginal), Robusta coffee, citrus, mangoes

                Pasture and forage
                0.5-0.7 ha/LU on high grass savanna with Hyparrhenia and Panicum dominating; down to about
                0.15 ha/LU feeding Napier (Bana) grass and banana leaves. Siratro and Desmodium for soil and
                pasture improvement, Leucaena additionally.

LM 2        =    Marginal Sugar Cane Zone with a long to medium cropping season followed by a (weak)short
l/m^             to medium one and intermediate rains
(s/m) i
                Small and transitional. Crop potential like LM 2 l^(m/s) i but m. mat. sorghum in 2nd rainy
                season and bananas only fair, maize H 513 & 515 in 2nd rainy season and sugar cane (also on
                good soils) only marginal. Ratooning or late mat. sorghum from 1st to 2nd rainy season good.
                Stocking rates ~10% less

LM 3        =   Lo we r Mid la n d Co t to n Z one
LM 3        =   Lower Midland Cotton Zone with a medium to long cropping season followed by a (weak) short
m/l^(s)         one and intermediate rains
                Potential similar to the next subzone but a little bit better.




                                                                                                                    77
     BUSIA & TESO         12




     LM 3      =    Lower Midland Cotton Zone with a medium cropping season followed by a (weak) short or
     m^(s or        short to very short one
     s/vs)          (see Diagram Nangina)
                    Good yield potential
                    1st rainy season, start norm. begin of March: M. mat. maize like H 511, 513 or 515 (~60%), e.
                        mat. Sorghum like Serena (70-80%), e. mat. millets; m. mat. beans, green grams, cowpeas,
                        groundnuts (in light soils); simsim7; sweet potatoes; cotton, e. mat. soya beans like Hawk,

                       castor8; tomatoes, onions, muskmelons.
                     nd
                    2 rainy season, start norm. e. of Aug.: Simsim, green grams, tomatoes
                    Whole year, best pl. time March: Cassava (~60%), sisal
                    Near swamps with water regulation resp. add. irrigation: rice, bananas (on dams), Chinese
                    cabbage (on ridges) and other vegetables.
                    Fair yield potential
                    1st
                        tobacco (on sandy soil, higher places); yam beans
                    2nd rainy season: E. mat. maize like PH 1 or PH 4, early mat. proso millet (O.-N.), ratoon of
                        sorghum, dwarf sorghum, e. mat. bulrush millet (bird rejecting awned var. best); Katheka
                        beans, e. mat. bambarra groundnuts (in light soils, also in poor ones); sweet potatoes in
                        swampy places; cotton (July-F., ~40%)6
                    Whole year: Pawpaws, mangoes, citrus, pineapples
                    Poor yield potential (av 20-40% of the optimum)1
                    2nd rainy season: Medium. mat. maize




78
                                                                                                                BUSIA & TESO                   13


                          Pasture and forage
                          0.7-1.0 ha/LU on mixed savanna with star grass (Cynodon dactylon); down to about 0.18 ha/
                          LU feeding Napier grass, Bana; Desmodium or Stylosanthes for fodder resp. soil improvement,
                          Leucaena additionally
    LM 3            =     Lower Midland Cotton Zone with a medium and a (weak) very short to short cropping
    m + (vs/s)            season
                          Good yield potential
                          1st rainy season like LM 3 m^(s/vs) except cotton, maize H 511, 513 & 515, m. mat. sorghum
                          (60-70%)
                          Whole year: Sisal
                          Fair yield potential
                          1st
                          2nd rainy season, start norm. Sept.: V.e. mat. foxtail millet, dwarf sorghum(~40%); green
                              grams, simsim; sweet potatoes near water
                          Whole year: Cassava
                          Pasture and forage
                          0.9-1.2 ha/LU, ~0.25 ha/LU feeding Bana grass and Stylosanthes, some Leucaena

    LM 4            =     Ma rg i n a l Co tt o n Zo ne
    LM 4            =     Marginal Cotton Zone with a (weak) medium to short cropping season and a very uncertain
    (m/s)+(vu)            weak second rainy season
                          Good yield potential
                          1st rainy season, start norm. mid March: E. mat. sorghum like Serena (~60%), e. mat. foxtail
                              or proso millet (60-70%); e. mat. beans like Katheka (~60%), green grams, cowpeas, chick

                          Whole year: Sisal
                          Near swamps: Like LM 3
                          Fair yield potential
                          1st rainy season: E. mat. maize like PH 1 or PH 4 (40-50%), e. mat. bulrush millet; grain

                            and e. mat. bambarra groundnuts (both in light soils); tomatoes, onions; sweet potatoes
                            near water
                          Whole year: Cassava, mangoes
                          Poor yield potential
                          1st rainy season: Cotton, m. mat. maize
                          2nd rainy season: Simsim
                          Pasture and forage
                          1-2 ha/LU; Leucaena, Saltbush (Atriplex nummularia) and other palatable shrubs to plant in
                          order to improve fodder situation during dry season.




1
  All these percentages are climatical, assumed that the place has suitable soil and is well fertilized and manured.
2
  Spreaded planting dates are advised in order to minimize the risk of wilting during dry spells in February and stress by early stopping of rains end
of June, the time of maximum water need when early planted. Other suitable varieties see crop list.
3
  Windbreaks against the daily winds from the lake, light shade and mulching or compost are necessary to re-establish the former forest eco-system,
otherwise bananas and coffee grow poorly. Hardpan soils should be avoided.
4
  Danger of Fungus disease
5
  Should be intercropped with maize because of higher yields and minimizing occasionally hail storm damage.
6
  Although nearly marginal, cotton is mainly planted in 2nd rainy season because of more labour availability. It can be interplanted in maize already
during July.
7
  Planting towards the end of the long rainy season.
8
  Good for rotation because of its resistance against Striga and nematodes



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80
                                                                                   BUSIA & TESO           15


SOIL DISTRIBUTION, FERTILITY AND MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS OF BUSIA AND
TESO DISTRICTS

The districts are characterized by undulating terrain with higher lands intersected by numerous valleys. The
main river is the Sio which drains into Lake Victoria. Rock exposures are common between Bunyala and Sio
and consist of Precambrian gneisses and granites. The majority of the soils are moderately deep (soil depth
50-80 cm to murram or parent materials) and have a low fertility.

Soils on the hills are shallow (units HG and Hl 1). They are generally rocky and/or stony. Soils of the up-
lands (units UmG, Ul) have a low natural fertility, in most of both districts they are moderately deep.

On the uplands, soils of unit UmG 1 also occur with a little higher natural fertility than soils of the unit
UmG 2. The topsoils of these units vary, but in general they are darker in the higher areas because of a higher
humus content.

In the flood plains soils of unit BXC and VXC occur, complexes of agriculturally unsuitable and suitable
soils. They may additionally include soils which show great differences in texture and fertility depending on
depth.

Very dark cracking clay soils occur in the neighbouring plains around the Yala swamp (unit SA 2). In the
swamp, soils tend to have a very high (unit AA 1) to moderately high organic matter content; sandy soils,
having developed on beach ridges, occur along the Lake (ZA 1). All these soils are agriculturally difficult.


LEGEND TO THE SOIL MAP OF BUSIA AND TESO DISTRICTS

1.      Explanation of the first character (physiography)

H       Hills and Minor Scarps (hilly to steep; slopes predominantly over 16%; relief intensity up to 100
        (Minor Scarps) to 300 m (Hills) altitudes difference per km)

F       Footslopes (at the foot of Hills and Mountains; gently undulating to rolling; slopes between 2 and
        16%; various altitudes)

U       Uplands

Um      Lower Middle-Level Uplands (gently undulating to undulating; slopes between 2 and 8%;
        altitudes between 1200 and 2200 m)

Ul      Lower-Level Uplands (very undulating to undulating; slopes between 2 and 8%; altitudes be-
        tween 1200 and 2100 m)

P       Plains

Pn      Non-Dissected Erosional Plains (very gently undulating to undulating; slopes between 0 and 8%;
        various altitudes; seasonally flooded or ponded)

A       Floodplains and River Terraces (almost flat to gently undulating; slopes between 0 and 5%; vari-
        ous altitudes; seasonally flooded or ponded)

B       Bottomlands (flat to gently undulating; slopes between 0 and 5%; various altitudes; seasonally
        ponded)


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     BUSIA & TESO         16


     S       Swamps (almost flat; slopes between 0 and 2%; various altitudes; permanently waterlogged if not
             reclaimed)

     V       Minor Valleys (V or U-shaped valleys; slopes mainly up to 16%, exceptionally up to 30%; width
             mainly 250-500 m, up to about 1000 m; various altitudes)

     Z       Lake-side Beach Ridges (very gently undulating; slopes between 2 and 5%; altitude approximately
             1200 m; along Lake Victoria)


     2.      Explanation of second character (lithology)

     A       Recent Alluvial Sediments from various sources
     D       Mudstones and Claystones
     G       Granites and Granodiorites
     I       Intermediate Igneous Rocks (andesites, phonolites, syenites, etc.)
     S       Sandstones, Grits and Arkoses
     X       Undifferentiated or various Rocks


     3.      Soil description

     HGC     Complex of:
             Somewhat excessively drained, shallow, stony and rocky soils of varying colour, consistency and
             texture: Dystric REGOSOLS and RANKERS, with ferralic and humic CAMBISOLS, lithic,
             rocky and stony phases, LITHOSOLS and Rock Outcrops

     HI1     Somewhat excessively drained, very shallow to shallow, yellowish red to dark reddish brown, stony
             and rocky, gravely clay loam to sandy clay; in places moderately deep: LITHOSOLS, stony phase,
             with dystric REGOSOLS and CAMBISOLS, lithic, stony and rocky phases

     FG2     Well drained, moderately deep to deep, dark yellowish brown, friable sandy clay; in many places
             with an acidic humic topsoil, rocky and/or stony: Dystric and humic CAMBISOLS, stony and
             rocky phases

     FI2     Well drained, shallow to moderately deep, dark red to dark yellowish brown, friable, gravely clay
             loam to clay; in places stony and rocky; in places over petroplinthite: Ferralic CAMBISOLS, lithic
             or petroferric phase, partly stony phase and LITHOSOLS; with Rock outcrops

     UmG1 Well drained, deep, reddish brown, friable, gravely sandy clay to clay, with an acid humic topsoil:
          Humic ACRISOLS, with humic CAMBISOLS

     UmG2 Well drained, deep, dark yellowish brown to dark brown, friable sandy clay to loam ; in places
          gravely in deeper subsoil: Ferralo-orthic ACRISOLS

     UmG6 Well drained, shallow to moderately deep, dark yellowish brown, friable sandy clay:
          Orthic ACRISOLS

     UlD1    Well drained, moderately deep to very deep, dark red to strong brown, friable clay; in many places
             shallow over petroplinthite: Chromic and orthic ACRISOLS and rhodic FERRALSOLS, partly
             petroferric phases, and dystric phases, with dystric NITISOLS




82
                                                                                   BUSIA & TESO           17


UlG1    Well drained, deep to very deep, yellowish red to strong brown, friable clay; in places moderately
        deep, over petroplinthite or rock; in places rocky: Orthic ACRISOLS; with Rock Outcrops

UlG3    Well drained, shallow to moderately deep, dark yellowish brown to strong brown, friable sandy
        clay; over petroplinthite; or rock; in places very shallow, stony or rocky: Orthic and ferralo-orthic
        ACRISOLS, petroferric and partly stony phase, with LITHOSOLS and Rock Outcrops

UlGA1 Association of:
      well drained, deep to very deep, dark yellowish brown to strong brown, friable clay loam to clay;
      in places with an acidic humic top soil; in places stony; on straight side slopes (50%):
      Orthic ACRISOLS, with humic ACRISOLS, partly stony phases
      and:
      Well drained, shallow to moderately deep, dark yellowish brown to brown, friable sandy clay
      loam; over petroplinthite; in places excessively drained and sandy; on interfluves, convex slopes
      and near fringes to bottomlands (50%):
      (Ferralo-)orthic ACRISOLS, petroferric phase, with ferralic ARENOSOLS

UlI1    Well drained, deep, red to dark red, friable clay; in places (mainly on interfluves) shallow to mod-
        erately deep over petroplinthite: Chromic ACRISOLS, partly petroferric phase

UlIA    Association of:
        Well drained, deep, strong brown to dark brown, friable clay; on side slopes (50%):
        Orthic ACRISOLS
        and:
        Well drained, shallow to moderately deep, yellowish red to dark redish brown, friable, gravely
        sandy clay to clay; over petroplinthite; in places stony or rocky; on interfluves (50%): Orthic
        ACRISOLS and dystric and ferralic CAMBISOLS, petroferric and partly stony phases; with Rock
        Outcrops

UlS1    Well drained, moderately deep to deep, dark reddish brown to strong brown sandy clay loam to
        clay, over petroplinthite; in places shallow: Orthic ACRISOLS, with orthic FERRALSOLS, partly
        petroferric phase

UlSA    Association of:
        Well drained, shallow to moderately deep, dark reddish brown to yellowish red, friable sandy clay
        loam to clay; over petroplinthite; on interfluves (60%): Orthic ACRISOLS with dystric
        CAMBISOLS, petroferric phases
        and:
        Imperfectly drained, moderately deep, dark yellowish brown to reddish brown, mottled, friable
        sandy clay; over petroplinthite; in places shallow; on slopes and fringes to bottomlands (40%):
        Gleyic ACRISOLS and dystric GLEYSOLS

PnG1 Imperfectly drained, deep to very deep, dark brown to dark greyish brown, mottled, friable to
     firm clay: Gleyic ACRISOLS and dystric GLEYSOLS

AA1     Well to moderately well drained, deep, dark greyish brown to yellowish brown, friable, stratified,
        sandy clay loam to clay; in places mottled, firm clay; in places slightly saline or sodic; on river le-
        vees eutric FLUVISOLS, with vertic FLUVISOLS and vertic and eutric GLEYSOLS, partly
        saline sodic phases




                                                                                                                 83
     BUSIA & TESO           18


     AA2     Imperfectly to poorly drained, deep, greyish brown to very dark grey, mottled, very firm, saline
             and sodic, cracking clay; in river backswamps: Pellic VERTISOLS and vertic GLEYSOLS, saline
             and sodic phases

     BXC1 Complex of:
          Imperfectly to poorly drained, deep to deep, very dark grey to brown, mottled, firm to very firm,
          sandy clay to cracking clay, in many places abruptly underlying a topsoil of friable sandy loam to
          sandy loam; in places saline and sodic: Dystric PLANOSOLS, dystric and vertic GLEYSOLS and
          pellic VERTISOLS; partly saline-sodic phases

     SA2     Very poorly drained, very deep, dark grey to black, half ripe clay, with an acidic humic or dystric
             histic topsoil; in many places peaty: Humic GLEYSOLS and dystric HISTOSOLS

     SAC1 Complex of:
          Imperfectly to poorly drained, deep to very deep, greyish brown to very dark grey and black, mot-
          tled, firm to very firm clay to cracking clay; in places with a saline and sodic subsoil: Eutric
          GLEYSOLS and pellic VERTISOLS, partly saline-sodic phase
          and:
          Very poorly drained, deep, dark grey to black, half ripe clay, with a humic or histic topsoil; in
          many places peaty: Mollic GLEYSOLS and dystric HISTOSOLS

     VXC     Complex of:
             Well drained, shallow to deep soils of varying colour, consistency and texture (on valley sides):
             CAMBISOLS, ACRISOLS and FERRALSOLS, partly lithic phases, with Rock Outcrops
             and:
             Imperfectly to poorly drained, deep, mottled soils with predominantly greyish colours, firm
             consistence and fine textures (in valley bottoms)

     ZA1     Well drained, very deep, brown to dark yellowish brown, loose, sand to loamy sand, with inclu-
             sions of imperfectly drained, greyish brown, friable to firm sandy loam to sandy clay of varying
             salinity and sodicity: Cambic ARENOSOLS, with gleyic SOLONCHAKS, partly sodic phase.




             NOTES for definitions (of underlined words):
             mollic Nitisols and chromo-luvic Phaeozems: soils are equally important
             mollic Nitisols, with chromic-luvic Phaeozems: Nitisols are prevalent
             in places: in < 30% of the area
             in many places: in 30-50% of the area
             predominantly: in > 50% of the area
             deeper subsoil: below 80 cm




84
                                                                                  BUSIA & TESO         19


3.2.2 POPULATION AND LAND

BUSIA DISTRICT
                                                                                                            2
Population of Busia District in the 1999 census was 370,608 people residing in an area of 1,124.3 km
                                                                                                2
(Table 5). An estimated 27 km2 of this is under water. Agricultural land was estimated at 924 km (92,400
ha), representing 82.2% of the total land area. Most of the district lies within the AEZs LM 1 and LM 2
which are suitable for sugar cane growing (Table 7).
                                                                       2
The population density of the district in 1999 was 330 persons per km ranging from 280 persons in Fun-
yula to 389 persons in Butula Division. The available agricultural land per person has diminished consider-
ably since 1979. It was 2.75 ha per household of 4.9 persons in 1979, compared to 1.1 ha per household of
4.5 persons in 1999, which translates to 0.25 ha per person (Tables 6&7).

The estimate for 2005 is 432,000 people, it means 0.18 ha per person. This trend continuously exerts pres-
sure on already exhausted soils. How can people survive under such an exhausted soil resource? This requires
urgent intensification in the use of manure and fertilisers to improve the productivity of the land.

TABLE 5: POPULATION IN BUSIA DISTRICT PER DIVISION AND LOCATION
         (Source: Census 1999)

DIVISION/LOCATION                Male        Female          Total Area in km2        Density
BUSIA TOWNSHIP                  12,268        12,890        25,158         22.2         1,133
MATAYOS                         25,954        29,232        55,186       173.7            318
Bukhayo West                    10,978        12,324        23,302         72.1           323
Busibwabo                        3,712         4,200         7,912         32.5           243
Nasewa                           3,524         4,072         7,596         22.7           335
Lwanya                           3,160         3,611         6,771         18.2           372
Nangoma                          4,580         5,025         9,605         28.2           341
NAMBALE                         32,269        35,275        67,544       232.5            291
Bukhayo North                    3,533         3,811         7,344         26.2           280
Walatsi                          3,688         3,980         7,668         35.1           218
Bukhayo East                     7,896         8,688        16,584         58.2           285
Bukhayo Central                  6,491         7,412        13,903         47.4           293
Namable township                10,661        11,384        22,045         65.6           336
BUTULA                          43,929        51,560        95,489       245.2            389
Bumala                           3,575         4,302         7,877         15.1           522
Bujumba                          6,841         8,087        14,928         37.6           397
Marachi Central                 10,893        12,919        23,811         57.7           413
Elugulu                          6,636         7,824        14,460         41.9           345
Elukhari                         4,589         5,236         9,825         25.8           381
Marachi East                    11,395        13,193        24,588         67.1           366
FUNYULA                         34,610        39,265        73,875        264.2           280
Nambuku                          4,316         5,093         9,409           32           294
Namboboto                        5,993         6,599        12,592         37.3           338
Odiado                           3,500         4,133         7,633         21.9           349
Nangosia                         4,031         4,808         8,839         26.6           332
Agenga                           5,257         6,002        11,259           45           250
Nanguba                          4,472         4,982         9,454         38.4           246
Bwiri                            7,041         7,648        14,689           63           233
BUDALANGI                       25,338        28,018        53,356        186.5           286
Bunyala West                     6,145         6,517        12,662         14.9           850
Bunyala North                    4,975         5,542        10,517         27.7           380
Bunyala East                     5,189         5,749        10,938         42.1           260
Bunyala Central                  3,852         4,581         8,433         46.9           180
Khajula                          2,695         3,134         5,829         18.3           319
Bunyala South                    2,482         2,495         4,977         36.6           136
BUSIA DISTRICT                 174,368       196,240       370,608     1,124.3            330



                                                                                                                85
     BUSIA & TESO     20


     TABLE 6: COMPOSITION OF HOUSEHOLDS IN BUSIA DISTRICT PER DIVISION AND
              LOCATION (Source: Census 1999)

                                     Households           Family                Relatives & Persons per
     DIVISION/LOCATION
                                        total      >15years    < 15years          others     household
     TOWNSHIP DIVISION                  5,992        1.7          1.5               0.8         4.0
     Township                           5,992        1.7          1.5               0.8         4.0
     MATAYOS DIVISION                  11,727        1.9          1.8               1.0         4.7
     Bukhayo West                      4,939         1.9          1.8               1.0         4.7
     Busibwabo                          1,616        1.9          2.0               1.0         4.9
     Nasewa                             1,601        1.9          1.9               0.9         4.7
     Lwanya                             1,441        1.9          1.8               1.0         4.7
     Nangoma                            2,130        1.9          1.7               0.9         4.5
     NAMBALE DIVISION                  13,572        2.0          2.0               0.8         4.8
     Bukhayo North                      1,472        2.1          2.1               0.8         5.0
     Walatsi                            1,502        2.0          2.2               0.9         5.1
     Bukhayo East                       3,339        2.0          2.0               0.9         4.9
     Bukhayo Central                    2,888        1.9          2.0               0.8         4.7
     Nambale Township                  4,371         2.0          1.9               0.9         4.8
     BUTULA DIVISION                   21,425        1.8          1.7               0.9         4.4
     Bumala                             1,940        1.7          1.4               0.9         4.0
     Bujumba                            3,422        1.8          1.6               1.0         4.4
     Marachi Central                    5,429        1.8          1.6               1.0         4.4
     Elugulu                           3,185         1.8          1.7               1.0         4.5
     Elukhari                           2,207        1.8          1.8               0.8         4.4
     Marachi East                       5,242        1.9          1.9               0.9         4.7
     FUNYULA DIVISION                  15,673        1.9          1.6               1.2         4.7
     Nambuku                            1,956        1.9          1.6               1.1         4.8
     Namboboto                          2,659        2.0          1.6               1.1         4.7
     Odiado                             1,623        1.9          1.8               0.9         4.6
     Nangosia                           1,819        1.9          1.6               1.2         4.7
     Agenga                             2,450        1.9          1.6               1.1         4.6
     Nanguba                            2,049        1.9          1.5               1.2         4.6
     Bwiri                              3,117        2.0          1.7               1.0         4.7
     BUDALANGI DIVISION                12,677        1.8          1.3               1.0         4.1
     Bunyala West                       2,965        1.8          1.4               0.9         4.1
     Bunyala North                      2,265        2.0          1.5               1.1         4.6
     Bunyala East                       2,503        1.9          1.2               1.1         4.2
     Bunyala Central                   2,227         1.8          1.1               0.9         3.8
     Khajula                            1,461        1.8          1.1               1.1         4.0
     Bunyala South                      1,256        1.8          1.1               1.1         4.0
     BUSIA DISTRICT                    81,066        1.9          1.7               0.9         4.5

     TABLE 7: AVAILABLE LAND AREA IN BUSIA DISTRICT PER AEZ AND HOUSEHOLD
              (Source: Calculated from DAO’s Annual Reports)

                                 in ’00 ha = km2                    in ’00 ha = km2              in ha
                       Non-agricultural land                             Area in              Agricultural
                                                              agro-ecological zones (total)    land per
     DIVISION                 Forest   Others    Agricultural
                  Unsuitable reserve,  (roads,
                    steep     lakes, homesteads,
                                                    land      LM 1 LM 2 LM 3 LM 4 House- Person
                                                                                          hold
                   slopes    swamps    rivers)
     NAMBALE                   44.00    10.00        174      182.40 45.60                1.28 0.27
     MATAYOS                            14.00        151       99.00 66.00                1.29 0.27
     BUTULA                             16.00        249      251.75 13.25                1.16 0.26
     FUNYULA          48        6.20     8.80        210             25.60 204.80 24.60 1.34   0.28
     BUDALANGI        50      135.00    15.00        112                    76.80 115.20 0.09  0.22
     TOTAL AREA     98.00     185.20    63.80      896.00     533.15 150.45 281.60 139.80 1.11 0.25




86
                                                                                 BUSIA & TESO          21


TESO DISTRICT

During the 1999 population census, the population of Teso District was 181,491 persons who resided in
                     2
an area of 559.1 km of land (Table 8). Agricultural land that supports crop and livestock production is 441
    2                                 2
km (44,100 ha). Over 88% (338 km ) of this land lies within the AEZs LM 1 and LM 2 that are mostly
                                                                                        2
suitable for sugarcane growing. Population density in 1999 stood at 325 persons per km as opposed to 159
in 1979, reflecting an increase of 104% (Table 8).

Agricultural land available per household of 4.5 persons (Table 9) stood at 1.16 ha and this translates into
0.25 ha of land per person (Table 10). The estimate for 2005 is 210,750 people, it means 0.18 ha per person,
which is an extremely low figure for any economic production of the land!

TABLE 8: POPULATION IN TESO DISTRICT PER DIVISION AND LOCATION
         (Source: Census 1999)

DIVISION/LOCATION             Male         Female        Total    Area in km2      Density
ANGURAI                        21,423         23,078       44,501       145.60           306
Kakapel                         3,002          3,317        6,319        21.60           293
Angurai                         3,628          4,021        7,649        25.60           299
Moding                          4,419          4,638        9,057        30.00           302
Chemasiri                       1,874          2,031        3,905        12.80           305
Changara                        2,562          2,622        5,184        13.50           384
Kolanya                         1,454          1,691        3,145        10.10           311
Katakwa                         2,459          2,586        5,045        14.80           341
Aboloi                          2,025          2,172        4,197        17.20           244
AMAGORO                        16,751         17,203       33,954        91.70           370
Amoni                           2,388          2,459        4,847         9.50           510
Akadeyewai                      3,786          3,534        7,320         3.70         1,978
Kamuriai                        1,153          1,241        2,394         7.90           303
Osajai                          1,938          2,019        3,957        14.90           266
Okuleu                          1,615          1,720        3,335        15.00           222
Kocholia                        2,160          2,356        4,516        15.50           291
Kokare                          1,479          1,537        3,016        13.40           225
Amagoro                         2,232          2,337        4,569        11.80           387
AMUKURA                        23,183         24,884       48,067       181.90           264
Akoreet                         2,428          2,624        5,052        23.20           218
Aremit                          2,919          3,070        5,989        18.40           325
Amukura                         2,238          2,249        4,487        12.90           348
Kamolo                          2,732          2,962        5,694        22.00           259
Kotur                           1,636          1,802        3,438        15.80           218
Kwangamur                       2,852          3,116        5,968         26.2           228
Kaujakito                       4,373          4,798        9,171         32.2           281
Kaliwa                          4,005          4,263        8,268         30.8           268
CHAKOL                          2,659         28,400       54,969        139.9           393
Amongura                        3,762          3,738        7,500         25.2           298
Asinge                          3,588          3,749        7,337         29.5           249
Apegei                          2,823          3,251        6,074         18.9           321
Okame                           3,337          3,644        6,981         18.3           381
Ochude                          3,483          3,873        7,356         26.2           281
Angorom                         9,576         10,145       19,721         21.8           905
TESO DISTRICT                  87,926         93,565      181,491        559.1           325




                                                                                                               87
     BUSIA & TESO     22


     TABLE 9: COMPOSITION OF HOUSEHOLDS IN TESO DISTRICT PER DIVISION AND
              LOCATION (Source: Census 1999)

                                        Households            Family                 Relatives & Persons per
     DIVISION/LOCATION                                 >15 years  < 15years
                                           total                                       others    Household
     ANGURAI                               8,645          2.2        2.1                 0.8         5.1
     Kakapel                               1,276          2.1        2.1                 0.8         5.0
     Angurai                              1,537           2.1        2.0                 0.8         4.9
     Moding                                1,735          2.2        2.2                 0.8         5.2
     Chemasiri                              733           2.2        2.1                 1.0         5.3
     Changara                              1,010          2.2        2.2                 0.7         5.1
     Kolanya                                579           2.2        2.1                 0.9         5.2
     Katakwa                                986           2.2        2.0                 0.9         5.1
     Aboloi                                 789           2.2        2.3                 0.8         5.3
     AMAGORO                               7,536          1.9        1.7                 0.8         4.4
     Amoni                                 1,184          1.9        1.5                 0.7         4.1
     Akadetewai                            1,931          1.6        1.2                 0.7         3.5
     Kamuriai                               454           2.3        2.1                 0.9         5.3
     Osajai                                 767           2.2        2.2                 0.8         5.2
     Okuleu                                 668           2.1        2.3                 0.6         5.0
     Kocholia                               874           2.1        2.0                 1.0         5.1
     Kokare                                 603           2.1        2.1                 0.8         5.0
     Amagoro                               1,055          1.9        1.7                 0.7         4.3
     AMUKURA                              10,091          2.0        2.0                 0.7         4.7
     Akoreet                               1,164          1.9        1.8                 0.6         4.3
     Aremit                                1,310          2.0        1.9                 0.7         4.6
     Amukura                                921           2.0        1.8                 0.9         4.7
     Kamolo                                1,164          2.2        2.0                 0.7         4.9
     Kotur                                  679           2.1        2.1                 0.9         5.1
     Kwangamur                             1,211          2.0        2.1                 0.8         4.9
     Kaujakito                             1,945          2.0        2.0                 0.7         4.7
     Kaliwa                                1,697          2.0        2.1                 0.8         4.9
     CHAKOL                               11,805          1.9        1.8                 0.9         4.6
     Amongura                              1,506          2.1        2.1                 0.8         5.0
     Asinge                                1,614          1.9        1.8                 0.8         4.5
     Apegei                                1,324          1.9        1.9                 0.8         4.6
     Okame                                 1,380          2.0        2.0                 0.9         4.9
     Ochude                                1,499          2.0        2.1                 0.8         4.9
     Angorom                               4,482          1.8        1.6                 1.1         4.3
     TESO DISTRICT                        38,031          2.0        1.9                 0.8         4.7




     TABLE 10: AVAILABLE LAND AREA IN TESO DISTRICT PER AEZ AND HOUSEHOLD
               Census 1999

                                       in ha                          in ’00 ha = km2                in ha
                                                                           Area in                Agricultural
                        Non-agricultural land
                                                                agro-ecological zones (total)      land per
     DIVISION                 Forest   Others    Agricultural
                  Unsuitable reserve,   (roads,      land                                       House-
                     steep    lakes, homesteads,                LM 1       LM 2       LM 3       hold    Person
                    slopes   swamps     rivers)
     AMAGORO       1,293.00   183.20    414.40     7,310.30                 43          49       0.97     0.22
     AMUKURA       2,487.60   350.80    797.30    14,064.30       22        153          2       1.39     0.30
     ANGURAI       2,094.00   295.70    671.20    11,839.50                  85         64       1.38     0.27
     CHAKOL        1,925.40   271.50    617.10    10,885.90      81          53                  0.99     0.21
     TOTAL AREA    7,800.00 1,101.20   2,500.00    44,099.0      103        337        115       1.16     0.25




88
                                                                                  BUSIA & TESO           23


3.2.3 AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS:
Development and Trends of Major Cash Crops in Busia District
The agricultural potential in the district lies in the LM 1 and LM 2 (sugarcane zones) and LM 3 (cotton
zone) that covers approximately 89,600 ha. Smallholder farmers cultivate sugarcane on 5,540 ha only be-
cause of increasing land shortage for food crops and poor market opportunities for sugarcane, this is a third
of the acreage levels 15 years ago that stood at 17,000 ha. The yields average 80 mt per hectare, that is more
than double compared to 20 years ago. The area planted with cotton has reduced considerably from 27,000
ha in the 1980s to approximately 3,500 ha over the last five years, even if we add the cotton area in Teso
district since 1995 (see Table 12).

TABLE 11: BUSIA DISTRICT SUGARCANE AREA, PRODUCTION AND YIELD TRENDS
(Source: DAO’s Annual Reports)
 Year
                                               Area                 Production                        Yield
 (until 1995, Teso district                      ha                       tons                      tons/ha
 included)
 1980/81                                      8,497                     319,500                          38
 1981/82                                     11,345                     309,700                          27
 1982/83                                     12,000                     310,800                          26
 1983/84                                     15,530                     319,900                          21
 1984/85                                     14,154                     945,900                          67
 1986/87                                     18,356                   1,340,100                          72
 1987/88                                     15,697                   1,142,700                          73
 1988/89                                     17,136                   1,456,500                          85
 1989/90                                     15,392                   1,231,300                          80
 1990/91                                     15,030                   1,196,400                          80
 1991/92                                     13,055                     979,100                          75
 1992/93                                     12,794                    1,024,00                          80
 1993/94                                     10,284                     822,700                          80
 1994/95                                      7,184                     574,700                          80
 1996/97                                      7,380                     627,300                          85
 1997/98                                      7,500                     637,500                          85
 1998/99                                      8,000                     640,000                          80
 1999/00                                      7,950                     675,800                          85
 2000/01                                      7,967                     637,400                          80
 2001/02                                      7,010                     560,800                          80
 2002/03                                      6,930                     561,300                          81


TESO DISTRICT AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS:
Development and Trends of Major Cash Crops
Teso district was created in 1995 from the larger original Busia district. The agricultural potential in the
district comprise the LM 1 and LM 2 (sugarcane zones, 440 km2) and LM 3 (cotton zone). But 378 ha only
were cultivated with sugarcane. The reason is the same as for the low acreage of cotton. In the last decade,
cotton production has declined from 1,980 ha in 1995/96 to 600 ha in 2002/2003 because of land short-
age for food crops and low returns to the farmers due to poor marketing strategies. Yields have however
remained constant at an average of 650 kg/ha of seed cotton.
TABLE 12: TESO DISTRICT COTTON AREA, PRODUCTION AND YIELD TRENDS
(Source: DAO’s Annual Reports)
 Year                                         Area                  Production                        Yield
 (district created in 1995)                      ha                       tons                        kg/ha
 1995/96                                      1,980                      1,188                          600
 1996/97                                      1,800                      1,170                          650
 1997/98                                      1,710                        975                          570
 1998/99                                      1,507                      1,055                          700
 1999/00                                      1,500                      1,065                          710



                                                                                                                 89
     BUSIA & TESO   24


     DISTRIBUTION OF FARMING ACTIVITIES DURING THE YEAR PER WEEK AND
     AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES




90
BUSIA & TESO   25




                    91
     BUSIA & TESO   26




92
BUSIA & TESO   27




                    93
     BUSIA & TESO   28




94
BUSIA & TESO   29




                    95
     BUSIA & TESO   30




96
                                                                                      BUSIA & TESO            31



3.2.4 FARM SURVEY IN BUSIA AND TESO DISTRICTS

The Farm Survey (FS 2004) was carried out in eight sites covering the AEZs (LM 1 – 4) with different
Subzones (Table 14). The size of the farms included in the survey ranged between 1 ha and 9 ha. This can
be compared to the overall farm size in Busia and Teso districts of 1.6 ha and 1.3 ha (Table V), respectively.
The reduced proportion of pasture and fallow land (< 30%) indicates that land is increasingly becoming
scarce in these districts. The first Farm Survey 1977 recorded still averages of 7.3 ha in LM 1 and 4.7 ha in
LM 2 & 3 per farm.

The stocking rate of 0.8 – 5.1 LU/ha reflects the high rainfall in these districts. Only between 5-10% of
the cattle are improved dairy stocks. Sheep and goats play a less important role among the grazing livestock
units (Table 15). The farmers grow a variety of crops in any one given season and use comparatively minimal
amounts of crop management inputs (Table 15). Maize growing dominates the farming enterprise (Table
16). It is usually intercropped with a legume (e.g. beans, cowpeas and soyabeans). The low maize yields re-
ported in these districts, i.e. less than 1 t/ha in a season, are a reflection of insufficient usage of manure and
different fertilisers to improve the nutrient-depleted soils. In 1977 the average maize yields were 3.8 t/ha in
LM 1 and 2.5 t/ha in LM 2-3 with inputs of 2 kg N/ha and 15 resp. 8 kg P2O5 /ha. In 2004 10 kg N/ha
and 5 kg P2O5 /ha were given and the result is about a third only! Nitrogen is just pushing the growth, high
yields need many macro- and micronutrients plus insecticides. Farmers must go into ways of recycling the
nutrients, and they need small credits to buy additional fertilisers and insecticides. Only the farmers with
high inputs incl. 5 t of manure/ha (Table 17) get almost the same yields as in 1977 which means sustain-
ability. The soils of the Lower Midlands (LM) are not fertile, but by selecting suitable crops, which demand
fewer nutrients like sweet potatoes, cassava, Napier grass, etc., high and reliable yields can be achieved here
as well, which would go a long way to ensure food security. Infact, the growing of cassava should be en-
couraged as an insurance against food insecurity at the household level. There is great potential in the two
districts for increased food production if farmers are correctly advised to increase the application of fertilizers
on the farms.




TABLE 14: FARM SURVEY AREAS IN BUSIA AND TESO DISTRICTS

District     No. in            Agro-Ecological Unit           Farm Survey Area
             Kenya      AEZone      Subzone       Soil Unit
                                    ^
BUSIA          1        LM 1        lmi           UlS 1       Busia Township Division, Mayenje Sub-location
                                    ^
              2         LM 2        l (m/s) i     U1SA        Matayos Division, Esikulu Sub-location
              3         LM 3        m^(s/vs)      UlIl        Funyula Division, Bukiri Sub-location
              4         LM 4        (m/s) + (vu) SA2          Budalangi Division, Bulemi Sub-location
TESO          5         LM 1        l^m i         BXC         Amukura Division, Akobwait Sub-location
                                    ^
              6         LM 2        l (m/s) i     U1G3        Amukura Division, Amukura Sub-location
                                        ^
              7         LM 3        m/l (s)       PnGl        Amagoro Division, Kamolo Sub-location
                                        ^
              8         LM 3        m/l (s)       UmG2        Angurai Division, Katelepai Sub-location




                                                                                                                      97
     BUSIA & TESO   32




98
                                                                                                      BUSIA & TESO           33



TABLE 15a: ASSETS, LAND USE, FARMING INTENSITY AND INPUTS IN AEZ LM 1 OF
           BUSIA DISTRICT

Subzone: l^m i, Soil Unit: UlS 1                                                                     Survey area 01 (Mayenje)
                                              Assets                                                People on farm
                                            Livestock Numbers
Range          Land                                                                 Family  Casual          Number of children
                ha                               Sheep &                            Adults Labourers          under 14 years
                            Dairy        Zebu             Poultry           Pigs
                                                   Goats
Avg.0          2.71           1.2        2.63       2.7    45.43            0.93      5.5          1.03              4.23
Avg.1          2.71            4         4.94      4.76    52.42            3.5       5.5          1.94              4.54
Up. Qu.        3.26          2.25        5.25      4.25      50               1      7.25            2                 6
Lo. Qu.        1.66            0           0         0      5.25             0       2.75            0                 3

                                                                 Land Use
                    Ann. Crops            Perm. Crops          Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops           Fallow     Other Use
Range
                        ha                    ha                              ha                            ha          ha
Avg.0                  1.36                  0.13                            0.38                          0.06        0.84
Avg.1                  1.36                  0.15                            0.50                           0.8        0.97
Up. Qu.                1.65                   0.2                             0.4                            0         1.01
Lo. Qu.                0.66                  0.05                              0                             0         0.15

                                            Farming Diversity & Stocking Intensity
                                                                  Stocking Rate
           Cropping                       Farm Land                   Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops
                                                                                                       Improved Cattle
Range       Diversity                      TLU/ha                                 TLU/ha
                                                                                                       % of total cattle
           Crops/year           Total                                   Total
                                                Dairy         Zebu                Dairy       Zebu
                                TLU                                      TLU
Avg.0             7.3            1.5             0.5           1.0       11.3      3.5          7.0          24.8
Avg.1             7.3             -              1.2           1.8        -        7.0         10.4          61.3
Up. Qu.            9              -              0.8           1.6        -        5.6         11.7          24.7
Lo. Qu.            6              -               0             0         -         -            -            0
TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit is a KARI derived factor loading for animals stock in the tropics e.g. dairy = 1.1,
     local breeds = 1.0, cross breeds = 1.05, sheep = 0.11, goats = 0.09. Hence, sheep & goats mixed = 0.1

                                                               Inputs Applied
                                 Fertilizer applied as pure nutrient
                                                                                                          Plant protection
            Improved                            kg/ha                           Manure applied
Range       seed %                                                                  t/ha             Insecticide      Fungicide
                                     N                 P2O5          K2O
            of area                                                                                     kg/ha           kg/ha
                              AC         PC      AC       PC       AC    PC        AC       PC       AC      PC      AC     PC
Avg.0          17.91          14.4       30.4    15.4     32.4      -     -        1.6      16.4     0.05 0.52       0.05 0.53
Avg.1          31.60          28.9       52.8    30.8     56.2      -     -        2.3      21.3     1.48 13.47      0.76 6.90
Up. Qu.        20.18          12.9       21.2    12.9     21.2      -     -        0.4      3.4       0       0       0       0
Lo. Qu.          0             0          0       0        0        -     -         0        0        0       0       0       0

NOTES:
Avg.0                   = average of all sample farms
Avg.1                   = average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. Qu.         = Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
AC                      = Annual crops
PC                      = Perennial crops




                                                                                                                                  99
      BUSIA & TESO             34



      TABLE 15b: ASSETS, LAND USE, FARMING INTENSITY AND INPUTS IN AEZ LM 2 OF
                 BUSIA DISTRICT

      Subzone: l^(m/s) i, Soil Unit: UlSA 1                                                             Survey area 02 (Esikulu)
                                              Assets                                                People on farm
                                            Livestock Numbers                                                             Number of
      Range        Land                                                             Family  Casual   Permanent             children
                    ha                             Sheep &                          Adults Labourers Labourers              under
                              Dairy      Zebu                    Poultry    Pigs
                                                    Goats                                                                  14 years
      Avg.0        1.18       0.03       2.37         0.9          11.5     0.53     4.07        4.27           0.07         3.67
      Avg.1        1.18         1        3.94        3.86         12.32      2       4.07        9.14             2          3.79
      Up. Qu.      1.6          0          3          0.5         15.25      1       5.25        4.25             0            5
      Lo. Qu.      0.38         0          0           0           3.75      0        2           0              0           1.75

                                                                   Land Use
                          Ann. Crops        Perm. Crops          Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops           Fallow     Other Use
       Range
                              ha                ha                              ha                            ha          ha
       Avg.0                 0.82               0.0                            0.06                          0.22        0.32
       Avg.1                 0.82               0.1                            0.33                          0.09        0.42
       Up. Qu.               0.85                0                               0                             0         0.53
       Lo. Qu.               0.29                0                               0                             0           0

                                                 Farming Diversity & Stocking Intensity
                                                          Stocking Rate
                 Cropping                   Farm Land         Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops
                                                                                               Improved Cattle
       Range      Diversity                  TLU/ha                       TLU/ha
                                                                                               % of total cattle
                 Crops/year       Total                         Total
                                              Dairy   Zebu                Dairy       Zebu
                                  TLU                            TLU
       Avg.0            4.4        2.1         0.03    2.0       45.2      0.7         43.0          1.25
       Avg.1            4.6         -           0.9    3.4        -        3.3         12.0           25
       Up. Qu.          5.3         -            0     1.9        -         -           -             0
       Lo. Qu.           4          -            0      0         -         -           -             0
      TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit is a KARI derived factor loading for animals stock in the tropics e.g. dairy = 1.1,
           local breeds = 1.0, cross breeds = 1.05, sheep = 0.11, goats = 0.09. Hence, sheep & goats mixed = 0.1

                                                                  Inputs Applied
                                      Fertilizer applied as pure nutrient
                                                                                                             Plant protection
                  Improved                           kg/ha                         Manure applied
       Range      seed %                                                               t/ha             Insecticide    Fungicide
                                        N             P2O5            K2O
                  of area                                                                                   kg/ha         kg/ha
                                 AC         PC     AC       PC      AC     PC       AC      PC          AC      PC     AC     PC
       Avg.0         4.47        7.9         -      9.1      -       -      -       4.3      -          0.02      -     0       0
       Avg.1         22.34       25.5        -     26.5      -       -      -       7.8      -          0.49      -     0       0
       Up. Qu.         0          2.9        -      4.1      -       -      -       1.2      -            0       -     0       0
       Lo. Qu.         0           0         -     0.0       -       -      -        0                    0       -     0       0

      NOTES:
      Avg.0                     = average of all sample farms
      Avg.1                     = average of farms, excluding zero entries
      Up. Qu./Lo. Qu.           = Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
      AC                        = Annual crops
      PC                        = Perennial crops




100
                                                                                                 BUSIA & TESO                35



  TABLE 15c: ASSETS, LAND USE, FARMING INTENSITY AND INPUTS IN AEZ LM 3 OF
             BUSIA DISTRICT

  Subzone: m/l^(s or s/vs), Soil Unit: UlI 1                                                      Survey area 03 (Bukiri)
                                                 Assets                                               People on farm
                                              Livestock Numbers                                                    Number of
Range      Land                                Sheep                                           Family   Casual      children
            ha                                                           B/                    Adults Labourers      under
                Dairy Cross              Zebu    &      Poultry Rabbits                 Pigs
                                                                        hives                                       14 years
                                               Goats
Avg.0        2.28     0.13     0.03      2.57    2.7      7.9    0.33    0.3            0.07     3       3.4          2.07
Avg.1        2.28      4        1         7     4.26     13.94    5      4.5             1       3       4.25         4.77
Up. Qu.      3.24      0        0         4       5       15      0       0              0       4        5             1
Lo. Qu.      1.28      0        0         0       0        0      0       0              0       2        1             0

                                                                   Land Use
                      Ann. Crops         Perm. Crops         Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops        Fallow       Other Use
   Range
                          ha                 ha                             ha                         ha            ha
   Avg.0                 1.42               0.21                           0.55                       0.06          0.09
   Avg.1                 1.42               0.39                           0.57                         -           0.30
   Up. Qu.               1.93               0.25                            0.9                         -           0.16
   Lo. Qu.               0.8                  0                            0.16                       0.32            0

                                                 Farming Diversity & Stocking Intensity
                                                              Stocking Rate
           Cropping                       Farm Land               Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops
                                                                                                   Improved Cattle
   Range    Diversity                      TLU/ha                               TLU/ha
                                                                                                   % of total cattle
           Crops/year Total                                         Total
                                         Dairy Cross        Zebu            Dairy   Cross   Zebu
                      TLU                                           TLU
   Avg.0       7.5     1.3                0.06     0.02      1.1     5.5     0.3     0.06     4.7        0.59
   Avg.1       7.5      -                 1.93     0.5       3.1       -     7.7     1.8     12.3        6.55
   Up. Qu.      9       -                  0        0        1.4      --      0        0     4.4          0
   Lo. Qu.     6.8      -                  0        0         0        -      0        0       0           0
  TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit is a KARI derived factor loading for animals stock in the tropics e.g. dairy = 1.1,
  local breeds = 1.0, cross breeds = 1.05, sheep = 0.11, goats = 0.09.

                                                                 Inputs Applied
                                 Fertilizer applied as pure nutrient
                                                                                                      Plant protection
               Improved                         kg/ha                         Manure applied
   Range       seed %                                                             t/ha           Insecticide      Fungicide
                                     N              P2O5            K2O
               of area                                                                              kg/ha            kg/ha
                              AC         PC      AC       PC      AC    PC        AC    PC       AC      PC      AC      PC
   Avg.0             7.9      1.2        8.1     12.2     80.9     -     -        0.2   1.6       0       0      0.43     2.9
   Avg.1            23.8      36.5        -      73.0      -       -     -        0.4   1.3       0       0      0.65     2.3
   Up. Qu.          23.3       0          0       0        0       -     -        0.2   1.4       0       0      0.52      4
   Lo. Qu.            0        0          -       0        -       -     -         0     -        0       0        0       -

  NOTES:
  Avg.0                      = average of all sample farms
  Avg.1                      = average of farms, excluding zero entries
  Up. Qu./Lo. Qu.            = Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
  AC                         = Annual crops
  PC                         = Perennial crops




                                                                                                                                  101
      BUSIA & TESO                 36


      TABLE 15d: ASSETS, LAND USE, FARMING INTENSITY AND INPUTS IN AEZ LM 4 OF
                 BUSIA DISTRICT

      Subzone: (m/s) + (vu), Soil Units: SA 2 & UlIA                                                  Survey area 04 (Bulemia)
                                                       Assets                                          People on farm
                                                     Livestock Numbers
      Range                                                                                                            Number of
                   Land                               Sheep                                Family      Casual
                                                                        B/                                           children under
                    ha           Dairy      Zebu        &     Poultry             Pigs     Adults     Labourers
                                                                       hives                                            14 years
                                                      Goats
      Avg.0         2.61           0        4.27        2.3     5.47   0.13       0.57      7.47         0.43              6
      Avg.1         2.61           0        9.14       4.06    10.93     4        5.67      7.47          2.6             6.21
      Up. Qu.        2.6           0        3.25       4.25    10.25     0          0         8            0                7
      Lo. Qu.         1            0          0          0        0      0          0         4            0                2

                                                                     Land Use
                          Ann. Crops            Perm. Crops        Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops         Fallow      Other Use
      Range
                              ha                    ha                            ha                          ha           ha
      Avg.0                  1.55                  0.06                          0.38                        0.06         0.64
      Avg.1                  1.55                  0.14                          1.15                        0.6          1.13
      Up. Qu.                1.6                   0.08                          0.25                        0.27          0.4
      Lo. Qu.                0.7                     0                            0.3                         0             0

                                                     Farming Diversity & Stocking Intensity
                                                            Stocking Rate
                 Cropping                    Farm Land          Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops
                                                                                                                 Improved Cattle
      Range       Diversity                   TLU/ha                        TLU/ha
                                                                                                                 % of total cattle
                 Crops/year            Total                     Total
                                                Dairy  Zebu               Dairy        Zebu
                                       TLU                       TLU
      Avg.0             4.2             1.7      0      1.7        -        0           11.2                             0
      Avg.1             4.2             3.6      0      3.5        -        0            8.0                             -
      Up. Qu.            5              1.4      0      1.3        -        0            13                              0
      Lo. Qu.            3                       0       0         -         -            -                              0
      TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit is a KARI derived factor loading for animals stock in the tropics e.g. dairy = 1.1,
          local breeds = 1.0, cross breeds = 1.05, sheep = 0.11, goats = 0.09.

                                                                 Inputs Applied
                                        Fertilizer applied as pure nutrient
                                                                                                            Plant protection
                  Improved                             kg/ha                      Manure applied
      Range       seed %                                                              t/ha             Insecticide      Fungicide
                                            N             P2O5          K2O
                  of area                                                                                 kg/ha            kg/ha
                                       AC       PC     AC     PC      AC    PC      AC        PC       AC      PC       AC     PC
      Avg.0             13.0            0        0      0      0       -     -      0.1       3.0       0       0        0       0
      Avg.1             32.4            0        0      0      0       -     -      0.9       9.9       0       0        0       0
      Up. Qu.           19.2            0        0      0      0       -     -       0         0        0       0        0       0
      Lo. Qu.            0              0        0      0      0       -     -       0         -        0       0        0       0

      NOTES:
      Avg.0                   = average of all sample farms
      Avg.1                   = average of farms, excluding zero entries
      Up. Qu./Lo. Qu.         = Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
      AC                      = Annual crops
      PC                      = Perennial crops




102
                                                                                                        BUSIA & TESO            37



TABLE 15e: ASSETS, LAND USE, FARMING INTENSITY AND INPUTS IN AEZ LM 1 OF
           TESO DISTRICT

Subzone: l^m i, Soil Units: BXC & UlS 1                                                               Survey area 05 (Amukura)
                                         Assets                                                    People on farm
                                      Livestock Numbers                                                                Number of
Range        Land                           Sheep                         Family           Casual   Permanent           children
              ha          Dairy      Zebu     &   Poultry        Pigs     Adults          Labourers Labourers            under
                                            Goats                                                                       14 years
Avg.0         2.11         0.27       3.2     3.1   9.23         0.17        5.17           2.07           0.07           4.03
Avg.1         2.11         2.67      5.33    4.65  17.31         2.5         5.17           4.43             2            4.48
Up. Qu.       3.3            0         4     4.25   22.5           0           7              3              0              6
Lo. Qu.        1            0          0       0     0            0           2               0             0               2

                                                               Land Use
                    Ann. Crops           Perm. Crops       Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops                 Fallow      Other Use
Range
                        ha                   ha                           ha                                  ha           ha
Avg.0                  1.03                 0.11                         0.56                                0.22         0.26
Avg.1                  1.03                 0.11                         0.65                                0.22         0.23
Up. Qu.                1.11                  0.1                         1.53                                0.23         0.33
Lo. Qu.                0.6                    0                            0                                 0.03          0.1

                                               Farming Diversity & Stocking Intensity
                                                       Stocking Rate
           Cropping                     Farm Land          Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops
                                                                                                                  Improved Cattle
Range       Diversity                    TLU/ha                        TLU/ha
                                                                                                                  % of total cattle
           Crops/year             Total                     Total
                                           Dairy  Zebu               Dairy        Zebu
                                  TLU                       TLU
Avg.0             5.2              1.7     0.14    1.5      8.10      1.67         6.54                                 7.8
Avg.1             5.2               -       1.4    2.5        -       0.17        10.91                                 77.8
Up. Qu.           6.3               -        0     1.2        -         -          4.32                                  0
Lo. Qu.            4                -        0      0         -         -            -                                   0
TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit is a KARI derived factor loading for animals stock in the tropics e.g. dairy = 1.1,
    local breeds = 1.0, cross breeds = 1.05, sheep = 0.11, goats = 0.09.

                                                           Inputs Applied
                                  Fertilizer applied as pure nutrient
                                                                                                            Plant protection
            Improved                             kg/ha                         Manure applied
Range       seed %                                                                 t/ha                Insecticide      Fungicide
                                     N              P2O5          K2O
            of area                                                                                        kg/ha           kg/ha
                               AC        PC      AC     PC      AC      PC          AC        PC       AC      PC      AC      PC
Avg.0             6.59         3.9       6.8     5.0    8.5      -       -          0.4       3.4      0.17 1.51       0.16 1.36
Avg.1             19.8         9.6       17      10.0   17.6     -       -          0.7       5.9      0.87 7.57       0.94 8.17
Up. Qu.            6.2         9.0       20      9.0     20      -       -          0.4       4.8        0       0      0        0
Lo. Qu.             0           0         -       0       -      -       -           0         -         0       -       0       -

NOTES:
Avg.0                   = average of all sample farms
Avg.1                   = average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. Qu.         = Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
AC                      = Annual crops
PC                      = Perennial crops




                                                                                                                                      103
      BUSIA & TESO              38



      TABLE 15f: ASSETS, LAND USE, FARMING INTENSITY AND INPUTS IN AEZ LM 2 OF
                 TESO DISTRICT

      Subzone: l^(m/s) i, Soil Unit: UlG 3                                                         Survey area 06 (Akobwait)
                                                 Assets                                             People on farm
                                               Livestock Numbers
      Range                                                                                                          Number of
                   Land                                                                   Family     Casual
                                                     Sheep                                                         children under
                    ha         Dairy        Zebu            Poultry          Pigs         Adults    Labourers
                                                    & Goats                                                           14 years
      Avg.0         2.61       0.27         4.07      2.27        25.47      0.93          4.73         0.9             2.97
      Avg.1         2.61        8            6.1      3.24        27.29        2           4.73        2.25             3.42
      Up. Qu.       3.38        0           6.25      4.25          40         2             6         1.25              4
      Lo. Qu.        1.4        0             0        0           4.75        0             3           0              1.75

                                                                  Land Use
                          Ann. Crops         Perm. Crops      Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops           Fallow       Other Use
      Range
                              ha                 ha                          ha                            ha            ha
      Avg.0                  1.11               0.38                        0.49                          0.47          0.16
      Avg.1                  1.11               0.67                        1.12                          0.70          0.23
      Up. Qu.                1.4                0.64                         0.4                          0.74           0.2
      Lo. Qu.                0.6                  0                           0                             0             0

                                               Farming Diversity & Stocking Intensity
                                             Stocking Rate
              Cropping         Farm Land         Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops
                                                                                                              Improved Cattle
      Range    Diversity        TLU/ha                        TLU/ha
                                                                                                              % of total cattle
              Crops/year Total                     Total
                                  Dairy   Zebu              Dairy        Zebu
                           TLU                     TLU
      Avg.0   5.6        1.8     0.1     1.6     9.4      0.6        8.4                                      6.22
      Avg.1   5.6        -       3.4     2.3     -        7.8        12.4                                     72.73
      Up. Qu. 7          -       0       1.9     -        0          15.6                                     0
      Lo. Qu. 4          -       0       0       -        -          -                                        0
      TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit is a KARI derived factor loading for animals stock in the tropics e.g. dairy = 1.1,
          local breeds = 1.0, cross breeds = 1.05, sheep = 0.11, goats = 0.09.

                                                              Inputs Applied
                                      Fertilizer applied as pure nutrient
                                                                                                         Plant protection
                  Improved                           kg/ha                      Manure applied
      Range       seed %                                                            t/ha             Insecticide      Fungicide
                                        N             P2O5           K2O
                  of area                                                                               kg/ha            kg/ha
                                 AC         PC     AC      PC      AC     PC        AC       PC      AC      PC       AC     PC
      Avg.0             22.7     5.4        15.8   5.2     15.2     -      -        1.2      3.6      0       0       0.1     0.3
      Avg.1             52.5     13.5       22.3   13.0    21.6     -      -        2.5      4.1      0       0       1.4     2.2
      Up. Qu.           30.1     7.1        15.6   7.1     15.6     -      -        1.2      2.6      0       0        0       0
      Lo. Qu.            0        0          -      0       -       -      -         0        -       0       0        0       -

      NOTES:
      Avg.0                = average of all sample farms
      Avg.1                = average of farms, excluding zero entries
      Up. Qu./Lo. Qu.      = Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
      AC                   = Annual crops
      PC                   = Perennial crops




104
                                                                                                  BUSIA & TESO               39



TABLE 15g: ASSETS, LAND USE, FARMING INTENSITY AND INPUTS IN AEZ LM 3 OF
           TESO DISTRICT

Subzone: m/l^(s), Soil Unit: UmG 2                                                                Survey area 07 (Kamolo)
                                              Assets                                             People on farm
                                            Livestock Numbers
Range                                                                                                              Number of
             Land                                                                       Family    Casual
                                                   Sheep                                                         children under
              ha           Dairy         Zebu             Poultry       B/hives         Adults   Labourers
                                                  & Goats                                                           14 years
Avg.0         2.60          0.23         2.33       2.47        24.8      0.27           5.53       4.63              3.93
Avg.1         2.60          2.33         3.68       4.11       28.62      2.67           5.53       8.18              4.21
Up. Qu.       3.76           0             4         4         31.75       0              7         7.5                5
Lo. Qu.       1.38           0             0         0          7.75       0              3           0                 2

                                                               Land Use
                    Ann. Crops           Perm. Crops         Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops         Fallow        Other Use
Range
                        ha                   ha                             ha                          ha             ha
Avg.0                  1.12                 0.11                           0.26                        0.97           0.14
Avg.1                  1.12                 0.15                           0.30                        1.53           0.18
Up. Qu.                1.43                 0.16                           0.34                         1.6           0.23
Lo. Qu.                0.8                  0.01                            0.1                        0.43           0.04

                                              Farming Diversity & Stocking Intensity
                                                     Stocking Rate
           Cropping                   Farm Land          Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops
                                                                                                            Improved Cattle
Range       Diversity                  TLU/ha                        TLU/ha
                                                                                                            % of total cattle
           Crops/year           Total                     Total
                                         Dairy  Zebu               Dairy        Zebu
                                TLU                       TLU
Avg.0             6.1            1.1      0.1    0.9      10.7       1.0         8.8                               8.65
Avg.1             6.1             -       1.0    1.4        -        8.4         12.1                              66.67
Up. Qu.            8              -        0     1.2        -         0          11.8                                0
Lo. Qu.            5              -        0      0         -         0           0                                  0
TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit is a KARI derived factor loading for animals stock in the tropics e.g. dairy = 1.1,
    local breeds = 1.0, cross breeds = 1.05, sheep = 0.11, goats = 0.09.

                                                           Inputs Applied
                                   Fertilizer applied as pure nutrient
                                                                                                       Plant protection
            Improved                              kg/ha                      Manure applied
Range       seed %                                                               t/ha             Insecticide       Fungicide
                                     N             P2O5           K2O
            of area                                                                                   kg/ha            kg/ha
                              AC         PC     AC      PC      AC     PC        AC        PC     AC      PC        AC     PC
Avg.0             27.2        13.5        -     19.5     0       -      -        0.14      1.4    0.06     0.6      0.6     5.5
Avg.1             32.7        19.3        -     26.7     0       -      -         0.3      2.1     0.6     4.5      1.1     8.4
Up. Qu.           37.3         14         -     28.1     0       -      -        0.2       2.1      0       0       0.7     6.5
Lo. Qu.           11.9         0          -      0       0       -      -          0        0       0       0        0       0

NOTES:
Avg.0                   = average of all sample farms
Avg.1                   = average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. Qu.         = Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
AC                      = Annual crops
PC                      = Perennial crops




                                                                                                                                  105
        BUSIA & TESO              40


        TABLE 15h: ASSETS, LAND USE, FARMING INTENSITY AND INPUTS IN AEZ LM 3 OF
                  BUSIA DISTRICT

        Subzone: m/l^(s), Soil Unit: PnG 1                                                          Survey area 08 (Katalepai)
                                                     Assets                                          People on farm
                                                  Livestock Numbers                                               Number of
      Range      Land                        Sheep                                            Family   Casual      children
                  ha                                                               Fish ponds Adults Labourers      under
                      Dairy        Zebu        &    Poultry Pigs Rabbits
                                             Goats                                                                 14 years
      Avg.0        2.98       0      3.5      2.8    12.93   0.33   0.17               80      4.33     0.1          4.37
      Avg.1        2.98       0     5.83       4     13.86   1.67    5                2400     4.33      1           4.52
      Up. Qu.        4        0     6.25       5       20      0      0                 0        6       0             6
      Lo. Qu.      1.75       0       0        0        5      0      0                 0        3       0             2

                                                                    Land Use
                            Ann. Crops       Perm. Crops        Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops          Fallow       Other Use
         Range
                                ha               ha                            ha                           ha            ha
         Avg.0                 1.70             0.07                          1.02                         0.11          0.08
         Avg.1                 1.70             0.17                          1.21                         0.53          0.28
         Up. Qu.               1.98              0.1                          1.49                         0.33           0.1
         Lo. Qu.                0.9               0                            0.2                           0             0

                                                   Farming Diversity & Stocking Intensity
                                                             Stocking Rate
                     Cropping                 Farm Land         Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops
                                                                                                                 Improved Cattle
         Range        Diversity                TLU/ha                       TLU/ha
                                                                                                                 % of total cattle
                     Crops/year         Total                    Total
                                                Dairy   Zebu               Dairy        Zebu
                                        TLU                      TLU
         Avg.0             5.9           1.3      0      1.2      3.7        0           3.4                               0
         Avg.1             5.9            -       0      2.0       -         0           5.0                               0
         Up. Qu.           6.3            -       0      1.6       -         0           4.2                               0
         Lo. Qu.            5             -       0       0        -         0            0                                0
        TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit is a KARI derived factor loading for animals stock in the tropics e.g. dairy = 1.1,
             local breeds = 1.0, cross breeds = 1.05, sheep = 0.11, goats = 0.09.

                                                                  Inputs Applied
                                       Fertilizer applied as pure nutrient
                                                                                                           Plant protection
                     Improved                         kg/ha                      Manure applied
         Range       seed %                                                          t/ha            Insecticide      Fungicide
                                         N             P2O5              K2O
                     of area                                                                             kg/ha           kg/ha
                                   AC        PC       AC   PC      AC      PC      AC       PC       AC      PC       AC     PC
         Avg.0            38.52    11         -       14    -       -       -      0.09     1.99     0.02 0.45         0       0
         Avg.1            72.22    33         -       30    -       -       -      0.33     3.23     0.29 2.89         0       0
         Up. Qu.          21.58     5         -       10    -               -      0.04     0.72       0       0       0       0
         Lo. Qu.            0       0         -        0    -        -      -       0         -       0        -       0       0

        NOTES:
        Avg.0                     = average of all sample farms
        Avg.1                     = average of farms, excluding zero entries
        Up. Qu./Lo. Qu.           = Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
        AC                        = Annual crops
        PC                        = Perennial crops




106
                                                                                           BUSIA & TESO              41



TABLE 16a: CROPPING PATTERN IN AEZ LM 1 OF BUSIA DISTRICT
Subzone: l^m i, Soil Unit: UlS 1                       Survey area 01 (Mayenje)
                                             First Rainy Season
                                          Annual & Bi-annual Crops
                                    Average          Average          Upper           Lower         Total Sample Area
Crops                                  0                1            Quartile        Quartile          of 30 farms
                                      ha               ha               ha             ha             ha          %
Beans                                0.02             0.18               0              0             0.7        1.81
Cassava                              0.29             0.45              0.4             0             8.6       22.22
Cotton                               0.07             1.05               0              0             2.1        5.43
Maize                                0.11             0.49             0.05             0             3.4       8.79
Maize & beans                        0.59             0.71              0.8            0.2           17.7       45.74
Maize & soyabeans                    0.03              0.4               0              0             0.8        2.07
Monkey nuts                          0.00              0.1               0              0             0.1        0.26
Popcorn maize                        0.00              0.1               0              0             0.1        0.26
Simsim                               0.00              0.1               0              0             0.1        0.26
Sorghum                              0.06             0.21              0.2             0             1.9       4.91
Soyabeans                            0.04             0.18               0              0             1.1        2.84
Sweet potatoes                       0.06             0.14              0.1             0             1.7       4.39
Indigenous vegetables                0.01             0.13               0              0             0.4        1.03
Total Sample Area                    1.28                                                            38.7        100
                                            Second Rainy Season
                                          Annual & Bi-annual Crops
                                    Average         Average          Upper           Lower        Total Sample Area of
Crops                                  0               1            Quartile        Quartile            30 farms
                                      ha              ha               ha              ha            ha          %
Arrow roots                          0.00            0.05               0               0            0.05       0.18
Beans                                0.02            0.11               0               0            0.45       1.61
Cassava                              0.18            0.31              0.2              0             5.5      19.71
Cow peas                             0.01             0.2               0               0             0.2       0.72
Ground nuts                          0.04            0.15             0.1               0             1.2       4.30
Maize                                0.11            0.38             0.13              0             3.4      12.19
Maize & beans                        0.36            0.47              0.5            0.15           10.9      39.07
Maize & soyabeans                    0.03             0.4               0               0             0.8       2.87
Monkey nuts                          0.01             0.2               0               0            0.2        0.72
Sorghum                              0.05            0.23               0               0             1.4       5.02
Soya beans                           0.03            0.17               0               0             1.0       3.58
                                     0.01             0.2               0               0             0.2       0.72
Sweet potatoes                       0.07            0.18             0.13              0             2.1       7.53
Indigenous vegetables                0.02            0.13               0               0             0.5       1.79
Total Sample Area                    0.94                                                            27.9        100
                                                 Perennial Crops
                                    Average         Average          Upper           Lower         Total Sample Area
Crops                                  0               1            Quartile        Quartile          of 30 farms
                                      ha              ha              ha               ha            ha          %
Avocado                              0.01            0.17              0                0           0.17        4.42
Bananas                              0.10            0.12             0.2             0.01          3.07       79.74
Coffee                               0.01             0.1              0                0            0.1        2.60
Lemons                               0.00            0.01              0                0           0.01        0.26
Pineapples                           0.00             0.1              0                0            0.1        2.60
Sugarcane                            0.01             0.4                                            0.4       10.39
Total Sample Area                    0.13                                                           3.85        100

NOTES:
Avg.0             = average of all sample farms; Avg.1 = average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. Qu.   = Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these points



                                                                                                                          107
      BUSIA & TESO           42


      TABLE 16b: CROPPING PATTERN IN AEZ LM 2 OF BUSIA DISTRICT
      Subzone: l^(m/s) i, Soil Unit: UlSA 1                   Survey area 02 (Esikulu)

                                                   First Rainy Season
                                                Annual & Bi-annual Crops
                                             Average        Average          Upper          Lower         Total Sample Area
      Crops                                     0              1            Quartile       Quartile           of 30 farms
                                               ha             ha              ha             ha              ha          %
      Bambara nuts                            0.02            0.3              0              0             0.6         2.49
      Cassava                                 0.11           0.18             0.2             0             3.25       13.50
      Ground nuts                             0.01           0.08              0              0             0.23        0.96
      Maize                                   0.10           0.48              0              0             2.85       11.84
      Maize & beans                           0.45           0.61             0.4             0            13.35       55.44
      Maize, soyabeans & bambara nuts         0.01            0.4              0              0              0.4        1.66
      Sorghum                                 0.05           0.25              0              0              1.5        6.23
      Sweet potatoes                          0.06           0.14             0.1             0              1.7        7.06
      Tomatoes                                0.00           0.05              0              0             0.05        0.21
      Indigenous vegetables                   0.01           0.08              0              0             0.15        0.62
      Total Sample Area                       0.82                                                         24.06        100

                                                  Second Rainy Season
                                                Annual & Bi-annual Crops
                                             Average        Average         Upper          Lower        Total Sample Area of
      Crops                                     0              1           Quartile       Quartile            30 farms
                                               ha             ha              ha            ha             ha          %
      Bambara nuts                            0.01            0.4              0             0              0.4       1.92
      Cassava                                 0.10           0.18             0.2            0             3.05      14.64
      Ground nuts                             0.02           0.14              0             0             0.55       2.64
      Maize                                   0.08           0.39              0             0             2.35      11.28
      Maize & Beans                           0.43           0.62            0.53            0            12.95      62.17
      Maize, soyabeans & bambara nuts         0.01            0.4              0             0              0.4       1.92
      Sorghum                                 0.01            0.4              0             0              0.4       1.92
      Sweet potatoes                          0.02           0.10              0             0             0.58       2.78
      Tomatoes                                0.00           0.05              0             0             0.05       0.24
      Indigenous vegetables                   0.00            0.1              0             0              0.1       0.48
      Total Sample Area                       0.68                                                        20.83        100

                                                       Perennial Crops
                                             Average        Average          Upper          Lower        Total Sample Area
      Crops                                     0              1            Quartile       Quartile         of 30 farms
                                               ha             ha              ha             ha            ha          %
      Coffee                                  0.003           0.1              0              0            0.1        100
      Total Sample Area                       0.003                                                        0.1        100

      NOTES:
      Avg.0             = average of all sample farms
      Avg.1             = average of farms, excluding zero entries
      Up. Qu./Lo. Qu.   = Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these points




108
                                                                                           BUSIA & TESO              43



TABLE 16c: CROPPING PATTERN IN AEZ LM 3 OF BUSIA DISTRICT
Subzone: m/l^(s or s/vs), Soil Unit: UlI 1              Survey area 03 (Bukiri)

                                             First Rainy Season
                                          Annual & Bi-annual Crops
                                       Average        Average          Upper          Lower         Total Sample Area
Crops                                     0              1            Quartile       Quartile           of 30 farms
                                         ha             ha               ha             ha             ha         %
Beans                                   0.03           0.44               0              0            0.88       2.06
Cassava                                 0.38           0.41             0.51           0.2           11.49       26.93
Cotton                                  0.01            0.4               0              0             0.4       0.94
Finger Millet                           0.02           0.15               0              0             0.6       1.41
Ground nuts                             0.03           0.09             0.06             0            0.79       1.85
Maize                                   0.12           0.51             0.05             0             3.6       8.44
Maize & Beans                           0.54           0.55              0.8            0.2          16.06       37.64
Millet                                  0.00            0.1               0              0             0.1       0.23
Sorghum                                 0.22           0.27             0.30           0.09           6.56       15.37
Sweet potatoes                          0.07           0.12              0.1             0            2.19       5.13
Total Sample Area                       1.42                                                         42.67        100

                                            Second Rainy Season
                                          Annual & Bi-annual Crops
                                       Average        Average         Upper          Lower        Total Sample Area of
Crops                                     0              1           Quartile       Quartile             30 farms
                                         ha             ha              ha             ha            ha           %
Beans                                   0.02            0.3              0             0              0.6        3.33
Cassava                                 0.11           0.13             0.2           0.04           3.32       18.44
Cotton                                  0.07           0.37              0             0             2.24       12.44
Finger Millet                           0.01            0.2              0             0              0.2        1.11
Ground nuts                             0.00           0.00              0             0             0.04        0.22
Maize                                   0.08           0.35            0.02            0             2.48       13.78
Maize & Beans                           0.27           0.33             0.4           0.1              8        44.44
Sweet potatoes                          0.04           0.09             0.1            0             1.12        6.22
Total Sample Area                        0.6                                                         18.0         100

                                                 Perennial Crops
                                       Average        Average          Upper          Lower        Total Sample Area
Crops                                     0              1            Quartile       Quartile          of 30 farms
                                         ha             ha              ha             ha            ha           %
Bananas                                 0.03           0.12            0.05             0           0.94        14.94
Citrus (Valencia)                       0.08           0.42              0              0            2.5        39.75
Coffee                                  0.09           0.54              0              0            2.7        42.93
Mangoes                                 0.00           0.04              0              0           0.15         2.38
Total Sample Area                        0.2                                                        6.29          100

NOTES:
Avg.0             = average of all sample farms
Avg.1             = average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. Qu.   = Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these points




                                                                                                                          109
      BUSIA & TESO           44


      TABLE 16d: CROPPING PATTERN IN AEZ LM 4 OF BUSIA DISTRICT
      Subzone: (m/s) + (vu), Soil Units: SA 2 & UlIA         Survey area 04 (Bulemia)

                                                    First Rainy Season
                                                 Annual & Bi-annualCrops
                                             Average        Average          Upper          Lower         Total Sample Area
      Crops                                     0              1            Quartile       Quartile           of 30 farms
                                               ha             ha              ha             ha             ha           %
      Beans                                   0.03           0.27              0              0             0.8         1.72
      Cassava                                 0.58           0.79             0.8             0            17.3        37.17
      Finger millet                           0.00            0.1              0              0             0.1         0.21
      Groundnuts                              0.02           0.15              0              0            0.45         0.97
      Kales                                   0.01            0.2              0              0             0.2         0.43
      Maize                                   0.02            0.2              0              0             0.6         1.29
      Maize & beans                           0.54           0.60             0.6            0.2           16.1        34.59
      Maize, beans & sorghum                  0.01            0.4              0              0             0.4         0.86
      Sorghum                                 0.28           0.33             0.4            0.1            8.5        18.26
      Sorghum & beans                         0.01            0.4              0              0             0.4         0.86
      Sorghum & cowpeas                       0.01            0.3              0              0             0.3         0.64
      Sweet potatoes                          0.04           0.18            0.01             0            1.29         2.77
      Indigenous vegetables                   0.00            0.1              0              0             0.1         0.21
      Total Sample Area                       1.55                                                         46.54         100

                                                  Second Rainy Season
                                                Annual & Bi-annual Crops
                                             Average        Average         Upper          Lower        Total Sample Area of
      Crops                                     0              1           Quartile       Quartile            30 farms
                                               ha             ha             ha             ha             ha          %
      Maize & beans                           0.01           0.15            0               0             0.3         60
      Sweet potatoes                          0.01            0.1            0               0             0.1         20
      Tomatoes                                0.00            0.1            0               0             0.1         20
      Total Sample Area                       0.02                                                         0.5         100

                                                       Perennial Crops
                                             Average        Average          Upper          Lower        Total Sample Area
      Crops                                     0              1            Quartile       Quartile         of 30 farms
                                               ha             ha              ha             ha            ha          %
      Avocado                                 0.00           0.01              0              0           0.01        0.56
      Bananas                                 0.03           0.20              0              0           1.01       56.11
      Citrus                                  0.01           0.02            0.00             0           0.16        8.89
      Mangoes                                 0.02           0.08            0.02             0           0.67       37.22
      Paw paws                                0.00           0.01              0              0           0.02        1.11
      Total Sample Area                       0.06                                                        1.87         100

      NOTES:
      Avg.0             = average of all sample farms
      Avg.1             = average of farms, excluding zero entries
      Up. Qu./Lo. Qu.   = Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these points




110
                                                                                           BUSIA & TESO              45



TABLE 16e: CROPPING PATTERN IN AEZ LM 1 OF TESO DISTRICT
Subzone: l^m i, Soil Units: BXC & UlS 1               Survey area 05 (Amukura)

                                             First Rainy Season
                                          Annual & Bi-annual Crops
                                       Average        Average          Upper          Lower         Total Sample Area
Crops                                     0              1            Quartile       Quartile          of 30 farms
                                         ha             ha               ha            ha             ha          %
Beans                                   0.04           0.12              0.1            0             1.1        3.57
Cassava                                 0.29           0.31             0.43           0.1           8.65       28.04
Cotton                                  0.01            0.1               0             0             0.2        0.65
Finger millet                           0.03           0.13               0             0             0.8        2.59
Ground nuts                             0.01            0.1               0             0             0.3        0.97
Maize                                   0.30           0.48              0.4            0             9.1       29.50
Maize & beans                           0.13           0.35              0.2            0             3.9       12.64
Napier grass                            0.07            1.1               0             0             2.2        7.13
Pineapples                              0.03           0.13             0.01            0             0.9        2.92
Sorghum                                 0.02           0.15               0             0             0.6        1.94
Sweet potatoes                          0.01            0.1               0             0             0.4        1.30
Tobacco                                 0.07            0.2              0.2            0             2.2        7.13
Tomatoes                                0.01            0.2               0             0             0.2        0.65
Indigenous vegetables                   0.01            0.2               0             0             0.3        0.97
Total Sample Area                       1.03                                                         30.85       100

                                            Second Rainy Season
                                          Annual & Bi-annual Crops
                                       Average        Average         Upper          Lower        Total Sample Area of
Crops                                     0              1           Quartile       Quartile            30 farms
                                         ha             ha              ha            ha             ha          %
Beans                                   0.01            0.1              0             0             0.4        6.25
Cassava                                 0.04           0.22              0             0             1.1       17.19
Cotton                                  0.01            0.1              0             0             0.2        3.13
Ground nuts                             0.00           0.05              0             0             0.1        1.56
Kales                                   0.01            0.2              0             0             0.2        3.13
Maize                                   0.09           0.25            0.13            0             2.7       42.19
Maize & beans                           0.03            0.3              0             0             1.0       15.63
Sorghum                                 0.01           0.15              0             0             0.2        3.13
Sweet potatoes                          0.01            0.2              0             0             0.2        3.13
Indigenous vegetables                   0.01           0.15              0             0             0.3        4.69
Total Sample Area                       0.22                                                         6.4         100

                                                 Perennial Crops
                                       Average        Average          Upper          Lower        Total Sample Area
Crops                                     0              1            Quartile       Quartile         of 30 farms
                                         ha             ha              ha             ha            ha          %
Bananas                                 0.07           0.13             0.1             0           2.02       61.21
Coffee                                  0.01           0.14              0              0           0.28        8.48
Sugarcane                               0.03             1               0              0             1        30.30
Total Sample Area                       0.11                                                         3.3        100

NOTES:
Avg.0             = average of all sample farms
Avg.1             = average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. Qu.   = Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these points




                                                                                                                          111
      BUSIA & TESO           46



      TABLE 16f: CROPPING PATTERN IN AEZ LM 2 OF TESO DISTRICT
      Subzone: l^(m/s) i, Soil Unit: UlG 3                  Survey area 06 (Akobwait)

                                                   First Rainy Season
                                                Annual & Bi-annual Crops
                                             Average        Average          Upper          Lower         Total Sample Area
      Crops                                     0              1            Quartile       Quartile           of 30 farms
                                               ha             ha              ha              ha            ha           %
      Bambara nuts                            0.01            0.2              0              0             0.2         0.62
      Cassava                                 0.35           0.39             0.4            0.18          10.4        32.22
      Finger millet                           0.11           0.23             0.2              0            3.2         9.91
      Groundnuts                              0.02           0.18              0              0             0.7         2.17
      Maize                                   0.19           0.36             0.4             0             5.8        17.97
      Maize & beans                           0.32           0.56             0.6             0             9.5        29.43
      Pineapples                              0.03           0.13              0              0            0.78         2.42
      Sorghum                                 0.03           0.15              0              0             0.9         2.79
      Tobacco                                 0.03            0.4              0              0             0.8         2.48
      Total Sample Area                       1.09                                                         32.28         100

                                                  Second Rainy Season
                                                Annual & Bi-annual Crops
                                             Average        Average         Upper          Lower        Total Sample Area of
      Crops                                     0              1           Quartile       Quartile            30 farms
                                               ha             ha             ha             ha             ha          %
      Bambara nuts                            0.01            0.2             0              0             0.2        1.32
      Cassava                                 0.05           0.21           0.03             0             1.5        9.88
      Groundnuts                              0.02           0.15             0              0             0.6       3.95
      Maize                                   0.09           0.34           0.13             0             2.7       17.79
      Maize & beans                           0.22           0.38            0.4             0             6.5       42.82
      Simsim                                  0.01            0.2             0              0             0.2        1.32
      Sorghum                                 0.11           0.23            0.2             0             3.4       22.40
      Sweet potatoes                          0.00           0.08             0              0            0.08        0.53
      Total Sample Area                       0.51                                                        15.18        100

                                                       Perennial Crops
                                             Average        Average          Upper          Lower        Total Sample Area
      Crops                                     0              1            Quartile       Quartile          of 30 farms
                                               ha             ha              ha             ha             ha           %
      Bananas                                 0.01           0.07              0              0            0.34        2.84
      Sugarcane                               0.39           0.77            0.65             0           11.62       97.16
      Total Sample Area                        0.4                                                        11.96         100

      NOTES:
      Avg.0             = average of all sample farms
      Avg.1             = average of farms, excluding zero entries
      Up. Qu./Lo. Qu.   = Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these points




112
                                                                                          BUSIA & TESO             47



TABLE 16g: CROPPING PATTERN IN AEZ LM 3 OF TESO DISTRICT
Subzone: m/l^(s), Soil Unit: UmG 2                     Survey area 07 (Kamolo)
                                              First Rainy Season
                                           Annual & Bi-annual Crops
                                       Average        Average         Upper          Lower        Total Sample Area
Crops                                     0              1           Quartile       Quartile          of 30 farms
                                         ha             ha             ha              ha           ha           %
Cabbages                                0.01            0.2             0               0           0.2         0.60
Cassava                                 0.20           0.23            0.4             0.1         5.98        18.08
Cow peas                                0.00           0.07             0               0          0.14         0.42
Finger millet                           0.03           0.33             0               0            1          3.02
Ground nuts                             0.04           0.22             0               0           1.3         3.93
Kales                                   0.01           0.13             0               0           0.4         1.21
Maize & beans                           0.38            0.5            0.4            0.15         11.5        34.76
Maize, beans & ground nuts              0.11           0.68             0               0           3.4        10.28
Onions                                  0.01           0.04             0               0          0.04         0.12
Pineapples                              0.01           0.03             0               0          0.06         0.18
Soyabeans                               0.01           0.17             0               0          0.34         1.03
Sweet potatoes                          0.04           0.09            0.1              0           1.3         3.93
Tobacco                                 0.24           0.45            0.4              0          7.22        21.83
Tomatoes                                0.01            0.2             0               0           0.2         0.60
Total Sample Area                        1.1                                                       33.08         100
                                             Second Rainy Season
                                           Annual & Bi-annual Crops
                                       Average        Average         Upper         Lower       Total Sample Area of
Crops                                     0              1           Quartile      Quartile           30 farms
                                         ha             ha             ha            ha            ha          %
Beans                                   0.03            0.3             0             0            0.9       8.93
Cotton                                  0.01            0.2             0             0            0.4       3.97
Cow peas                                0.01           0.08             0             0           0.24       2.38
Ground nuts                             0.00           0.04             0             0           0.04       0.40
Kales                                   0.02           0.13             0             0           0.64       6.35
Maize                                   0.01           0.12             0             0           0.24       2.38
Maize & beans                           0.15           0.32            0.4            0            4.5       44.64
Maize, beans & ground nuts              0.03           0.45             0             0            0.9       8.93
Onions                                  0.00           0.04             0             0           0.04       0.40
Pineapples                              0.00           0.03             0             0           0.06       0.60
Simsim                                  0.01            0.2             0             0            0.2       1.98
Sorghum                                 0.00            0.1             0             0            0.1       0.99
Soyabeans                               0.00           0.04             0             0           0.04       0.40
Sweet potatoes                          0.03           0.10           0.04            0           0.78       7.74
Tomatoes                                0.03           0.33             0             0             1        9.92
Total Sample Area                       0.33                                                      10.08        100
                                                  Perennial Crops
                                       Average        Average         Upper          Lower        Total Sample Area
Crops                                     0              1           Quartile       Quartile         of 30 farms
                                         ha             ha             ha             ha            ha           %
Avocado                                 0.00           0.09             0              0           0.09        2.66
Bananas                                 0.09           0.12           0.10             0           2.66       78.70
Coffee                                  0.00           0.04             0              0           0.09        2.66
Sugarcane                               0.02           0.14             0              0           0.54       15.98
Total Sample Area                       0.11                                                       3.38         100
NOTES:
Avg.0    = average of all sample farms; Avg.1 = average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. Qu. = Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these points



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      BUSIA & TESO            48


      TABLE 16h: CROPPING PATTERN IN AEZ LM 3 OF TESO DISTRICT
      Subzone: m/l^(s), Soil Unit: PNG 1                    Survey area 08 (Katalepai)

                                                   First Rainy Season
                                                Annual & Bi-annual Crops
                                             Average        Average          Upper          Lower         Total Sample Area
      Crops                                     0              1            Quartile       Quartile           of 30 farms
                                               ha             ha              ha              ha            ha           %
      Beans                                   0.02           0.17              0              0             0.5         0.98
      Capsicum                                0.01            0.2              0              0             0.2         0.39
      Cassava                                 0.29           0.38             0.4            0.08          8.74        17.14
      Cow peas                                0.01            0.4              0              0             0.4         0.78
      Finger millet                           0.10           0.26             0.2             0             2.9         5.69
      Ground nuts                             0.00            0.1              0              0             0.1         0.20
      Kales                                   0.01            0.2              0              0             0.2         0.39
      Maize                                   0.12           0.51            0.05             0             3.6         7.06
      Maize & beans                           0.79           1.03             0.8            0.15          23.8        46.68
      Pineapples                              0.10           0.25             0.1             0            3.04         5.96
      Simsim                                  0.01            0.4              0              0             0.4         0.78
      Sorghum                                 0.01           0.15              0              0             0.3         0.59
      Sweet potatoes                          0.01            0.1              0              0             0.4         0.78
      Tobacco                                 0.21           0.53             0.4             0             6.4        12.55
      Total Sample Area                       1.69                                                         50.98         100

                                                  Second Rainy Season
                                                Annual & Bi-annual Crops
                                             Average        Average         Upper          Lower        Total Sample Area of
      Crops                                     0              1           Quartile       Quartile            30 farms
                                               ha             ha             ha             ha             ha          %
      Beans                                   0.04           0.26             0              0             1.3       3.86
      Cassava                                 0.04            0.6             0              0             1.2       3.57
      Cotton                                  0.01            0.4             0              0             0.4       1.19
      Kales                                   0.02           0.25             0              0             0.5       1.49
      Maize                                   0.02           0.23             0              0             0.7       2.08
      Maize & beans                            0.8             1             0.8            0.1            24        71.34
      Pineapples                              0.10           0.25            0.1             0            3.04       9.04
      Simsim                                  0.03            0.8             0              0             0.8       2.38
      Sorghum                                 0.02           0.23             0              0             0.7       2.08
                                              0.01            0.2             0              0             0.2       0.59
      Sweet potatoes                          0.01           0.15             0              0             0.3       0.89
      Tomatoes                                0.01            0.3             0              0             0.3       0.89
      Indigenous vegetables                   0.01            0.2             0              0             0.2       0.59
      Total Sample Area                       1.12                                                        33.64        100

                                                       Perennial Crops
                                             Average        Average          Upper          Lower        Total Sample Area
      Crops                                     0              1            Quartile       Quartile          of 30 farms
                                               ha             ha              ha             ha            ha           %
      Bananas                                 0.06           0.17            0.05             0            1.9        83.70
      Coffee                                  0.01           0.17              0              0           0.17        7.49
      Sugarcane                               0.01           0.05              0              0            0.2         8.81
      Total Sample Area                       0.08                                                        2.27          100

      NOTES:
      Avg.0             = average of all sample farms
      Avg.1             = average of farms, excluding zero entries
      Up. Qu./Lo. Qu.   = Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these points



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                                                                                     BUSIA & TESO           49



3.2.5 INTRODUCTION TO THE ACTUAL LAND USE SYSTEMS AND POTENTIAL
      INTENSIFICATION BY BETTER FARM MANAGEMENT

More detailed information can be found together with calculations of profitability in the Farm Management
Guidelines of each district and in the KARI Fertiliser Use Manual.

In terms of aerial expanse, the dominant Zones are LM 1, LM 2 and LM 3 but towards the Lake Victoria
the poorer Zone LM 4 has been considered too. An additional important reference material is “Small Holder
Farming Handbook for Self-employment”. First published in 1997 by Information Research and Commu-
nication Centre (IRACC) & Marketing Support Services Ltd, Nairobi.

BUSIA DISTRICT

Subzone LM 1 l^m i of the Lower Midland Sugarcane Zone

This is the Lower Midland Sugarcane Zone with a long cropping season followed by a medium one and inter-
mediate rains as typified by Mayenje Sub-Location in Busia district. It is dominated by soils of lower-level
uplands. The soils are well drained, moderately deep to very deep (in places shallow over petroplinthite) and
of low fertility because of low content of nutrients (orthic Acrisols with orthic Ferralsols). The rainfall vari-
ability in this Subzone is high, but it is almost always raining. The first rainy season can rely on an amount of
at least 900 – 1000 mm in 10 out of 15 seasons; the second rainy season 500 – 700 mm. The 60% reliability
of the growing period during the 1st and 2nd seasons is > 200 and approximately 165 days, respectively.

The zone is well suited for the production of a variety of crops. Maize is still the most dominant food crop,
but yields per hectare have considerably declined due to soil infertility related problems. Maybe sweet po-
tatoes planted on ridges in the valley bottoms can help to avert hunger! Apart from maize, sorghum and
finger millet are important components of the food diet. The dominant legume crops in order of importance
include: beans, groundnuts, simsim, cowpeas and of late soybeans. It should be pointed out here that cow-
peas are more susceptible to pest infestation and as such require high inputs of insecticides, which unfortu-
nately are beyond the reach of a majority of smallholder farmers. The dominant fruit crops are: cooking and
sweet bananas, pawpaws, and to some extent oranges. Fruit production in this Subzone could be improved
through the use of improved tissue culture and grafted seedling material (which take only 18 months to give
first fruits). This would greatly improve the quality of the produce and hence fetch more cash income for
the farmers. Vegetable production in this Subzone is limited to the growing of kales, tomatoes and onions,
mainly for home consumption. In some cases, the surplus is sold for cash in nearby market centres. The
current cash crops grown in this Subzone in order of importance are: sugar cane, sunflower and cotton. The
proposed Busia Sugar Factory has encouraged many smallholder farmers to grow more sugar cane at the
expense of food crops which may cause a critical problem if marketing opportunities are not conducive to
the farmers.

Soil fertility improvement measures being practiced in this Subzone include: compost manure and the use
of effective microoganisms (EM) technology, which enhances the bio-degradation of compost. If the above
listed conservation measures are well implemented, the sustainability of land and eventually the livelihoods
of the smallholder farmers in this Subzone will significantly improve. Attempts should be made to explore
the possibility of applying treated sewage on crop fields to replenish soil fertility. The present yield increase
at three levels of inputs and the yield potential on the predominant soil of this Subzone is shown inTable
17a.




                                                                                                                    115
      BUSIA & TESO                50



      TABLE 17a: INCREASE OF YIELDS BY BETTER FARM MANAGEMENT IN
                 AGRO- ECOLOGICAL UNIT1) LM 1, l^m i, UlS 1
      Subzone: l^m i, Soil Unit: UlS 1                                                                  Survey area 01 (Mayenje)
                                  AEZ: LM 1 SUGARCANE ZONE
                                  Subzone: l^m i
                                  (Periods in days2): 1st rainy season 200 or more, 2nd rainy season approx. 165)
       Crop Yields3) and
                                  Unit with predom. Soil: UIS 1 = orthic ACRISOLS with orthic FERRALSOLS
       Inputs
                                                                                         2nd rainy season: 500 - 700 mm in at least
                                 Reliable rainfall: 1st rainy season: 900 - 1000 mm
                                                                                         10 out 15 years
                                               Farmers in Prod. Level                               Farmers in Prod. Level
       Maize local pure                 I=        II =       III =            AEU             I=         II =      III =   AEU
       stand                           low       med.4)      high5)           Pot.6)         low       med.4)     high5)   Pot.6)
       Yields3) kg/ha                                                                        600        2079       2340     *
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha                                                                          -           17.0        17.3
       P2O5 kg/ha                                                                             -             -          -
       K2O kg/ha                                                                              -             -          -
       Manure t/ha                                                                           1.0           5.4        18.6
       Hybrid maize
       Yields3) kg/ha                   -       ca. 3000        5727          7000
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha                               17.3          42.5
       P2O5 kg/ha                                   -             -
       K2O kg/ha.                                   -             -
       Manure t/ha                                 13.6          18.6
       Maize local
       intercropped
       with beans
       Yields3) Kg/ha                                                            *           550         1631         1671          *
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha                                                                          0           4.3          5.4
       P2O5 kg/ha                                                                             0           4.3          5.7
       K2O kg/ha                                                                              -            -            -
       Manure t/ha                                                                           0.5          1.4          5.8
       Hybrid maize
       intercropped with
       beans
       Yields3) kg/ha                  1154       1277          1481          4000
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha                    0          27            33
       P2O5 kg/ha                       0          27            35
       K2O kg/ha                        -           -             -
       Manure t/ha                      0          0.9           3.6

      NOTES:
      1)
           Source: Small Farm Survey (2004)
      2)
           Figures of these cereals growing periods should be reached or surpassed in 6 out of 10 years; growing periods may be
           considered longer due to immediately following second rainy season by middle rains. Then the second growing period is
      3)
         Achieved average yields with average rainfall
      4)
         Farmers with medium inputs
      5)
         Farmers with high inputs of fertilizer, insecticides, soil and water conservation
      6)
         Potential yield according to crop list and local climate of this Agro-Ecological Unit if soils are optimally fertilized, plus
         optimal crop management
      * Potential for local maize not known; no experimental results




116
                                                                                     BUSIA & TESO            51



Subzone LM2 l^(m/s) i of the Lower Midland Marginal Sugarcane Zone

This is the Marginal Sugarcane Zone with a long cropping season followed by a (weak) medium to short one and
intermediate rains as typified by Esikulu Sub-Location in Busia district. It is dominated by soils on lower-
level uplands. 60% of the soils are well drained, moderately deep to very deep with a low content of nutri-
ents (orthic Acrisols); 40% are imperfectly drained (gleyic Acrisols). The rainfall variability in this Subzone is
fairly high, and hence the reliability is low, but still not bad. The first rainy season can rely on an amount of
at least 800 – 1000 mm in 10 out of 15 seasons; the second rainy season 500 – 700 mm. The 60% reliability
of growing periods during the 1st and 2nd seasons is more than 180 and 115 –140 days, respectively.

Maize is still the current most dominant food crop, followed by sorghum, finger millet and cassava. The
dominant legume crop is common bean. The dominant fruit crops are: bananas and water melons. Fruit
production in this Subzone could be improved through the use of improved tissue culture and grafted seed-
ling material. This would greatly improve the quality of the produce and hence fetch more cash income for
the farmers. Vegetable production in this Subzone is limited to the growing of kales, tomatoes indigenous
vegetables and onions, mainly for home consumption. In some cases, the surplus is sold for cash in nearby
market centres. The current cash crops grown in this Subzone in order of importance are: sunflower, tobacco
and cotton. Due to the poor income returns from these crops, their acreage has declined. As the conditions
for sugarcane are marginal and marketing strategies poor, it is not important in this Subzone.

Soil fertility improvement measures being practiced in this Subzone includes: inorganic and organic fer-
tilisers. There is need to promote the use of effective microoganism (EM) technology, which enhances the
bio-degradation of compost. If the above listed measures are well practiced and more recycling of nutrients
is attempted, the soil fertility status would be greatly enhanced.

The present yield increase under three levels of inputs and the potential on the predominant soil of this
subzone is shown in Table 17b.




                                                                                                                     117
      BUSIA & TESO                52



      TABLE 17b: INCREASE OF YIELDS BY BETTER FARM MANAGEMENT IN
                 AGRO- ECOLOGICAL UNIT1) LM 2, l^(m/s) i, UlSA 1
      Subzone: l^(m/s) i, Soil Unit: UlSA 1                                                              Survey area 02 (Esikulu)
                                  AEZ: LM 2 MARGINAL SUGARCANE ZONE
                                  Subzone: l^(m/s) i (Periods in days2): 1st rainy season >180, 2nd rainy season 115 - 140)
                                  Unit with predom. Soil: UISA 1 = association of orthic ACRISOLS with dystric CAMBISOLS
       Crop Yields3) and
                                                                         and gleyic ACRISOLS
       Inputs
                                                                                         2nd rainy season: 500 - 700 mm in at least
                                 Reliable rainfall: 1st rainy season: 800 - 1000 mm
                                                                                         10 out 15 years
                                               Farmers in Prod. Level                               Farmers in Prod. Level
       Maize local pure                 I=        II =       III =            AEU             I=        II =       III =   AEU
       stand                           low       med.4)      high5)           Pot.6)         low       med.4)     high5)   Pot.6)
       Yields3) kg/ha
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha
       P2O5 kg/ha
       K2O kg/ha
       Manure t/ha
       Hybrid maize
       Yields3) kg/ha                   -         3584             -          6000             -         2190           -
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha                               26                                                     8.0
       P2O5 kg/ha                                  26                                                     9.3
       K2O kg/ha.                                   -                                                      -
       Manure t/ha                                 3.6                                                    4.4
       Maize local
       intercropped
       with beans
       Yields3) Kg/ha                                                            *                                                  *
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha
       P2O5 kg/ha
       K2O kg/ha
       Manure t/ha
       Hybrid maize                                                                                                             Hybrid
       intercropped with                                                                                                        maize
       beans                                                                                                                      not
       Yields3) kg/ha                   -          826          1225          4000             -          424          559      suited
       Fertilizer:                                                                                                              in the
       N       kg/ha                               6.0           14                                       5.0          15         2nd
       P2O5 kg/ha                                  9.0           16                                       7.0          17        rains
       K2O kg/ha                                    -             -                                        -            -        here
       Manure t/ha                                 2.6           7.7                                      2.0          7.9

      NOTES:
      1)
           Source: Small Farm Survey (2004)
      2)
           Figures of these cereals growing periods should be reached or surpassed in 6 out of 10 years; growing periods may be
           considered longer due to immediately following second rainy season by middle rains. Then the second growing period is
      3)
         Achieved average yields with average rainfall
      4)
         Farmers with medium inputs
      5)
         Farmers with high inputs of fertilizer, insecticides, soil and water conservation
      6)
         Potential yield according to crop list and local climate of this Agro-Ecological Unit if soils are optimally fertilized, plus
         optimal crop management
      * Potential for local maize not known; no experimental results




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                                                                                   BUSIA & TESO           53



Subzone LM 3 m/l^(s or s/sv) of the Lower Midland Cotton Zone

This is the Cotton Zone with a medium to long cropping season followed by a (weak) short to very short one as
typified by Bukiri Sub-location in Busia district. It is dominated by soils on lower-level uplands. The soils
are well drained to moderately well drained, deep to shallow of varying but mainly low fertility (chromic
Acrisols). The rainfall variability in this Subzone is moderate in the first season and high in the second, and
hence the reliability is low then. The first rainy season can rely on an amount of between 430 – 700 mm in
10 out of 15 seasons; the second rainy season 200 – 350 mm. The 60% reliability of growing period during
the 1st and 2nd seasons is 145 – 155 and 75 – 85 days, respectively.

The zone is well suited for the production of a variety of crops. Maize is still the current most dominant food
crop, even though yields per hectare have considerably declined due to soil exhaustion related problems of
decreasing soil fertility. Apart from maize, sorghum, finger millet, sweet potatoes and protein deficient cas-
sava constitute important components of the food diet. The dominant legume crop is common beans. The
dominant fruit crop is the cooking bananas type. Banana production in this Subzone could be improved
through the use of improved tissue culture banana seedling materials (which take only 18 months to bring
first fruits). This would greatly improve the quality of the produce and hence fetch more cash income for
the farmers. Vegetable production in this Subzone is limited to the growing of kales, tomatoes and onions,
mainly for home consumption. In some cases, the surplus is sold for cash in nearby market centres. More
vegetables, particularly the indegenous types and fruits are possible (see crop list). The current cash crops
grown in this Subzone include: sunflower, tobacco and cotton. Very little or no fertiliser is allocated to the
food crop farmlands. The present yield increase under three levels of inputs and the potential on the pre-
dominant soil of this Subzone is shown in Table 17c.




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      BUSIA & TESO                54


      TABLE 17c: INCREASE OF YIELDS BY BETTER FARM MANAGEMENT IN
                 AGRO- ECOLOGICAL UNIT1) LM 3, m/l^(s or s/vs), UlI 1
      Subzone: m/l^(s or s/vs), Soil Unit: UlI 1                                                          Survey area 03 (Bukiri)
                                  AEZ: LM 3 COTTON ZONE
                                  Subzone: m/l^(s or s/vs) (Periods in days2): 1st rainy season 145 - 155, 2nd rainy season
                                                                               75 - 85)
       Crop Yields3) and          Unit with predom. Soil: UlI 1 = chromic ACRISOLS, partly petro-ferric phase
       Inputs
                                                                                         2nd rainy season: 200 - 350 mm in at least
                                 Reliable rainfall: 1st rainy season: 430 - 700 mm
                                                                                         10 out 15 years
                                               Farmers in Prod. Level                            Farmers in Prod. Level
       Maize local pure                 I=        II =       III =            AEU             I=     II =       III =   AEU
       stand                           low       med.4)      high5)           Pot.6)         low    med.4)     high5)   Pot.6)
       Yields3) kg/ha                                                                                                    *
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha
       P2O5 kg/ha
       K2O kg/ha
       Manure t/ha
       Hybrid maize
       Yields3) kg/ha                   -            -          2700          5500             -         2100         4818        5000
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha                                             14                                        0           40
       P2O5 kg/ha                                                 -                                        -            -
       K2O kg/ha.                                                 -                                        -            -
       Manure t/ha                                               7.2                                      4.1         18.0
       Maize local
       intercropped
       with beans
       Yields3) kg/ha                                                                                                               *
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha
       P2O5 kg/ha
       K2O kg/ha
       Manure t/ha
       Hybrid maize
       intercropped with
       beans
       Yields3) kg/ha                  1423       1494          1733          3500          1395         1710         1733        3500
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha                    1           2             3                           1            3            6
       P2O5 kg/ha                       0           0            31                           0            0          16.3
       K2O kg/ha                        -           -             -                           -            -            -
       Manure t/ha                     0.2         0.5           0.6                         0.1          0.6          0.9

      NOTES:
      1)
           Source: Small Farm Survey (2004)
      2)
           Figures of these cereals growing periods should be reached or surpassed in 6 out of 10 years; growing periods may be
           considered longer due to immediately following second rainy season by middle rains. Then the second growing period is
      3)
         Achieved average yields with average rainfall
      4)
         Farmers with medium inputs
      5)
         Farmers with high inputs of fertilizer, insecticides, soil and water conservation
      6)
         Potential yield according to crop list and local climate of this Agro-Ecological Unit if soils are optimally fertilized, plus
         optimal crop management
      * Potential for local maize not known; no experimental results




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Subzone LM 4 (m/s) + (vu) of the Lower Midland Marginal Cotton Zone

This is the Marginal Cotton Zone with a (weak) medium to short cropping season and a very uncertain (weak)
second one, as typified by Bulemi Sub-Location in Busia district. The higher western parts are dominated by
soils on lower middle-level uplands. The soils are well drained, deep to very deep, but of low fertility, partly
due to their salinity (ferralo-orthic Acrisols). The lower parts have mainly swampy soils (humic Gleysols)
with a potential for swamp rice. The rainfall variability in this Subzone is high, and hence the reliability is
low. The first rainy season can rely only on an amount of 350 – 450 mm in 10 out of 15 seasons; the second
rainy season from less than 150 to 200 mm only. The 60% reliability of growing periods during the 1st and
2nd seasons is 115-135 and less than 45 days, respectively. Nevertheless farmers are able to get an average
yield not too bad in the second rainy season, although the reliability of the growing period is low, but there
are many small rains before and after it under which the local maize race has adapted through many genera-
tions and local sorghum too.

This Subzone is really marginal for most of the crops. Even though maize is still the current most dominant
food crop, the yields per hectare are dismally very low due to the vagaries of weather and by the mere fact
that almost no fertiliser inputs are applied during planting. This can be explained simply in terms of the
high poverty levels prevalent in the area. The occasional flooding in the area has also made most farmers
to become dependant on food aid, thus becoming less interested in farming activities. Apart from maize,
sorghum, proso millet, simsim and cassava constitute important components of the food diet. Cotton that
used to be the main cash crop in this Subzone has diminished considerably due to poor market prices. There
are, however, market incentives in place at the moment that could see the growing of cotton revamped.

There is an urgent need to promote soil fertility replenishment efforts in this Subzone if any meaningful crop
production is to be achieved. Such efforts could concentrate on the use of organic fertilisers using locally
available resources. The low nitrogen content can already be enriched by common beans legume as higher
yields of intercropped maize show (Table 17d). Other severe problems responsible for low yields are nema-
todes and Striga. An indication of the present yield increase under three levels of inputs and the potential on
the Acrisols in this Subzone is given in Table 17d.




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      BUSIA & TESO                   56


      TABLE 17d: INCREASE OF YIELDS BY BETTER FARM MANAGEMENT IN
                 AGRO- ECOLOGICAL UNIT1) LM 4, (m/s) + vu, SA 2 & UlIA
      Subzone: (m/s) + (vu), Soil Units: SA 2 & UlIA                                                     Survey area 04 (Bulemia)
                            AEZ: LM 4 MARGINAL COTTON ZONE
                            Subzone: (m/s) + vu (Periods in days2): 1st rainy season 115 - 135, 2nd rainy season 45 or less)
       Crop Yields3)        Unit with predom. Soils: SA 2 & UII A = humic GLEYSOLS and ferro-orthic ACRISOLS
       and Inputs                                                                 2nd rainy season: 150 - 200 mm in at least 10 out
                           Reliable rainfall: 1st rainy season: 350 - 450 mm
                                                                                  15 years
                                          Farmers in Prod. Level                                Farmers in Prod. Level
       Maize local              I=           II =       III =          AEU             I=         II =      III =
                                                                                                                      AEU Pot.6)
       pure stand              low          med.4)      high5)         Pot.6)         low        med.4)     high5)
       Yields3) kg/ha                                                                                               Second
       Fertilizer:                                                                                                  rainy season
       N       kg/ha                                                                                                inadequate
       P2O5 kg/ha                                                                                                   for maize
       K2O kg/ha                                                                                                    here
       Manure t/ha
       Hybrid maize                                                                                                       Second
       Yields3) kg/ha            -            -             -          2600             -            -           -        rainy season
       Fertilizer:                                                                                                        inadequate
       N       kg/ha                                                                                                      for maize
       P2O5 kg/ha                                                                                                         here
       K2O kg/ha.
       Manure t/ha
       Maize local                                                                                                       Second
       intercropped                                                                                                      rainy season
       with beans                                                                                                        inadequate
       Yields3) kg/ha          1045          1317        1349             *             -            -           -       for maize
       Fertilizer:                                                                                                       here
       N       kg/ha             0            0             0
       P2O5 kg/ha                0            0             0
       K2O kg/ha                 -            -             -
       Manure t/ha               0            0            0.3
       Hybrid maize                                                                                                      Second
       intercropped                                                                                                      rainy season
       with beans                                                                                                        inadequate
       Yields3) kg/ha            -            -             -          2500             -            -           -       for maize
       Fertilizer:                                                                                                       here
       N       kg/ha
       P2O5 kg/ha
       K2O kg/ha
       Manure t/ha

      NOTES:
      1)
           Source: Small Farm Survey (2004)
      2)
           Figures of these cereals growing periods should be reached or surpassed in 6 out of 10 years; growing periods may be
           considered longer due to immediately following second rainy season by middle rains. Then the second growing period is
      3)
         Achieved average yields with average rainfall
      4)
         Farmers with medium inputs
      5)
         Farmers with high inputs of fertilizer, insecticides, soil and water conservation
      6)
         Potential yield according to crop list and local climate of this Agro-Ecological Unit if soils are optimally fertilized, plus
         optimal crop management
      * Potential for local maize not known; no experimental results




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                                                                                     BUSIA & TESO           57



TESO DISTRICT

Subzone LM 1, l^m i of the Lower Midland Sugarcane Zone

This is the Sugarcane Zone with a long cropping season followed by a medium one and intermediate rains as
typified by Akobwait Sub-Location in Teso district. Here it is dominated by the difficult soils on bottom-
lands. The soils are a complex of imperfectly drained to poorly drained ones and a few higher places (dystric
Planosols; with pellic Vertisols, vertic and humic Gleysols and plinthic Acrisols).People need the bordering
upland soils too. The rainfall is high and the variability in this Subzone is moderate, and hence the reliability
is not a problem. The first rainy season can rely on an amount of at least 900 – 1000 mm in 10 out of 15
seasons; the second rainy season on 500 – 700 mm. The 60% reliability of growing periods during the 1st
and 2nd seasons is more than 190 and 140 –165 days, respectively.

The zone is climatically well suited for the production of a variety of crops. Maize is still the most dominant
food crop, but yields per hectare have considerably declined due to soil fertility decline and continuing ex-
haustion. Together with the diminished land availability per head, there is a growing danger of shortage if
the yields are not increased. Apart from maize, other important components of the food diet are cassava, sor-
ghum and finger millets. Cassava is considered here as an important food security crop. Cassava has recently
overtaken maize in importance. Infact homesteads without any cassava crop are considered to belong to the
poor wealth ranked class. For oil seed, simsim is planted. The legume crops consist of beans and pigeon peas.
It should be pointed out here that cowpeas are more susceptible to pest infestation and as such require high
inputs of insecticides, which unfortunately are beyond the reach of a majority of smallholder farmers. The
dominant fruit crops are: cooking and sweet bananas and to small extent oranges. Fruit production in this
Subzone could be improved through the use of improved tissue culture and grafted seedling material (which
take only 18 months to bring first fruits). This would greatly improved the quality of the produce and hence
fetch more cash income for the farmers. Vegetable production in this Subzone is limited to the growing of
kales, tomatoes and onions, mainly for home consumption. In some cases, the surplus is sold for cash in
nearby market centres. The current cash crops grown in this Subzone in order of importance are: sugarcane
and tobacco. The proposed Busia Sugar Factory has encouraged many smallholder farmers to grow more
sugar cane at the expense of food crops.

The dominant soil conservation structure at the higher parts is Fanya juu, which is usually fortified with Na-
pier grass. Besides serving as an erosion control measure, it serves as fodder for animals, since many farmers
do practice zero grazing in this Subzone. Soil fertility improvement measures being practiced in this Subzone
include: Compost, manure and the use of effective microoganisms (EM) technology, which enhances the
bio-degradation of compost. If the above listed conservation measures are well implemented, the sustain-
ability of land and eventually the livelihoods of the smallholder farmers in this Subzone will significantly
improve. The lower parts need drainage and ridging to become an arable outlet for the pressure on cropland.
Chick peas would grow on the vertisols, and sweet potatoes on the ridges. The present yield increase under
three levels of inputs and the potential on the predominant soil of this Subzone is shown in Table 17e.




                                                                                                                    123
      BUSIA & TESO                   58


      TABLE 17e: INCREASE OF YIELDS BY BETTER FARM MANAGEMENT IN
                 AGRO- ECOLOGICAL UNIT1) LM 1, l^m i, BXC & UlS 1
      Subzone: l^m i, Soil Units: BXC & UlS 1                                                            Survey area 05 (Amukura)
                            AEZ: LM 1 SUGARCANE ZONE
                            Subzone: l^m i (Periods in days2): 1st rainy season >190, 2nd rainy season 140 - 165)
       Crop Yields3)        Unit with predom. Soils: BXC = dystric PLANOSOLS & UIS 1 = bordering orthic ACRISOLS
       and Inputs                                                                 2nd rainy season: 500 - 700 mm in at least 10 out
                           Reliable rainfall: 1st rainy season: 900 - 1000 mm
                                                                                                    15 years
                                          Farmers in Prod. Level                                 Farmers in Prod. Level
       Maize local              I=            II =      III =          AEU             I=         II =       III =
                                                                                                                      AEU Pot.6)
       pure stand              low          med.4)      high5)         Pot.6)         low        med.4)     high5)
       Yields3) kg/ha            -           1427       1474            *               -         924       1370         *
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha                         2.4           5                                        8.2         16
       P2O5 kg/ha                            3.2           5                                       10.8         16
       K2O kg/ha                              -            -                                         -           -
       Manure t/ha                           1.2          1.2                                       3.8         4.1
       Hybrid maize
       Yields3) kg/ha            -            -             -          6000             -            -           -
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha
       P2O5 kg/ha
       K2O kg/ha.
       Manure t/ha
       Maize local
       intercropped
       with beans
       Yields3) kg/ha            -          3094          3414            *             -            -         4114              *
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha                         19            20                                                    14
       P2O5 kg/ha                            17            20                                                    16
       K2O kg/ha                              -             -                                                     -
       Manure t/ha                           2.4           2.9                                                   12
       Hybrid maize
       intercropped
       with beans
       Yields3) kg/ha            -            -             -          4200             -            -           -
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha
       P2O5 kg/ha
       K2O kg/ha
       Manure t/ha

      NOTES:
      1)
           Source: Small Farm Survey (2004)
      2)
           Figures of these cereals growing periods should be reached or surpassed in 6 out of 10 years; growing periods may be
           considered longer due to immediately following second rainy season by middle rains. Then the second growing period is
      3)
         Achieved average yields with average rainfall
      4)
         Farmers with medium inputs
      5)
         Farmers with high inputs of fertilizer, insecticides, soil and water conservation
      6)
         Potential yield according to crop list and local climate of this Agro-Ecological Unit if soils are optimally fertilized, plus
         optimal crop management
      * Potential for local maize not known; no experimental results




124
                                                                                     BUSIA & TESO           59



Subzone LM 2 l^(m/s) i of the Marginal Sugarcane Zone

This is the Marginal Sugarcane Zone with a long cropping season followed by a (weak) medium to short one and
intermediate rains as typified by Amukura Sub-Location in Teso district. It is dominated by soils on lower-
level uplands. The soils are well drained, moderately deep to very deep and of low fertility (orthic Ferralsols
and orthic Acrisols). The rainfall variability in this Subzone is fairly high, and hence the reliability is low a
bit but still not bad. The first rainy season can rely on an amount of at least 700 – 950 mm in 10 out of 15
seasons; the second rainy season 400 – 650 mm. The 60% reliability of growing periods during the 1st and
2nd seasons is more than 180 and 115-140 days, respectively.

Maize is still the current most dominant food crop, followed by sorghum, finger millet and cassava. The
dominant legume crops are common beans and pigeon peas. The dominant fruit crops are: cooking and
sweet bananas. Fruit production in this Subzone could be improved through the use of improved tissue
culture and grafted seedling material (which take only 18 months to bring first fruits). This would greatly
improved the quality of the produce and hence fetch more cash income for the farmers. Vegetable produc-
tion in this Subzone is limited to the growing of kales, tomatoes and onions, mainly for home consumption.
In some cases, the surplus is sold for cash in nearby market centres. The current cash crops grown in this
Subzone in order of importance are: sugarcane and tobacco. Due to the poor income returns from these
crops, their acreage has declined.

Soil fertility improvement measures being practiced in this Subzone include: inorganic and organic fertilis-
ers. There is need to promote the use of effective microoganisms (EM) technology, which enhances the bio-
degradation of compost. If the above listed conservation measures are well practiced, the soil fertility status
would be greatly enhanced. The present yield increase under three levels of inputs and the potential on the
predominant soil of this Subzone is given in Table 17f.




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      BUSIA & TESO                   60


      TABLE 17f: INCREASE OF YIELDS BY BETTER FARM MANAGEMENT IN
                 AGRO- ECOLOGICAL UNIT1) LM 2, l^(m/s) i, UlG 3
      Subzone: l^(m/s) i, Soil Unit: UlG 3                                                               Survey area 06 (Akobwait)
                            AEZ: LM 2 MARGINAL SUGARCANE ZONE
                            Subzone: l^(m/s) i (Periods in days2): 1st rainy season >180, 2nd rainy season 115 - 140)
                            Unit with predom. Soils: UIG 3 = orthic and ferralo-orthic ACRISOLS, surrounds BXC complex
       Crop Yields3)                                         of dystric PLANOSOLS, dystric and vertic GLEYSOLS and
       and Inputs                                            pellic VERTISOLS
                                                                                  2nd rainy season: 400 - 650 mm in at least 10 out
                           Reliable rainfall: 1st rainy season: 700 - 950 mm
                                                                                                    15 years
                                          Farmers in Prod. Level                                 Farmers in Prod. Level
       Maize local              I=           II =       III =          AEU             I=         II =       III =
                                                                                                                      AEU Pot.6)
       pure stand              low          med.4)      high5)         Pot.6)         low        med.4)     high5)
       Yields3) kg/ha
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha
       P2O5 kg/ha
       K2O kg/ha
       Manure t/ha
       Hybrid maize                                                                                                       Hybrid maize
       Yields3) kg/ha                       2813         4229          6000             -            -                    not suited in
       Fertilizer:                                                                                                         the 2nd rains
       N       kg/ha                         25            31                                                                  here
       P2O5 kg/ha                            25            30
       K2O kg/ha.                             -             -
       Manure t/ha                           4.1           7.1
       Maize local
       intercropped
       with beans
       Yields3) kg/ha                                                                   -          1170        1224              *
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha                                                                                25          28
       P2O5 kg/ha                                                                                   25          27
       K2O kg/ha                                                                                     -           -
       Manure t/ha                                                                                  4.1         6.3
       Hybrid maize                                                                                                       Hybrid maize
       intercropped                                                                                                       not suited in
       with beans                                                                                                          the 2nd rains
       Yields3) kg/ha            -           2145        3405          4000                                      -             here
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha                         17            19
       P2O5 kg/ha                            17            18
       K2O kg/ha                              -             -
       Manure t/ha                           2.7           4.3

      NOTES:
      1)
           Source: Small Farm Survey (2004)
      2)
           Figures of these cereals growing periods should be reached or surpassed in 6 out of 10 years; growing periods may be
           considered longer due to immediately following second rainy season by middle rains. Then the second growing period is
      3)
         Achieved average yields with average rainfall
      4)
         Farmers with medium inputs
      5)
         Farmers with high inputs of fertilizer, insecticides, soil and water conservation
      6)
         Potential yield according to crop list and local climate of this Agro-Ecological Unit if soils are optimally fertilized, plus
         optimal crop management
      * Potential for local maize not known; no experimental results



126
                                                                                     BUSIA & TESO           61



Subzone LM 3 m/l^(s) of the Lower Midland Cotton Zone, Soil Unit PnG1

This is the Cotton Zone with a medium to long cropping season followed by a (weak) short one as typified by
Kamolo Sub-Location in Teso district. It is dominated by soils on non dissected erosional plains. The soils
are a complex of imperfectly drained to poorly drained clays of low fertility (gleyic Acrisols and dystric Gley-
sols). The rainfall variability in this Subzone is moderate in the first season and higher in the second one, and
hence their reliability is lower. The first rainy season can rely on an amount of at least 500 – 800 mm in 10
out of 15 seasons; the second rainy season on 230 – 400 mm. The 60% reliability of growing periods during
the 1st and 2nd seasons is 155 - 175 and 85 - 105 days, respectively.

The Subzone is well suited for the production of a variety of crops. Maize has been the most dominant food
crop, but yields per hectare have considerably declined due to soil fertility related problems. Cassava has now
become the most important food and cash crop. Apart from maize, finger millet, sweet potatoes and a lot
of cassava constitute important components of the food diet. The dominant legume crops include common
beans, cowpeas, groundnuts green grams and pigeon peas, which are usually grown on higher ground. The
dominant fruit crop is the cooking banana type that is grown in valley bottoms. Banana production in this
Subzone could be improved through the use of improved tissue culture banana seedling material (which
takes only 18 months to mature fruits). This would greatly improve the quality of the produce and hence
fetch more cash income for the farmers. Vegetable production in this Agro-Ecological Unit of the Subzone
is limited to the growing of kales, tomatoes and onions, mainly for home consumption but it could be more
varied and increased. There is great potential for indegenous vegetables in this zone too. The current cash
crops grown in this Subzone include: sunflower, tobacco and cotton. However, the returns from cotton and
sunflower are very minimal because of poor marketing outlets; their area is decreasing while that of tobacco
is increasing.

Soil fertility improvement measures being practiced in this Subzone are mainly through the use of crop
residues. Very little or no fertiliser is applied to the food crop fields. There is need to promote the use of ef-
fective microoganisms (EM) technology, which enhances the bio-degradation of compost and crop residues.
If the above listed measures together with more manuring are well practiced, the soil fertility status would be
greatly enhanced. The present yield increase under three levels of inputs and the potential on the predomi-
nant soil of this Subzone is shown in Table 17g.




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      BUSIA & TESO                   62


      TABLE 17g: INCREASE OF YIELDS BY BETTER FARM MANAGEMENT IN
                 AGRO- ECOLOGICAL UNIT1) LM 3, m/l^(s), UmG 2
      Subzone: m/l^(s), Soil Unit: UmG 2                                                                  Survey area 07 (Kamolo)
                            AEZ: LM 3 COTTON ZONE
                            Subzone: m/l^(s) (Periods in days2): 1st rainy season 155 - 175, 2nd rainy season 85 - 105)
       Crop Yields3)        Unit with predom. Soils: UmG 2 = ferralo - orthic ACRISOLS
       and Inputs                                                                 2nd rainy season: 230 - 400 mm in at least 10 out
                           Reliable rainfall: 1st rainy season: 500 - 800 mm
                                                                                                    15 years
                                          Farmers in Prod. Level                                Farmers in Prod. Level
       Maize local              I=           II =       III =          AEU             I=         II =      III =
                                                                                                                     AEU Pot.6)
       pure stand              low          med.4)      high5)         Pot.6)         low        med.4)     high5)
       Yields3) kg/ha            -             -           -                            -           -         -
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha
       P2O5 kg/ha
       K2O kg/ha
       Manure t/ha
       Hybrid maize                                                                                                          Hybrid
       Yields3) kg/ha            -            -             -          4300             -                                  maize not
       Fertilizer:                                                                                                          suited in
       N       kg/ha                                                                                                      the 2nd rains
       P2O5 kg/ha                                                                                                             here
       K2O kg/ha.
       Manure t/ha
       Maize local
       intercropped
       with beans
       Yields3) kg/ha                                                                   -          878         1557             *
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha                                                                                5.0        10.1
       P2O5 kg/ha                                                                                  10.0        14.6
       K2O kg/ha                                                                                     -           -
       Manure t/ha                                                                                 0.8          1.1
       Hybrid maize                                                                                                      Hybrid maize
       intercropped                                                                                                      not suited in
       with beans                                                                                                         the 2nd rains
       Yields3) kg/ha            -          1898         2520          3200             -                                     here
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha                         39            40
       P2O5 kg/ha                            5.7           10
       K2O kg/ha                              -             -
       Manure t/ha                           0.4           0.8

      NOTES:
      1)
           Source: Small Farm Survey (2004)
      2)
           Figures of these cereals growing periods should be reached or surpassed in 6 out of 10 years; growing periods may be
           considered longer due to immediately following second rainy season by middle rains. Then the second growing period is
      3)
         Achieved average yields with average rainfall
      4)
         Farmers with medium inputs
      5)
         Farmers with high inputs of fertilizer, insecticides, soil and water conservation
      6)
         Potential yield according to crop list and local climate of this Agro-Ecological Unit if soils are optimally fertilized, plus
         optimal crop management
      * Potential for local maize not known; no experimental results




128
                                                                                     BUSIA & TESO            63



Subzone LM 3 m/l^(s) of the Lower Midland Cotton Zone, Soil Unit UmG2

This is the Cotton Zone with a medium to long cropping season followed by a (weak) short one as typified by
Katalepai Sub-Location in Teso district. It is dominated by soils on middle-level uplands. The soils are well
drained, deep to very deep and of moderate to low fertility (ferralo-orthic Acrisols). The rainfall variability
in this Subzone is moderate in the first rainy season and higher in the second one, and hence their reliability
is lower. The first rainy season can rely on an amount of at least 500 – 800 mm in 10 out of 15 seasons; the
second rainy season only on 230 – 400 mm. The 60% reliability of growing periods during the 1st and 2nd
seasons is 155 – 175 and 85 – 105 days, respectively.

Although it receives less rainfall than zones 1 and 2, this Subzone is still well suited for the production of a
variety of crops. The cotton area has decreased considerably due to low cash returns to the farmers, tobacco is
increasing instead. Maize is the most dominant food crop, but the average yields per hectare have consider-
ably declined due to soil exhaustion and fertility related problems from 2500 kg/ha to 1800 kg/ha in spite of
higher inputs of N and K , but other nutrients are almost finished. Apart from maize, cassava is increasingly
becoming an important component of the food diet because it still gives some amount of yield on degraded
soils; finger millet is still important as a staple food and sweet potatoes are becoming important. The domi-
nant legume crops include common beans, cowpeas, groundnuts, green grams, pigeon peas and soybeans,
which are usually grown on higher ground. The dominant fruit crops are citrus, mangoes and cooking ba-
nana that is grown in valley bottoms. Fruit production in this Subzone could be improved through the use
of improved tissue culture seedling materials which take only 18 months to bring first fruits. This would
greatly raise the quality of the produce and hence fetch more cash income for the farmers. Also the planted
area of only 2% of the crop land could be increased. Vegetable production in this Subzone is limited to the
growing of kales, cabbages, tomatoes and onions, mainly for home consumption. There is great potential for
the cultivation of indigenous vegetables.

Soil fertility improvement measures being practiced in this Subzone are mainly through the use of crop resi-
dues. Very little or no fertiliser is applied to the food crop fields. There is need to promote the use of effective
microoganisms (EM) technology, which enhances the bio-degradation of crop residues and compost. If the
above listed measures and manuring are well practiced, the soil fertility status would be greatly enhanced.
The present yield increase under three levels of inputs and the potential on the predominant soil of this
Subzone is shown in Table 17h.




                                                                                                                     129
      BUSIA & TESO                64


      TABLE 17h: INCREASE OF YIELDS BY BETTER FARM MANAGEMENT IN
                 AGRO- ECOLOGICAL UNIT1) LM 3, m/l^(s), PnG 1
      Subzone: m/l^(s), Soil Unit: PnG 1                                                               Survey area 08 (Katalepai)
                            AEZ: LM 3 COTTON ZONE
                            Subzone: m/l^(s) (Periods in days2): 1st rainy season 155 - 175, 2nd rainy season 85 - 105)
       Crop Yields3)        Unit with predom. Soils: PnG 1 = gleyic ACRISOLS and dystric GLEYSOLS
       and Inputs                                                                 2nd rainy season: 230 - 400 mm in at least 10 out
                           Reliable rainfall: 1st rainy season: 500 - 800 mm
                                                                                                    15 years
                                        Farmers in Prod. Level                                  Farmers in Prod. Level
       Maize local              I=         II =       III =            AEU             I=         II =      III =
                                                                                                                     AEU Pot.6)
       pure stand              low        med.4)      high5)           Pot.6)         low        med.4)     high5)
       Yields3) kg/ha            -           -           -                              *           -         -
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha
       P2O5 kg/ha
       K2O kg/ha
       Manure t/ha
       Hybrid maize                                                                                                          Hybrid
       Yields3) kg/ha                                                                                                      maize not
       Fertilizer:                                                                                                          suited in
       N       kg/ha                                                                                                      the 2nd rains
       P2O5 kg/ha                                                                                                             here
       K2O kg/ha.
       Manure t/ha
       Maize local
       intercropped
       with beans
       Yields3) kg/ha                                                                              919         1453             *
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha                                                                                13          24
       P2O5 kg/ha                                                                                   25          30
       K2O kg/ha                                                                                     -           -
       Manure t/ha                                                                                  0.1         0.2
       Hybrid maize                                                                                                      Hybrid maize
       intercropped                                                                                                      not suited in
       with beans                                                                                                         the 2nd rains
       Yields3) kg/ha          1806         1808          1827         3600                                                   here
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha             0           13            24
       P2O5 kg/ha                0           25            30
       K2O kg/ha                 -            -             -
       Manure t/ha              0.1          0.1           0.2

      NOTES:
      1)
           Source: Small Farm Survey (2004)
      2)
           Figures of these cereals growing periods should be reached or surpassed in 6 out of 10 years; growing periods may be
           considered longer due to immediately following second rainy season by middle rains. Then the second growing period is
      3)
         Achieved average yields with average rainfall
      4)
         Farmers with medium inputs
      5)
         Farmers with high inputs of fertilizer, insecticides, soil and water conservation
      6)
         Potential yield according to crop list and local climate of this Agro-Ecological Unit if soils are optimally fertilized, plus
         optimal crop management
      * Potential for local maize not known; no experimental results




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                                                                                  BUSIA & TESO           65



3.2.6 FERTILISER AND MANURE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPORTANT
      AGRO-ECOLOGICAL UNITS

The Fertiliser Use Recommendation Project of the GTZ (1986 - 92) had two trial sites in the former Busia
district, one at Alupe in Zone LM 1 and the other in Bukiri-Buburi in LM 3. For the other zones, subzones
and units MURIUKI and QURESHI showed which results from other districts could be representative (see
map of Fertiliser Recommendations and Farm Survey Areas) and made curves for fertiliser response1.
The trial site at Alupe was placed in a hitherto uncultivated plot where the natural fertility was not yet
depleted. Because of the unexhausted soil, the results after fertilizing and manuring were not significantly
higher and it seemed not economic to apply it, and therefore KARI gave no quantified recommendations.
But it was mentioned already that for depleted soils it might become necessary to apply fertiliser plus ma-
nure as the results of the Farm Survey 2004 showed.

Recommended rates of an AEU increase towards the wetter Subzone and decrease into a drier one if the
soil unit extends there (see the small maps). We have tended to lower the rates due to the low financial
base of the smallholder farmers. The optimum can be calculated from the curve formulas in MURIUKI &
QURESHI Fertiliser Use Manual, KARI, Nairobi 2001. In the long run a sustained amount must be given
to maintain the nutrient content of the soil. Some quantities for this can be seen in the chapter 3.1 under
the General Remarks section.

Higher recommendations are given in the Smallholder Farming Handbook of the IRACC and MSS, Nai-
robi 1997, but the economic investment and risk is too high for the local farmers here. A rural small credit
system for the inputs could help a lot. Where scientific sources for quantifying the rates are lacking, some
conclusions can be drawn from the difference of inputs and yields between the low and high production
levels of the Farm Survey 2004. The empty column of the Table “Other Nutrients Recommended”does not
mean that there is no application necessary. It is simple because of lacking of trial results. Symptoms of nu-
trient deficiencies and for the methods of addressing them see Muriuki, A.W. and Qureshi, J.N. (2001),
Table 1&2, p. 22-23.

Finally it must be mentioned again that fertilising alone will increase the yields only for some few years.
The micronutrients that are not included in the fertiliser become exhausted with time. The application of
manure to required levels is a must in order to have a stable agrobiological system with continuous produc-
tion2.




1
    Muriuki, A.W. & Qureshi, J.N.: Fertiliser Use Manual. Nairobi kari .




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                                                                                                      BUSIA & TESO               67




TABLE 18a: FERTILISER AND MANURE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR AGRO-
           ECOLOGICAL UNIT LM 1 p or two, UlG l
                                   Recommended             Average Yield
    Crop varieties and                                     Increase if this        Average Yield
                                   Fertiliser Rates                                Increase if       Other Nutrients
    Season                                                 Rate is Applied 1
                                   kg/ha                   kg/ha                   Manure is Applied Recommended
    First rainy season
    Hybrid maize                   20 N + 10 P2O5          900                     5t/ha      ca. 800 kg     500 kg of Lime/ha
    Local maize & beans            *                       *                       3t/ha      ca. 300 kg     Potassium
    Hybrid maize & beans           20 P2O5                 800 (maize)             5t/ha      ca. 500 kg     Potassium
    Sorghum, medium mat.           20 P2O5                 750                     *                         Lime
    Second rainy season
    Hybrid maize                   20 P2O5                 450                     3t/ha      ca. 400 kg     Lime
    Local maize & beans            *                       *                       2t/ha      ca. 200 kg     Potassium
    Biseasonal (or more)
    Cassava                        20 N + 35 P2O5          ca. 5000                *                         -
    Semi-permanent
                                   350 CAN + 250                                                             Lime soil 4 t/ha at
    Sugarcane   2                  Superphosphate, ca. 30000                                                 planting, 250 kg/ha
                                                                                   *
                                   ratoons 650 CAN                                                           Muriate of Potash
                                   + 400 Superphos.                                                          for 3rd ratoon

Sources: MURIUKI & QURESHI: Fertiliser Use Manual 2001, p. 94, 97 & 106; conclusions from the Farm Survey
                                                           J. IMBIRA; Inform. Research and Communication
         Centre (IRACC): Small Holder Farming Handbook for Self Employment.-Nairobi 1997, p. 167
1
    Double rates on cereals will yield almost double if climate is suitable and there are no pests and diseases; * data not available
2
    The Prov. Farm Man.O. J. Imbira recommends (for practical reasons) lower amounts than the IRACC: 4 bags/ha DAP or 9 bags/ha SSP and
    2 bags/ha potash at planting time, 7 bags/ha CAN or 4 bags/ha urea as topdressing; 9 bags/ha CAN or 5 bags/ha urea for the ratoon.




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      TABLE 18b: FERTILISER AND MANURE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR AGRO-
                 ECOLOGICAL UNITS 1 LM 1 l^m i, UlS l & UlSA
                                                Recommended               Average Yield
                                                                          Increase if this           Average Yield
            Crop varieties and                  Fertiliser Rates                                       Increase if                 Other Nutrients
                 Season                                                  Rate is Applied 1                                         Recommended
                                                     kg/ha                    kg/ha                 Manure is Applied
          First rainy season
          Hybrid maize                      25 N + 15 P2O5              1000                        5t/ha       ca. 800 kg       Lime + Mg. +
          Local maize & beans               *                           *                           3t/ha       ca. 500 kg       potassium
          Hybrid maize & beans              20 P2O5                     800 (maize)                 5t/ha       ca. 800 kg       together
          Second rainy season
          Local maize                       *                           *                           4t/ha       ca. 700 kg                 “
          Local maize & beans               *                           *                           4t/ha       ca. 700 kg                 “
          Semi-permanent
                                                                                                                                 Lime mixed with
                                            350 CAN. + 250
                                                                                                                                 soil 4 t/ha at
                                            Superphosphate,
          Sugarcane 2                       ratoons 650 CAN + ca. 30000                             *                            planting, 250 kg/ha
                                                                                                                                 Muriate of Potash
                                            400 Superphos.
                                                                                                                                 for 3rd ratoon

                                                                                                 J. IMBIRA;
                    Inform. Research and Communication Centre (IRACC): Small Holder Farming Handbook for Self
                    Employment.-Nairobi 1997, p. 167
      1
          Units with soils not significantly different. Extend into LM 2, l^(m/s) i, where the rates and yields decrease ca. 20% due to lower rainfall, esp. in
          the 2nd rainy season; * data not available
      2
          The Prov. Farm Man.O. J. Imbira recommends (for practical reasons) lower amounts than the IRACC: 4 bags/ha DAP or 9 bags/ha SSP and
           2 bags/ha potash at planting time, 7 bags/ha CAN or 4 bags/ha urea as topdressing; 9 bags/ha CAN or 5 bags/ha urea for the ratoon.



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TABLE 18c: FERTILISER AND MANURE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR AGRO-
           ECOLOGICAL UNIT LM 1 l^m i, UlD l
                                                                    Average Yield
                                           Recommended              Increase if this            Average Yield
    Crop varieties and Season              Fertiliser Rates         Rate is Applied              Increase if            Other Nutrients
                                                                                                 Manure is              Recommended
                                                 kg/ha                    kg/ha                   Applied
    First rainy season
    Hybrid maize                         50 N + 10 P2O5            675                      5t/ha      ca. 900 kg Lime + Mg. +
    Hybrid maize & beans                 25                        790 (maize)              3t/ha      ca. 500 kg potassium
    Sorghum, m. mat.                     20 P2O5                   845                      *                     together
    Second rainy season
    Hybrid maize                         50 N                      300                      *                                   “
    Hybrid maize & beans                 25 N                      620 (maize)              4t/ha      ca. 700 kg               “
    Sorghum, m. mat.                     20 P2O5                   510                      *                                   “
    Semi-permanent
                                                                                                                      Lime mixed with
                                         350 CAN. + 250
                                                                                                                      soil 4 t/ha at
                                         Superphosphate,
    Sugarcane 1                          ratoons 650 CAN           ca. 30000                *                         planting, 250 kg/ha
                                                                                                                      Muriate of Potash
                                         + 400 Superphos.
                                                                                                                      for 3rd ratoon

Sources: MURIUKI & QURESHI: Fertiliser Use Manual 2001, p. 90&94; conclusions from the Farm Survey 2004,
                                                    J. IMBIRA; Inform. Research and Communication Centre
         (IRACC): Small Holder Farming Handbook for Self Employment.-Nairobi 1997, p. 167
1
    The Prov. Farm Man.O. J. Imbira recommends (for practical reasons) lower amounts than the IRACC: 4 bags/ha DAP or 9 bags/ha SSP and
    2 bags/ha potash at planting time, 7 bags/ha CAN or 4 bags/ha urea as topdressing; 9 bags/ha CAN or 5 bags/ha urea for the ratoon; * data not
    available



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      TABLE 18d: FERTILISER AND MANURE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR AGRO-
                 ECOLOGICAL UNITS 1 LM 2, l^(m/s) i, UIGA 1 with BXC 1 (mbugas)
                                                                     Average Yield             Average Yield
                                              Recommended            Increase if this           Increase if          Other Nutrients
          Crop varieties and Season           Fertiliser Rates
                                                   kg/ha             Rate is Applied            Manure is            Recommended
                                                                         kg/ha                   Applied
          First rainy season
          Hybrid maize                       25 P2O5                 600                                           500 kg lime/ha
          Local maize & beans                *                       -                                             Lime + Mg. +
          Hybrid maize & beans               50 P2O5                 -                                             potassium
          Sorghum, m. mat.                   25 P2O5                 650 (maize)           *                       together
          Second rainy season
          Hybrid maize                       20 P2O5                 400                   4t/ha     ca. 500 kg             “
          Local maize & beans                -                       -                     2t/ha     ca. 500 kg             “
          Hybrid maize & beans               -                       -                     *                                “
          Sorghum, m. to e. mat.             -                       -                     *                                “
          Semi-permanent
                                                                                                                   Lime mixed with
                                             300 CAN + 250
                                             Superphosph.,                                                         soil 4 t/ha at
          Sugarcane 2)                       ratoons 600 CAN
                                                                     ca. 25 000            *                       planting, 250 kg/ha
                                                                                                                   Muriate of Potash
                                             + 400 Superphos.                                                      for 3rd ratoon

      Sources: MURIUKI & QURESHI: Fertiliser Use Manual 2001, p. 90&97; conclusions from the Farm Survey 2004,
                                                          J. IMBIRA; Inform. Research and Communication Centre
               (IRACC): Small Holder Farming Handbook for Self Employment.-Nairobi 1997, p. 167, reduced due
               to less rainfall.
      1
          A complex of peneplains and broad bottomlands (valley mbugas), recommendations are for the higher places; * data not available
      2
          The Prov. Farm Man.O. J. Imbira recommends (for practical reasons) lower amounts than the IRACC: 4 bags/ha DAP or 9 bags/ha SSP and
          2 bags/ha potash at planting time, 7 bags/ha CAN or 4 bags/ha urea as topdressing; 9 bags/ha CAN or 5 bags/ha urea for the ratoon.



136
                                                                                                      BUSIA & TESO          71




TABLE 18e: FERTILISER AND MANURE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR AGRO-
           ECOLOGICAL UNITS 1) LM 3 m^(s or s/vs), UlIA & UlI 1

                                               Recommended              Average Yield          Average Yield
                                                                        Increase if this        Increase if      Other Nutrients
     Crop varieties and Season                 Fertiliser Rates
                                                                        Rate is Applied         Manure is        Recommended
                                                    kg/ha                   kg/ha                Applied
     First rainy season
     Hybrid maize                           25 P2O5                     700                5t/ha    ca. 500 kg Lime + Mg. +
     Local maize & beans                    *                           *                  *                   potassium
     Hybrid maize & beans                   50 P2O5                     975 (maize)        5t/ha    ca. 460 kg together
     Sorghum, m. mat.                       25 P2O5                     950                *                          “
     Cotton (to 2nd r.s.)                   15 P2O5 or 150 DSP          140                5t/ha    ca. 900 kg        “
     Second rainy season
     Maize KCB 1                            25 P2O5                     660                5t/ha    ca. 400 kg         “
     Maize KCB & beans                      *                           *                  5t/ha    ca. 300 kg         “
     Biseasonal (or more)
     Cassava                                30 P2O5                     2200               *                           “

Sources: MURIUKI & QURESHI: Fertiliser Use Manual 2001, p. 93 & 94; FURP of GTZ and KARI: Fertiliser Use
         Recommendations, Vol. 9, BUSIA District, Nairobi, 1995. Trial Site Bukiri-Buburi; Inform. Research
         and Communication Centre (IRACC): Small Holder Farming Handbook for Self Employment.-Nairobi
         1997, p. 155
1)
     Units with soils not significantly different; * data not available




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      BUSIA & TESO   72




138
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TABLE 18f: FERTILISER AND MANURE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR AGRO-
           ECOLOGICAL UNITS 1) LM 2 l/m^(s/m) & LM 3 m/l^(s), PnG 1

                                             Recommended                   Average Yield               Average Yield
                                                                           Increase if this             Increase if         Other Nutrients
     Crop varieties and Season               Fertiliser Rates
                                                                           Rate is Applied              Manure is           Recommended
                                                  kg/ha                        kg/ha                     Applied
     First rainy season
     Hybrid maize                           20 N + 10 P2O5             800                                                  Lime + Mg. +
     Local maize                            *                          *                                                    potassium
     Local maize & beans                    *                          *                                                    together
     Hybrid maize & beans                   20 N, 20 P2O5              1 000 (maize)                                               “
     Cotton (to 2nd r.s.)                   150 DSP                    *                           *                               “
     Second rainy season
     Local maize & beans                    10 P2O5                    500 (maize)                 4t/ha       ca. 400 kg         “
     Biseasonal (or more)
     Cassava                                30 P2O5                    2200                        *                              “

Sources: Conclusions from Farm Survey area 7 (approximate estimates); Inform. Research and Communication
         Centre (IRACC): Small Holder Farming Handbook for Self Employment.-Nairobi 1997, p. 155
1)
     Rates and yields are for LM 2; in LM 3 they are about 10% less,in the 2nd rainy season; * data not available




TABLE 18g: FERTILISER AND MANURE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR AGRO-
           ECOLOGICAL UNIT LM 3 m/l^(s), UmG 2
                                                                           Average Yield               Average Yield
                                             Recommended                   Increase if this             Increase if         Other Nutrients
     Crop varieties and Season               Fertiliser Rates
                                                  kg/ha                    Rate is Applied              Manure is           Recommended
                                                                               kg/ha                     Applied
     First rainy season
     Hybrid maize                           25 N + 10 P2O5             850                         *                        Lime + Mg. +
     Local maize                            *                          *                           *                        potassium
     Local maize & beans                    -                          -                           *                        together
                                            150 Double
     Cotton (to 2nd r.s.)                   Superphosphate
                                                                       *                           *                              “
     Second rainy season
     Due to the short and weak              No fertiliser is                                       Manuring is in any
     2nd rainy season                       recommended
                                            because of the                                         increase Nitrate
                                            climatic and                                           and the humus
                                            economic risk                                          content and to
                                                                                                   increase the
                                                                                                   moisture storage
                                                                                                   capacity of the soil

Sources: Muriuki & Qureshi: Fertiliser Use Manual 2001, p. 90&94; conclusions from the Farm
         Survey 2004, area 8; Inform. Research and Communication Centre (IRACC): Small Holder Farming
         Handbook for Self Employment.-Nairobi 1997, p. 155; * data not available




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      BUSIA & TESO                     74




      TABLE 18h: FERTILISER AND MANURE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR AGRO-
                 ECOLOGICAL UNITS 1) LM 4 (m/s) + (vu), UlIA with SA 2
      Outside the swampy places in soil unit SA 2
                                                                                Average Yield
                                                    Recommended                 Increase if this             Average Yield        Other
           Crop varieties and Season                Fertiliser Rates                                       Increase if Manure   Nutrients
                                                         kg/ha                  Rate is Applied                is Applied     Recommended
                                                                                    kg/ha
           First rainy season
           Maize H 511 or 512                     25 N + 20 P2O5              410                                                      *
           Local maize & beans                    25 N                        325 (maize)                                              -
           Sorghum, m./e. mat                     25 N                        320                                                      -
           Second rainy season
           Due to the short and weak              No fertiliser is                                         Manuring is in any
           2nd rainy season                       recommended
                                                  because of the                                           increase Nitrate and
                                                  climatic and                                             the humus content
                                                  economic risk                                            and to increase the
                                                                                                           moisture storage
                                                                                                           capacity of the soil,
                                                                                                           also for the next
                                                                                                           season
           First to second rainy seas.
           Cotton                                        100 DSP                                                        “

      Sources: Muriuki & Qureshi: Fertiliser Use Manual 2001, p. 90 & 93; conclusions from the Farm Survey
               2004, area 4.
      1)
           For the rates and yields at higher located soils UlIA, see Table 19e excluding the 2nd rainy season; * data not available




140
                                                                                   BUNG. & MT.EL. 1


3.3       BUNGOMA AND MT. ELGON GROUP OF DISTRICTS

                                                   TABLE OF CONTENTS                                     DistrictPage

      3.3.1   Natural Potential                                                                            3
               Introduction                                                                                3
               Average Annual Rainfall Map                                                                 4
               Table 1: Rainfall Figures                                                                   5
               Table 2: Temperature Data                                                                   5
               66% Reliability of Rainfall in Agrohumid Period of First Rainy Season                       6
               66% Reliability of Rainfall in Agrohumid Period of the Second Rainy Season . . . . . . . . . 7
               Table 3: Average Potential Evapotranspiration                                               8
               Table 4: Climate in the Agro-Ecological Zones                                               9
               Agro-Ecological Zones Map                                                                  10
               Agro-Ecological Zones and Subzones (=Legend to the AEZ Map), with Land Use
               Potentials and Water Availability &Requirement Diagrams                                    11
               Bungoma and Mt. Elgon Soils                                                                17
               Soil Distribution, Fertility and Major Characteristics with Legend to the Soil Map         18

      3.3.2 Population and Land                                                                           22

               Bungoma District
               Table 5: Population in Bungoma District Per Division and Location                          22
               Table 6: Composition of Households in Bungoma District Per Division and Location           23
                Table 7: Available Land Area in Bungoma District per AEZ and Household                    24
               Mt. Elgon District
               Table 8: Population in Mt. Elgon District Per Division and Location                        25
               Table 9: Composition of Households in Mt. Elgon District Per Division and Location         26
               Table 10: Available Land Area in Mt. Elgon District per AEZ and Household                  26

      3.3.3   Agricultural Statistics                                                                     27
               Development and Trends of Major Cash Crops in Bungoma District                             27
               Table 11: Bungoma District Coffee Area, Production and Yield Trends                         27
               Development and Trends of Major Cash Crops in Mt. Elgon District                           28
               Table 12: Mt. Elgon Coffee Area, Production and Yield Trends                                28
               Table 13: Mt. Elgon Maize Area, Production and Yield Trends                                28
               Distribution of Farming Activities During the Year Per Week and Agro-ecological Zone 29
               Tables 14 a-k: Farming Activities in the Agro-Ecological Zones                             29

      3.3.4   Farm Survey in Bungoma and Mt. Elgon Districts                                              35
               Table 15: Farm Survey Sites in Bungoma and Mt. Elgon Districts                             35
               Farm Survey Areas and Fertiliser Recommendations Map                                       36
               Tables 16 a-i: Assets, Land Use, Farming Intensity and Inputs                              37


                                                                                                                        141
      BUNG. & MT.EL. 2


                    Tables 17 a-i: Cropping Pattern                                                                                    46-54

        3.3.5 Introduction to the Actual Land Use Systems and to the Potential Intensification
              by Better Farm Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

                    Bungoma District
                    LM2 l^(m/s) of the Lower Midland Marginal Sugarcane Zone                                                           55
                    Tables 18 a-g: Increase of Yields by Better Farm Management                                                     56 - 68
                    LM3 m/l^(s) of the Lower Midland Cotton Zone (Valley Bottomlands)                                                  57
                    LM3 m/l^(s) of the Lower Midland Cotton Zone (Undulating Peneplains)                                               59
                    UM1 m/l^m/s of the Coffee-Tea Zone                                                                                  61
                    UM2 m/l^s i of the Main Coffee Zone                                                                                 63
                    UM3-4 l/vl i of the Marginal Coffee Zone                                                                            65
                    UM4 l/vl or two of the Maize-Sunflower Zone                                                                         67


                    Mt. Elgon District
                    LH1 l/m^mi of the Tea-Dairy Zone                                                                                   69
                    Tables 18 h-i: Increase of Yields by Better Farm Management                                                     70 - 72
                    LH2 vl i of the Wheat/Maize-Pyrethrum Zone                                                                         71

        3.3.6     Fertiliser and Manure Recommendations for Important Agro-Ecological Units                                            73
                   Maps of Important Agro-Ecological Units                                                                             75
                   Tables 19 a-e: Fertiliser and Manure Recommendations:                                                           77 - 80
                   LM2 l^(m/s) i & l^(s) i & LM3 m/l^(s), UIGA 1 & UIG3, UIGA & BXC1
                   of the Marginal Sugarcane & Cotton Zones                                                                            77
                   UM1 m/l^m/s i & UM2 m/l^s/m & s i, UM 3-4 l/vl i, UIN1&3 of the Tea-Coffee,
                   Main Coffee & Marginal Coffee Zones                                                                                   78
                   UM 3-4 l^vl i or m^s i & UM4 l/vl or two, UIRA & UlGA1 of the Marginal Coffee &
                   Maize-Sunflower Zones                                                                                                79
                   LH1 l/m^m & LH2 vl i or two, RB2 of the Tea and Coffee & Wheat/M.-Pyr. Zones                                         80




142
                                                                                   BUNG. & MT.EL. 3


3.3.1 NATURAL POTENTIAL

INTRODUCTION

The Bungoma and Mt. Elgon districts are mainly situated on the slopes and foothills of Mt. Elgon, and its
natural potential is partly related to the natural potential of the districts in Central or East Kenya also situ-
ated on the slopes of a volcanic mountain: forest, tea and coffee zones, fertile volcanic soils, enough water.

However, the climate shows differences. Here, the foot plains featuring well-distributed annual average
rainfall of 1200 – 1800 mm, are generally wetter due to local rains caused by winds from Lake Victoria. This
allows sugar cane cultivation (except in western areas); for the same reason, differentiation in rainy seasons
during the years is much less. It is very difficult to say what the second rains are because of more or less
continuous rainfall.

Therefore, the growing periods given in the Subzones are only one possibility of dividing the normally very
long period. The symbol for the second cropping season indicates here the remaining time for cultivation
after the first maize crop is harvested. Of course the second period may be longer if plantings starts earlier,
but then the first one is shortened (Table 4).

The average annual rainfall in the districts ranges from 1 000 to 1 800 mm; the seasonal distribution is
500 – 1 000 mm during 1st rains and 430 – 800 mm during 2nd rains in 10 out of 15 years (66% reli-
ability). The Agro-Ecological Zones stretch from Tropical Alpine Zones to Lower Midland Zones with tea,
wheat/maize-pyrethrum, coffee, maize-sunflower, sugar cane and cotton zones. The potential for tea is not
yet really developed. Annual crops may be late maturing ones. The total amount for the 60% reliability of
growing periods ranges from more than 360 days (LH 1) to about 230 days (LM 3 or UM 3/UM 4).

On the other hand it means we have in zone UM 3-4 a dry period of about 135 days with a very low rainfall
reliability, lasting from October to February. This is insufficient for coffee. In spite of the relatively high an-
nual rainfall, the climate is very marginal regarding coffee cultivation, therefore the zone is named three to
four. It means that for coffee growing, there must be a deep soil with very good moisture storage conditions
which occurs locally only.

In the southern part of the district (especially in LM 3) the annual mean temperature is about 21-22°C
in the northern part, however, because of the altitude, 5 –10°C (in TA I and TA II). Evapotranspiration is
relatively low in the agricultural zones and increases from less than 1 400 mm (in LH 1) to 1 800 mm (in
UM 1/UM 2). In the southern part of the district only, potential evapotranspiration may reach more than
1 800 mm per year.




                                                                                                                    143
      BUNG. & MT.EL. 4




144
                                                                                                      BUNG. & MT.EL. 5


TABLE 1: RAINFALL FIGURES
         from selected typical stations having at least 15 years of records
                                   Agro Ecol. Kind Annual                               Monthly rainfall in mm
    No. and        Name of
                                    Zone &     of   rainfall
    altitude       Station          Subzone records mm                     J    F   M   A   M     J    J   A    S    O      N   D

    8934023 Sangalo Inst. of LM 2                     Average       1553   51   64 120 220 236 138 117 131 137 130 110          76
    1370 m Science & Tec. l ^ (m/s) i                 66%1          1330   22   50 55 165 200 125 100 115 108 105 80            25

    8934060 Kimilili               UM 2-1             Av.           1549   41   62 118 209 238 148 125 141 156 144 105          55
    1676 m Agric. Dept.            m/l ^ s/m          66%1          1300   12   55 56 160 198 139 105 115 123 120 78            18
    8934082 Bungoma                LM 2               Av.           1536   52   78 122 220 218 127 108 148 117 142 128          66
    1433 m Agric. Dept.            l ^ (m/s) i        66%2          1310   23   59 60 165 180 82 90 100 95 118 80               24
    8934098 Kimilili               LH 1               Av.           1681   56   69 116 350 215 105 140 150 149 155 116          46
    2073 m Forest Stn.             p or l/m ^ m       66%2          1425   17   58 59 250 182 95 115 120 125 130 87             16

    8934113 Kapsakwony UM 1          Av.                            1656   54   79 126 222 218 144 129 162 168 167 121          54
    1829 m Chief´s Office p or l/m ^ m 66%2                           1405   15   65 68 170 185 135 107 125 128 127 90            17

    8934118 Sirisia     UM 2              Av.                       1494   46   66 118 204 205 126 121 141 132 135 110          68
    1615 m Chief´s Camp vl i or m/l ^ s i 66%1                      1290   21   41 86 153 154 83 98 108 107 121 71              20
    8934119 Webuye       LM 2-1                       Av.           1692   47   86 125 203 253 157 151 155 156 127 103          44
    1524 m Health Centre l/m ^ (s/m)                  66%2          1450   21   60 67 152 210 140 130 122 123 115 70            15

    8934120 Chwele       UM 2                         Av.           1425   52   61 103 182 185 108 135 114 136 174 110          66
    1615 m Health Centre m/l ^ s i                    66%2          1230   23   40 75 137 140 87 110 80 110 140 75              25

    8934134 Bungoma                LM 2               Av.           1604   41   89 146 244 242 120 107 120 127 137 142          61
    1388 m Water Supply            l/m ^ (s/m)        66%2          1370   15   65 70 180 190 80 90 80 100 115 90               20


1
    These figures of rainfall reliability should be exceeded normally in 10 out of 15 years.
2
    Estimate of this reliability by correlation, no detailed data were available for enough years to GTZ.




TABLE 2: TEMPERATURE DATA
    No. and      Name of                  Kind of                               Temperature in°C                        Belt
                                 AEZ1
    altitude     Station                  records                                                                      limits
                                                          J     F     M    A    M   J   J    A    S    O    N    D Yr.
              Kamusinga
             Sec. School                 Mean max.       26.8 27.8 27.6 26.2 24.9 24.8 23.5 22.8 25.2 25.6 25.0 25.6 25.5
                                                                                                                            2000 m
    8934107 (1961-67, ann.              Mean temp.       19.9 20.6 20.7 20.4 19.4 18.8 18.3 18.1 18.7 19.6 19.4 19.5 19.4
                           UM 1                                                                                              UM
    17085 m mean. temp.
                                         Mean min.       12.9 13.4 13.7 14.6 13.8 12.7 13.1 13.3 12.1 13.5 13.7 13.3 13.3   1500 m
               ca. 0.6°C
             higher now)                  Abs. min.      7.8 11.1 10.0 11.1 11.1 10.0 10.0 11.1 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 7.8


1
    AEZ = Agro-ecological zone




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146
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                   147
      BUNG. & MT.EL. 8


      TABLE 3: AVERAGE POTENTIAL EVAPOTRANSPIRATION
                                                                 Average Potential Evapotranspiration ET0 in mm                          Av. Rainfall
           No. and        Name of          Type1                                                                                         Year    %
           altitude       Station          AEZ         J     F     M     A     M      J     J     A      S     O     N     D     Year     in      of
                                                                                                                                         mm      ET0

          8934060     Kimilili            interp. 157 143 156 128 116 104 102 119 121 141 130 146 1563 1549                                      99%
          1676 m      Agric. Dep.         UM 2-1

          8934082     Bungoma              interp.    170 157 171 149 136 122 120 138 140 158 145 162 1767 1536                                  87%
          1433 m      Agric. Dep.           LM 2

          8934113     Kapsakwony           interp.    152 138 150 123 110 100                96   112   114 135 125 139 1494 1656                111%
          1829 m                           UM 1

          8934118     Sirisia              interp.    160 145 159 133 120 110 107 125 126 145 134 150 1614 1494                                  93%
          1615 m      Chief´s Camp         UM 2

          8934119     Webuye              interp. 162 151 165 142 132 119 118 130 136 152 140 153 1700 1692                                      99%
          1524 m      Health Centre       LM 2-1


      1
          Type of eruation: calc. = calculated by formula of Penman & McCulloch (1965) with albedo for green grass 0.2; interp. = interpolated from neigh-
          bouring stations, considering altitude and rainfall difference.
          AEZ = Agro-Ecol. Zone, explaining table see general part.




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                                                                                              BUNG. & MT.EL. 9


TABLE 4: CLIMATE IN THE AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES

                                                                          66% reliability     60% reliability of cereal and
          Agro-                                                             of rainfall 1       legumes growing period
                               Altitude Ann. mean Ann. av.
        Ecological     Subzone          temperature rainfall
                                in m       in°C     in mm
          Zone                                                             1st      2nd       1st          2nd        Total3
                                                                         rainy s. rainy s. rainy s.2     rainy s.    in days
                                                                         in mm in mm in days             in days
    TA 1
    Tropical Alpine                                                       Unimportant, because little crop possibilities only
                                     3000-3500   10.0-7.0    1000-1300                       near UH
    Cattle and Sheep
    Zone
    TA I1
    Tropical Alpine                                           Relatively small, hence unimportant
    Sheep Zone
    UH 0-1
    Forest Zone and
                                                   Here all Forest Reserve (steep slopes and valuable timber)
    Sheep and Dairy
    Zone

    LH 1               p or l/m                                                               190 or
                       ^m            1950-2400   18.0-15.2   1600-1800 750-950 650-800        more2     170-175       >360
    Tea-Dairy Zone

    LH 2
    Wheat/Maize-       vl i          1950-2300   18.0-16.4   1300-1600 630-800 630-690        185 or    100-130      285-330
                       or two                                                                  more
    Pyrethrum Zone
                       vl i or m/l                           1540-1800 650-800 620-700        170 or    115-130      285-300
    UM 1               ^m/s i                                                                  more
                                     1500-2000   21.0-18.0
    Coffee-Tea Zone                                                                           170 or
                       m/l^s/m                               1540-1700 700-750 600-650         more     105-115      245-265

    UM 2             vl i or                                                                  160 or
                                     1500-1900   21.0-18.8   1300-1600 650-720 550-630                   85-105      245-265
    Main Coffee Zone m/l^s i                                                                   more
    UM 3
    Maize and          l/vl i or                                                              140 or
                       m^s i         1500-1900   21.0-18.8   1200-1500 550-650 450-580         more      85-105      215-245
    Marginal Coffee
    Zone
    UM 4
                       1/vl or       1500-1900   21.0-18.8   1150-1400 500-630 400-560        130 or     80-100      210-230
                       two                                                                     more
    Zone
    LM 1
                                                                                              210 or
    Lower Midland      l^m           1350-1500   22.0-21.1   1600-1800 700-800 500-650         more     135-145      345-355
    Sugacane Zone

                       p or two                              1400-1650 650-750 480-580        195 or    115-130      310-325
                                                                                               more
    LM 2
    Marginal           vl i or       1350-1550   22.0-20.9   1350-1600 650-700 460-580        180 or    105-115      285-295
                       l^mi                                                                    more
    Sugarcane Zone
                       m/l^s/m                               1500-1650 630-700 480-630 155-175          105-115      260-290

    LM 3
    Lower Midland      m/1^(s)       1200-1400   22.4-21.6   1200-1450 500-650 430-500 150-170           85-105      230-270
    Cotton Zone


1
  Amounts surpassed normally in 10 of 15 years, falling during the agro-humid period which allows growing of most cultivated
  plants.
2
  More if growing cycle of cultivated plants continues into the period of second rains.
3
  Agrohumid conditions continue from 1st to 2nd rainy season in the whole district.




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      BUNG. & MT.EL. 10




150
                                                                                    BUNG. & MT.EL. 11


                AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES AND SUBZONES
TA          =   TROPICAL ALPINE ZONES
TA I        =   Tro p i c a l-Alp in e Ca tt le and Sheep Zone
                Grazing for sheep and cattle. Cabbages, potatoes and pyrethrum marginal (cultivatable near
                forest only)
TA II       =   Tro p i c a l-Alp in e S h e e p Zone
                Grazing for sheep

UH          =   UPPER HIGHLAND ZONES
UH 0        =   Fo re s t Zo n e
UH 1        =   S h e e p a n d Da i r y Zo n e
                Here Forest Reserve because of steep slopes and valuable timber production

LH          =
                LOWER HIGHLAND ZONES
LH 1        =   Te a - Da i r y Zo n e
LH 1 p      =    Tea-Dairy Zone with permanent cropping possibilities dividable in a long to medium cropping
or l/m^m        season, followed by a medium one Most of it is Forest Reserve because of steep slopes, water
                retention and valuable timber production

                Ve r y g o o d y i e l d p o t e n t i a l ( a v. > 8 0 % o f t h e o p t i m u m ) 1
                1st rainy season, start norm. end of F.: Peas; cabbages, lettuce, spinach
                2nd rainy season, start norm. end of July: Peas
                G o o d y i e l d p o t e n t i a l ( a v. 6 0 - 8 0 % o f t h e o p t i m u m )
                1st rainy season: Maize H 614, 625 - 629 2, H 6210 or 6213 (>2100 m), PAN 99 and others, see
                    crop list, med. mat. potatoes like Desirée (~60%)3
                    carrots, leek, kales, endive
                2nd rainy season: Early mat. potatoes like Annet; carrots, kales, cabbages, beetroot, spinach,
                     celery
                Whole year, best planting time end of F.: Tea (high quality on deeply weathered soils)
                F a i r y i e l d p o t e n t i a l ( a v. 4 0 - 6 0 % o f t h e o p t i m u m )
                1st rainy season: Finger millet; onions and sweet potatoes (lower places)
                2nd rainy season: Leek, lettuce
                Whole year: Pyrethrum (higher places), plums, passion fruit(lower places)
                Pasture and forage
                Around 0.6 ha/LU on secondary pasture of Kikuyu grass, well suitable for grade dairy cows


LH 2        =   Wh e a t/ Ma iz e - Py re t h r u m Zone
LH 2 vl i       Wheat/Maize-Pyrethrum Zone with a very long cropping season and intermediate rains, dividable
or two          in two variable cropping seasons and intermediate rains
                G o o d y i e l d p o t e n t i a l ( a v. 6 0 - 8 0 % o f t h e o p t i m u m )
                1st rainy season (to 2nd r. s.), start norm. March: Late mat. wheat like Kenya Bongo (Apr.-O.),
                    late mat. triticale, late mat. maize like H 611D (higher places), H 614, 625 - 629, H 6210 or
                    H 6213, PAN 99 (e. of F./Apr.-S./O., ~80% on deep volcanic soils in lower places); peas,
                    horse beans, med. mat. potatoes 3
                     lettuce
                2nd rainy season, start undistinctly around July: M. mat. barley like K. Research (June-O.), m.
                      mat. wheat like K. Tembo (June-O.); linseed; kales, carrots, beetroot, spinach, tomatoes
                      (lower places), celery
                Whole year: Black Wattle, Pyrethrum New Zealand Flax (higher places)
                F a i r y i e l d p o t e n t i a l ( a v. 4 0 - 6 0 % o f t h e o p t i m u m )
                1st rainy season: Finger millet, med. mat. beans like Cuarentino (50-60%, lower places); tomatoes,
                onions
                2nd rainy season: Peas, beans (below 2100 m); e. mat. potatoes like Annet (S.-D.); cabbages,
                Whole year: Apples, pears and plums above 2100 m; strawberries, passion fruit (below 2100m)




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      BUNG. & MT.EL. 12


                      Pasture and forage
                      Around 1.0 ha/LU on highland savanna of Kikuyu, Red oats and tufted grass 4 between Cedar
                      2000 m; with add. feeding of Giant Setaria and lucerne or clover down to 0.3 ha/LU; suitable
                      for grade dairy cows

      UM          =   UPPER MIDLAND ZONES
      UM 1        =   Co ff e e - Te a Zo n e
      UM 1        =   Coffee-Tea Zone with a very long cropping season and intermediate rains, dividable in a med-
      vl i or         ium to long cropping season followed by a medium to short one and i. r. (see Diagram Kimilili)
      m/l^m/s i
                      Ve r y g o o d y i e l d p o t e n t i a l
                      1st rainy season, start norm. beginning of March: Cabbages, kales
                      2nd
                      Whole year: Tea (~80%, medium quality) passion fruit, guavas

                      Good yield potential
                      1st rainy season: Maize H 614, H 625 - 629, H 6210 or H 6213 (March - Sep.,other varieties see
                         beans like Cuarentino 5 ; m. mat. potatoes like Desirée (higher places), sweet potatoes (lower

                         spinach, onions, carrots (above 1600 m), broccoli
                      2nd rainy season: E. mat. beans like Rose coco, sweet potatoes (lower places); kales, onions,
                         tomatoes
                      Whole year: Arabica coffee, bananas, yams, taro (in valleys), mountain pawpaws, avocadoes,
                         loquats
                      Fair yield potential
                      1st rainy season: High altitude sorghum; tomatoes
                      2nd
                          millet; e. mat. potatoes like Annet; cabbages
                      Whole year: Citrus, taro ( on slopes)
                      Pasture and forage

                      feeding Napier resp. Bana grass, banana leaves and stems, maize stalks, sweet potatoes vines and
                      other forage like Silver leaf desmodium (Desmodium uncinatum)

      UM 1        =    Coffee-Tea Zone
      m/l^s/m          with a medium to long cropping season followed by a short to medium one

                      The same as above , but tea only good instead of very good; stocking rates about 10% less.

      UM 2        =   Ma i n Co ff e e Zo n e
      UM 2        =   Main Coffee Zone with a very long cropping season and intermediate rains, dividable in a
      vl i or         medium to long cropping season followed by a short one and i. r.
      m/l^s i

                      Ve r y g o o d y i e l d p o t e n t i a l
                      1st rainy season, start norm. beg. of March: Maize H 614 (higher places, March-Oct.); cabbages,
                          kales
                      Whole year, best planting time March: Castor

                      Good yield potential
                      1st rainy season: Maize H 623 (lower places, March-Aug.), H 625, 629, 6210, 6213 (March-
                                                                                           5
                                                                                             ; sweet potatoes; m.
                         onions, spinach, tomatoes
                      2nd rainy season, start undistinctly b. of Aug.: E. mat. beans like Katheka, onions (on light
                         soils)
                      Whole year: Arabica coffee (~60%, on good deep volcanic soils), Macadamia nuts, bananas (in
                         valleys), passion fruits, mountain pawpaws, avocadoes, guavas




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                                                                  BUNG. & MT.EL. 13


Fair yield potential
1st rainy season: M. mat. wheat and barley (only in northeastern higher places, May- Sep.); m.
mat. potatoes like Desirée (higher places), pigeon peas (lower places)
2nd rainy season: M. to e. mat maize like H 513 or 515 (Aug.-Nov.), 623 (July-Nov.); e. mat.
    potatoes like Annet (end of July-Oct.), sweet potatoes; tomatoes
Whole year: Arabica coffee (on less suitable soils), bananas (outside valleys), citrus, taro (in
    valleys), yams, pineapples (lower places)

Pasture and forage

0.15 ha/LU feeding Napier or Bana grass and others; Silver leaf desmodium best fodder legume
(for rotation and dairy cows)




                                                                                                   153
      BUNG. & MT.EL. 14


      UM 3        =   Ma rg i n a l Co ff e e Zo n e   (here Coffee-Maize Zone)
      UM 3        =   Marginal Coffee Zone with a long to very long cropping season and intermediate rains,
      l/vl i or       dividable in a medium cropping season followed by a short one and i. r.
      m^s i




                        Good yield potential
                        1st rainy season, start. norm. beg. of March: Maize H 614, 625 - 629, H 6210 & 6213 (higher

                            sorghum; m. mat. beans (lower places) 5
                            Fedha or Shaba (May- Oct.), e. mat. soya beans like Black Hawk (lower places), m. mat.
                            like Hill (higher places); cabbages, kales, onions (on light soils), spinach, tomatoes
                        2nd rainy season, start indistinctly b. of Aug.: Very early mat. beans like Katheka (poor in dry
                            years); onions (on light soils)
                        Whole year: Mountain pawpaws, Macadamia nuts, castor

                        Fair yield potential
                        1st rainy season: M. mat. wheat and barley (only in northeastern higher places); m. mat.
                            potatoes like Desirée (higher places)
                        2nd rainy season: E. mat potatoes like Annet (higher places), sweet potatoes; tomatoes
                        Whole year: Arabica coffee (with mulching on good deep soils, otherwise poor resp.
                            marginal), bananas (like coffee), avocadoes, citrus 6, pineapples




154
                                                                                BUNG. & MT.EL. 15


                Pasture and forage

                down to 0.18 ha/LU feeding Napier or Bana grass and others. Desmodium uncinatum best
                fodder legume
UM 4        =   Ma iz e - S u n f lo we r Zo ne
UM 4        =                         with a long to very long cropping season dividable in two variable
l/vl or two     cropping seasons (See Kakamega District)


LM              LOWER MIDLAND ZONES
LM 1        =   Lo we r Mi d l a n d S u gar C ane Zone
LM 1        =   Lower Midland Sugar Cane Zone with a long cropping season followed by a medium one
l^m
                Ve r y g o o d y i e l d p o t e n t i a l
                1st rainy season, start norm. F. but reliable end of March: Early & med. mat. sorghum; m.

                  sweet potatoes, yam beans
                Whole year , best planting time March: Pawpaws, guavas
                Good yield potential
                1st rainy season: M. mat. maize like H 623, late mat. sorghum like E 1291 (for stock feed),

                    (F.-O./N.); sweet pepper, kales, Chinese cabbage, spinach, cabbage, chillies, egg plants
                    (to 2nd rainy season), pumpkins
                 nd
                2 rainy season , start undistinctly end of Aug.: Maize H 511, 513 or 515, m. mat. sorghum;

                  345; kales, Chinese cabbage, spinach, onions
                Whole year: Sugar cane, bananas (nematodes danger), tea in upper places (70-80%, but
                  medium to low quality), Robusta coffee, avocadoes, cassava
                Fair yield potential
                1st rainy season: Cotton (med. quality)
                2nd
                    mat. bambarra groundnuts (both in light soils); cabbage
                Whole year: Mangoes, taro, citrus
                Pasture and forage
                Around 0.5 ha/LU on sec. pasture where originally there has been a moist submontane
                forest; down to 0.13 ha/LU feeding Napier resp. Bana grass, banana leaves and Siratro (start
                middle - end of F.: fair yields, start beginning - end of March: good yields)

LM 2        =   Ma rg i n a l S u g a r Ca n e Zone
LM 2        =    Marginal Sugar Cane Zone with a long cropping season followed by a (weak) medium to
l^(m/s) i       short one and intermediate rains
                Ve r y g o o d y i e l d p o t e n t i a l
                1st rainy season, start norm. mid F. to b. of March: Early mat. sorghum like Serena (March

                  like Black Hawk; sweet potatoes, onions, yam beans
                Whole year: E. mat.cassava, pawpaws
                Good yield potential
                1st
                    millet; m. mat. beans like Cuarentino, pigeon peas (March-F.), late mat. rosette resistant
                    groundnuts like Mwitunde (in light soils); cotton (med. quality); sweet pepper, tomatoes,
                    cabbages, kales. roselle
                2nd rainy season , start Aug.: Bulrush millet, m. mat. sorghum, ratoon sorghum (S.-Aug.); e.
                    mat. beans like Rose coco (GLP 2), green grams; onions, kales, tomatoes
                Whole year: Bananas (nematodes danger), pineapples, sisal


                                                                                                                 155
      BUNG. & MT.EL. 16



                                  Fair yield potential
                                  1st rainy season: Rice, bambarra groundnuts (in light soils, even in poor ones), cowpeas;
                                  tobacco
                                  2nd rainy season: Maize H 512, 513, 515; pigeon peas (Sep.-July), cowpeas, m. mat.
                                      groundnuts like Serere 116; sweet potatoes; simsim; cabbages; cotton (July-Feb.),e. mat.

                                  Whole year: Sugarcane (on less suitable soils and near LM 3 marginal), Robusta coffee,
                                     citrus, mangoes
                                  Pasture and forage
                                  0.5-0.7 ha/LU on high grass savanna with Hyparrhenia and Panicum dominating; down to
                                  about 0.15 ha/LU feeding Napier resp. Bana grass and banana leaves. Siratro and Desmodium
                                  for soil and pasture improvement, Leucaena

          LM 2             =        Marginal Sugar Cane Zone with a long to medium cropping season
          l/m^(s/m)                 followed by a (weak) short to medium one
                                   Small and transitional. Crop potential like LM 2 l^(m/s) i but m. mat. sorghum in 2nd rainy
                                   season and bananas only fair, maize H 511-13 in 2nd rainy season and sugar cane (also on
                                   good soils) only marginal. Ratooning sorghum 1st to 2nd rainy season good. Stocking rates
                                   ~10% less.
          LM 2             =      Marginal Sugar Cane Zone with a medium to long cropping season followed by a (weak)
          m/l^(s/m)               short to medium one
                                  Small, crop potential like LM 2 l^(m/s) i but earlier mat. varieties in 1st rainy season (see crop
                                  list). No Robusta coffee. Stocking rates ~15% less.

          LM 3             =       Lo we r Mi d l a n d Co tt on Zone
          LM 3             =       Lower Midland Cotton Zone with a medium to long cropping season followed by a (weak)
          m/l^(s)                 short one
                                  Good yield potential
                                  1st rainy season, start norm. beg. of March: M. mat. maize H 511, 513, 515, m. mat. sorghum
                                      like KARI Mtama, ratooning sorghum 1st to 2nd rainy season, e. mat. millets; m. mat.
                                      beans like Cuarentino, green grams, cowpeas; groundnuts like Mwitunde (in light soils),
                                      simsim; sweet potatoes; cotton (lower places), m. mat. soya beans like Hill, tobacco

                                      black soils); yam beans
                                  2nd rainy season , start indistinctly end of Aug.: Simsim, green grams, tomatoes
                                  Whole year, best planting time March: Cassava, sisal. Near swamps with water regulation
                                      resp. add. irrigation: Rice (lower places, bottomlands), bananas (on dams), Chinese
                                      cabbage (on ridges) and other vegetables
                                  Fair yield potential
                                  1st
                                      places)
                                  2nd rainy season: E. mat. proso millet (Oct.-Nov.), dwarf sorghum, e. mat. bulrush millet
                                      (bird rejecting awned var. best); e. mat. beans like Katheka, e. mat. bambarra groundnuts
                                      (in light soils, even in poor ones); sweet potatoes (in swampy places)
                                  Whole year: pawpaws, mangoes, citrus, pineapples
                                  Pasture and forage
                                  Around 0.6 – 1.0 ha/LU on mixed savanna; to about 0.18 ha/LU feeding Bana resp. Napier
                                  grass and others; Desmodium, Stylosanthes and others for pasture improvement, Leucaena

      1
        All these percentages are climatical, assumed that the place has suitable soils and is well fertilized and manured.
      2
        Needs 8 months to ripe (end of Feb.-Oct.)
      3
        Spraying against fungus diseases important
      4
        The bad tufted grasses Eleusine jaegeri and Pennisetum schimperi are expanding if the areas are overgrazed. They may be controlled by fire.
      5
        Sometimes rotting because of too wet conditions
      6
        With additional irrigation (D.-F.) well growing



156
BUNG. & MT.EL. 17




                    157
      BUNG. & MT.EL. 18


      SOIL DISTRIBUTION, FERTILITY AND MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS

      The topography of the districts ranges from the heights of the Mt. Elgon region to the low areas of the Nzioa
      river which drains the major part of the area. In the central part around Bungoma the landscape is character-
      ized by a succession of valleys and higher areas. Apart from the Mt. Elgon region, the area is underlain by
      granites from the Basement system.

      On the highest part of the extinct Mt. Elgon volcano, soils rich in organic matter are found (MV 1). Down-
      hill, the depth of the horizon rich in organic matter becomes less thick (MV 2).

      On the volcanic footridges, which make up the lower part of the mountain, fertile soils with a topsoil dark-
      ened by organic matter occur (units RB 1 and RB 2). Soil unit FB 1 having a moderate to high fertility, and
      FG 1 with a low to very low fertility occupy the footslopes.

      On the undulating plains upland soils of units Uh, Um and Ul are dominant. Generally speaking, they have
      good physical properties, but their nutrient level is low. In the southeastern part of the district they are as-
      sociated with soil unit UmG 2 which has developed on granites and includes an association of soils with a
      low fertility .

      LEGEND TO THE SOIL MAP OF BUNGOMA AND MT. ELGON DISTRICTS
                                                physiography)

      M       Mountains and Major Scarps (steep; slopes predominantly over 30%; relief intensity more than
              300m (Mountains) or more than 100 m (Major Scarps); altitudes up to 4250 m)
      H       Hills and Minor Scarps (hilly to steep; slopes predominantly over 16%; relief intensity up to 100
              (Minor Scarps) to 300 m (Hills); altitudes up to 2850 m)
      R       Volcanic Footridges
              lating to hilly; slopes between 5 and 30%; altitudes between 2000 and 3000 m; Mount Elgon
      F       Footslopes (at the foot of Hills and Mountains; gently undulating to rolling; slopes between 2 and
              16%; various altitudes)
      U       Uplands
      Uh      Upper Middle-Level Uplands (undulating to rolling; slopes between 5 and 16%; altitudes be-
              tween 1650 and 2650 m, here 2200 m)
      Um      Lower Middle-Level Uplands (gently undulating to undulating; slopes between 2 and 8%; alti-
              tudes between 1200 and 2100 m)
      Ul      Lower-Level Uplands (very undulating to undulating; slopes between 2 and 8%; altitudes be-
              tween 1200 and 1900 m)
      A       Floodplains and River Terraces

      B       Bottomlands
              ponded)
      V       Minor Valleys (V or U-shaped valleys; slopes mainly up to 16%, exceptionally up to 30%; width
              mainly 250-500 m, up to about 1000 m; depth up to about 100 m; various altitudes


      2 Explanation of second character (lithology)

      A       Recent Alluvial Sediments from various sources
      B       Basic Igneous Rocks (basalts, nepheline phonolites; older basic tuffs included
      D       Mudstones and Claystones
      G       Granites and Granodiorites
      N       Biotite Gneisses
      R       Quartz-Feldspar Gneisses
      S       Sandstones, Grits and Arkoses
      U       Undifferentiated Basement System Rocks (predominantly Gneisses)



158
                                                                                  BUNG. & MT.EL. 19


V      Undifferentiated or Various Igneous Rocks
X      Undifferentiated or various Rocks

3 Soil descriptions

MB1    Well drained, very shallow to moderately deep, dark reddish brown, friable and slightly smeary, gravely
       clay; in places with humic topsoil, deep and/or rocky:
       ando-eutric CAMBISOLS, with ando-haplic PHAEOZEMS, predominantly lithic phases, and with
       LITHOSOLS, and Rock Outcrops

MU2    Well drained, very shallow to shallow, brown to reddish brown, stony and rocky, gravely to very
       gravely sandy loam to sandy clay loam:
       LITHOSOLS and dystric REGOSOLS, rocky and stony phases.

MV1    Imperfectly drained, shallow to moderately deep, greyish brown, friable loam to clay loam, with an
       acid humic to peaty topsoil; in places very shallow or rocky:
       dystric HISTOSOLS, predominantly lithic phase; with LITHOSOLS and Rock Outcrops

MV2    Well drained, shallow to moderately deep, dark reddish brown, friable, stony clay loam, with an acid
       humic top soil; in places very shallow and rocky:
       humic CAMBISOLS, stony and partly lithic phase; with LITHOSOLS and Rock Outcrops

HGC    Complex of:
       Somewhat excessively drained, shallow, stony and rocky soils of varying colour, consistency and
       texture:
       dystric REGOSOLS and RANKERS, with ferralic and humic CAMBISOLS, lithic, rocky and stony
       phases, LITHOSOLS and Rock Outcrops
RB1    Well drained, deep to extremely deep, dark reddish brown to dark brown, friable and slightly smeary
       clay, with an acid humic topsoil; in places shallow and rocky:
       ando-humic NITISOLS and humic ANDOSOLS, partly lithic phases; with Rock Outcrops

RB2    Well drained, extremely deep, dusky red to dark reddish brown, very friable clay, with an acid humic
       topsoil:
       humic NITISOLS

FB1    Well drained, deep to very deep, dark reddish brown, friable clay, with humic topsoil; in places shallow
       to moderately deep and rocky:
       chromo-luvic PHAEOZEMS, partly lithic and rocky phase, with mollic NITISOLS

FG1    Well drained, shallow to moderately deep, dark yellowish brown to reddish brown, friable, stony, sandy
       clay loam to gravely sandy clay; in places with an acid humic topsoil or very shallow and rocky:
       ferralic, dystric and humic CAMBISOLS and orthic ACRISOLS, stony and partly lithic and rocky
       phases; with LITHOSOLS and Rock Outcrops

FUC    Complex of:
       Well drained, deep, dark reddish brown to dark yellowish brown soils of varying consistency and
       texture; in places moderately deep, gravely and/or stony:
       orthic FERRALSOLS, orthic ACRISOLS and ferralic ARENOSOLS partly stony phases

UhB1   Well drained, very deep to extremely deep, dark red to dark reddish brown, friable clay, with a humic
       topsoil:
       mollic NITISOLS

UhN1   Well drained, very deep, reddish brown, friable, gravely sandy clay to clay, with an acidic humic topsoil
       humic ACRISOLS, with humic CAMBISOLS




                                                                                                                   159
      BUNG. & MT.EL. 20


      UmG2 Well drained, deep, dark yellowish brown to dark brown, friable sandy clay loam to sandy clay; in
           places gravely in the deeper subsoil:
           ferralo-orthic ACRISOLS

      UmG3 Well drained, deep to very deep, red to dark brown, friable sandy clay to clay:
           ferralo-orthic/chromic ACRISOLS

      UmG6 Well drained, shallow to moderately deep, dark yellowish brown, friable sandy clay:
           orthic ACRISOLS


      UlG3    Well drained, shallow to moderately deep, dark yellowish brown to strong brown, friable sandy clay;
              over petroplinthite; in places very shallow, stony or rocky:
              orthic and ferralo-orthic ACRISOLS, petroferric and partly stony phase, with LITHOSOLS and Rock
              Outcrops
      UlG4    Well drained, deep,strong brown to yellowish brown, friable sandy clay loam to sandy clay; in places
              shallow to moderately deep over petroplinthite:
              orthic FERRALSOLS, partly petroferric phase

      UlGA1 Association of:
            Well drained, deep to very deep, dark yellowish brown, friable clay loam to clay; in places with an
            acidic humic topsoil; in places stony; on straight side slopes 50%):
            orthic ACRISOLS, with humic ACRISOLS, partly stony phases
            and:
            well drained, shallow to moderately deep, dark yellowish brown to brown, friable sandy clay loam;

              fringes to bottomlands (50%):
              (ferralo-)orthic ACRISOLS, petroferric phase, with ferralic ARENOSOLS

      UlN1    Well drained, deep to very deep, dark red to dark reddish brown, very friable sandy clay loam to clay;
              in places moderately deep over petroplinthite:
              rhodic and orthic FERRALSOLS, partly petroferric phase

      UlN3    Well drained, deep to very deep, dark red to dark reddish brown, very friable sandy clay loam to clay:
              rhodic FERRALSOLS

      UlRA    Association of:
              Well drained, deep, strong brown to yellowish red and dark red, friable sandy clay loam to sandy clay;

              orthic FERRALSOLS with rhodic FERRALSOLS, partly petroferric phases
              and:
              well drained, moderately deep to deep, dark yellowish brown to brown, friable sandy clay loam to clay,
              with an acid humic topsoil; in places shallow; on steeper valley sides (30%):
              humic CAMBISOLS; partly lithic phase


      UlX1    Well drained, deep to very deep, dark red strong brown, friable clay; in many places shallow or
              moderately shallow or moderately deep petroplinthite:
              orthic to rhodic FERRALSOLS, partly petroferric phase

      UlX2    Well drained, shallow to moderately deep, dark reddish brown to strong brown, friable clay; over
              petroplinthite; in places deep:
              orthic FERRALSOLS, petroferric phase


              eutric FLUVISOLS, with vertic FLUVISOLS and vertic and eutric GLEYSOLS, partly saline-sodic
              phases




160
                                                                                  BUNG. & MT.EL. 21


BXC1   Complex of:

       clay to cracking clay, in many places abruptly underlying a topsoil of friable sandy loam; in places
       saline and sodic:
       dystric PLANOSOLS, dystric and vertic GLEYSOLS and pellic VERTISOLS; partly saline-sodic
       phases

BXC2   Complex of:


       places peaty or with an acid humic or histic topsoil:
       dystric and humic GLEYSOLS, dystric PLANOSOLS and dystric HISTOSOLS

XC     Complex of:
       Well drained, shallow to deep soils of varying colour, consistency and texture (on valley sides):
       CAMBISOLS, ACRISOLS and FERRALSOLS, partly lithic phases, with Rock Outcrops
       and:


       GLEYSOLS, with VERTISOLS and HISTOSOLS




       NOTES for definitions (of underlined words):
       mollic Nitisols and chromo-luvic Phaeozems: soils are equally important
       mollic Nitisols, with chromic-luvic Phaeozems: Nitisols are prevalent
       in places: in < 30% of the area
       in many places: in 30-50% of the area
       predominantly: in > 50% of the area
       deeper subsoil: below 80 cm




                                                                                                              161
      BUNG. & MT.EL. 22


      3.3.2 POPULATION AND LAND

      BUNGOMA DISTRICT

      Population of Bungoma District during the 1999 census was 876,491 people, more than double as much
      as 1979! They have to live on an area of 2,069 km2 only. The highest numbers are registered in Kanduyi
      Division (Table 5). Agricultural land that supports crop and livestock production is estimated at 1,838 km2
      (183,800 ha). This area is mostly spread into the AEZs of LM 1 to LM 3 which are suitable for sugar cane
      and cotton growing and AEZ UM 1 to UM 4 which are suitable for tea, coffee and dairy production.

      The population density increased by more than 100% over the 1979 census to 424 persons per km2. It
      ranges from 374 persons in Bumula Division to 538 persons in Kimilili Division (Table 5). The available
      agricultural land per person reduced considerably from 2.86 ha per household in 1979 to 0.9 ha 1999
      (Tables 6 & 7). The estimate for 2005 is 1,096,490 people, it means 0.15 ha per person. Given that the soils
      are continuously being exhausted, one wonders if this exhausted soil resource would be able to feed the ever
      increasing population. Urgent steps must be taken to replenish the soil fertility status if food insecurity is
      to be kept at bay.
      TABLE 5: POPULATION IN BUNGOMA DISTRICT PER DIVISION AND
               LOCATION (Source: Census 1999)
      DIVISION/LOCATION                    Male       Female        Total Area in km2       Density
      BUMULA                              61,866       67,145     129011        344.9          374
      Bumula                               4,547        4,963      9,510          26.4         360
      Kimatuni                             6,511        7,090     13,601          40.2         338
      Kabula                               7,032        7,768     14,800          42.1         352
      Khasoko                              4,883        5,290     10,173          25.1         405
      Kimaeti                              6,800        7,258     14,058          35.6         395
      Napara                               5,577        5,991     11,568          30.9         374
      Mukwa                                5,079        5,443     10,522          25.9         406
      Siboti                               6,341        6,882     13,223          32.8         403
      South Bukusu                         8,299        9,151     17,450          49.1         355
      West Bukusu                          6,797        7,309     14,106          36.8         383
      CENTRAL                             29,415       31,190     60,605        150.1          404
      Kabuchai                             7,928        7,928     16,289          41.4         393
      Luuya                                8,699        8,699     17,940          47.1         381
      N. Bukusu                            5,720        5,720     11,885          29.5         403
      Sirare                               7,068        7,423     14,491          32.1         451
      CHWELE                              19,903       21,271     41,174          85.2         483
      Chwele                              10,370       11,382     21,752          43.8         497
      Makuyuni                             9,533        9,889     19,422          41.4         489
      KANDUYI                             80,913       82,655    163,568        319.4          512
      Bukembe                             16,744       16,905     33,649          86.1         391
      E. Bukusu                           22,257       23,774     46,031        125.5          367
      Kibabii                             11,466       12,143     23,609          50.4         468
      Musikoma                            13,323       13,615     26,938          43.1         625
      Township                            17,123       16,218     33,341          14.3        2332
      KIMILILI                            46,717       49,957     96,674        179.7          538
      Kamukuywa                           12,151       13,062     25,213          46.1         547
      Kibingei                            12,803       13,522     26,325          51.3         513
      Kimilili                            13,241       14,288     27,529          42.1         654
      Maeni                                8,522        9,085     17,607          40.2         438
      NDIVISI                             27,622       29,714     57,336        132.3          433
      Chetambe                             8,583        9,121     17,704          40.1         442
      Lukusi                               6,580        7,113     13,693          36.9         371
      Namarambi                            7,094        7,866     14,960          34.5         434
      Ndivisi                              5,365        5,614     10,979          20.8         528
      SIRISIA                             21,388       22,700     44,088         110.5         399
      Namwela                             10,054       10,514     20,568          45.3         454
      Sirisia                             11,334       12,186     23,520          65.2         361



162
                                                            BUNG. & MT.EL. 23


TABLE: 5 Continued
DIVISION/LOCATION      Male    Female      Total Area in km2    Density
TONGAREN              64,761    68,535   133,296       375.9       355
Kabuyefwe              6,831     7,234    14,065         35.8      393
Kiminini               5,636     5,635    11,271         49.1      230
Mbakalo               11,477    12,170    23,647         49.7      476
Naitiri               17,372    18,499    35,871       105.4       340
Ndalu                  7,757     8,057    15,814         58.6      270
Tongaren              15,688    16,940    32,628         77.3      422
WEBUYE                55,684    59,013   114,697       269.1       426
Bokoli                11,552    12,305    23,857         68.2      350
Misikhu               14,812    16,242    31,054         69.3      448
Sitikho               10,521    11,047    21,568         80.9      267
Webuye                18,799    19,419    38,218         50.7      754
MALAKISI              17,688    18,354    36,042       101.4       355
Lwandanyi              5,386     5,768    11,154         25.5      437
Malakisi               7,095     7,390    14,485         39.8      364
Namubila               5,207     5,196    10,403         36.1      288
BUNGOMA DISTRICT     425,957   450,534   876,491     2,068.5       424


TABLE 6: COMPOSITION OF HOUSEHOLDS IN BUNGOMA DISTRICT PER DIVISION
         AND LOCATION ( Source: Census 1999)
BUNGOMA DISTRICT
DIVISION/LOCATION        Households       Family         Persons per
                           total    >15years < 15years   household1)
BUMULA                       26,568       2.0        2.1           4.8
Bumula                        1,994       2.0        2.1           4.8
Kimatuni                      2,949       2.0        2.0           4.6
Kabula                        3,065       2.1        2.1           5.3
Khasoko                       2,171       2.0        2.0           4.7
Kimaeti                       2,884       2.0        2.0           4.8
Napara                        2,414       2.0        2.0           4.8
Mukwa                         2,090       2.1        2.1           5.0
Siboti                        2,733       2.1        2.0           4.8
South Bukusu                  3,435       2.1        2.2           5.1
West Bukusu                   2,833       2.1        2.1           5.0
CENTRAL                      11,552       2.2        2.2           5.2
Kabuchai                      3,110       2.2        2.2           5.2
Luuya                         3,326       2.2        2.2           5.4
N. Bukusu                     2,315       2.2        2.1           5.1
Sirare                        2,801       2.2        2.1           5.1
CHWELE                        8,145       2.2        2.0           5.0
Chwele                        4,537       2.1        1.9           4.8
Mukuyuni                      3,608       2.3        2.1           5.3
KANDUYI                      34,370       2.0        1.8           4.6
Bukembe                       7,012       2.0        1.9           4.7
E. Bukusu                     9,025       2.1        2.2           5.1
Kibabii                       4,659       2.1        2.0           5.0
Musikoma                      5,801       2.0        1.8           4.6
Township                      7,873       1.7        1.3           3.8
KIMILILI                     19,488       2.1        1.9           4.9
Kamukuywa                     5,140       2.0        2.0           4.9
Kibingei                      5,011       2.1        2.0           5.2
Kimilili                      6,039       2.0        1.7           4.5
Maeni                         3,298       2.2        2.1           5.2
NDIVISI                      10,839       2.2        2.1           5.2
Chetambe                      3,343       2.2        2.0           5.3
Lukusi                        2,543       2.2        2.2           5.4
Namarambi                     2,884       2.1        2.0           5.1
Ndivisi                       2,069       2.2        2.0           5.3
SIRISIA                       8,341       2.2        2.1           5.2



                                                                                163
      BUNG. & MT.EL. 24


      TABLE: 6 Cont.
      DIVISION/LOCATION                                                    Households       Family         Persons per
                                                                             total    >15years < 15years   household1)
      Namwela                                                                   3,855       2.2        2.0           5.2
      Sirisia                                                                   4,486       2.2        2.2           5.2
      TONGAREN                                                                 23,823       2.2        2.3           5.5
      Kabuyefwe                                                                 2,647       2.1        2.3           5.3
      Kiminini                                                                  1,946       2.3        2.2           5.7
      Mbakalo                                                                   4,145       2.2        2.4           5.7
      Naitiri                                                                   6,416       2.1        2.3           5.6
      Ndalu                                                                     2,979       2.2        2.1           5.3
      Tongaren                                                                  5,690       2.1        2.3           5.6
      WEBUYE                                                                   23,298       2.1        1.9           4.8
      Bokoli                                                                    4,408       2.2        2.2           5.4
      Misikhu                                                                   5,789       2.2        2.1           5.2
      Sitikho                                                                   4,247       2.1        2.1           5.1
      Webuye                                                                    8,854       1.9        1.5           4.2
      MALAKISI                                                                  7,420       2.1        1.9           4.8
      Lwandanyi                                                                 2,325       2.1        1.9           4.8
      Malakisi                                                                  3,056       2.1        1.9           4.7
      Namubila                                                                  2,039       2.2        2.0           5.1
      BUNGOMA DISTRICT                                                        173,844       2.1        2.0           5.0


      1)




      TABLE 7: AVAILABLE LAND AREA IN BUNGOMA DISTRICT PER AEZ AND
               HOUSEHOLD (Source: Calculated from DAO’s reports)

                                      in ’00 ha = km2                                                        in ’00 ha = km2                                       in ha

                                                                                                       Area in agro-ecological zones                  Agricultural
       Division        Non-agricultural land
                                                                                                                   AEZ                                 land per
                                                                           Agricultural




       without
       townships
                                       Forest reserve,


                                                         Others (roads,
                                       lakes, swamps



                                                         steads, rivers)


                                                                              land
                       steep slopes
                       Unsuitable




                                                                                                                                                       Household


                                                                                                                                                                           Person
                                                             home-




                                                                                          LH1   LH2   UM1   UM2    UM3    UM4    LM1    LM2    LM3



       BUMULA                                               80             262                                5     21           105    121     10    1.0              0.2
       CENTRAL            2                                 30             118                                6      4            45     52    11,1   1.0             0.19
       CHWELE                                               15              69                                3      4            39     21     2,1   0.8             0.16
       KANDUYI            2                                92,5            226                               11     20            91    98,9     5    0.6             0.14
       KIMILILI                                             28             152                        22    120      7                                0.8             0.16
       SIRISIA            2                5                11              92                         8      5                         59     20,5   1.1             0.21
       NDIVISI            1                                 25             105                                3     47     17     6,3   32            1.0             0.18
       TONGAREN           3                                34,9            341                                7    131    203                         1.4             0.26
       WEBUYE                                               49             220                        13      7                         47            0.9             0.19
       MALAKISI                            5               23,4             73                         1      6                   53    67      5     0.9             0.19
       BUNGOMA            9              10                389             1586                       44    167    234    220    339    498    54     0.9             0.18
       DISTRICT




164
                                                                               BUNG. & MT.EL. 25


MT. ELGON DISTRICT

Mt. Elgon district was curved out of the former Bungoma district in 1993. During the 1999 census, Mt.
Elgon’s population was 135,033 people residing on 609.6 km2 of land (Table 8), statistically, but in fact
without the Mt. Elgon Forest Reserve on 334.7 km2. Agricultural land that supports crop and livestock pro-
duction in the district is approximately 260 km2 (Table 10). A large portion of the district lies within the
tropical alpine (TA) zone and UH0-1 (Forest reserve) zone, covering some 609 km2 (Table 10). The lower
parts of the district lie in the AEZs LH 1 and UM 1 that are suitable for growing such cash crops like tea,
pyrethrum and coffee. These two AEZs cover up to 207 km2 of land in the district (Table 10).
TABLE 8: POPULATION IN MT. ELGON DISTRICT PER DIVISION AND
         LOCATION (Source: Census 1999)

DIVISION/LOCATION                     Male       Female        Total Area in km2       Density
CHEPTAIS                             19,601       20,468      40,069       79.50          504
Chepkube                             41,106        4,241       8,347       21.90          381
Cheptais                              5,941        6,251      12,192       19.50          625
Chesikak                              4,330        4,499       8,829       16.00          552
Sasuri                                5,224        5,477      10,701       22.10          484
KAPSOKWONY                           12,107       12,419      24,526       58.40          420
Elgon                                 2,860        2,986       5,846       14.90          392
Kamuneru                              2,067        2,120       4,187         9.10         460
Kapsokwony                            3,138        3,144       6,282       14.10          448
Nomorio                               4,042        4,169       8,211       20.30          404
KAPTAMA                              11,916       11,969      23,885       66.80          358
Chemoge                               2,345        2,278       4,623       13.70          337
Kaboywo                               3,130        3,086       6,216       15.60          398
Kaptama                               3,232        3,395       6,627       21.60          307
Kongit                                3,209        3,210       6,419       15.90          404
KOPSIRO                              23,159       23,394      46,553      130.00          358
Chepyuk                               7,413        7,259      14,672       54.30          270
Chongeywo                             4,522        4,823       9,345       17.60          531
Emia                                  6,587        6,475      13,062       40.10          326
Kapkteny                              4,637        4,837       9,474       18.00          526
Mt Elgon Forest                       -------       ------     -------     334.7        -------
MT. ELGON DISTRICT                   66,783       68,250     135,033      944.30          143

The population density of the district (excluding the unpopulated Mt. Elgon Reserve) in the1999 census
was 403 persons per km2, ranging from 358 persons (Kaptama and Kopsiro Divisions), to 504 persons in
(Cheptais Division). This can be compared to the original Mt. Elgon division average density of 220 per-
sons per km2 in 1979. Available agricultural land per household of 5.3 persons (Table 9) was 1.02 ha, which
translates to 0.19 ha per person (Table 10). The estimate for 2005 is 151,370 people, it means 0.15 ha per
person, which is an alarming low figure.




                                                                                                               165
      BUNG. & MT.EL. 26


      TABLE 9: COMPOSITION OF HOUSEHOLDS IN MT. ELGON DISTRICT PER DIVISION
               AND LOCATION (Source: Census 1999)

           DIVISION/LOCATION                             Households                                        Family                            Person per
                                                           total                                   >15 years    < 15 years                   household 1)
           CHEPTAIS                                             7,603                                      2.2          2.2                                         5.2
           Chepkube                                             1,635                                      2.2          2.1                                         5.1
           Cheptais                                             2,440                                      2.1          2.1                                         4.9
           Chesikak                                             1,568                                      2.3          2.4                                         5.6
           Sasuri                                               1,960                                      2.3          2.3                                         5.4
           KAPSOKWONY                                           4,896                                      2.1          2.0                                         5.0
           Elgon                                                1,183                                      2.0          2.0                                         4.8
           Kamuneru                                               818                                      2.1          2.1                                         5.1
           Kapsokwony                                           1,401                                      1.8          1.8                                         4.4
           Nomorio                                              1,494                                      2.2          2.3                                         5.5
           KAPTAMA                                              4,349                                      2.2          2.2                                         5.5
           Chemoge                                                869                                      2.1          2.1                                         5.3
           Kaboywo                                              1,082                                      2.2          2.3                                         5.7
           Kaptama                                              1,229                                      2.2          2.1                                         5.4
           Kongit                                               1,169                                      2.2          2.3                                         5.5
           KOPSIRO                                              8,479                                      2.1          2.4                                         5.5
           Chepyuk                                              2,562                                      2.2          2.5                                         5.7
           Chongeywo                                            1,718                                      2.2          2.5                                         5.4
           Emia                                                 2,412                                      2.1          2.4                                         5.4
           Kapkateny                                            1,787                                      2.1          2.2                                         5.3
           MT. ELGON DISTRICT                                 25,327                                       2.2          2.2                                         5.3

      1)




      TABLE 10: AVAILABLE LAND AREA IN MT. ELGON DISTRICT PER AEZ AND
                HOUSEHOLD Census 1999

                                                                                         in ’00 ha = km2                                                         in ha

                                                                                                                                                   Agricultural land
                                                                                           Agricultural land




                                         Non-agricultural land                                                 Area in agro-ecological zones AEZ         per
           Location/Division without
                                                      Forest reserve,


                                                                        Others (roads,
                                                      lakes, swamps


                                                                         homesteads,
                                       steep slopes




                  townships
                                       Unsuitable




                                                                                                                                                     Household



                                                                                                                                                                          Person
                                                                           rivers)




                                                                                                               LH1      LH2       UM1      UM2



       CHEPTAIS                                                             24            56                    50        6                         0.72                 0.14
       KAPSOKWONY                                                           16            46                    30        9         2        2      0.86                 0.17
       KAPTAMA                                                              15            42                    28        7         4        3      0.96                 0.18
       KOPSIRO                                                              20            116                   85        13        2        2      1.36                 0.24
       MT. ELGON DISTRICT                             334.7                 75            260                  193        35       14        7      1.02                 0.19




166
                                                                                    BUNG. & MT.EL. 27


3.3.3 AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS:
Development and Trends of Major Cash Crops in Bungoma District

The district is one of the fertile regions of Kenya and the agriculturally potential land is estimated at 183,800
ha. The combination of good soils, adequate amount of rainfall which is well distributed during the growing
season makes it suitable for a variety of small scale farming enterprises. The district comprises of the AEZs
LM 1-LM 3 (Sugarcane Zones to Cotton Zone) and UM 1-UM 4 (Coffee/Tea/Dairy Zone to Maize-Sun-
flower Zone. Coffee is planted on approximately 4,500 ha, yielding 320 kg per ha of clean coffee. That is
less than half the amount produced in Embu and Meru districts. There was considerable yield increase in the
district up to 520 kg/ha but poor marketing strategies and delayed produce payments continue to discour-
age many farmers to invest in higher acreage and production levels. The potential for sugarcane production
covers more than half the agricultural land area measuring the agro-ecological zones, the well suited soils are
less extensive. Sugarcane is with 27,000 ha (2004) the main cash crop and increases its performance.




TABLE 11: BUNGOMA DISTRICT COFFEE AREA, PRODUCTION AND YIELD TRENDS
(Source: Ministry of Agriculture; DAO’s Annual Reports and CBS)


              Year
    (until 1993, Mt. Elgon              Area                   Production                    Yield
       district included)                ha                       tons                       kg/ha
 1980/81                                        3,382                         953                        281
 1981/82                                        3,681                       1,285                        349
 1982/83                                        3,970                       1,286                        300
 1983/84                                        4,050                       1,071                        264
 1984/85                                        4,238                       1,798                        424
 1985/86                                        4,553                       1,575                        345
 1986/87                                        4,945                       1,971                        398
 1987/88                                        5,281                       2,240                        424
 1988/89                                        5,676                       2,177                        383
 1989/90                                        5,955                       1,195                        200
 1990/91                                        6,500                       1,699                        279
 1991/92                                        6,065                       1,608                        265
 1992/93                                        4,566                       1,387                        297
 1993/94                                        4,581                       1,246                        266
 1994/95                                        4,530                       1,224                        270
 1995/96                                        4,530                       1,470                        324
 1996/97                                        5,000                       1,575                        315
 1997/98                                        4,615                       2,399                        520
 1998/99                                        5,000                       1,575                        315
 1999/00                                        4,500                       1,467                        326
 2000/01                                        4,700                       1,474                        314
 2001/02                                        4,000                       1,480                        370
 2002/03                                        4,500                       1,450                        322




                                                                                                                    167
      BUNG. & MT.EL. 28


      Development and Trends of Major Cash Crops in Mt. Elgon District
      Mt. Elgon district was hived off Bungoma in 1993. The AEZs LH 1-UM 1 where coffee and tea farming
      enterprises are dominant and comprise approximately 28,100 ha. Planted coffee area is 1,205 ha, a quarter
      of what it has been, with average yields of 250 kg of clean coffee per ha per annum, a third of what is pro-
      duced in East Kenya. It reveals a low standard which will not be improved due to the poor returns. Maize
      gives better returns. Maize is thus an important staple food and cash crop in the district covering an area of
      14,500 ha with average yields of 2.9 metric tons per hectare (Tables 12 & 13).


      TABLE 12: MT. ELGON DISTRICT COFFEE AREA, PRODUCTION AND YIELD TRENDS
      (Source: Ministry of Agriculture; DAO’s Annual Reports and CBS)

                   Year                      Area                  Production                    Yield
        (district created in 1993)            ha                      tons                       kg/ha
       1993/94                                       4,566                      1,370                       300
       1994/95                                       4,618                      1,385                       300
       1995/96                                       4,530                        906                       200
       1996/97                                       4,530                        453                       100
       1997/98                                       4,476                      1,343                       300
       1998/99                                       5,000                        500                       100
       1999/00                                       4,500                        450                       100
       2000/01                                       1,381                        414                       300
       2001/02                                       1,500                        300                       200
       2002/03                                       1,205                        362                       300

      TABLE 13: MT. ELGON DISTRICT MAIZE AREA, PRODUCTION AND YIELD TRENDS
      (Source: Ministry of Agriculture; DAO’s Annual Reports and CBS)

                   Year                      Area                  Production                    Yield
        (district created in 1993)            ha                      tons                       kg/ha
       1993/94                                      16,000                     43,200                      2,700
       1994/95                                      16,100                     43,500                      2,700
       1996/97                                      16,200                     45,400                      5,800
       1997/98                                      16,300                     44,000                      2,700
       1998/99                                      16,800                     48,700                      2,900
       1999/00                                      16,780                     58,700                      3,500
       2000/01                                      15,000                     54,000                      3,600
       2001/02                                      15,550                     35,800                      2,300
       2002/03                                      14,500                     39,200                      2,700




168
                                               BUNG. & MT.EL. 29


DISTRIBUTION OF FARMING ACTIVITIES DURING THE YEAR PER WEEKS AND
AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES




                                                                   169
      BUNG. & MT.EL. 30




170
BUNG. & MT.EL. 31




                    171
      BUNG. & MT.EL. 32




172
BUNG. & MT.EL. 33




                    173
      BUNG. & MT.EL. 34




174
                                                                                  BUNG. & MT.EL. 35


3.3.4 FARM SURVEY IN BUNGOMA AND MT. ELGON DISTRICTS

The Farm Survey (FS) was carried out during the year 2004 in nine sites covering the AEZs (LH 1-2, UM
1-4 and LM 2-3), with different Subzones (Table 15). The size of the farms included in the survey ranged
between 0.5 ha and 10 ha. This can be compared to the overall farm size in Bungoma and Mt. Elgon dis-
tricts of 0.9 ha and 1.02 ha per household, respectively. Despite the reduced land size per household, some
amount of land is still put under grazing. Only between 5 - 14% of the cattle are improved dairy stocks.
Sheep and goats are also important components of the livestock in the district, by numbers almost the same
as cattle. The stocking rate of 2.0 - 9.5 LU/ha is an indication of the important role livestock plays in these
districts (Table 16). However, the minimal percentage of land under fallow is an indication of land scarcity
in these districts (Table 17). Most farmers grow more than one crop in any one given season (Table 17), but
use comparatively inadequate amounts of fertiliser (Table 18). Maize crop still dominates the farming land-
scape in these districts (Table 17). It is usually intercropped with a legume (e.g. beans, cowpeas, soybeans).
The low maize yields reported in Bungoma district (Table 18) are a reflection of low usage of fertilisers and
manure to improve their nutrient depleted soils. In 1977, the year of the first Farm Survey, maize yields were
more than 50% higher with less inputs!

The graphs in Table 14 indicate that most farmers plant and cultivate their maize crop at the recommended
time of the year, but sunflower and beans receive less attention. The soils of the Lower Midlands (LM) are
not fertile, but by selecting suitable crops, which demand fewer nutrients like sweet potatoes, cassava, Na-
pier grass, etc., high and reliable yields can be achieved here as well, which would go a long way to ensure
food security. The hectarage of the medium and large farms is multifold higher than the average. This im-
plies a tendency towards commercialisation of local agriculture but also on the other hand it could be seen
as an indicator of increasing landless people.

The poor road network in these districts is one of the major reasons that its agricultural potential has not yet
been fully tapped. The production of maize, milk, beef and horticultural products could be increased sub-
stantially if the all weather roads were improved. To achieve this goal, labour productivity must be increased
through mechanisation of farm work as far as possible, and road infrastructure development, access to credit
facilities and market information have to be improved.


TABLE 15: FARM SURVEY SITES in BUNGOMA and MT. ELGON Districts
                                      Agro-Ecological Unit
 District          No. in
                                                         Soil       Farm Survey Areas
                   Kenya       AEZone      Subzone
                                                         Unit
 BUNGOMA           9           LM 2        l^(m/s) i     UlGA 1     Kanduyi Division, Musikoma Location,
                                                                    Namasanda Sub-location
                   10a         LM 3        m/l^(s)       BXC 1      Bumula Division, Bumula Location,
                                                                    North Myanga Sub-location
                   10b         LM 3        m/l^(s)       UlGA 1     Nambale Division, Bumula Location,
                                                                    Lunao Sub-location
                   11          UM 1        m/l^m/s i     UIN 1      Kimilili Division, Kimilili Location,
                                                                    Kibingei Sub-location
                   12          UM 2        m/l^s i       UIN 1      Kimilili Division, Maeni Location,
                                                                    Sikhendu Sub-location
                   13          UM 3-4      l/vl i or     UIRA       Tongaren Division, Naitiri Location,
                                           m^s i                    Naitiri Sub-location
                   14          UM 4        l/vl or two   UlGA 1     Tongaren Division, Mbakalo Location,
                                                                    Mbakalo Sub-location
 MT.ELGON          15          LH 1        l/m^m         RB 2       Kapsakwony Division, Elgon Location,
                                                                    Kibuk Sub-location
                   16          LH 2        vl i or two   RB 2       Kapsakwony Division, Kapsakwony
                                                                    Location, Chemweisus Sub-location



                                                                                                                   175
      BUNG. & MT.EL. 36




176
                                                                                               BUNG. & MT.EL. 37


   TABLE 16a: ASSETS, LAND USE, FARMING INTENSITY AND INPUTS IN AEZ LM 2 OF
              BUNGOMA DISTRICT

   Subzone: l^(m/s) i, Soil Unit: UlGA 1                                                     Survey area 09 (Namasanda)
                                    Assets                                    People on farm
                                  Livestock Numbers                                            Number of
Range        Land                                               Family  Casual Permanent
                                           Sheep &                                           children under
              ha       Dairy Cross Zebu            Poultry Pigs Adults Labourers Labourers
                                            Goats                                               14 years
Avg.0        2.11      0.57  0.13    1.3      1.1    4.2   0.1   3.87      3          0.2         2.33
Avg.1        2.11      2.83    2     2.6     4.13   12.6    3    3.87     7.5         1.5         3.18
Up. Qu.       2.8       0      0      2      1.5     3.5    0    5.25      5           0          3.25
Lo. Qu.      0.75       0      0      0        0      0     0      2       0           0            0

                                                           Land Use
                       Ann. Crops       Perm. Crops        Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops         Fallow       Other Use
   Range
                           ha               ha                            ha                          ha            ha
   Avg.0                  0.76             0.65                          0.17                        0.1           0.54
   Avg.1                  0.76             0.75                          0.30                          -           0.89
   Up. Qu.                1.03             0.94                           0.2                        0.25          0.38
   Lo. Qu.                0.39              0.2                            0                         0.16            0

                                        Farming Diversity & Stocking Intensity
                                                      Stocking Rate
              Cropping                  Farm Land         Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops
                                                                                           Improved Cattle
   Range       Diversity                 TLU/ha                         TLU/ha
                                                                                           % of total cattle
              Crops/year      Total                         Total
                                        Dairy Cross Zebu            Dairy   Cross   Zebu
                              TLU                           TLU
   Avg.0             4.0        -        0.3  0.07  0.62      -      3.8     0.9     8.0         31.6
   Avg.1             4.0        -       1.49  1.01  1.25      -     10.2     7.0     8.5         65.0
   Up. Qu.            5         -         0     0   0.71      -       0        0      10          0
   Lo. Qu.            3         -         0     0     0       -       -        -       -          0
   TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit is a KARI derived factor loading for animals stock in the tropics e.g. dairy = 1.1,
        local breeds = 1.0, cross breeds = 1.05, sheep = 0.11, goats = 0.09. Hence, sheep & goats mixed = 0.1

                                                        Inputs Applied
                                Fertilizer applied as pure nutrient
                                                                                                     Plant protection
               Improved                        kg/ha                       Manure applied
   Range       seed %                                                          t/ha             Insecticide     Fungicide
                                    N            P2O5           K2O
               of area                                                                             kg/ha           kg/ha
                             AC         PC      AC    PC      AC      PC     AC        PC       AC      PC      AC     PC
   Avg.0             51.8    13         13      16    16       -       -     1.2       1.2       0       0       0       0
   Avg.1             57.5    19         19      20    19       -       -     2.5       2.4       0       0       0       0
   Up. Qu.           68.1    10         11      16    17       -       -     0.5       0.6       0       0       0       0
   Lo. Qu.           33.5     0          0      10     -       -       -      0         0        0       0       0       0

   NOTES:
   Avg.0                    = average of all sample farms
   Avg.1                    = average of farms, excluding zero entries
   Up. Qu./Lo. Qu.          = Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
   AC                       = Annual crops
   PC                       = Perennial crops




                                                                                                                             177
      BUNG. & MT.EL. 38


      TABLE 16b: ASSETS, LAND USE, FARMING INTENSITY AND INPUTS IN AEZ LM 3 OF
                 BUNGOMA DISTRICT

      Subzone: m/l^(s), Soil Unit: Bottomlands BXC 1                                          Survey area 10a (North Myanga)
                                                 Assets                                              People on farm
                                               Livestock Numbers
      Range          Land                                                            Family      Casual       Number of children
                      ha                                 Sheep &                     Adults     Labourers       under 14 years
                                    Dairy       Zebu                     Poultry
                                                          Goats
      Avg.0          1.01            0.3          1.8       1.3             2.4       3.83           0.83              2.8
      Avg.1          1.01           2.25         3.38      3.55              9        3.83           3.57              3.11
      Up. Qu.        1.39             0          3.25        3               1         5             0.25              4.25
      Lo. Qu.        0.56             0            0         0               0          2              0                 1

                                                                     Land Use
                          Ann. Crops           Perm. Crops         Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops         Fallow      Other Use
      Range
                              ha                   ha                             ha                          ha           ha
      Avg.0                  0.65                 0.06                           0.15                        0.02         0.13
      Avg.1                  0.65                 0.10                           0.21                          -          0.27
      Up. Qu.                0.82                 0.10                           0.21                          -          0.26
      Lo. Qu.                0.39                   0                            0.07                          -           0.1

                                                    Farming Diversity & Stocking Intensity
                                                                      Stocking Rate
                 Cropping                      Farm Land                  Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops
                                                                                                           Improved Cattle
      Range       Diversity                     TLU/ha                                TLU/ha
                                                                                                           % of total cattle
                 Crops/year           Total                                 Total
                                                    Dairy         Zebu                Dairy       Zebu
                                      TLU                                    TLU
      Avg.0             5.2            2.2           0.3           1.8       15.2       2.2        12.2          14.3
      Avg.1             5.2             -            2.5           3.4        -        11.7        16.0          100
      Up. Qu.            6              -             0            2.7        -          0         15.3           0
      Lo. Qu.            4              -             0             0         -          -          -             0
      TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit is a KARI derived factor loading for animals stock in the tropics e.g. dairy = 1.1,
           local breeds = 1.0, cross breeds = 1.05, sheep = 0.11, goats = 0.09. Hence, sheep & goats mixed = 0.1

                                                                   Inputs Applied
                                       Fertilizer applied as pure nutrient
                                                                                                            Plant protection
                  Improved                            kg/ha                         Manure applied
      Range       seed %                                                                t/ha           Insecticide      Fungicide
                                           N               P2O5          K2O
                  of area                                                                                  kg/ha           kg/ha
                                    AC         PC     AC      PC       AC    PC      AC        PC      AC      PC       AC     PC
      Avg.0             39.6        11.5        -     10.4     -        -     -      0.7       7.1     0.02     0.2     0.1      -
      Avg.1             44.0        20.3        -     19.6     -        -     -      1.2       7.9      0.5     2.9     3.1      -
      Up. Qu.           34.6        12.2        -     12.2     -        -     -      0.4       3.4       0       0       0       -
      Lo. Qu.           11.5         0          -      0       -        -     -       0         -        0       -       0       -

      NOTES:
      Avg.0                   = average of all sample farms
      Avg.1                   = average of farms, excluding zero entries
      Up. Qu./Lo. Qu.         = Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
      AC                      = Annual crops
      PC                      = Perennial crops




178
                                                                                                    BUNG. & MT.EL. 39


TABLE 16c: ASSETS, LAND USE, FARMING INTENSITY AND INPUTS IN AEZ LM 3 OF
           BUNGOMA DISTRICT

Subzone: m/l^(s), Soil Unit: Undulating peneplains UlGA 1                                            Survey area 10b (Lunao)
                                              Assets                                              People on farm
                                           Livestock Numbers
Range          Land                                                                Family  Casual          Number of children
                ha                               Sheep &                           Adults Labourers          under 14 years
                             Dairy       Zebu            Poultry          Pigs
                                                  Goats
Avg.0           2.0           0.1        3.17      1.23    3.6            0.03       3.27         0.97             1.83
Avg.1           2.0           1.5        3.96      3.36   13.5              1        3.27         2.07             2.39
Up. Qu.        2.43            0          6        2.25    2.5              0        4.25           2                3
Lo. Qu.        0.82            0          1          0      0              0          2             0              0.75

                                                                Land Use
                    Ann. Crops           Perm. Crops          Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops           Fallow    Other Use
Range
                        ha                   ha                              ha                            ha         ha
Avg.0                  0.74                 0.60                            0.35                          0.02       0.29
Avg.1                  0.74                 0.67                            0.55                            -        0.66
Up. Qu.                1.05                 0.83                            0.25                          0.07       0.23
Lo. Qu.                0.32                  0.2                             0.2                            0         0.1

                                              Farming Diversity & Stocking Intensity
                                                                 Stocking Rate
           Cropping                      Farm Land                   Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops
                                                                                                      Improved Cattle
Range       Diversity                     TLU/ha                                 TLU/ha
                                                                                                      % of total cattle
           Crops/year           Total                                  Total
                                              Dairy          Zebu                Dairy       Zebu
                                TLU                                     TLU
Avg.0             5.1            1.7           0.06           1.6        9.5      0.3         8.9           3.1
Avg.1             5.1             -             0.8           2.0         -       3.1         7.4           100
Up. Qu.            6              -              0            2.5         -        0          24             0
Lo. Qu.            4              -              0            1.2         -        -           --            0
TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit is a KARI derived factor loading for animals stock in the tropics e.g. dairy = 1.1,
     local breeds = 1.0, cross breeds = 1.05, sheep = 0.11, goats = 0.09. Hence, sheep & goats mixed = 0.1

                                                              Inputs Applied
                                 Fertilizer applied as pure nutrient
                                                                                                         Plant protection
            Improved                            kg/ha                            Manure applied
Range       seed %                                                                   t/ha            Insecticide    Fungicide
                                     N                P2O5          K2O
            of area                                                                                     kg/ha          kg/ha
                               AC        PC     AC       PC       AC    PC        AC        PC       AC      PC    AC      PC
Avg.0             48.1         13        16     14       17        -     -        0.8       1.0       0       0    0.03 0.03
Avg.1             51.5         19        21     21       24        -     -        1.3       1.4       0       0     0.8     0.9
Up. Qu.           55.9         12        15     10       12        -     -        1.0       1.2       0       0      0       0
Lo. Qu.           18.6          0         0      0        0        -     -         0         0        0       0      0       0

NOTES:
Avg.0                   = average of all sample farms
Avg.1                   = average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. Qu.         = Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
AC                      = Annual crops
PC                      = Perennial crops




                                                                                                                                  179
      BUNG. & MT.EL. 40


      TABLE 16d: ASSETS, LAND USE, FARMING INTENSITY AND INPUTS IN AEZ UM 1 OF
                 BUNGOMA DISTRICT

      Subzone: m/l^m/s i, Soil Unit: UlN 1                                                             Survey area 11 (Kibingei)
                                                    Assets                               People on farm
                                                  Livestock Numbers
      Range          Land                                                      Family  Casual    Number of children
                      ha                              Sheep &
                                  Dairy       Zebu             Poultry Rabbits Adults Labourers     under 14 years
                                                        Goats
      Avg.0          2.62          1.53         3       2.27    33.47   1.13    5.93     1.8             2.8
      Avg.1          2.62          4.18       4.74      4.25    45.64    34     5.93     3.6            3.36
      Up. Qu.         3.6          2.25       5.25        4     17.25     0       7       2               4
      Lo. Qu.        1.19            0          0         0       0       0       4       0             1.75

                                                                     Land Use
                          Ann. Crops           Perm. Crops         Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops         Fallow      Other Use
      Range
                              ha                   ha                             ha                          ha           ha
      Avg.0                  1.26                 0.28                           0.70                          -          0.44
      Avg.1                  1.26                 0.32                           0.81                          -          0.78
      Up. Qu.                1.45                  0.4                            1.2                        0.15          0.4
      Lo. Qu.                0.68                 0.11                           0.10                         0            0.3

                                                   Farming Diversity & Stocking Intensity
                                                                     Stocking Rate
                 Cropping                      Farm Land                 Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops
                                                                                                          Improved Cattle
      Range       Diversity                     TLU/ha                               TLU/ha
                                                                                                          % of total cattle
                 Crops/year           Total                                Total
                                                   Dairy         Zebu                Dairy       Zebu
                                      TLU                                   TLU
      Avg.0             6.2            1.8          0.6           1.1        7.0      2.4         4.3           33.8
      Avg.1             6.2             -           1.6           1.8         -       5.2         5.8           71.1
      Up. Qu.            8              -           0.7           1.5         -       2.1         4.4           61.7
      Lo. Qu.            4              -            0             0          -        0           0             0
      TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit is a KARI derived factor loading for animals stock in the tropics e.g. dairy = 1.1,
           local breeds = 1.0, cross breeds = 1.05, sheep = 0.11, goats = 0.09. Hence, sheep & goats mixed = 0.1

                                                                  Inputs Applied
                                       Fertilizer applied as pure nutrient
                                                                                                            Plant protection
                  Improved                            kg/ha                        Manure applied
      Range       seed %                                                               t/ha            Insecticide      Fungicide
                                          N               P2O5          K2O
                  of area                                                                                 kg/ha            kg/ha
                                     AC       PC     AC       PC      AC    PC      AC        PC       AC      PC       AC     PC
      Avg.0          68.98           22        -     23        -       -     -      2.8       12.2     0.2     0.7      1.7     7.3
      Avg.1          73.91           27        -     29        -       -     -      5.0       18.7     1.7     6.5      2.8    10.5
      Up. Qu.        78.39           29        -     34        -       -     -      9.0       23.4      0       0       2.1     7.5
      Lo. Qu.        26.13            7        -     17        -       -     -       0         0        0       0        0       0

      NOTES:
      Avg.0                   = average of all sample farms
      Avg.1                   = average of farms, excluding zero entries
      Up. Qu./Lo. Qu.         = Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
      AC                      = Annual crops
      PC                      = Perennial crops




180
                                                                                                 BUNG. & MT.EL. 41


TABLE 16e: ASSETS, LAND USE, FARMING INTENSITY AND INPUTS IN AEZ UM 2 OF
           BUNGOMA DISTRICT

Subzone: m/l^s i, Soil Unit: UlN 1                                                               Survey area 12 (Sikhendu)
                                            Assets                                             People on farm
                                          Livestock Numbers
Range          Land                                                             Family     Casual        Number of children
                ha                                  Sheep &                     Adults    Labourers        under 14 years
                             Dairy         Zebu                      Poultry
                                                     Goats
Avg.0          2.29           2.03          2.07       2.9               11.3     4.33         3.43              3.37
Avg.1          2.29           3.21          4.13      4.83              18.83     4.33         5.15              4.39
Up. Qu.        3.14            3             3          4               10.75     5.25          5                 6
Lo. Qu.        1.18            0             0          0                 0       2.75          0                0.75

                                                                 Land Use
                    Ann. Crops            Perm. Crops          Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops       Fallow      Other Use
Range
                        ha                    ha                              ha                        ha           ha
Avg.0                  1.24                  0.46                            0.53                        -          0.10
Avg.1                  1.24                  0.46                            0.59                        -          0.24
Up. Qu.                1.73                  0.51                            0.71                      0.05         0.14
Lo. Qu.                0.52                   0.2                             0.4                        0          0.06

                                            Farming Diversity & Stocking Intensity
                                                                  Stocking Rate
           Cropping                       Farm Land                   Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops
                                                                                                       Improved Cattle
Range       Diversity                      TLU/ha                                 TLU/ha
                                                                                                       % of total cattle
           Crops/year           Total                                   Total
                                                Dairy         Zebu                Dairy       Zebu
                                TLU                                      TLU
Avg.0             5.8            2.0             1.0           0.9        8.2      4.2          3.9          49.5
Avg.1             5.8             -              1.6           1.8         -      6.01         7.03          80.9
Up. Qu.            7              -              1.1           1.0         -      4.62         4.20          100
Lo. Qu.           4.7             -               0             0          -        0            0            0
TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit is a KARI derived factor loading for animals stock in the tropics e.g. dairy = 1.1,
     local breeds = 1.0, cross breeds = 1.05, sheep = 0.11, goats = 0.09. Hence, sheep & goats mixed = 0.1

                                                               Inputs Applied
                                 Fertilizer applied as pure nutrient
                                                                                                      Plant protection
            Improved                            kg/ha                           Manure applied
Range       seed %                                                                  t/ha          Insecticide     Fungicide
                                     N                 P2O5          K2O
            of area                                                                                  kg/ha           kg/ha
                              AC         PC      AC       PC       AC      PC    AC      PC       AC      PC      AC     PC
Avg.0             63.3        23.4       61.4    32.7      -        -       -    2.05    5.4      1.6     4.3     3.9    10.3
Avg.1             67.8        30.9       83.7    31.6      -        -       -    2.83    7.7      4.0    10.7     6.3    17.2
Up. Qu.           84.1        20.3       68.5    30.4      -        -       -    2.12    7.1      0.6     2.2     2.3     7.8
Lo. Qu.           28.0         0          0      26.7      -        -       -      0      0        0       0       0       0

NOTES:
Avg.0                   = average of all sample farms
Avg.1                   = average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. Qu.         = Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
AC                      = Annual crops
PC                      = Perennial crops




                                                                                                                                181
      BUNG. & MT.EL. 42


      TABLE 16f: ASSETS, LAND USE, FARMING INTENSITY AND INPUTS IN AEZ UM 3 - 4
                 OF BUNGOMA DISTRICT

      Subzone: l/v l i or m^s i, Soil Unit: UlRA                                                           Survey area 13 (Naitiri)
                                                 Assets                                             People on farm
                                               Livestock Numbers
      Range          Land                                                            Family     Casual         Number of children
                      ha                                 Sheep &                     Adults    Labourers         under 14 years
                                   Dairy        Zebu                      Poultry
                                                          Goats
      Avg.0          2.53           1.23          2.6      1.37              13.27      3.4         1.3                2.67
      Avg.1          2.53           3.08          5.2      3.42              15.92     3.52         1.95               3.33
      Up. Qu.        3.04             2          4.25        2               19.25     4.25         1.25                 4
      Lo. Qu.        0.97             0            0        0                  3         2           0                   1

                                                                      Land Use
                          Ann. Crops           Perm. Crops          Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops         Fallow     Other Use
      Range
                              ha                   ha                              ha                          ha          ha
      Avg.0                  1.61                 0.20                            0.46                          -         0.26
      Avg.1                  1.66                 0.21                            0.51                          -         0.66
      Up. Qu.                1.94                  0.3                             0.6                          -          0.2
      Lo. Qu.                0.61                 0.08                             0.1                          -         0.18

                                                    Farming Diversity & Stocking Intensity
                                                                       Stocking Rate
                 Cropping                      Farm Land                   Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops
                                                                                                            Improved Cattle
      Range       Diversity                     TLU/ha                                 TLU/ha
                                                                                                            % of total cattle
                 Crops/year           Total                                  Total
                                                    Dairy          Zebu                Dairy       Zebu
                                      TLU                                     TLU
      Avg.0             5.4            1.6            0.5           1.0        8.8      2.9          5.7          32.1
      Avg.1             5.4             -             1.4           2.1         -      6.64        10.17          87.9
      Up. Qu.            8              -            0.78           1.5         -      3.67         7.08          100
      Lo. Qu.            3              -              0             0          -        0            0            0
      TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit is a KARI derived factor loading for animals stock in the tropics e.g. dairy = 1.1,
           local breeds = 1.0, cross breeds = 1.05, sheep = 0.11, goats = 0.09. Hence, sheep & goats mixed = 0.1

                                                                    Inputs Applied
                                       Fertilizer applied as pure nutrient
                                                                                                             Plant protection
                  Improved                            kg/ha                          Manure applied
      Range       seed %                                                                 t/ha          Insecticide      Fungicide
                                           N                P2O5          K2O
                  of area                                                                                 kg/ha            kg/ha
                                     AC        PC     AC       PC       AC      PC    AC      PC       AC      PC       AC     PC
      Avg.0             74.5         31         -     35        -        -       -    0.2     1.7      0.2     1.2      1.1     8.4
      Avg.1             79.8         33         -     35        -        -       -    0.3     2.6      0.8     6.6      3.9      -
      Up. Qu.           82.8         26         -     26        -        -       -    0.2     1.4       0       0       1.0     6.7
      Lo. Qu.           20.7         17         -     17        -        -       -     0       0        0       0        0       0

      NOTES:
      Avg.0                   = average of all sample farms
      Avg.1                   = average of farms, excluding zero entries
      Up. Qu./Lo. Qu.         = Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
      AC                      = Annual crops
      PC                      = Perennial crops




182
                                                                                                BUNG. & MT.EL. 43


TABLE 16g: ASSETS, LAND USE, FARMING INTENSITY AND INPUTS IN AEZ UM 4 OF
           BUNGOMA DISTRICT

Subzone: l/v l or two, Soil Unit: UlGA 1                                                        Survey area 14 (Mbakalo)
                                           Assets                                             People on farm
                                         Livestock Numbers
Range          Land                                                           Family      Casual         Number of children
                ha                                 Sheep &                    Adults     Labourers         under 14 years
                             Dairy        Zebu                     Poultry
                                                    Goats
Avg.0          2.57           0.47         4.17       1.6             12.13     5.43          1.97                3.1
Avg.1          2.57           2.33         5.21      3.43             15.17     5.43          4.54               3.32
Up. Qu.        3.68            0            7          3                20      7.25           1                 4.25
Lo. Qu.        0.59            0           1.75        0               2.75     2.75            0                  1

                                                               Land Use
                    Ann. Crops           Perm. Crops         Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops         Fallow      Other Use
Range
                        ha                   ha                             ha                          ha           ha
Avg.0                  1.24                 0.19                           0.61                        0.24         0.29
Avg.1                  1.24                 0.26                           0.63                          -          0.62
Up. Qu.                1.73                  0.4                            1.2                        0.05          0.3
Lo. Qu.                0.38                   0                            0.11                          0           0.1

                                              Farming Diversity & Stocking Intensity
                                                                Stocking Rate
           Cropping                      Farm Land                  Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops
                                                                                                     Improved Cattle
Range       Diversity                     TLU/ha                                TLU/ha
                                                                                                     % of total cattle
           Crops/year           Total                                 Total
                                              Dairy         Zebu                Dairy       Zebu
                                TLU                                    TLU
Avg.0             4.3            1.9           0.2           1.6        7.8      0.8         6.8           12.4
Avg.1             4.3             -             1            2.0         -       4.1         8.2           26.3
Up. Qu.            5              -             0            1.9         -        0          5.8            0
Lo. Qu.            3              -             0             -          -        0           -             0
TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit is a KARI derived factor loading for animals stock in the tropics e.g. dairy = 1.1,
     local breeds = 1.0, cross breeds = 1.05, sheep = 0.11, goats = 0.09. Hence, sheep & goats mixed = 0.1

                                                             Inputs Applied
                                 Fertilizer applied as pure nutrient
                                                                                                      Plant protection
            Improved                            kg/ha                         Manure applied
Range       seed %                                                                t/ha           Insecticide      Fungicide
                                     N               P2O5          K2O
            of area                                                                                 kg/ha            kg/ha
                               AC        PC     AC      PC       AC      PC    AC       PC       AC      PC       AC     PC
Avg.0             71.4         12        78     28       -        -       -    0.9      5.9       -       -       0.1     0.4
Avg.1             71.4         20        96     28       -        -       -    1.4      6.8       -       -       1.6     7.8
Up. Qu.           100          12        50     27       -        -       -    0.8      3.3       -       -        0       0
Lo. Qu.           27.5          0         -      -       -        -       -     0        -        -       -        0       -

NOTES:
Avg.0                   = average of all sample farms
Avg.1                   = average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. Qu.         = Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
AC                      = Annual crops
PC                      = Perennial crops




                                                                                                                                183
       BUNG. & MT.EL. 44


          TABLE 16h: ASSETS, LAND USE, FARMING INTENSITY AND INPUTS IN AEZ LH 1 OF
                     MT. ELGON DISTRICT

          Subzone: l/m^m, Soil Unit: RB 2                                                                Survey area 15 (Kibuk)
                                   Assets                                     People on farm
                                Livestock Numbers                                            Number of
  Range      Land                                                Family Casual Permanent
              ha Dairy Zebu Cross   Sheep &                 B/ Adults Labourers Labourers children under
                                            Poultry Donkey                                    14 years
                                     Goats                 hives
  Avg.0      2.76  1.7 1.37 3.27       3.8    8.9    0.67  0.07   5.93   3.37         0.13      4.33
  Avg.1      2.76 7.29 5.13 5.44       5.7   14.83   2.22    2    5.93   5.32         1.33      4.48
  Up. Qu.    3.88  0.5 1.25 5.25      6.25   14.25     1     0    7.25   3.25           0         6
  Lo. Qu.    1.55   0    0    0         0      0       0     0      3      0            0         3

                                                                Land Use
                           Ann. Crops          Perm. Crops        Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops         Fallow       Other Use
          Range
                               ha                  ha                            ha                          ha            ha
          Avg.0               1.61                0.26                          0.43                        0.31          0.15
          Avg.1               1.61                0.32                          0.54                        1.02          0.26
          Up. Qu.             1.83                0.47                           0.7                        0.61          0.27
          Lo. Qu.              0.8                0.05                          0.10                         0.6            0

                                                    Farming Diversity & Stocking Intensity
                                                             Stocking Rate
                    Cropping                   Farm Land         Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops
                                                                                                  Improved Cattle
          Range      Diversity                  TLU/ha                         TLU/ha
                                                                                                  % of total cattle
                    Crops/year       Total                         Total
                                               Dairy Cross Zebu            Dairy   Cross   Zebu
                                     TLU                           TLU
          Avg.0          5.5          2.5       0.7   0.5   1.2    16.3     4.4      3.4     7.7        78.4
          Avg.1          5.5           -        2.9   2.0   2.0      -     15.2     10.2    10.3        71.3
          Up. Qu.         7            -        0.2   0.4   1.6      -      0.8      1.8     7.5        25.0
          Lo. Qu.         5            -         0     0     0       -       0        0       0          0
       TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit is a KARI derived factor loading for animals stock in the tropics e.g. dairy = 1.1,
       local breeds = 1.0, cross breeds = 1.05, sheep = 0.11, goats = 0.09.

                                                                Inputs Applied
                                       Fertilizer applied as pure nutrient
                                                                                                            Plant protection
                    Improved                          kg/ha                       Manure applied
          Range     seed %                                                            t/ha            Insecticide       Fungicide
                                           N             P2O5          K2O
                    of area                                                                              kg/ha            kg/ha
                                    AC         PC     AC     PC      AC      PC     AC        PC      AC      PC       AC     PC
          Avg.0          72.4        9.3        -     28.9    -       -       -     0.6       3.4     0.26    1.6      0.40 2.54
          Avg.1          74.9       34.9        -     32.2    -       -       -     0.8       3.8     1.09    5.5      1.21 6.09
          Up. Qu.        88.5       16.4        -     32.9    -       -       -     0.6       2.3     0.03 0.13        0.27 1.06
          Lo. Qu.        28.1         0         -     29.7    -       -       -      0         0       0       0        0       0

       NOTES:
       Avg.0                    = average of all sample farms
       Avg.1                    = average of farms, excluding zero entries
       Up. Qu./Lo. Qu.          = Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
       AC                       = Annual crops
       PC                       = Perennial crops




184
                                                                                                  BUNG. & MT.EL. 45


TABLE 16i: ASSETS, LAND USE, FARMING INTENSITY AND INPUTS IN AEZ LH 2 OF
           MT. ELGON DISTRICT

Subzone: v l or two, Soil Unit: RB 2                                                            Survey area 16 (Chemweisus)
                                                  Assets                                           People on farm
                                               Livestock Numbers                                                Number of
Range       Land                                                              Family               Casual
                                                       Sheep &                                                children under
             ha          Dairy      Zebu       Cross           Poultry Donkey Adults              Labourers
                                                         Goats                                                   14 years
Avg.0       1.96          2.87        0.93      1.63      3.4     8.8   0.13    4.3                  1.67          3.47
Avg.1       1.96          6.14        3.11      3.5        6     12.57   1      4.3                  2.94          3.59
Up. Qu.      2.4           4          1.25       3       4.25    13.25   0       6                   1.25            5
Lo. Qu.     1.15            0           0        0         0       0      0      2                     0             2

                                                                     Land Use
                    Ann. Crops               Perm. Crops        Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops      Fallow      Other Use
Range
                        ha                       ha                            ha                       ha           ha
Avg.0                  1.21                     0.13                          0.34                     0.21         0.05
Avg.1                  1.21                     0.16                          0.38                     0.78         0.22
Up. Qu.                1.6                      0.19                          0.54                     0.31         0.03
Lo. Qu.                0.58                     0.03                          0.18                       0            0

                                                  Farming Diversity & Stocking Intensity
                                                           Stocking Rate
           Cropping                          Farm Land         Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops
                                                                                                Improved Cattle
Range       Diversity                         TLU/ha                         TLU/ha
                                                                                                % of total cattle
           Crops/year            Total                           Total
                                             Dairy Cross Zebu            Dairy   Cross   Zebu
                                 TLU                             TLU
Avg.0             4.9             3.1         1.6   0.5   0.8    17.8     9.2     2.9     4.8         82.9
Avg.1             4.9              -          3.2   1.7   1.8      -     16.6     8.6     9.2         85.5
Up. Qu.           6.3              -          1.8   0.6   1.3      -      8.2     2.4     5.6         75.6
Lo. Qu.            3               -           0     0     0       -       0        0      0           0
TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit is a KARI derived factor loading for animals stock in the tropics e.g. dairy = 1.1,
local breeds = 1.0, cross breeds = 1.05, sheep = 0.11, goats = 0.09.

                                                                  Inputs Applied
                                  Fertilizer applied as pure nutrient
                                                                                                       Plant protection
            Improved                             kg/ha                          Manure applied
Range       seed %                                                                  t/ha          Insecticide     Fungicide
                                      N             P2O5             K2O
            of area                                                                                  kg/ha          kg/ha
                                 AC       PC      AC       PC      AC    PC      AC      PC       AC      PC     AC     PC
Avg.0             74.6           10        -      34        -       -     -      0.62    5.79     0.04 0.39      0.43     4
Avg.1             74.6           30        -      35        -       -     -       0.8    6.04     0.62 4.65      1.60    12
Up. Qu.           100            13        -      38        -       -     -       0.6    5.19      0       0     0.39 3.38
Lo. Qu.           37.4            0        -      17        -       -     -      0.08    1.81      0       0      0       0

NOTES:
Avg.0                   = average of all sample farms
Avg.1                   = average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. Qu.         = Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
AC                      = Annual crops
PC                      = Perennial crops




                                                                                                                               185
      BUNG. & MT.EL. 46


      TABLE 17a: CROPPING PATTERN IN AEZ LM 2 OF BUNGOMA DISTRICT
      Subzone: l^(m/s) i, Soil Unit: UlGA 1              Survey area 09 (Namasanda)

                                                   First Rainy Season
                                                Annual & Bi-annual Crops
                                          Average          Average          Upper           Lower         Total Sample Area
      Crops                                   0               1            Quartile        Quartile           of 30 farms
                                             ha              ha              ha              ha             ha           %
      Cassava                               0.01             0.4              0               0             0.4        1.75
      Chewing cane                         <0.01            <0.01             0               0           <0.02        <1.00
      Cow peas & local vegetables           0.01             0.2              0               0             0.2        0.88
      Ground nuts                          0.00              0.1              0               0             0.1        0.44
      Kales                                 0.02            0.22              0               0            0.65        2.85
      Maize                                0.03             0.45              0               0             0.9        3.94
      Maize & beans                         0.58            0.64             0.8             0.3           17.35       76.03
      Millet                                0.02            0.17              0               0             0.5        2.19
      Pineapples                           0.00             0.00              0               0            0.00        0.00
      Sorghum                              0.02             0.16              0               0            0.62        2.72
      Sweet potatoes                        0.06            0.42              0               0            1.69        7.41
      Tomatoes                             0.01              0.2              0               0             0.4        1.75
      Indigenous vegetables                 0.00            0.01              0               0            0.01        0.04
      Total Sample Area                     0.78                                                           22.82        100

                                                  Second Rainy Season
                                                Annual & Bi-annual Crops
                                          Average         Average          Upper           Lower        Total Sample Area of
      Crops                                  0               1            Quartile        Quartile            30 farms
                                            ha              ha              ha              ha              ha         %
      Beans                                0.07            0.73             0                0             2.2       35.37
      Beans & sorghum                      0.01             0.3             0                0             0.3       4.82
      Cassava                              0.01            0.05             0                0            0.15       2.41
      Cow peas & local vegetables          0.01             0.2              0               0             0.2        3.22
      Kales                                0.02            0.22              0               0            0.65       10.45
      Kales & local vegetables             0.00            0.01              0               0            0.01        0.16
      Onions                               0.01             0.2             0                0             0.4       6.43
                                           0.01             0.4             0                0             0.4       6.43
      Sweet potatoes                       0.06            0.18            0.06              0            1.80       28.94
      Indigenous vegetables                0.00            0.05              0               0             0.11       1.77
      Total Sample Area                     0.2                                                            6.22        100

                                                       Perennial Crops
                                          Average         Average          Upper           Lower         Total Sample Area
      Crops                                  0               1            Quartile        Quartile          of 30 farms
                                            ha              ha               ha             ha             ha          %
      Bananas                              0.05            0.09             0.09             0            1.63        8.24
      Coffee                               0.00            0.04               0              0            0.04        0.20
      Eucalyptus                           0.00            0.02               0              0            0.02        0.10
      Sugarcane                            0.60            0.95             0.85             0            18.1       91.46
      Total Sample Area                    0.65                                                           19.79       100

      NOTES:
      Avg.0             = average of all sample farms
      Avg.1             = average of farms, excluding zero entries
      Up. Qu./Lo. Qu.   = Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these points




186
                                                                                          BUNG. & MT.EL. 47


TABLE 17b: CROPPING PATTERN IN AEZ LM 3 OF BUNGOMA DISTRICT
Subzone: m/l^(s), Soil Unit: Bottomlands BXC 1  Survey area 10a (North Miyanga)

                                             First Rainy Season
                                          Annual & Bi-annual Crops
                                    Average          Average          Upper           Lower         Total Sample Area
Crops                                  0                1            Quartile        Quartile           of 30 farms
                                      ha               ha              ha              ha             ha            %
Beans                                0.01             0.15              0               0             0.3         1.59
Cassava                              0.10             0.20            0.14              0            2.86        15.18
Ground nuts                          0.01              0.1              0               0             0.2         1.06
Irish potatoes                       0.00             0.04              0               0            0.04         0.21
Kales                                0.00              0.1              0               0             0.1         0.53
Maize                                0.16             0.40             0.2              0            4.82        25.58
Maize & beans                        0.25             0.40             0.4              0            7.59        40.29
Millet                               0.01             0.08              0               0            0.42         2.23
Onions                               0.00              0.1              0               0             0.1         0.53
Sorghum                              0.00              0.1              0               0             0.1         0.53
Sugarcane                            0.04              0.6              0               0             1.2         6.37
Sweet potatoes                       0.04             0.14            0.06              0            1.11         5.89
Total Sample Area                    0.62                                                            18.84         100

                                            Second Rainy Season
                                          Annual & Bi-annual Crops
                                    Average         Average          Upper           Lower        Total Sample Area of
Crops                                  0               1            Quartile        Quartile            30 farms
                                      ha              ha              ha              ha             ha          %
Beans                                0.04            0.26              0               0            1.32        8.71
Cassava                              0.09            0.18             0.2              0            2.55       16.82
Ground nuts                          0.05            0.16            0.06              0            1.41        9.30
Kales                                0.01            0.14              0               0            0.28        1.85
Maize                                0.07            0.22            0.13              0            1.95       12.86
Maize & beans                        0.13            0.27            0.21              0            4.01       26.45
Maize & ground nuts                  0.01             0.2              0               0             0.2        1.32
Onions                               0.00            0.04              0               0            0.04        0.26
Simsim                               0.01            0.14              0               0            0.28        1.85
Sorghum                              0.02            0.11              0               0            0.45        2.97
Sugarcane                            0.04             0.6              0               0             1.2        7.92
Sweet potatoes                       0.04            0.12             0.1              0            1.23        8.11
Tomatoes                             0.01            0.12              0               0            0.24        1.58
Total Sample Area                    0.52                                                           15.16        100

                                                 Perennial Crops
                                    Average         Average          Upper           Lower         Total Sample Area
Crops                                  0               1            Quartile        Quartile          of 30 farms
                                      ha              ha              ha              ha             ha          %
Bananas                              0.06            0.10             0.1              0            1.84        100
Total Sample Area                    0.06                                                           1.84        100

NOTES:
Avg.0             = average of all sample farms
Avg.1             = average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. Qu.   = Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these points




                                                                                                                         187
      BUNG. & MT.EL. 48


      TABLE 17c: CROPPING PATTERN IN AEZ LM 3 OF BUNGOMA DISTRICT
      Subzone: m/l^(s), Soil Unit: Undulating peneplains UlGA 1 Survey area 10b (Lunao)

                                                   First Rainy Season
                                                Annual & Bi-annual Crops
                                          Average          Average          Upper           Lower         Total Sample Area
      Crops                                  0                1            Quartile        Quartile           of 30 farms
                                            ha               ha              ha              ha             ha            %
      Beans                                0.04             0.37              0               0             1.1         5.09
      Cassava                              0.06             0.15            0.06              0            1.55         7.17
      Finger millet                        0.00              0.1              0               0             0.1         0.46
      Maize                                0.23             0.50             0.4              0            7.04        32.56
      Maize & beans                        0.31             0.52             0.4              0            9.33        43.15
      Sorghum                              0.01              0.4              0               0             0.4         1.85
      Sweet potatoes                       0.05             0.18             0.1              0             1.4         6.48
      Tobacco                              0.02             0.35              0               0             0.7         3.24
      Total Sample Area                    0.72                                                            21.62         100

                                                  Second Rainy Season
                                                Annual & Bi-annual Crops
                                          Average         Average          Upper           Lower        Total Sample Area of
      Crops                                  0               1            Quartile        Quartile            30 farms
                                            ha              ha              ha              ha             ha          %
      Beans                                0.10            0.30             0.2              0            2.96       21.48
      Cassava                              0.04            0.18            0.01              0            1.29        9.36
      Cotton                               0.01             0.1              0               0             0.1        0.73
      Cow peas                             0.01             0.1              0               0             0.1        0.73
      Ground nuts                          0.02            0.16              0               0            0.65        4.72
      Maize                                0.04            0.18            0.01              0            1.24        9.00
      Maize & beans                        0.13            0.43            0.13              0            3.84       27.87
      Simsim                               0.01            0.13              0               0             0.4        2.90
      Sorghum                              0.03            0.17              0               0              1         7.26
      Sweet potatoes                       0.06            0.26            0.03              0             1.8       13.06
      Tobacco                              0.01             0.4              0               0             0.4        2.90
      Total Sample Area                    0.46                                                           13.78        100

                                                       Perennial Crops
                                          Average         Average          Upper           Lower         Total Sample Area
      Crops                                  0               1            Quartile        Quartile          of 30 farms
                                            ha              ha              ha              ha             ha           %
      Bananas                              0.06            0.09             0.1              0            1.67        9.35
      Sugarcane                            0.54            0.85             0.8              0            16.2       90.65
      Total Sample Area                     0.6                                                           17.87        100

      NOTES:
      Avg.0             = average of all sample farms
      Avg.1             = average of farms, excluding zero entries
      Up. Qu./Lo. Qu.   = Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these points




188
                                                                                          BUNG. & MT.EL. 49


TABLE 17d: CROPPING PATTERN IN AEZ UM 1 OF BUNGOMA DISTRICT
Subzone: m/l^m/s i, Soil Unit: UlN 1                  Survey area 11 (Kibingei)
                                               First Rainy Season
                                            Annual & Bi-annual Crops
                                    Average          Average          Upper           Lower         Total Sample Area
Crops                                  0                1            Quartile        Quartile           of 30 farms
                                      ha               ha              ha              ha             ha           %
Arrow roots                          0.00             0.08              0               0            0.08        0.21
Cassava                              0.00             0.05              0               0            0.05        0.13
Chewing cane                         0.01             0.09              0               0            0.28        0.73
Finger millet                        0.03             0.16              0               0            0.98        2.56
Ground nuts                          0.01             0.09              0               0            0.34        0.89
Kales                                0.02             0.17              0               0             0.5        1.31
Indigenous vegetables                0.00              0.1              0               0             0.1        0.26
Maize                                0.04              0.6              0               0             1.2        3.14
Maize & beans                        1.00             1.04             1.2             0.4           30.06       78.61
Onions                               0.01             0.13              0               0             0.4        1.05
                                     0.08              2.5              0               0             2.5        6.54
Sweet potatoes                       0.01             0.09              0               0            0.35        0.92
Tomatoes                             0.02              0.3              0               0             0.6        1.57
Water Melons                         0.03              0.8              0               0             0.8        2.09
Total Sample Area                    1.26                                                            38.24        100
                                              Second Rainy Season
                                            Annual & Bi-annual Crops
                                    Average         Average          Upper           Lower        Total Sample Area of
Crops                                  0               1            Quartile        Quartile            30 farms
                                      ha              ha              ha              ha             ha          %
Arrow roots                          0.00            0.08              0               0            0.08        0.39
Beans                                0.09            0.28             0.2              0             2.8       13.82
Chewing cane                         0.01            0.09              0               0            0.28        1.38
Cow peas                             0.03              1               0               0              1         4.94
Ground nuts                          0.07            0.19             0.1              0             2.1       10.37
Kales                                0.01            0.15              0               0             0.3        1.48
Indigenous vegetables                0.01             0.1              0               0             0.2        0.99
Maize                                0.05            0.75              0               0             1.5        7.40
Maize & beans                        0.04            0.28              0               0             1.1        5.43
Simsim                               0.00             0.1              0               0             0.1        0.49
Sorghum                              0.02            0.25              0               0             0.5        2.47
Soyabeans                            0.01             0.1              0               0             0.2        0.99
                                     0.25            0.95             0.4              0             7.6       37.51
Sweet potatoes                       0.04            0.10             0.1              0            1.25        6.17
Tomatoes                             0.04            0.21              0               0            1.25        6.17
Total Sample Area                    0.67                                                           20.26        100
                                                  Perennial Crops
                                    Average         Average          Upper           Lower         Total Sample Area
Crops                                  0               1            Quartile        Quartile           of 30 farms
                                      ha              ha              ha              ha             ha           %
Avocado                              0.02            0.08            0.03              0            0.61         7.55
Bananas                              0.08            0.12            0.14              0            2.4         29.70
Coffee                               0.15            0.20             0.2              0            4.46        55.20
Mangoes                              0.01            0.07              0               0            0.28         3.47
Passion fruits                       0.01             0.2              0               0             0.2         2.48
Paw paws                             0.00            0.03              0               0            0.03         0.37
Sugarcane                            0.00             0.1              0               0             0.1         1.24
Total Sample Area                    0.27                                                           8.08          100
NOTES:
Avg.0             = average of all sample farms; Avg.1             = average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. Qu.   = Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these points



                                                                                                                         189
      BUNG. & MT.EL. 50


      TABLE 17e: CROPPING PATTERN IN AEZ UM 2 OF BUNGOMA DISTRICT
      Subzone: m/l^s i, Soil Unit: UlN 1                   Survey area 12 (Sikhendu)

                                                   First Rainy Season
                                                Annual & Bi-annual Crops
                                          Average          Average          Upper           Lower         Total Sample Area
      Crops                                  0                1            Quartile        Quartile           of 30 farms
                                            ha               ha              ha              ha             ha           %
      Cassava                              0.01             0.06              0               0            0.37        1.09
      Chewing cane                         0.01              0.4              0               0             0.4        1.18
      Finger millet                        0.01              0.1              0               0             0.2        0.59
      Ground nuts                          0.01              0.1              0               0             0.2        0.59
      Kales                                0.01              0.2              0               0             0.2        0.59
      Maize & beans                        1.05             1.09             1.3             0.4           31.6        93.02
      Sweet potatoes                       0.03             0.13              0               0             0.8        2.36
      Tomatoes                             0.01              0.2              0               0             0.2        0.59
      Total Sample Area                    1.14                                                            33.97        100

                                                  Second Rainy Season
                                                Annual & Bi-annual Crops
                                          Average         Average          Upper           Lower        Total Sample Area of
      Crops                                  0               1            Quartile        Quartile            30 farms
                                            ha              ha              ha              ha             ha          %
      Beans                                0.11            0.47            0.05              0             3.3       16.16
      Cabbages                             0.01             0.4              0               0             0.4       1.96
      Cassava                              0.01            0.06              0               0            0.23       1.13
      Chewing cane                         0.01             0.4              0               0             0.4       1.96
      Cow peas                             0.01            0.09              0               0            0.28       1.37
      Finger millet                        0.01            0.15              0               0             0.3        1.47
      Ground nuts                          0.01            0.13              0               0            0.38       1.86
      Kales                                0.05            0.18            0.09              0            1.63        7.98
      Sorghum                              0.01            0.08              0               0            0.15       0.73
      Soyabeans                            0.01             0.2              0               0             0.2       0.98
                                           0.30            1.14            0.33              0             9.1       44.56
      Sweet potatoes                       0.07            0.10             0.1              0             2.2       10.77
      Tomatoes                             0.06            0.31              0               0            1.85       9.06
      Total Sample Area                    0.67                                                           20.42        100

                                                       Perennial Crops
                                          Average         Average          Upper           Lower         Total Sample Area
      Crops                                  0               1            Quartile        Quartile           of 30 farms
                                            ha              ha              ha               ha            ha            %
      Avocado                              0.03            0.24              0                0           0.95         7.03
      Bananas                              0.11            0.12            0.17             0.08          3.34        24.70
      Coffee                               0.30            0.39            0.33             0.08           8.9        65.83
      Mangoes                              0.01            0.11              0                0           0.33         2.44
      Total Sample Area                    0.45                                                           13.52         100

      NOTES:
      Avg.0             = average of all sample farms
      Avg.1             = average of farms, excluding zero entries
      Up. Qu./Lo. Qu.   = Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these points




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TABLE 17f: CROPPING PATTERN IN AEZ UM 3 - 4 OF BUNGOMA DISTRICT
Subzone: l/v l i or m^s i, Soil Unit: UlRA               Survey area 13 (Naitiri)

                                              First Rainy Season
                                           Annual & Bi-annual Crops
                                     Average         Average         Upper           Lower        Total Sample Area
Crops                                   0               1           Quartile        Quartile          of 30 farms
                                       ha              ha             ha              ha            ha           %
Onions                                0.00             0.1             0               0            0.1        0.21
Cassava                               0.02            0.07           0.04              0           0.58        1.22
Finger millet                         0.02            0.22             0               0           0.65        1.36
Ground nuts                           0.01             0.2             0               0            0.2        0.42
Irish potatoes                        0.00             0.1             0               0            0.1        0.21
Maize                                 0.19            1.12             0               0            5.6        11.76
Maize & beans                         1.33            1.48           1.53             0.4          39.9        83.79
Sorghum                               0.00            0.05             0               0           0.05        0.10
Sweet potatoes                        0.01            0.12             0               0           0.24        0.50
Indigenous vegetables                 0.01             0.2             0               0            0.2        0.42
Total Sample Area                     1.59                                                         47.62        100

                                             Second Rainy Season
                                           Annual & Bi-annual Crops
                                     Average        Average          Upper          Lower       Total Sample Area of
Crops                                   0              1            Quartile       Quartile            30 farms
                                       ha             ha              ha             ha             ha          %
Beans                                 0.06           0.38              0              0             1.9       10.27
Onions                                0.00            0.1              0              0            0.1         0.54
Cassava                               0.02           0.07            0.03             0           0.56        3.03
Finger millet                         0.00            0.1              0              0             0.1        0.54
Ground nuts                           0.01           0.07              0              0           0.44         2.38
Irish potatoes                        0.00            0.1              0              0            0.1         0.54
Maize                                 0.01            0.3              0              0            0.3         1.62
Maize & beans                         0.03            0.5              0              0              1         5.41
Sorghum                               0.01           0.07              0              0           0.21         1.14
                                      0.40           0.79             0.8             0            11.9       64.32
Sweet potatoes                        0.04           0.11            0.05             0             1.1        5.95
Tomatoes                              0.01            0.2              0              0            0.2         1.08
Indigenous vegetables                 0.02           0.10              0              0           0.59         3.19
Total Sample Area                     0.61                                                         18.5         100

                                                  Perennial Crops
                                     Average        Average          Upper          Lower         Total Sample Area
Crops                                   0              1            Quartile       Quartile           of 30 farms
                                       ha             ha              ha              ha            ha           %
Avocado                               0.00           0.05              0               0           0.11         1.95
Bananas                               0.14           0.14             0.2            0.08          4.13        73.10
Coffee                                0.02           0.18              0               0           0.74        13.10
Passion fruits                        0.01            0.2              0               0            0.2         3.54
Macadamia                             0.00           0.04              0               0           0.04         0.71
Mangoes                               0.00           0.02              0               0           0.03         0.53
Paw paws                              0.00           0.03              0               0           0.06         1.06
Pineapples                            0.01           0.08              0               0           0.15         2.65
Sugarcane                             0.01           0.06              0               0           0.19         3.36
Total Sample Area                     0.19                                                         5.65          100
NOTES:
Avg.0    = average of all sample farms; Avg.1 = average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. Qu. = Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these points



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      BUNG. & MT.EL. 52


      TABLE 17g: CROPPING PATTERN IN AEZ UM 4 OF BUNGOMA DISTRICT
      Subzone: l/v l or two, Soil Unit: UlGA 1             Survey area 14 (Mbakalo)

                                                   First Rainy Season
                                                Annual & Bi-annual Crops
                                          Average          Average          Upper           Lower         Total Sample Area
      Crops                                  0                1            Quartile        Quartile           of 30 farms
                                            ha               ha              ha              ha             ha           %
      Chewing cane                         0.01             0.11              0               0            0.21        0.59
      Finger millet                        0.05             0.18             0.1              0             1.4        3.93
      Ground nuts                          0.02             0.15              0               0            0.74        2.08
      Maize                                0.23               1              0.1              0              7         19.67
      Maize & beans                        0.84             0.87             1.3             0.3           25.33       71.19
      Sorghum                              0.00              0.1              0               0             0.1        0.28
      Sweet potatoes                       0.03             0.15              0               0            0.76        2.14
      Indigenous vegetables                0.00             0.04              0               0            0.04         0.11
      Total Sample Area                    1.18                                                            35.58        100

                                                  Second Rainy Season
                                                Annual & Bi-annual Crops
                                          Average         Average          Upper           Lower        Total Sample Area of
      Crops                                  0               1            Quartile        Quartile            30 farms
                                            ha              ha              ha              ha             ha          %
      Beans                                0.04            0.22              0               0             1.3        12.5
      Chewing cane                         0.01            0.11              0               0            0.21        2.02
      Ground nuts                          0.00             0.1              0               0             0.1        0.96
      Maize                                0.00             0.1              0               0             0.1        0.96
      Maize & beans                        0.00            0.04              0               0            0.04        0.38
      Sorghum                              0.00             0.1              0               0             0.1        0.96
                                           0.24            0.46             0.4              0            7.29       70.10
      Sweet potatoes                       0.04            0.19              0               0            1.12       10.77
      Indigenous vegetables                0.00            0.07              0               0            0.14        1.35
      Total Sample Area                    0.33                                                            10.4        100

                                                       Perennial Crops
                                          Average         Average          Upper           Lower         Total Sample Area
      Crops                                  0               1            Quartile        Quartile          of 30 farms
                                            ha              ha              ha              ha             ha           %
      Avocado                              0.00            0.06              0               0            0.12        2.12
      Bananas                              0.11            0.15             0.2              0            3.20       56.64
      Coffee                               0.07            0.25             0.1              0            2.22       39.29
      Fruit trees                          0.00            0.08              0               0            0.08        1.42
      Mangoes                              0.01            0.03              0               0            0.03        0.53
      Total Sample Area                    0.19                                                           5.65         100
      NOTES:
      Avg.0             = average of all sample farms
      Avg.1             = average of farms, excluding zero entries
      Up. Qu./Lo. Qu.   = Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these points




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TABLE 17h: CROPPING PATTERN IN AEZ LH 1 OF MT. ELGON DISTRICT
Subzone: l/m^m, Soil Unit: RB 2                          Survey area 15 (Kibuk)
                                              First Rainy Season
                                           Annual & Bi-annualCrops
                                     Average         Average         Upper           Lower        Total Sample Area
Crops                                   0               1           Quartile        Quartile          of 30 farms
                                       ha              ha              ha             ha             ha          %
Beans                                 0.05            0.32              0              0            1.6         3.93
Cabbages                              0.01            0.15              0              0            0.3         0.74
Carrots                               0.00             0.1              0              0            0.1         0.25
Cassava                               0.00            0.05              0              0           0.05         0.12
Cow peas                              0.00            0.05              0              0           0.05         0.12
Finger millet                         0.05            0.15            0.1              0           1.35         3.31
Ground nuts                           0.00            0.03              0              0           0.03         0.07
Irish potatoes                        0.06            0.19            0.1              0            1.7         4.17
Kales                                 0.01            0.05              0              0           0.15         0.37
Maize                                 0.61            1.36            1.1              0           17.7        43.45
Maize & beans                         0.48            0.73            0.8              0           14.5        35.59
Maize, beans & peas                   0.06             1.8              0              0            1.8         4.42
Onions                                0.04            0.16            0.03             0            1.1         2.70
Sweet potatoes                        0.01            0.06              0              0           0.18         0.44
Indigenous vegetables                 0.00            0.04              0              0            0.13        0.32
Total Sample Area                     1.38                                                         40.74        100
                                             Second Rainy Season
                                           Annual & Bi-annual Crops
                                     Average        Average          Upper          Lower       Total Sample Area of
Crops                                   0              1            Quartile       Quartile           30 farms
                                       ha             ha              ha             ha            ha          %
Beans                                 0.13           0.31             0.2             0           3.75       47.53
Cabbages                              0.01            0.2              0              0            0.2        2.53
Carrots                               0.00            0.1              0              0            0.1        1.27
Cow peas                              0.00           0.05              0              0           0.15        1.90
Dolichos                              0.00           0.04              0              0           0.04        0.51
French beans                          0.00           0.15              0              0            0.3        3.80
Irish potatoes                        0.04           0.18              0              0            1.1       13.94
Kales                                 0.01           0.09              0              0           0.35        4.44
Onions                                0.03           0.13              0              0            0.8       10.14
Sweet potatoes                        0.01           0.07              0              0            0.2        2.53
Tomatoes                              0.03           0.15              0              0           0.75        9.51
Indigenous vegetables                 0.00           0.08              0              0           0.15        1.90
Total Sample Area                     0.26                                                         7.89        100

                                                  Perennial Crops
                                     Average        Average          Upper          Lower         Total Sample Area
Crops                                   0              1            Quartile       Quartile           of 30 farms
                                       ha             ha              ha             ha             ha           %
Avocado                               0.00           0.01              0              0            0.01         0.13
Bananas                               0.06           0.11             0.1             0            1.87        24.13
Coffee                                0.15           0.30            0.15             0            4.47        57.68
Pyrethrum                             0.01            0.1              0              0             0.3         3.87
Tea                                   0.03            0.3              0              0             0.9        11.61
Woodlots/Forest                       0.01            0.2              0              0             0.2         2.58
Total Sample Area                     0.26                                                         7.75          100
NOTES:
Avg.0    = average of all sample farms; Avg.1 = average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. Qu. = Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these points



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      TABLE 17i: CROPPING PATTERN IN AEZ LH 2 OF MT. ELGON DISTRICT
      Subzone: v l or two, Soil Unit: RB 2                Survey area 16 (Chemweisus)
                                                   First Rainy Season
                                                Annual & Bi-annual Crops
                                          Average          Average          Upper           Lower         Total Sample Area
      Crops                                  0                1            Quartile        Quartile           of 30 farms
                                            ha               ha              ha              ha             ha            %
      Beans                                0.01              0.1              0               0             0.3         0.83
      Cassava                              0.01             0.05              0               0            0.05         0.14
      Cow peas                             0.01             0.04              0               0            0.08         0.22
      Finger millet                        0.07             0.23             0.1              0             2.1         5.78
      Irish potatoes                       0.03             0.14            0.01              0            0.55         1.51
      Kales                                0.01             0.08              0               0             0.4         1.10
      Maize                                0.60             1.31             0.8              0            18.4        50.61
      Maize & beans                        0.45             0.66             0.8              0            13.7        37.68
      Sweet potatoes                       0.01             0.12              0               0            0.35         0.96
      Tomatoes                             0.01              0.4              0               0             0.4         1.10
      Indigenous vegetables                0.00             0.03              0               0            0.03         0.08
      Total Sample Area                    1.21                                                            36.36         100
                                                  Second Rainy Season
                                                Annual & Bi-annual Crops
                                          Average         Average          Upper           Lower        Total Sample Area of
      Crops                                  0               1            Quartile        Quartile            30 farms
                                            ha              ha              ha              ha             ha          %
      Beans                                0.09            0.25             0.1              0             2.7       33.21
      Cabbages                             0.00            0.08              0               0            0.15        1.85
      Cow peas                             0.01            0.05              0               0             0.2        2.46
      Irish potatoes                       0.06            0.19            0.09              0            1.73       21.28
      Kales                                0.03            0.07            0.05              0            0.75        9.23
      Onions                               0.01            0.13              0               0            0.25        3.08
      Sweet potatoes                       0.02            0.11              0               0            0.55        6.77
      Tomatoes                             0.01             0.2              0               0             0.4        4.92
      Indigenous vegetables                0.00            0.03              0               0            0.10        1.23
      Wheat                                0.04            0.65              0               0             1.3       15.99
      Total Sample Area                    0.27                                                            8.13        100

                                                       Perennial Crops
                                          Average         Average          Upper           Lower         Total Sample Area
      Crops                                  0               1            Quartile        Quartile          of 30 farms
                                            ha              ha              ha              ha             ha          %
      Bananas                              0.06            0.12             0.1              0            1.84       43.09
      Coffee                               0.06            0.19             0.1              0            1.93       45.20
      Pyrethrum                            0.02            0.25              0               0            0.5        11.71
      Total Sample Area                    0.14                                                           4.27        100
      NOTES:
      Avg.0             = average of all sample farms
      Avg.1             = average of farms, excluding zero entries
      Up. Qu./Lo. Qu.   = Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these points




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                                                                                   BUNG. & MT.EL. 55


3.3.5    INTRODUCTION TO THE ACTUAL LAND USE SYSTEMS AND POTENTIAL
         INTENSIFICATION BY BETTER FARM MANAGEMENT


Guidelines of each district and in the KARI Fertiliser Use Manual.

In terms of aerial coverage, the dominant Zones are LM 2, LM 3, UM 1, UM 2, UM 3 and UM 4.

Subzone LM 2 l^(m/s) i of the Lower Midland Marginal Sugarcane Zone

This is the Lower Midland Marginal Marginal Sugarcane Zone with a long cropping season followed by a (weak)
medium to short one and intermediate rains as typified by Namasanda Sub-location in Bungoma district. It
is dominated by soils on lower-level uplands. The soils are well drained, deep to very deep (association of
orthic Acrisols, with humic Acrisols, partly stoney phases and ferralo-orthic Acrisols, petroferric phase, with
ferralic Arenosols). The rainfall variability in this Subzone is high, and hence the reliability is low but suf-
ficient. The first rainy season can rely on an amount of between 580 – 720 mm in 10 out of 15 seasons; the
second rainy season 380 – 450 mm.

Maize is still the dominant food crop, followed by sorghum, finger millet and cassava. The dominant legume
crops are common beans, pigeon peas and cowpeas, though the latter is very susceptible to pests and dis-
eases. The dominant fruit crop is banana. Fruit production potential in this Subzone is likely to be improved
through the current use of improved tissue culture banana seedling material. These seedlings are disease re-
sistant and take only about 18 months to produce the first fruit. This will greatly improve the quality of the
produce and hence fetch more cash income for the farmers. Vegetable production in this Subzone is limited
to the growing of kales, tomatoes and onions, mainly for home consumption.

The cash crops grown in this Subzone in order of importance are: sugar cane and sunflower. The proximity
to Nzoia Sugar Factory has led to the intensification of sugar cane growing. However, the yield of sugar cane
per hectare is rather low due to a decline in soil fertility. It has been reported that some of the farmers do
sell the fertiliser meant for application on sugar cane fields. The issue of soil fertility replenishment needs to
be seriously addressed in this Subzone if the returns to land are to be improved. This can be done especially
through application of organic and inorganic fertilisers. There is also need to promote the use of effective mi-
crooganisms (EM) technology, which enhances the bio-degradation of compost. If the above listed conser-
vation measures are well practiced, the soil fertility status would be greatly enhanced. The dominant visible
soil conservation structures include Fanya juu, which is usually fortified with Napier grass. Besides serving
as an erosion control measure, it serves as fodder for animals, since many farmers do practice zero grazing in
this Subzone. The present yield increase under three levels of inputs and the potential on the predominant
soil of this Subzone is shown in Table 18a.




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      BUNG. & MT.EL. 56


      TABLE 18a: INCREASE OF YIELDS BY BETTER FARM MANAGEMENT IN
                 AGRO- ECOLOGICAL UNIT1) LM 2, l^(m/s) i, UlGA 1
      Subzone: l^(m/s) i, Soil Unit: UlGA 1                                                          Survey area 09 (Namasanda)
                                  AEZ: LM 2 MARGINAL SUGARCANE ZONE
                                  Subzone: l^(m/s) i (Periods in days2): 1st rainy season > 180, 2nd rainy season 105 - 115)
                                  Unit with predom. Soil: UIG 1 (association of orthic/humic acrisols, with humic ACRI-
       Crop Yields3) and                                  SOLS, partly stony phases and ferralo-orthic ACRISOLS, petro-
       Inputs
                                                          ferric phase, with ferralic ARENOSOLS)
                                                                                         2nd rainy season: 380 - 450 mm in at least
                                 Reliable rainfall: 1st rainy season: 580 - 720 mm
                                                                                         10 out 15 years
                                               Farmers in Prod. Level                                Farmers in Prod. Level
       Maize local pure                I=         II =       III =            AEU             I=        II =       III =
                                                                                                                          AEU Pot.6)
       stand                          low        med.4)      high5)           Pot.6)         low       med.4)     high5)
       Yields3) kg/ha
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha
       P2O5 kg/ha
       K2O kg/ha
       Manure t/ha
       Hybrid maize
       Yields3) kg/ha                  -             -             -          6000             -            -           -
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha
       P2O5 kg/ha
       K2O kg/ha.
       Manure t/ha
       Maize local
       intercropped
       with beans
       Yields3) kg/ha
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha
       P2O5 kg/ha
       K2O kg/ha
       Manure t/ha
       Hybrid maize
       intercropped with
       beans
       Yields3) kg/ha                 929         1568          1868          4000             -            -           -
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha                   0           13            15
       P2O5 kg/ha                     13           19            20
       K2O kg/ha                       -            -             -
       Manure t/ha                     -           0.7           1.4

      NOTES:
      1)
           Source: Small Farm Survey (2004)
      2)
           Figures of these cereals growing periods should be reached or surpassed in 6 out of 10 years; growing periods may be
           considered longer due to immediately following second rainy season by middle rains. Then the second growing period is
      3)
         Achieved average yields with average rainfall
      4)
         Farmers with medium inputs
      5)
         Farmers with high inputs of fertilizer, insecticides, soil and water conservation
      6)
         Potential yield according to crop list and local climate of this Agro-Ecological Unit if soils are optimally fertilized, plus
         optimal crop management




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                                                                                     BUNG. & MT.EL. 57


Subzone LM 3 m/l^(s) of the Lower Midland Cotton Zone (Valley bottomlands)

This is the Lower Midland Cotton Zone with a medium to long cropping season followed by a (weak) short one as
typified by North Myanga Sub-location in Bungoma district. It is dominated by soils on bottomlands. The
soils are a complex of imperfectly drained to poorly drained, deep to deep (dystric Planosols, dystric and
vertic Gleysols and pellic Vertisols; partly saline-sodic phases). The rainfall variability in this Subzone is high,
and hence the reliability is low. The first rainy season can rely on an amount of between 500 – 600 mm in
10 out of 15 seasons; the second rainy season only 300 – 350 mm.

The valley bottom areas in this Subzone are well suited for the production of a variety of crops. Maize is
still the current most dominant food crop grown on higher ground as well as the valley bottoms. Apart
from maize, sweet potatoes and yams grown in these valley bottoms constitute important components of
the food diet. The dominant fruit crop is the cooking banana type that is grown near the homesteads on
higher ground as well as in these valley bottoms. Farmers are yet to take advantage of the new technology of
planting improved tissue culture banana seedlings. This could be due to the unavailability of the technology
and basically lack of information about it. This calls for concerted efforts on the part of extension officers to
provide farmers with the necessary relevant information. Vegetable production in the wetlands of this Sub-
zone is limited to the growing of kales, cabbages, tomatoes and onions, mainly for home consumption. In
some cases, the surplus is sold for cash in nearby market centres. Soil conservation measures being practiced
in the wetlands of this Subzone are mainly cut-off drainage canals and raised embankments. Very little or
no fertiliser is applied to the food crop fields. There is need to promote the use of effective microoganisms
(EM) technology, which enhances the bio-degradation of compost. Without caring to improve soil fertility
through additional external inputs in the form of manures, the hunger problem cannot simply be wished
away. One cannot expect to produce enough food from an exhausted soil! The present yield increase under
three levels of inputs and the potential on the predominant soil of this Subzone is presented in Table 18b.




                                                                                                                       197
      BUNG. & MT.EL. 58


      TABLE 18b: INCREASE OF YIELDS BY BETTER FARM MANAGEMENT IN
                 AGRO- ECOLOGICAL UNIT1) LM 3, m/l^(s), Bottomlands BXC 1
      Subzone: m/l^(s), Soil Unit: Bottomlands BXC 1                                          Survey area 10a (North Myanga)
                                  AEZ: LM 3 COTTON ZONE
                                  Subzone: m/l^(s) (Periods in days2): 1st rainy season 155 - 170, 2nd rainy season 85 - 100)
                                  Unit with predom. Soil: BXC 1 = complex of dystric PLANOSOLS, dystric and vertic GLEY-
       Crop Yields3) and
                                                                         SOLS and pellic VERTISOLS; partly saline-sodiy phases
       Inputs
                                                     st                                  2nd rainy season: 300 - 350 mm in at least
                                 Reliable rainfall: 1 rainy season: 500 - 600 mm
                                                                                         10 out 15 years
                                               Farmers in Prod. Level                               Farmers in Prod. Level
       Maize local pure                I=         II =       III =            AEU             I=        II =      III =    AEU
       stand                          low        med.4)      high5)           Pot.6)         low       med.4)     high5)   Pot.6)
       Yields3) kg/ha
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha
       P2O5 kg/ha
       K2O kg/ha
       Manure t/ha
       Hybrid maize
       Yields3) kg/ha                  -          2363          3058          3500             -         1440         2250
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha                               46.4          50                                       80           115
       P2O5 kg/ha                                   42           50                                       80           104
       K2O kg/ha.                                    -            -                                        -            -
       Manure t/ha                                  1.7          2.7                                      2.7          6.6
       Maize local
       intercropped
       with beans
       Yields3) kg/ha
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha
       P2O5 kg/ha
       K2O kg/ha
       Manure t/ha
       Hybrid maize
       intercropped with
       beans
       Yields3) kg/ha                  -          1264          2007          3500             -          897         1151
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha                               25            29                                       48           56
       P2O5 kg/ha                                  25            27                                       48           51
       K2O kg/ha                                    -             -                                        -            -
       Manure t/ha                                 0.8           1.7                                      1.6          3.2

      NOTES:
      1)
           Source: Small Farm Survey (2004)
      2)
           Figures of these cereals growing periods should be reached or surpassed in 6 out of 10 years; growing periods may be
           considered longer due to immediately following second rainy season by middle rains. Then the second growing period is
      3)
         Achieved average yields with average rainfall
      4)
         Farmers with medium inputs
      5)
         Farmers with high inputs of fertilizer, insecticides, soil and water conservation
      6)
         Potential yield according to crop list and local climate of this Agro-Ecological Unit if soils are optimally fertilized, plus
         optimal crop management




198
                                                                                    BUNG. & MT.EL. 59


Subzone of the Lower Midland Cotton Zone (Undulating peneplains)

This is the Lower Midland Cotton Zone with a medium to long cropping season followed by a (weak) short one
as typified by Lunao Sub-location in Bungoma district. It is dominated by soils on undulated peneplains.
The soils are well drained, moderately deep to very deep, partly stony or petroferric (association of orthic
and humic Acrisols with ferralic Arenosols). The rainfall variability in this Subzone is high, and hence the
reliability is low. The first rainy season can still rely on an amount of between 500 – 600 mm in 10 out of
15 seasons; the second rainy season on 300 – 350 mm.

The zone is well suited for the production of a variety of crops. Maize is still the current most dominant food
crop on the uplands, even though yields per hectare have considerably declined due to soil infertility related
problems. Apart from maize, sorghum, finger millet, sweet potatoes, cassava (grown on the higher ground)
constitute important components of the food diet. The dominant legume crops include: common beans,
cowpeas, green grams and pigeon, which are usually grown on higher ground. The dominant fruit crop is
the cooking banana type that is grown near the homesteads on higher ground as well as in these valley bot-
toms. Farmers are yet to take advantage of the new technology of planting improved tissue culture banana
seedlings. This could be due to the unavailability of the technology and basically lack of information about
it. This calls for concerted efforts on the part of extension officers to provide farmers with the necessary rel-
evant information. Vegetable production in this Subzone is limited to the growing of kales, tomatoes and
onions, mainly for home consumption. In some cases, the surplus is sold for cash in nearby market centres.
The current cash crops grown in this Subzone include: sunflower, tobacco, cotton and coffee. However, the
returns from these cash crops are very minimal because of poor marketing outlets and road infrastructure.

Soil fertility improvement measures being practiced in this Subzone is mainly through the use of crop resi-
dues. Very little or no fertiliser is applied to the food crop fields. There is need to promote the use of effective
microoganisms (EM) technology, which enhances the bio-degradation of compost. If the above listed soil
fertility improvement measures are well practiced, food production would be greatly enhanced. The pres-
ent yield increase under three levels of inputs and the potential on the predominant soil of this Subzone is
shown in Table 18c.




                                                                                                                     199
      BUNG. & MT.EL. 60


      TABLE 18c: INCREASE OF YIELDS BY BETTER FARM MANAGEMENT IN
                 AGRO- ECOLOGICAL UNIT1) LM 3, m/l^(s), Undulating peneplains UlGA 1
      Subzone: m/l^(s), Soil Unit: Undulating peneplains UlGA 1                                          Survey area 10b (Lunao)
                                  AEZ: LM 3 COTTON ZONE
                                  Subzone: m/l^(s) (Periods in days2): 1st rainy season 85 - 105, 2nd rainy season 80 - 95)
                                  Unit with predom. Soil: UIGA 1 = association of orthic/humic acrisols, with humic ACRISOLS,
       Crop Yields3) and                                                 partly stony phases and ferralo-orthic ACRISOLS, petro-
       Inputs                                                            ferric phase, with ferralic ARENOSOLS
                                                                                         2nd rainy season: 300 - 350 mm in at least
                                 Reliable rainfall: 1st rainy season: 500 - 600 mm
                                                                                         10 out 15 years
                                               Farmers in Prod. Level                               Farmers in Prod. Level
       Maize local pure                I=         II =       III =            AEU             I=        II =      III =    AEU
       stand                          low        med.4)      high5)           Pot.6)         low       med.4)     high5)   Pot.6)
       Yields3) kg/ha
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha
       P2O5 kg/ha
       K2O kg/ha
       Manure t/ha
       Hybrid maize
       Yields3) kg/ha                  -           713          1107          4000             -         1927           -
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha                   -           31            42
       P2O5 kg/ha                      -           25            45                                        -
       K2O kg/ha.                      -            -             -                                        -
       Manure t/ha                     -           2.5           2.6                                      0.3
       Maize local
       intercropped
       with beans
       Yields3) kg/ha
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha
       P2O5 kg/ha
       K2O kg/ha
       Manure t/ha
       Hybrid maize
       intercropped with
       beans
       Yields3) kg/ha                  -           780           874          3500             -          640         1107
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha                               31            32                                         -           -
       P2O5 kg/ha                                  25            33                                         -           -
       K2O kg/ha                                    -             -                                         -           -
       Manure t/ha                                 1.9           2.5                                        -           -

      NOTES:
      1)
           Source: Small Farm Survey (2004)
      2)
           Figures of these cereals growing periods should be reached or surpassed in 6 out of 10 years; growing periods may be
           considered longer due to immediately following second rainy season by middle rains. Then the second growing period is
      3)
         Achieved average yields with average rainfall
      4)
         Farmers with medium inputs
      5)
         Farmers with high inputs of fertilizer, insecticides, soil and water conservation
      6)
         Potential yield according to crop list and local climate of this Agro-Ecological Unit if soils are optimally fertilized, plus
         optimal crop management




200
                                                                                 BUNG. & MT.EL. 61


Subzone UM 1 m/l^m/s i of the Coffee-Tea Zone

This is the Coffee-Tea Zone with a medium to long cropping season followed by a medium to short one and inter-
mediate rains as typified by Kibingei Sub-Location in Bungoma district. It is dominated by soils on lower-
level uplands. The soils are well drained, deep to very deep (rhodic and orthic Ferralsols, partly petroferric
phase). The first rainy season can rely only on an amount of between 700 – 950 mm in 10 out of 15 seasons
and the second rainy season 450 – 550 mm.

The zone is well suited for the production of a variety of crops. Maize is still most dominant food crop,
even though generally, yields per hectare are low due to soil infertility related problems. Apart from maize,
sorghum, sweet potatoes, and finger millets are important components of the food diet. The legume crops
consist of mainly beans and small amounts of cowpea. It should be pointed out here that cowpea is more
susceptible to pest infestation and as such requires high inputs of insecticides, which unfortunately are
beyond the reach of a majority of smallholder farmers. The dominant fruit crops are: cooking and sweet
bananas, passion fruits and guavas. The dominant fruit crop is the cooking banana type that is grown near
the homesteads on higher ground as well as in these valley bottoms. Farmers are yet to take advantage of the
new technology of planting improved tissue culture banana seedlings. This could be due to the unavailability
of the technology and basically lack of information about it. This calls for concerted efforts on the part of
extension officers to provide farmers with the necessary relevant information. Vegetable production in this
Subzone is limited to the growing of cabbages, kales, tomatoes and onions and carrots, mainly for home
consumption. In some cases, the surplus is sold for cash in nearby market centres. The current cash crops
grown in this Subzone in order of importance are: tea, sunflower and arabica coffee. Despite this being a cof-
fee zone, most smallholder farmers concentrated their efforts on tea because of the poor returns from coffee.
Most of the coffee bushes have been cut back to give room for the growing of legumes and maize.

Soil fertility improvement measures being practiced in this Subzone include: inorganic fertiliser application
on tea farms, compost manure and use of crop residues. A combination of inorganic and organic fertiliser is
applied on maize fields at planting, though not at the recommended rates. The use of effective microogan-
isms (EM) technology, which enhances the bio-degradation of compost, is yet to reach farmers in this Sub-
zone. Efforts need to be intensifies by the extension staff to make the farmers understand the importance
of fertilising their farms. The present yield increase under three levels of inputs and the potential on the
predominant soil of this Subzone is shown in Table 18d.




                                                                                                                 201
      BUNG. & MT.EL. 62


      TABLE 18d: INCREASE OF YIELDS BY BETTER FARM MANAGEMENT IN
                 AGRO- ECOLOGICAL UNIT1) UM 1, m/l^m/s i, UlN 1
      Subzone: m/l^m/s i, Soil Unit: UlN 1                                                               Survey area 11 (Kibingei)
                                  AEZ: UM 1 COFFEE - TEA ZONE
                                  Subzone: m/l^m/s i (Periods in days2): 1st rainy season 200 or >, 2nd rainy season 130 - 150)
       Crop Yields3) and          Unit with predom. Soil: UIN 1 = rhodic and orthic FERRALSOLS
       Inputs                                                                            2nd rainy season: 450 - 550 mm in at least
                                 Reliable rainfall: 1st rainy season: 700 - 950 mm
                                                                                         10 out 15 years
                                               Farmers in Prod. Level                                Farmers in Prod. Level
       Maize local pure                I=         II =       III =            AEU             I=        II =       III =    AEU
       stand                          low        med.4)      high5)           Pot.6)         low       med.4)     high5)    Pot.6)
       Yields3) kg/ha                                                          *
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha
       P2O5 kg/ha
       K2O kg/ha
       Manure t/ha
       Hybrid maize
       Yields3) kg/ha                  -             -          7000             -             -            -           -
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha
       P2O5 kg/ha
       K2O kg/ha.
       Manure t/ha
       Maize local
       intercropped
       with beans
       Yields3) kg/ha                                                                       1000         1500         3000           *
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha                                                                          -            -            -
       P2O5 kg/ha                                                                             -            -            -
       K2O kg/ha                                                                              -            -            -
       Manure t/ha                                                                           0.5          2.0          3.2
       Hybrid maize
       intercropped with
       beans
       Yields3) kg/ha                2813         4617          5141          5500             -            -           -
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha                  11           26            35
       P2O5 kg/ha                     25           28            42
       K2O kg/ha                       -            -             -
       Manure t/ha                     0           1.1           3.4

      NOTES:
      1)
           Source: Small Farm Survey (2004)
      2)
           Figures of these cereals growing periods should be reached or surpassed in 6 out of 10 years; growing periods may be
           considered longer due to immediately following second rainy season by middle rains. Then the second growing period is
      3)
         Achieved average yields with average rainfall
      4)
         Farmers with medium inputs
      5)
         Farmers with high inputs of fertilizer, insecticides, soil and water conservation
      6)
         Potential yield according to crop list and local climate of this Agro-Ecological Unit if soils are optimally fertilized, plus
         optimal crop management
      * Potential for local maize not known; no experimental results




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                                                                                 BUNG. & MT.EL. 63


Subzone UM 2 m/l^s i of the Main Coffee Zone

This is the Main Coffee Zone with a medium to long cropping season followed by a short one and in-
termediate rains as typified by Sikhendu Sub-Location in Bungoma district. It is dominated by soils on
middle-level uplands. The soils are well drained, deep to very deep but partly petroferric (rhodic and orthic
Ferralsols). The first rainy season can rely on an amount of at least 580 – 720 mm in 10 out of 15 seasons
and the second rainy season on 380 – 450 mm.

The zone is well suited for the production of a variety of crops. Maize is still most dominant food crop, even
though generally, yields per hectare are low due to soil infertility related problems. Apart from maize, sweet
potatoes and finger millet are important components of the food diet. The legume crops consist of mainly
beans and more recently soyabeans. The dominant fruit crops are: cooking and sweet bananas, passion fruits,
mountain pawpaws, guavas and avocados. Fruit production in this Subzone could be improved through the
use of improved tissue culture and grafted seedling material, which take a much shorter period to mature.
This would greatly improve the quality of the produce and hence fetch more cash income for the farmers.
Vegetable production in this Subzone is limited to the growing of cabbages, kales, tomatoes and onions and
carrots, mainly for home consumption. In some cases, the surplus is sold for cash in nearby market centres.
The current cash crops grown in this Subzone in order of importance are: tea, sunflower, macadamia nuts
and arabica coffee. Despite this being a main coffee zone, most smallholder farmers concentrated their ef-
forts on the other cash crops like tea because of the poor returns from coffee.

The dominant soil conservation structure, particularly on tea and coffee farms is Fanya juu, which is usually
fortified with Napier grass. Besides serving as an erosion control measure, it serves as fodder for animals,
since many farmers do practice zero grazing in this Subzone. Soil fertility improvement measures being prac-
ticed in this Subzone include: inorganic fertiliser application on tea and coffee farms, compost manure and
use of crop residues. A combination of inorganic and organic fertiliser is applied on maize fields at plant-
ing, though not at the recommended rates. The use of effective microoganisms (EM) technology, which
enhances the bio-degradation of compost, is yet to reach farmers in this Subzone. The present yield increase
by three levels of inputs, and the potential on the predominating soil of this subzone see Table 18e.




                                                                                                                 203
      BUNG. & MT.EL. 64


      TABLE 18e: INCREASE OF YIELDS BY BETTER FARM MANAGEMENT IN
                 AGRO- ECOLOGICAL UNIT1) UM 2, m/l^s i, UlN 1
      Subzone: m/l^s i, Soil Unit: UlN 1                                                               Survey area 12 (Sikhendu)
                                  AEZ: UM 2 MAIN COFFEE ZONE
                                  Subzone: m/l^s i (Periods in days2): 1st rainy season >160, 2nd rainy season 105 - 115)
       Crop Yields3) and          Unit with predom. Soil: UIN 1 = rhodic and orthic FERRALSOLS
       Inputs                                                                            2nd rainy season: 380 - 450 mm in at least
                                 Reliable rainfall: 1st rainy season: 580 - 720 mm
                                                                                         10 out 15 years
                                               Farmers in Prod. Level                            Farmers in Prod. Level
       Maize local pure                I=         II =       III =            AEU             I=     II =       III =   AEU
       stand                          low        med.4)      high5)           Pot.6)         low    med.4)     high5)   Pot.6)
       Yields3) kg/ha                                                          *
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha
       P2O5 kg/ha
       K2O kg/ha
       Manure t/ha
       Hybrid maize
       Yields3) kg/ha                  -             -          7000             -             -            -           -
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha
       P2O5 kg/ha
       K2O kg/ha.
       Manure t/ha
       Maize local
       intercropped
       with beans
       Yields3) kg/ha
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha
       P2O5 kg/ha
       K2O kg/ha
       Manure t/ha
       Hybrid maize
       intercropped with
       beans
       Yields3) kg/ha                1553         3094          4126          5000             -            -           -
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha                   0           27            27
       P2O5 kg/ha                     34           37            40
       K2O kg/ha                       -            -             -
       Manure t/ha                     -           2.3           2.8

      NOTES:
      1)
           Source: Small Farm Survey (2004)
      2)
           Figures of these cereals growing periods should be reached or surpassed in 6 out of 10 years; growing periods may be
           considered longer due to immediately following second rainy season by middle rains. Then the second growing period is
      3)
         Achieved average yields with average rainfall
      4)
         Farmers with medium inputs
      5)
         Farmers with high inputs of fertilizer, insecticides, soil and water conservation
      6)
         Potential yield according to crop list and local climate of this Agro-Ecological Unit if soils are optimally fertilized, plus
         optimal crop management
      * Potential for local maize not known; no experimental results




204
                                                                                 BUNG. & MT.EL. 65


Subzone UM 3-4 l/vl i or m^s i of the Marginal Coffee Zone (Coffee-Maize Zone)

This is the Marginal Coffee Zone (here Coffee-Maize Zone) with a long to very long cropping season and inter-
mediate rains, dividable in a medium cropping season followed by a short one and intermediate rains. Naitiri
Sub-Location in Bungoma district typifies this. It is dominated by soils on lower-level uplands. The soils
are well drained, deep (association of orthic Ferralsols with rhodic Ferralsols, partly petroferric phases and
humic Cambisols; partly lithic phase). The first rainy season can rely on an amount of between 550 – 650
mm in 10 out of 15 seasons; the second rainy season which follows immediately the first one (already in
mid July) on 450 – 580 mm.

The zone is well suited for the production of a variety of crops. Maize is still most dominant food crop in
this zone, with relatively good yields due to the application of organic and inorganic fertilisers. Apart from
maize, sweet potatoes and finger millet are important components of the food diet. The legume crops consist
of mainly beans and more recently soybeans are gaining prominence. The dominant fruit crops are: cooking
and sweet bananas, mountain pawpaws, guavas, pineapples and avocados. Fruit production in this Subzone
could be improved through the use of improved tissue culture and grafted seedling material, which take a
much shorter period to mature. This would greatly improved the quality of the produce and hence fetch
more cash income for the farmers. Vegetable production in this Subzone is limited to the growing of cab-
bages, kales, tomatoes and onions and carrots, mainly for home consumption. In some cases, the surplus is
sold for cash in nearby market centres. The current cash crops grown in this Subzone in order of importance
are: sunflower, macadamia nuts and arabica coffee. Most smallholder farmers are concentrating their efforts
on cash crops like macadamia nuts and sunflower, whose cash returns are more promising than coffee.

Soil fertility improvement measures being practiced in this Subzone include: inorganic fertiliser application
on maize, sunflower and macadamia nuts fields as well as compost manure and use of crop residues. The
use of effective microoganisms (EM) technology, which enhances the bio-degradation of compost, is yet to
reach farmers in this Subzone. The present yield increase under three levels of inputs and the potential on
the predominant soil of this Subzone is given in Table 18f.




                                                                                                                 205
      BUNG. & MT.EL. 66


      TABLE 18f: INCREASE OF YIELDS BY BETTER FARM MANAGEMENT IN
                 AGRO- ECOLOGICAL UNIT1) UM 3 - 4, l/v l i or m^s i, UlRA
      Subzone: l/v l i or m^s i, Soil Unit: UlRA                                                           Survey area 13 (Naitiri)
                                  AEZ: UM 3 - 4 MARGINAL COFFEE-SUNFLOWER-MAIZE ZONE
                                  Subzone: l/v l i or m^s i
                                  (Periods in days2): 1st rainy season 135 or more, 2nd rainy season: 83 -103)
       Crop Yields3) and
                                  Unit with predom. Soil: UIRA = rhodic and orthic FERRALSOLS
       Inputs
                                                                                         2nd rainy season: 450 - 580 mm in at least
                                 Reliable rainfall: 1st rainy season: 550 - 650 mm
                                                                                         10 out 15 years
                                               Farmers in Prod. Level                               Farmers in Prod. Level
       Maize local pure                I=         II =       III =            AEU             I=        II =       III =   AEU
       stand                          low        med.4)      high5)           Pot.6)         low       med.4)     high5)   Pot.6)
       Yields3) kg/ha                                                                                              1800     *
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha                                                                                                    -
       P2O5 kg/ha                                                                                                       -
       K2O kg/ha                                                                                                        -
       Manure t/ha                                                                                                     1.5
       Hybrid maize
       Yields3) kg/ha                  -             -          4500          7000             -            -           -
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha                                             40
       P2O5 kg/ha                                                38
       K2O kg/ha.                                                 -
       Manure t/ha                                               0.2
       Maize local
       intercropped
       with beans
       Yields3) kg/ha                                                                        850         1650         2800          *
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha                                                                          -            -            -
       P2O5 kg/ha                                                                             -            -            -
       K2O kg/ha                                                                              -            -            -
       Manure t/ha                                                                           1.2          2.0          3.0
       Hybrid maize
       intercropped with
       beans
       Yields3) kg/ha                3311         3634          4425          5000             -            -           -
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha                  25           33            38
       P2O5 kg/ha                     25           33            42
       K2O kg/ha                       -            -             -
       Manure t/ha                     -           0.3           0.3

      NOTES:
      1)
           Source: Small Farm Survey (2004)
      2)
           Figures of these cereals growing periods should be reached or surpassed in 6 out of 10 years; growing periods may be
           considered longer due to immediately following second rainy season by middle rains. Then the second growing period is
      3)
         Achieved average yields with average rainfall
      4)
         Farmers with medium inputs
      5)
         Farmers with high inputs of fertilizer, insecticides, soil and water conservation
      6)
         Potential yield according to crop list and local climate of this Agro-Ecological Unit if soils are optimally fertilized, plus
         optimal crop management
      * Potential for local maize not known; no experimental results




206
                                                                                   BUNG. & MT.EL. 67


Subzone UM 4 l/vl or two of the Maize-Sunflower Zone

This is the Maize-Sunflower Zone with a long to very long cropping season, dividable in two variable crop-
ping seasons as typified by Mbakalo Sub-Location in Bungoma district. It is dominated by soils on lower-
level uplands. The soils are well drained and deep (association of orthic ACRISOLS, with humic ACRI-
SOLS, partly stony phases and ferralo-orthic ACRI-SOLS, petroferric phase, with ferralic ARENOSOLS).
The rainfall variability in this Subzone is high, and hence the reliability is low. But the first rainy season can
still rely on an amount of at least 420 – 500 mm in 10 out of 15 seasons and the immediately following
second rainy season on 330 – 350 mm.

Maize is still the current most important food crop. Other important dietary staple food crops include:
sorghum, sweet potatoes, cassava and finger millet. The dominant legume crops in order of importance in-
clude: beans, soybeans and groundnuts. Important fruit crops include: cooking bananas, pawpaws, passion,
mangoes and to a small extent citrus. Fruit production in this Subzone could be improved through the use
of improved grafted seedling materials, which take a very short period to bear first fruits. This would greatly
improved the quality of the produce and hence fetch more cash income for the farmers. Vegetable produc-
tion in this Subzone is limited to the growing of cabbages, kales, tomatoes and onions, mainly for home
consumption. In some cases, the surplus is sold for cash in nearby market centres.

The current cash crops grown in this Subzone in order of importance are: surplus maize, sunflower, maca-
damia nuts and coffee. Due to the poor returns from coffee to the farmers, the crop is no longer valued by
farmers. A majority of them have pruned back the coffee trees and planted maize and legumes instead. All
former coffee processing factories in this Subzone have closed since farmers are no longer farming coffee.

Soil fertility improvement measures being practiced in this Subzone include: inorganic and organic fertilis-
ers application and use of compost and crop residues. There is, however, need to promote the use of effective
microoganisms (EM) technology, which enhances the bio-degradation of compost. If urgent measures to
improve soil fertility are not taken, the problem of food insecurity, especially of the small farmers, cannot be
solved. The present yield increase under three levels of inputs and the potential on the predominant soil of
this Subzone is shown in Table 18g.




                                                                                                                    207
      BUNG. & MT.EL. 68


      TABLE 18g: INCREASE OF YIELDS BY BETTER FARM MANAGEMENT IN
                 AGRO- ECOLOGICAL UNIT1) UM 4, l/v l or two, UlGA 1
      Subzone: l/v l or two, Soil Unit: UlGA 1                                                          Survey area 14 (Mbakalo)
                                 AEZ: UM 4 MARGINAL SUNFLOWER-MAIZE ZONE
                                 Subzone: l/v l or two
                                 (Periods in days2): 1st rainy season 130 or more, 2nd rainy season: 85 -105)
                                 Unit with predom. Soil: UIGA 1 = association of orthic ACRISOLS, with humic ACRI-
       Crop Yields3) and
                                                                      SOLS, partly stony phases and ferralo-orthic ACRI-
       Inputs
                                                                      SOLS, petroferric phase, with ferralic ARENOSOLS
                                                                                         2nd rainy season: 330 - 350 mm in at least
                                Reliable rainfall: 1st rainy season: 420 - 500 mm
                                                                                         10 out 15 years
                                               Farmers in Prod. Level                            Farmers in Prod. Level
       Maize local pure               I=          II =       III =            AEU             I=     II =       III =   AEU
       stand                         low         med.4)      high5)           Pot.6)         low    med.4)     high5)   Pot.6)
       Yields3) kg/ha                                                                                           1654     *
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha                                                                                                    -
       P2O5 kg/ha                                                                                                       -
       K2O kg/ha                                                                                                        -
       Manure t/ha                                                                                                     1.2
       Hybrid maize
       Yields3) kg/ha                  -             -             -          6500             -            -           -
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha
       P2O5 kg/ha
       K2O kg/ha.
       Manure t/ha
       Maize local
       intercropped
       with beans
       Yields3) kg/ha                                                                        800         1700                       *
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha                                                                          -            -
       P2O5 kg/ha                                                                             -            -
       K2O kg/ha                                                                              -            -
       Manure t/ha                                                                           0.1          0.8
       Hybrid maize
       intercropped with
       beans
       Yields3) kg/ha               2118          2144          2916          5000             -            -           -
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha                   0           15            17
       P2O5 kg/ha                     33           36            40
       K2O kg/ha                       -            -             -
       Manure t/ha                     0           1.0           1.3
      NOTES:
      1)
         Source: Small Farm Survey (2004)
      2)
         Figures of these cereals growing periods should be reached or surpassed in 6 out of 10 years; growing periods may be
         considered longer due to immediately following second rainy season by middle rains. Then the second growing period is
      3)
         Achieved average yields with average rainfall
      4)
         Farmers with medium inputs
      5)
         Farmers with high inputs of fertilizer, insecticides, soil and water conservation
      6)
         Potential yield according to crop list and local climate of this Agro-Ecological Unit if soils are optimally fertilized, plus
         optimal crop management
      * Potential for local maize not known; no experimental results



208
                                                                                 BUNG. & MT.EL. 69


MT. ELGON DISTRICT

Subzone LH 1 l/m^m of the Tea-Dairy Zone

This is the Tea-Dairy Zone with a long to medium cropping season followed by a medium one as typified by
Kibuk Sub-Location in Mt. Elgon district. It is dominated by soils on volcanic foot ridges. The soils are
well drained and extremely deep (humic Nitisols). The first rainy season can rely on an amount of at least
800 – 1000 mm in 10 out of 15 seasons and the second rainy season on 400 – 700 mm.

Maize is still the current most important food crop. However, some of the varieties are susceptible to rotting
while still in the field, e.g. H628, H627 and H626. The dominant legume crop here is field peas. Important
fruit crops include: passion and plums. These fruits are fetching good income for the local farmers since
the demand is assured. Vegetable production in this Subzone is limited to the growing of cabbages, kales,
tomatoes and carrots, mainly for home consumption. In some cases, the surplus is sold for cash in nearby
market centres.

The current cash crops grown in this Subzone in order of importance are: tea and pyrethrum. Lack of
marketing channels and road infrastructure are major drawbacks in realising the full potential of these cash
crops in this zone. Due to the poor returns from coffee to the farmers, the crop has been pruned back and
is no longer productive on many farms. The livestock sector plays a very crucial role as an income earner
to majority of households in this zone. Most animals are crosses of local and dairy breeds, with a few pure
dairy breeds. A few farmers keep crosses of bulls to service neighbours cows at a fee. There is good potential
for keeping dairy goats in this Subzone. Already, some farmers are commercialising the local goat for meat.
These local goats could be improved for milk production too. The keeping of indigenous poultry is also a
good income earner for most households.

The dominant visible soil conservation structures include Fanya juu, which is usually fortified with Napier
grass. Besides serving as an erosion control measure, it serves as fodder for animals, since many farmers do
practice semi-zero grazing as well as free range in this Subzone. Soil fertility improvement measures being
practiced in this Subzone include: organic fertilisers application and use of compost and crop residues.
Majority of farmers, however, do apply inadequate fertilisers on their fields using wrong application rates.
There is, however, need to promote the use of effective microoganisms (EM) technology, which enhances
the bio-degradation of compost. The present yield increase under three levels of inputs and the potential on
the predominant soil of this Subzone is given in Table 18h.




                                                                                                                 209
      BUNG. & MT.EL. 70


      TABLE 18h: INCREASE OF YIELDS BY BETTER FARM MANAGEMENT IN
                 AGRO- ECOLOGICAL UNIT1) LH 1, l/m^m, RB 2
      Subzone: l/m^m, Soil Unit: RB 2                                                                      Survey area 15 (Kibuk)
                                  AEZ: LH 1 TEA-DAIRY ZONE
                                  Subzone: l/m^m
                                  (Periods in days2): 1st rainy season 190 or more, 2nd rainy season: approx. 150)
       Crop Yields3) and
                                  Unit with predom. Soil: RB 2 = humic NITISOLS
       Inputs
                                                                                         2nd rainy season: 400 - 700 mm in at least
                                 Reliable rainfall: 1st rainy season: 800 - 1000 mm
                                                                                         10 out 15 years
                                               Farmers in Prod. Level                            Farmers in Prod. Level
       Maize local pure                I=         II =       III =            AEU             I=     II =       III =   AEU
       stand                          low        med.4)      high5)           Pot.6)         low    med.4)     high5)   Pot.6)
       Yields3) kg/ha                   -           -           -                              -       -          -
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha
       P2O5 kg/ha
       K2O kg/ha
       Manure t/ha
       Hybrid maize
       Yields3) kg/ha                  -          5625          7604          8500             -            -           -           *
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha                   -           25            27
       P2O5 kg/ha                      -           55            77
       K2O kg/ha.                      -            -             -
       Manure t/ha                     -           1.0           1.5
       Maize local
       intercropped
       with beans
       Yields3) kg/ha                 600          800             -             *             -            -           -           -
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha                   -            -
       P2O5 kg/ha                      -            -
       K2O kg/ha                       -            -
       Manure t/ha                     2            4
       Hybrid maize
       intercropped with
       beans
       Yields3) kg/ha                  -          5207          6473          8000             -            -           -
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha                               31            38
       P2O5 kg/ha                                  75            97
       K2O kg/ha                                    -             -
       Manure t/ha                                 1.4           1.8

      NOTES:
      1)
           Source: Small Farm Survey (2004)
      2)
           Figures of these cereals growing periods should be reached or surpassed in 6 out of 10 years; growing periods may be
           considered longer due to immediately following second rainy season by middle rains. Then the second growing period is
      3)
         Achieved average yields with average rainfall
      4)
         Farmers with medium inputs
      5)
         Farmers with high inputs of fertilizer, insecticides, soil and water conservation
      6)
         Potential yield according to crop list and local climate of this Agro-Ecological Unit if soils are optimally fertilized, plus
         optimal crop management
      * Potential for local maize not known; no experimental results




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                                                                                  BUNG. & MT.EL. 71


Subzone LH 2 vl i of the Wheat/Maize-Pyrethrum Zone

This is the Wheat/Maize-Pyrethrum Zone with a very long cropping season and intermediate rains as typified by
Chemweisus Sub-Location in Mt. Elgon district. Due to the small farms, wheat production is insignificant.
The Subzone is dominated by soils on volcanic foot ridges. The soils are well drained and extremely deep
(humic Nitisols). The first rainy season can rely only on an amount of at least 700 – 900 mm in 10 out of
15 seasons and the second rainy season on 350 – 450 mm.

Maize is still the current most important food crop. However, some of the varieties are susceptible to rotting
while still in the field, e.g. H629, H628, H627 and H626. Farmers are also growing finger millet as an addi-
tional food crop. The dominant legume crops here are field peas and common beans. Important fruit crops
include: passion fruits, strawberries, apples, pears and plums, which have a ready market, both in Kenya and
neighbouring Uganda. Vegetable production in this Subzone is limited to the growing of cabbages, kales,
tomatoes and carrots, mainly for home consumption. In some cases, the surplus is sold for cash in nearby
market centres.

The current cash crops grown in this Subzone in order of importance are: wheat, and pyrethrum. Many
problems are however limiting the expansion of wheat growing in this zone. These include: lack of local
stockists to supply seed, lack of harvesting mechanised equipment like combine harvester, lack of husbandry
knowledge about the crop, inadequate use of suitable fertilisers and poor road network. If these problems
are addressed, then wheat growing will rapidly expand in this zone since the cash returns from wheat are
better than those of maize. The livestock sector plays a very crucial role as an income earner to majority of
households in this zone. Most animals are crosses local breeds, with a few pure dairy breeds. A few farmers
keep crosses of bulls to service neighbours cows at a fee. The keeping of indigenous poultry is also a good
income earner for most households.

The dominant visible soil conservation structures include Fanya juu, which is usually fortified with Napier
grass. Besides serving as an erosion control measure, it serves as fodder for animals, since many farmers do
practice semi-zero grazing as well as free range in this Subzone. Soil fertility improvement measures being
practiced in this Subzone include: organic fertilisers application and use of compost and crop residues. Ma-
jority of farmers, however, do apply inadequate fertilisers on their fields using wrong rates. There is, however,
need to promote the use of effective microoganisms (EM) technology, which enhances the bio-degradation
of compost. The present yield increase under three levels of inputs and the potential on the predominant soil
of this Subzone is shown in Table 18i.




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      BUNG. & MT.EL. 72


      TABLE 18i: INCREASE OF YIELDS BY BETTER FARM MANAGEMENT IN
                 AGRO- ECOLOGICAL UNIT1) LH 2, v l or two, RB 2
      Subzone: v l or two, Soil Unit: RB 2                                                         Survey area 16 (Chemweisus)
                                  AEZ: LH 2 WHEAT/MAIZE - PYRETHRUM ZONE
                                  Subzone: v l or two
                                  (Periods in days2): 1st rainy season 200 or more, 2nd rainy season: 130 - 140)
       Crop Yields3) and
                                  Unit with predom. Soil: RB 2 = humic NITISOLS
       Inputs
                                                                                         2nd rainy season: 350 - 450 mm in at least
                                 Reliable rainfall: 1st rainy season: 700 - 900 mm
                                                                                         10 out 15 years
                                               Farmers in Prod. Level                            Farmers in Prod. Level
       Maize local pure                I=         II =       III =            AEU             I=     II =       III =   AEU
       stand                          low        med.4)      high5)           Pot.6)         low    med.4)     high5)   Pot.6)
       Yields3) kg/ha                   -           -           -                              -       -          -
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha
       P2O5 kg/ha
       K2O kg/ha
       Manure t/ha
       Hybrid maize
       Yields3) kg/ha                  -          7031          7102          8500             -            -           -
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha                               20            25
       P2O5 kg/ha                                  67            75
       K2O kg/ha.                                   -             -
       Manure t/ha                                 1.2           1.2
       Maize local
       intercropped
       with beans
       Yields3) kg/ha                  -             -             -                           -            -           -           *
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha
       P2O5 kg/ha
       K2O kg/ha
       Manure t/ha
       Hybrid maize
       intercropped with
       beans
       Yields3) kg/ha                  -          7481          7834             *             -            -           -
       Fertilizer:
       N       kg/ha                   -           25            26
       P2O5 kg/ha                      0           75            90
       K2O kg/ha                       -            -             -
       Manure t/ha                     0           1.2           1.6

      NOTES:
      1)
           Source: Small Farm Survey (2004)
      2)
           Figures of these cereals growing periods should be reached or surpassed in 6 out of 10 years; growing periods may be
           considered longer due to immediately following second rainy season by middle rains. Then the second growing period is
      3)
         Achieved average yields with average rainfall
      4)
         Farmers with medium inputs
      5)
         Farmers with high inputs of fertilizer, insecticides, soil and water conservation
      6)
         Potential yield according to crop list and local climate of this Agro-Ecological Unit if soils are optimally fertilized, plus
         optimal crop management
      * Potential for local maize not known; no experimental results




212
                                                                                   BUNG. & MT.EL. 73


3.3.6 FERTILISER AND MANURE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPORTANT
      AGRO-ECOLOGICAL UNITS

These are mainly the Agro-Ecological Units represented by the Farm Survey Areas which were selected for
this purpose.
The Fertiliser Use Recommendation Project of the GTZ (1986 - 92) had two trial sites in the former Bun-
goma district, i.e. one at Kamakoiwa in Zone UM 2 and the other in Tongaren in UM 4. For the other
zones, subzones and units, Muriuki and Qureshi have showed which results from other districts could
be representative (see map of Fertiliser Recommendations and Farm Survey Areas), and have constructed
curves for fertiliser response1.

Recommended rates of an AEU increase towards a wetter subzone and decrease as one approaches a drier
one, if the soil unit extends here (see the small maps). In our recommendations, we have tended to lower the
application rates due to the low financial base of the smallholder farmers. The optimum can be calculated
from the curve formulas in MURIUKI & QURESHI - Fertiliser Use Manual, KARI, Nairobi 2001. In the
long run, the appropriate amount must be given to maintain the nutrient content. Some quantities for this
can be seen in the chapter 3.1 of the General Remarks section.

Higher recommendations are given in the Smallholder Farming Handbook of the IRACC and MSS, Nai-
robi 1997, but the economic investment and risk is too high for the local farmers here. A rural small credit
system for the inputs would help alot. Where scientific sources for quantifying the rates are lacking, some
conclusions could be drawn from the difference in inputs and yields between the low and high production
levels of the Farm Survey 2004. An empty column in the tables denoted by “Other Nutrients Recommend-
ed”, does not mean that there is nothing to be applied, but it is because of lack of trial results. Symptoms
of nutrient deficiencies and methods of addressing it can be obtained from Muriuki, A.W. and Qureshi,
J.N. (2001), Tables 1&2, p.22-23.

Finally, it must be emphasized here once again that fertilising alone will increase the yields only in the short
term. The micronutrients that are not included in the fertiliser become exhausted very fast. Application
of manure to recover the extracted nutrients is a must in order to have a stable agrobiological system with
continuous crop production2.
This advice is urgent for the upland soils which, due to their senility, have a low nutrient content. In the
long run it is necessary for the young volcanic soils RB 2 with their higher nutrient content to be maintained
through continuous application of fertilizers.




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      BUNG. & MT.EL. 74




214
BUNG. & MT.EL. 75




                    215
      BUNG. & MT.EL. 76




216
                                                                                                                BUNG. & MT.EL. 77



TABLE 19a: FERTILIZER AND MANURE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR AGRO-
           ECOLOGICAL UNITS 1 LM 2 l^(m/s) i & l^(s) i, UlGA 1 & UlG 3 2

                                                                      Average Yield                Average Yield
                                          Recommended
        Crop varieties and                                            Increase if this              Increase if                Other Nutrients
                                          Fertiliser Rates
             Season                            kg/ha                 Rate is Applied 1              Manure is                  Recommended
                                                                          kg/ha                      Applied
    First rainy season
    Hybrid maize                        10 N + 20 P2O5              560 3                      5t/ha       ca. 600 kg 500 kg lime/ha +
    Hybrid maize & beans                -                           -                          5t/ha       ca. 400 kg Mg + Potassium
    Sorghum                             20 P2O5                     650                        5t/ha       ca. 500 kg 500 kg lime/ha
    Second rainy season
    Hybrid maize 4                      20 P2O5                     400                        5t/ha       ca. 300 kg -
    Maize local & beans                 -                           -                          *                      -
    Biseasonal (or more)
    Cassava, local                      20 N + 35 P2O5              5000                       *                           -
    Semi-permenent
                                        300 CAN + 250                                                                      Lime soil 4 t/ha at
                                        Superphosph.,                                                                      planting, 250 kg/ha
    Sugarcane 5                         ratoons 600 CAN
                                                                    ca. 30000                  *
                                                                                                                           Muriate of Potash
                                        + 400 Superphos.                                                                   for 3rd ratoon
Source: MURIUKI & QURESHI: Fertiliser Use Manual 2001, p. 96 & 97, and conclusions from the Farm Survey
        2004, area 9;
1
  Rates and yields are similar in both subzones; * data not available
2
  The soil units extend into zone LM 1. There the rates and the yield increase are 10 – 20 % higher, esp. in 2nd season.
3
  Higher rates become uneconomic: 20 kg N & 30 kg P2O5/ha give 800 kg.
4
  In the drier subzone l^(s) i an early mat. Maize variety is climatically better suited.
5
  The Prov. Farm Man.O. J. Imbira recommends (for practical reasons) lower amounts than the IRACC: 4 bags/ha DAP or 9 bags/ha SSP and
   2 bags/ha potash at planting time, 7 bags/ha CAN or 4 bags/ha urea as topdressing; 9 bags/ha CAN or 5 bags/ha urea for the ratoon.




TABLE 19b: FERTILISER AND MANURE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR AGRO-
           ECOLOGICAL UNITS LM 3 m/l^(s), UlGA 1 & BXC 1 1

                                                                          Average Yield                Average Yield
                                               Recommended
      Crop varieties and Season                Fertiliser Rates           Increase if this              Increase if            Other Nutrients
                                                    kg/ha                Rate is Applied 1              Manure is              Recommended
                                                                              kg/ha                      Applied
    First rainy season
    Hybrid maize                              20 N + 20 P2O5            950                        5t/ha      600 kg           500 kg lime/ha +
    Local maize & beans                       -                         -                          4t/ha      400 kg           Mg + Potassium
    Hybrid maize & beans                      20 P2O5                   800 (maize)                5t/ha      500 kg           together
    Sorghum, med. mat.                        20 P2O5                   700                        *                           Lime
    Cotton, unim. var., long staple           100 CAN                   900                        *                           Lime
    Second rainy season
    Local maize & beans                       10 N + 10 P2O5            600 (maize)                4t/ha      400 kg           Potassium + Mg
    Sorghum, early mat.                       20 P2O5                   500                        *                           Lime
    Biseasonal (or more)
    Cassava                                   25 N + 35 P2O5            5000                       *                           -

Source: MURIUKI & QURESHI: Fertiliser Use Manual 2001, p. 96 & 106, and conclusions from the Farm Survey
        2004, area 10a & b; cotton: IRACC, Small Holder Farming Handbook for Self Employment.-Nairobi
        1997, p. 155
1
    Maize and beans are difficult in the waterlogged soils of the bottomlands BXC 1, farmers try to plant suitable crops on the adjoining higher places;
    * data not available




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      BUNG. & MT.EL. 78




      TABLE 19c: FERTILISER AND MANURE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR AGRO-ECOLOG-
                 ICAL UNITS 1 UM 1 m/l^m/s i, UM 2 m/l^s/m & s i, UM 3-4 l/vl i, UlN 1 2 & 3

                                                                          Average Yield               Average Yield
                                                  Recommended             Increase if this
          Crop varieties and Season               Fertiliser Rates                                     Increase if           Other Nutrients
                                                       kg/ha             Rate is Applied 1             Manure is             Recommended
                                                                              kg/ha                     Applied
          First rainy season
          Hybrid maize                        75 N + 10 P2O5            2300                      5t/ha      720 kg   Lime + Mg +
          Hybrid maize & beans                75 N + 20 P2O5            1900 (maize)              *                   Potassium
          Local maize & beans                 20 N + 20 P2O5            1000 (maize)              5t/ha      600 kg   together
          Potatoes (Annet higher              75 P2O5                   6600                      5t/ha      2000 kg Potassium
          places)
          Cabbages (Copenhagen)               50 P2O5                   10300                     5t/ha      12000 kg -
          Second rainy season
          Beans (GLP 2)                       -                         -                         *                         -
          Permanent crops
          Tea in UM 1                         150 N + 30 P2O5 3 4000 green tea                    *                         Copper
                                              (uneconomic with
          Coffee in UM 1, 2, 3                                                                                              -
                                              present prices)

      Source: MURIUKI & QURESHI: Fertiliser Use Manual 2001, p. 95 & 96; KARI & GTZ: Fertiliser Use Recommenda-
              tion Vol. 11, Bungoma District, Nairobi 1995; and conclusions from the Farm Survey 2004, area 11; for
              tea FMHB 1982 and IRACC: Small Holder Farming Handbook for Self Employment.- Nairobi 1997.
      1
        The climatic difference does not affect significantly the food crops listed, except potatoes which do not do well in lower places of UM. The soil
        UlN 1 tends to lower yields because of its partly petroferric phase; * data not available
      2
        The soil unit UlN 1 appears also in some parts of LM 1 & 2. Maize there should be H 626 instead of 625, sweet potatoes instead of potatoes.
      3
        IRACC recoomends one year after planting 20 gm of NPK 25:5:5 per bush, after 2 years 30 gm, after 3 years 50 gm.




218
                                                                                                     BUNG. & MT.EL. 79




TABLE 19d: FERTILISER AND MANURE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR AGRO-
           ECOLOGICAL UNITS1 UM 3-4 l/vl i or m^s i & UM 4 l/vl or two, UlRA & UlGA 1

                                                           Average Yield                   Average Yield
                                         Recommended Increase if this
   Crop varieties and Season             Fertiliser Rates Rate is Applied 1                 Increase if             Other Nutrients
                                              kg/ha                                         Manure is               Recommended
                                                               kg/ha                         Applied
 First rainy season
 Hybrid maize                            10 N + 15 P2O5        600 1                   5t/ha      730 kg        Lime + Mg +
 Hybrid maize & beans (GLP 2)            30 P2O5               1000 2 (maize)          -                        Potassium
 Potatoes (Annet)                        50 P2O5               9500                    *                        together
 Cabbages (Copenhagen)                   75 P2O5               5200 3                  5t/ha      4200 kg           “
 Second rainy season
 Beans (GLP 2)                           20 P2O5               140                     -                        -

Source: MURIUKI & QURESHI: Fertiliser Use Manual 2001, p. 95 & 96; KARI & GTZ: Fertiliser Use Recommenda-
        tion Vol. 11, Bungoma District, Nairobi 1995; and conclusions from the Farm Survey 2004, area 14.
1
  In UM 4 during dry years there is no response to N, therefore it is recommended for UM 3-4 only, in UM 4 with 15 kg P2O5 only it is 400
kg/ha.
2
  In UM 4 competition for water can cause lower yields than monocropped maize.
3
  Without P2O5 yield is almost zero because of very low natural P content in the soil.
* data not available




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      BUNG. & MT.EL. 80




      TABLE 19e: FERTILISER AND MANURE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR AGRO-
                 ECOLOGICAL UNITS 1 LH 1 l/m^m & LH 2 vl i or two, RB 2

                                         Recommended                Average Yield
           Crop varieties and                                       Increase if this         Average Yield Increase                 Other Nutrients
                Season                   Fertiliser Rates          Rate is Applied 1
                                              kg/ha                                           if Manure is Applied                  Recommended
                                                                        kg/ha
          First rainy season
          Maize (H 625) 2               -                        -                           5t/ha       750 kg                 25 kg/ha potassium
          Maize (H 625) & beans         -                        -                           5t/ha       750 kg (maize)         25 kg/ha potassium
          Potatoes                      50 P2O5                  2700                        3t/ha       1000 kg                -
          Cabbages                      40 P2O5                  ca. 10000                   *                                  -
          Second rainy season
          Beans                         20 P2O5                  110 3                       *                                  Potassium
          Cabbages 4                    30 P2O5                  6000                        -                                  -
          Permanent or semi-
          permanent crops
          Tea in LH 1 5                 160 N + 35 P2O5 ca. 4000 green tea                   *                                  *
          Pyrethrum in LH 2             20 N + 40 P2O5 800                                   *                                  *

      Source: MURIUKI & QURESHI: Fertiliser Use Manual 2001, p. 96 & 102; KARI & GTZ: Fertiliser Use Recommen-
              dation, Kericho District, Nairobi 1995; and conclusions from the Farm Survey 2004; for tea and pyreth-
              rum FMHB 1982 and IRACC: Small Holder Farming Handbook for Self Employment.-Nairobi 1997;
              S.M. KANYANJUA et al.: Effects of Potassium Use... E.A. Competitor, May 16th, 2005
      1
        The moisture difference between LH 1 and 2 does not affect significantly the food crops listed here, therefore the rates and yields are almost the
         same, during the 2nd season a bit lower in LH 2; * data not available
      2
        Maize yields are generally still high at these fertile volcanic soils, 4300 kg/ha at an average. In future fertiliser will become more necessary.
      3
        Uneconomic, better to put beans after potatoes to get remaining phosphate and to give just potassium.
      4
        Other medium mat. food crops may be grown too.
      5
        IRACC recoomends one year after planting 20 gm of 25:5:5 per bush, after 2 years 30 gm, after years 50 gm.



222
220
                                                                                      KAKAM. GROUP 1



3.4       BUTERE-MUMIAS, KAKAMEGA, LUGARI AND VIHIGA GROUP OF DISTRICTS

                                                 TABLE OF CONTENTS                                       District page
      3.4.1   Natural Potential                                                                                 4
               Introduction                                                                                     4
               Average Annual Rainfall Map                                                                      5
               Table 1: Rainfall Figures                                                                        6
               Table 2: Temperature Data                                                                        7
               66% Reliability of Rainfall in Agrohumid Period of First Rainy Season. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
               66% Reliability of Rainfall in Agrohumid Period of Second Rainy Season . . . . . . . . . . . .9
               Table 3: Average Potential Evapotranspiration                                                    10
               Table 4: Climate in the Agro-Ecological Zones                                                    10
               Agro-Ecological Zones and Subzones Map                                                           11
               Agro-Ecological Zones and Subzones (=Legend to the AEZ Map), with Land Use
               Potentials and Water Availability &Requirement Diagrams                                          12

               Soils Map                                                                                        17
               Soil Distribution, Fertility and Major Characteristics                                           18

      3.4.2 Population and Land                                                                                 24
               Butere-Mumias District
               Table 5: Population in Butere-Mumias District Per Division and Location                          24
               Table 6: Composition of Households in Butere-Mumias District Per Division and Location           25
               Table 7: Available Land Area in Butere-Mumias District per AEZ and Household                     25

               Kakamega District
               Table 8: Population in Kakamega District                                                         26
               Table 9: Composition of Households in Kakamega District                                          27
               Table 10: Available Land Area in Kakamega District per AEZ and Household                         27

               Lugari District
               Table 11: Population in Lugari District Per Division and Location                                28
               Table 12: Composition of Households in Lugari District Per Division and Location                 28
               Table 13: Available Land Area in Lugari District per AEZ and Household                           29

               Vihiga District
               Table 14: Population in Vihiga District Per Division and Location                                29
               Table 15: Composition of Households in Vihiga District Per Division and Location                 30
               Table 16: Available Land Area in Vihiga District per AEZ and Household                           31


      3.4.3   Agricultural Statistics                                                                           31
               Development and Trends of Major Cash Crops in Butere-Mumias District                             31



                                                                                                                         221
      KAKAM. GROUP 2


                 Table 17: Butere-Mumias District Sugarcane: Area, Production and Yield Trends                                  31
                 Development and Trends of Major Cash Crops in Kakamega District                                                31
                 Table 18a: Kakamega District Tea: Area, Production and Yield Trends                                            32
                 Table 18b: Kakamega District Coffee: Area, Production and Yield Trends                                          32
                 Development and Trends of Major Cash Crops in Lugari District                                                  33
                 Table 19a: Lugari District Sugarcane: Area, Production and Yield Trends                                        33
                 Table 19b: Lugari District Maize: Area, Production and Yield Trends                                            33
                 Development and Trends of Major Cash Crops in Vihiga District                                                  34
                 Table 20a: Vihiga District Tea: Area, Production and Yield Trends                                              34
                 Table 20b: Vihiga District Coffee: Area, Production and Yield Trends                                            34
                 Distribution of Farming Activities During the Year                                                             35
                 Tables 21 a-j: Farming Activities in the Agro-Ecological Zones                                                 35-39


        3.4.4   Farm Survey in Kakamega Group of Districts                                                                              40
                 Table 22: Farm Survey Sites in Kakamega Group of Districts                                                     40
                 Farm Survey Areas and Fertiliser Recommendations Map                                                           41
                 Tables 23 a-k: Assets, Land Use, Farming Intensity and Inputs                                                  42-52
                 Tables 24 a-k: Cropping Pattern                                                                                53-62

        3.4.5 Introduction to the Actual Land Use Systems and Potential Intensification
              by Better Farm Management                                                                              64

                 LM1 p or two of the Lower Midland Sugarcane Zone                                                               64
                 Tables 25 a-k: Increase of Yields by Better Farm Management                                                 65 - 84
                 LM1 l^m i of the Lower Midland Sugarcane Zone (sandy clay loam over Petroplinthite) 66
                 LM1 l^m i of the Lower Midland Sugarcane Zone (sandy friable clay)                                             68
                 UM 1 p or two of the Coffee-Tea Zone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70
                 LM1 p or two of the Lower Midland Sugarcane Zone (sandy friable clay)                                          72
                 UM1 p or two of the Tea-Coffee Zone (friable clay)                                                              74
                 UM1 p or two of the Tea-Coffee Zone (friable to firm sandy clay)                                                 76
                 LM2 l^(m/s) i of the Marginal Sugarcane Zone                                                                   76
                 UM 4 l/vl or two of the Maize-Sunflower Zone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
                 UM1 p or two of the Tea-Coffee Zone (different soils)                                                            80

        3.4.6   Fertiliser and Manure Recommendations for Important Agro-Ecological Units                                       85
                 Maps of Important Agro-Ecological Units                                                                        87
                 Tables 26 a-m: Fertiliser and Manure Recommendations for Agro-ecological Units                              89 - 97




222
                                                           KAKAM. GROUP 3


LM 1 p or two & l^m i, UlG1 & UIS1 of the Sugarcane Zone                     88
LM 1 l^m i & LM 2 l/m^(s/m) & l^(m/s) i, UmG3 of the Sugarcane Zone          90
LM 1 p or two, UmD2 & 3 of the Sugarcane Zone                                91
UM 1 p or two resp. two/three, UhV1, UhI2, UhD1&2, UhGA1 & UhG2
of the Tea-Coffee Zone                                                        92
LM 1 p or two & LM 2 l^(m/s) i, UmG5 of the Sugarcane & Tea-Coffee Zones      95
UM 2-4 l/vl or two, LIA1 & 2, UmG1, 2 & 3 of the Coffee & Maize Sunflower Zones 96




                                                                                   223
      KAKAM. GROUP 4


      3.4.1 NATURAL POTENTIAL

      INTRODUCTION

      This district group has one of the highest population densities in Kenya. In several locations, more than
      1000 people live on the agricultural output of 1 km2. This figure, as well as a high annual rainfall averag-
      ing between 1200 and 2200 mm, suggests a high potential area. However, there are some limitations. For
      example, in the centre of the Kakamega district, rainfall is too high leading to leaching of the soils and pro-
      viding a fvourable environment for fungal diseases to attack crops. Therefore, this area is classified as UM 0
      and is thus taken out of agricultural planning as a forest zone (of course some cropping is possible together
      with planting of young trees). In large parts of the district the soils are the main problem. They are heavily
      leached because of unsustainable farming practices.

      In the northeastern areas the generally humid climate is interrupted by four semi-arid months (November-
      February) restricting cultivation of important perennial plants like bananas. Therefore it is classified as Zone
      3-4 although the average rainfall covers more than 60% of the potential evapotranspiration.

      In view of the increasing population, the development of the full land use potential of a mixed farming
      ecosystem is very necessary, incorporating legumes, indigenous vegetables, fruits and forage. In this district
      group, cultivation is possible throughout the year, although the time from December to February is drier
      (see Diagram Kakamega). Nevertheless, three harvests of vegetables and other short maturing crops are pos-
      sible per year in many places. The growing periods shown in the Subzones can be varied because there is no
      real dry spell between the rainfall peaks during the year.

      The rainfall expectation is high, at least 500 - 1100 mm during the 1st rainy season and 450 –850 mm dur-
      ing the 2nd rainy season in 10 out of 15 years. It starts at the end of July. Here in the Western Kenya, there
      is only a slight increase in rainfall during this month, and a severe decrease in November (see Diagram Mu-
      mias). The 60% reliability of the length of the growing periods ranges from 365 days in UM 1 to about 230
      days in UM 4 (see Table 4). In the eastern part of the district (in UM 0, 1, 2 and UM 3-4), the annual mean
      temperature is about 18° - 21°C; in the rest of the district group it is higher than 21°C (LM 1-3). Due to the
      wet climate evapotranspiration is not high, 1600 –1800 mm per year for the whole district group. Only in
      the very lowest parts, the annual average evapotranspiration is higher than 1800 mm.




224
KAKAM. GROUP 5




                 225
      KAKAM. GROUP 6


      TABLE 1: RAINFALL FIGURES
      from selected typical stations having at least 15 years of records

                                         Agro Ecol.                Annual                              Monthly rainfall in mm
          No. and    Name of Station       Zone         Kind of    rainfall
          altitude                        Subzone       records     mm      J       F      M     A      M       J   J   A       S   O   N    D

          8934001 KakamegaDistr. UM 1                   Average     1929     59     95     151 254 260 190 164 230 186 134 118 87
          1554 m                 p or two               66%1        1730     31     56     112 216 230 161 147 197 156 118 81 58
          8934002 Bukura                LM 1            Av.         1800     54     92     161 258 247 158 132 187 161 130 126 94
          1463 m Farmers Tr. C.         p or two        66%1        1620     28     54     120 218 218 130 115 157 130 115 85 60
          8934013 Mumias, Girl´s        LM 1            Av.         1829     55     94     159 251 261 166 134 156 151 138 118 86
          1340 m Sec. School            l^mi            66%1        1660     33     58     110 235 242 145 120 130 141 125 75 53
          8934016 Lugari                UM 3            Av.         1371     42     64     99    177 191 166 170 212 141 81             75   53
          1546 m Forest Stn.            l/vl i or two   66%2        1220     8      40     85    150 160 130 140 170 90 60              30   22
          8934028 Kakamega              UM 0            Av.         2100     82     108 176 284 279 200 186 218 183 147 131 84
          1676 m Forest Station                         66%1        1930     55     100 162 268 223 190 174 205 150 131 113 66
          8934031 Yala, St. Mary’s LM 1                 Av.         1858     68     95     152 262 260 132 106 155 148 131 136 104
          1463 m Sch., (Siaya D.) l ^ m i               66%1        1635     37     80     136 254 244 124 97 140 132 120 118 78
          8934040 Butere                LM 1            Av.         1882     63     100 176 293 266 138 123 179 169 144 139 102
          1433 m Health Centre          p or two        66%1        1685     20     43 129 265 230 120 88 141 140 115 90 50
          8934041 Mwihila Sec.          LM 1            Av.         23793    87     125 250 402 346 194 195 242 241 188 188 108
          1448 m School, Yala           p or two        66%2        1950     45     65 180 280 260 150 135 185 190 150 130 65
          8934061 Malava                UM 1            Av.         2043     56     73     147 255 272 213 214 267 206 154 113 83
          1595 m Agric. Stn.            p or two        66%1        1840     24     30     83 212 245 160 159 185 145 140 63 33
          8934071 Mantana,              UM 3-4          Av.         1331     39     42     78    157 166 142 155 225 134 82             59   52
          1905 m Stanley Estate         l/vl or two     66%2        1190     18     20     55    120 130 125 130 190 105 56             20   19
          8934072 Kaimosi               UM 1            Av.         2146     84     102 170 304 252 244 173 220 191 160 140 89
          1745 m Tea Estate             p or two        66%2        1940     56     90 155 270 205 220 160 205 156 140 120 68
          8934078 Esirwa, Kaimosi UM 1 p       Av.                  2091     73     89     153 281 292 187 184 235 197 160 122 96
          1707 m Farmers Tr. C.   or two/three 66%2                 1900     48     78     140 248 250 170 168 210 160 140 103 74
          8934084 Shikusa               UM 2            Av.         1735     75     88     161 253 234 143 137 183 154 135 128 71
          1652 m Borstal Inst.          l ^ (m/s)i      66%2        1540     40     50     120 215 205 120 118 160 130 120 90 45
          8934096 Kakamega        UM 1                  Av.         2019     74     110 166 312 250 155 155 224 178 161 144 85
          1585 m Agric. Exp. Stn. p or two              66%2        1820     38     65 120 275 220 130 125 190 150 140 100 55
          8934097 Mumias                LM 1            Av.         2232     124 122 208 370 354 216 148 144 193 181 147 87
          1312 m Sec. School            p or two        66%2        1940     70 75 140 275 270 180 130 127 170 160 98 54
          8934103 Vihiga,               UM 1            Av.         1808     80     89     143 263 214 119 105 138 146 126 144 105
          1585 m Maragoli               p or two        66%2        1600     45     70     130 250 198 105 96 120 130 100 120 53
          8934108 Sigalagala            UM 1            Av.         2002     96     123 184 190 264 175 184 215 167 159 148 81
          1502 m Tech. School           p or two        66%2        1800     50     80 140 150 230 148 160 185 138 130 105 55
          8934109 Eregi, St.      UM 1                  Av.         1847     78     118 153 259 229 150 126 174 132 126 122 75
          1500 m Augustins T.T.C. p or two              66%2        1650     40     70 114 220 202 125 110 145 105 110 84 50


      1
        These figures of rainfall reliability should be exceeded normally in 10 out of 15 years.
      2
        Estimate of this reliability by correlation, no detailed data were available for enough years to GTZ.
      3
        Figure probably 10% too high due to record errors.




226
                                                                                                                                              KAKAM. GROUP 7


TABLE 1: Continued

    No. and                         Agro Ecol.    Kind of          Ann.                                               Monthly rainfall in mm
    altitude1   Name of Station       Zone        records         rainfall
                                     Subzone                       mm          J        F          M            A         M         J         J         A         S         O      N      D
    8934130 Malava Forest           UM 1          Av.              1936          99         82     100 210                253       198 200             267       200 162          107     57
    1685 m Guard Post               p or two      66%2             1735          45         40      60 170                230       150 149             185       140 138           60     30
    8934131 Kakamega                UM 1          Av.              1832          89     114        123 232                242       198 130             215       179       125    113     75
    1545 m Fuel Area                p or two      66%2             1635          45      70         85 208                215       165 105             185       150       110     75     50
    8934133 Mumias                  LM 1          Av.              2010          70     112        164 280                297       179 129             182       160 172          151     86
    1302 m Sugar Factory            p or two      66%2             1830          50      66        115 250                260       148 115             150       145 155          100     53
    8935015 Turbo, Forest     UM 4        Av.                      1258          36         43         75       151       153       141       184       229       112        60     53     21
    1829 m Lands Est. (cl.77) l/vl or two 66%
    8935042 Lahre Farm              UM 4        Av.                1194          30         32         67       154       174       132       168       191       100        58    51      36
    1844 m (closed ca. 80)          l/vl or two 66%

    8935171 Lugari Farmers          UM 4        Av.                1287          40         50         88 132             200       136 159             198       131        70    49      20
    1742 m Training Centre          l/vl or two 66%2               1150          20         22         60 100             155       120 120             165       110        50    15      10



1
    These figures of rainfall reliability should be exceeded normally in 10 out of 15 years.
2
    Estimate of this reliability by correlation, no detailed data were available for enough years to GTZ.


TABLE 2: TEMPERATURE DATA

    No. and       Name of                   Kind of                                               Temperature in°C                                                           Belt
                                 AEZ1
    altitude      Station                   records
                                                            J        F       M        A          M          J         J         A         S       O         N         D Yr. limits

                                           Mean max.      28.4 29.0 29.1 27.1 26.3 25.8 25.5 26.0 26.9 26.9 26.7 27.4 27.1
                 Kakamega                                                                                                                                                              2000 m
    8934096                               Mean temp.      21.1 21.6 22.0 21.2 20.6 19.9 19.5 19.7 20.1 20.5 20.5 20.7 20.5
                 Agric. Exp.     UM 1                                                                                                                                                   UM
    1585 m
                    Stn.                   Mean min.      13.7 14.2 14.9 15.3 14.8 13.9 13.4 13.3 13.3 14.0 14.3 13.9 14.1                                                             1500 m
                                           Abs. min.        5.2      4.5     5.1      9.2        8.2        8.3     8.1       5.3       5.2       8.2       8.0       6.3    4.5


                                           Mean max.      31.6 31.8 32.2 29.9 28.8 28.5 28.3 28.7 29.6 29.8 29.8 30.3 30.2
                                                                                                                                                                                       1500 m
    8934133  Mumias                       Mean temp.      22.3 22.7 23.4 22.6 22.0 21.4 20.9 21.4 21.6 21.9 21.8 21.8 22.1
                         LM 1                                                                                                                                                            LM
    1302 m Sugar Factory
                                           Mean min.      12.9 13.6 14.5 15.2 15.1 14.2 13.5 13.7 13.5 14.0 13.7 13.3 13.9                                                             1000 m
                                            Abs. min        8.0      7.2     7.1 11.2 11.5 10.8 9.2 10.1 10.1 9.5                                           8.2       9.8    7.1



1
    AEZ = Agro-ecological zone




                                                                                                                                                                                                227
      KAKAM. GROUP 8




228
KAKAM. GROUP 9




                 229
      KAKAM. GROUP 10


      TABLE 3: AVERAGE POTENTIAL EVAPOTRANSPIRATION
                                                           Average Potential Evapotranspiration ET0 in mm                              Av. Rainfall
                                            1
           No. and      Name of       Type                                                                                             Year    %
           altitude     Station       AEZ        J     F     M      A     M      J     J      A     S     O      N     D    Year        in      of
                                                                                                                                       mm      ET0
                      Mumias
          8934133                     calc.
          1302 m      Sugar           LM 1      185 169 192 151 141 131 134 146 157 165 155 174 1900 2010                                      106%
                      Factory
                      Mumias
          8934013     Girl´s         interp. 183 171 194 153 143 133 135 148 157 167 158 176 1918 1829                                         95%
          1340 m      Sec. School     LM 1
                      Kakamega
          8934096                    interp.
          1585 m      Agr. Exp.      UM 1 167 154 174 138 132 126 133 146 156 163 141 162 1793 2019                                            113%
                      Stn.
          8934103     Vihiga         interp. 166 155 176 140 134 129 134 146 157 162 141 163 1805 1808                                         100%
          1585 m      Agric. Stn.    UM 1

      1
        Type of eruation: calc. = calculated by formula of Penmann & McCulloch (1965) with albedo for green grass 0.2; interp. = interpolated from
      neighbouring stations, considering altitude and rainfall difference.
      AEZ = Agro-Ecol. Zone, explaining table see general part.




      TABLE 4: CLIMATE IN THE AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES


                                                                                           66% reliability      60% reliability of cereal and
                Agro-                            Ann. mean Ann. av.                          of rainfall 1        legumes growing period
              Ecological       Subzone Altitude temperature rainfall
                                        in m
                Zone                               in°C     in mm                         1st      2nd       1st              2nd
                                                                                        rainy s. rainy s. rainy s.2         rainy s.       Total3
                                                                                        in mm in mm in days                 in days       in days

      UM 1                     p or two /                                   1800-          800-                 150 or
                               three                                        >2000          1000    700-800       more       210-215           365
      Coffee-Tea Zone                           1500-1900 21.0
                               p or two              – 18.5                 1600-          700-                 150 or
                                                                            >2000          1000    650-800       more       210-215           365

      UM 2                                              Very small, see Bungoma (soils not very suited for coffee)
      Main Coffee Zone
      UM 3
      Maize and Marginal                                Very small, see Bungoma (soils not very suited for coffee)
      Coffee Zone
      UM 4               1/vl or            1500-1900 21.0 – 18.9 1000 1600 500-700 450-600                     115 or
                                                                                                                           115 or less        ~230
      Zone               two                                                                                     more
                                                                                                                170 or
      LM 1                     p or two                                  1800-2000 800-900 580-750                          180-190       350-360
                                                                                                                 more
      Lower Midland                         1300-1500 22.2 – 21.0
      Sugar Cane Zone          vl i or                                                                          195 or
                                                                         1650-1850 750-850 550-730                          135-145       330-340
                               l^mi                                                                              more

      LM 2
      Marginal Sugar           1 ^ (m/      1300-1500 22.2 – 21.0 1500-1850 700-900 550-700                     195 or      115-135       310-330
      Cane Zone                s) i                                                                              more



      1
        Amounts surpassed normally in 10 of 15 years, falling during the agro-humid period which allows growing of most cultivated plants.
      2
        More if growing cycle of cultivated plants continues into the period of second rainy season. Reliability of 60% only due to the subzone system
      (see Table II).
      3
        Agrohumid conditions continue from 1st to 2nd rainy season in the whole district.




230
KAKAM. GROUP 11




                  231
      KAKAM. GROUP 12



                       AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES AND SUBZONES
      UM           =   UPPER MIDLAND ZONES
      UM 0         =   Fo re s t Zo n e
                       Too wet for good yields of most crops. Forest best land use

      UM 1         =   Te a - Co ff e e Zo n e
      UM 1         =   Tea-Coffee Zone with permanent cropping possibilities,
      p or two /       dividable in two or three variable cropping seasons
      three
                       Ve r y g o o d y i e l d p o t e n t i a l ( a v. > 8 0 % o f t h e o p t i m u m ) 1
                       1st rainy season, start norm. end of Feb. to mid March: Late mat. maize H 6210 & 6213,
                           cabbages, kales
                       2nd
                       Whole year: Tea (~ 80%, medium quality), passion fruit, guavas
                       G o o d y i e l d p o t e n t i a l ( a v. 6 0 - 8 0 % o f t h e o p t i m u m ) 1
                       1st rainy season (to 2nd rainy season): Late mat. maize like H 614, 625-29 (March – Sep./Oct.),

                          Cuarentino (except on Acrisols); m. mat. potatoes like Desirée (higher places above 1600

                           Hill; spinach, broccoli, onions, carrots (above 1600 m)
                       2nd rainy season: E. mat beans like Rose coco (on light and medium soils), green grams (July-
                           Oct.); sweet potatoes; e. mat. soya beans like Magoye (Aug.-Oct.) or Black Hawk (July-
                           Oct.); kales, onions, broccoli, tomatoes
                       Whole year: Bananas, taro, yams, mountain pawpaws, winged beans 2, loquats, avocadoes
                       F a i r y i e l d p o t e n t i a l ( a v. 4 0 - 6 0 % % o f o p t i m u m ) 1
                       1st rainy season: High alt. sorghum; m. mat. beans like Cuarentino on Acrisols 3 ; tomatoes
                       2nd rainy season: Med. mat. maize like H 513 or H 622, even H 623 (July-Dec.), high alt.

                           Cuarentino beans (July-Nov.); potatoes (higher places), cabbages
                       3rd rainy season, start indistinctly in Oct.: Very e. mat. beans like Katheka (on Acrisols poor, ~
                           35%) and fast growing vegetables
                       Whole year: Arabica coffee, citrus
                       Pasture and forage
                       Around 0.6 ha/LU on artif. or sec. pasture of star grass; down to 0.12 ha/LU feeding Napier
                       resp. Bana grass, banana stems and leaves, maize stalks, and fodder legumes (Desmodium
                       uncinatum, Stylosanthes guyanensis, Siratro = Macroptilium atropurpureum)

      UM 1         =   Tea-Coffee Zone with permanent cropping possibilities, dividable in two variable cropping
      p or two         seasons (see Diagram Kakamega)
                       Like UM 1 p or two / three, but no reliable third crop in Oct.-Feb. Stocking rates about 10%
                       less

      UM 2         =   Ma i n Co ff e e Zo n e
                       Very small and transitional, potential see Bungoma District, but lower yields because of less
                       suitable soils and sometimes excessive rains

      UM 3         =   Ma rg in a l Co f fe e Zo n e
                       Very small and transitional, potential see Bungoma District, but lower yields because of less
                       suitable soils




232
                                                                                 KAKAM. GROUP 13




UM 4      =   Ma i z e -S u n fl o we r Zo n e
UM 4      =
l/vl or       cropping season
two
              Good yield potential
              1st rainy season, start norm. around end of Feb./March (most crops continue to 2nd rainy season):
                  Late mat. maize like H 612 – 614 (and other high yielding varieties; see crop list); m. mat.
                  or late planted e. mat. beans (~60%) 3 , m. mat. potatoes (above 1600 m), sweet potatoes

                    White in higher places; e. or med. mat. soya beans; cabbages, kales, spinach
              2nd
                years)
              Whole year: Sisal, castor

              Fair yield potential
              1st rainy season: Finger millet, high alt. sorghum (50-60%); tomatoes, e. mat. onions (on light
              soils)
              2nd rainy season: Very early mat. beans like Katheka (poor in dry years); sweet potatoes, e. mat.
                  potatoes like Annet (higher places); late mat. onions (on light soils)
              Whole year: Avocadoes 4, citrus 4, pineapples

              Pasture and forage
              Around 1.2 ha/LU on nat. pasture of Hyparrhenia savanna; about 0.6 ha/LU on artif. pasture
              of Rhodes grass; down to 0.2 ha/LU feeding Napier resp. Bana grass, Desmodium and Siratro
              (Macroptilium atropurpureum); suitable for grade cattle and dairy cows (silage or hay for dry




                                                                                                                  233
      KAKAM. GROUP 14


      LM              LOWER MIDLAND ZONES
      LM 1        =   Lo we r Mi d l a n d S u g a r C ane Zone
      LM 1        =    Lower Midland Sugar Cane Zone with permanent cropping possibilities, dividable in two
      p or two        cropping season
                      Ve r y g o o d y i e l d p o t e n t i a l
                      1st
                          like HS 345, late mat. soya beans; sweet potatoes, e. mat. cassava, yam beans
                      Whole year: Pawpaws, guavas

                      Good yield potential
                      1st rainy season: Med. mat. maize like H 515 and 623 5
                          Cuarentino 3 (on medium soils); sweet pepper, kales, Chinese cabbage, spinach, cabbage,
                          chillies, yellow yams (e. of Feb.-beg. of Nov.), egg plants (to 2nd rainy season), pumpkins
                       nd
                      2 rainy season , start indistinctly around mid July: Maize H 622 and 623 (end of June –

                         Cuarentino (fair on heavy soils), e. mat. beans like Rose coco (Sep. – Dec. on med. & light
                         soils), very e. mat. like Katheka (Oct.-Dec., on med. & light soils); sweet potatoes; e. and

                        Kenya Fedha or Shaba; cabbage, kales, Chinese cabbage, spinach, onions
                      Whole year: Sugar cane, bananas (nematodes danger) 7, tea (upper places, nearly 80%, but
                        medium to low quality), Robusta coffee (~60%) 7, late mat. cassava (on sandy soils), pigeon
                        peas, avocadoes
                      Fair yield potential
                      2nd rainy season: Katheka & Rosecoco beans (GLP 2) on heavy soils, late mat. groundnuts and
                          late mat. bambarra groundnuts (both in light soils, bambarra groundnuts. even in poor ones),
                          cowpeas
                      Whole year: Mangoes 6, taro, citrus 6
                      Pasture and forage
                      Around 0.5 ha/LU on sec. pasture where originally there has been a moist submontane forest;
                      down to < 0.1 ha/LU feeding Napier resp. Bana grass, banana leaves and others (see LM 1 vl i);
                      Siratro (start beg. - end of March: good yields, start mid - end of Feb.: fair yields)

      LM 1        =    Lower Midland Sugar Cane Zone with a very long cropping season and intermediate rains,
      vl/l i or       dividable in a long cropping season followed by a medium one and intermediate rains
      l^m i
                      Ve r y g o o d y i e l d p o t e n t i a l
                      1st rainy season, start norm. end of Feb. to end of March: E. and med. mat. sorghum; m. mat.

                        potatoes, e. mat. cassava, yam beans
                      Whole year, best planting time begin of March: Pawpaws, guavas

                      Good yield potential
                      1st rainy season: Med. mat. maize like H 515 and 623 (60-70%), late mat. sorghum (70-80%),
                                                                       3
                                                                         ; pigeon peas (March-Feb.); sweet pepper,
                          kales, Chinese cabbage, spinach, cabbage, chillies, yellow yams (Feb.-Oct./Nov.), egg
                          plants (to 2nd rainy season), pumpkins
                       nd
                      2 rainy season , start indistinctly end of Aug.: Maize H 513, 515, m. mat. sorghum; beans

                        kales, Chinese cabbage, spinach, onions
                      Whole year: Sugar cane, bananas (nematodes danger) 7, late mat. cassava, tea (upper places,
                        70-80%, but medium to low quality), Robusta coffee (~60%) 7, avocadoes




234
                                                                              KAKAM. GROUP 15


                Fair yield potential
                1st rainy season: Cotton (medium quality)
                2nd
                    (in light soils) and late mat. bambarra groundnuts (in light soils, even in poor ones),
                    cabbage
                Whole year: Mangoes 6, taro, citrus 6
                Pasture and forage
                Around 0.6 ha/LU on sec. pasture where originally there has been a moist submontane forest;
                down to 0.13 ha/LU feeding Napier or Bana grass, banana leaves and stems, maize stalks,
                sweet potato vines and fodder legumes




LM 2        =   Ma rg in a l S u g a r Ca n e Zone
LM 2        =    Marginal Sugar Cane Zone with a long cropping season followed by a (weak) medium to
l^(m/s) i       short one and intermediate rains
                Ve r y g o o d y i e l d p o t e n t i a l
                1st rainy season, start norm. mid. F. to b. of March: Early mat. sorghum like Serena (March

                  Black Hawk; sweet potatoes, onions, yam beans
                Whole year: Cassava, pawpaws




                                                                                                              235
      KAKAM. GROUP 16


                             Good yield potential
                             1st rainy season: M. mat. maize like H 515 or 623 5 , late mat. sorghum like E 1291 (stock
                                                                     8
                                                                       like Cuarentino, pigeon peas (March-F.), late mat.
                                 rosette resistant groundnuts like Mwitunde (in light soils); cotton (med. quality); sweet
                                 pepper, tomatoes, cabbages, kales. roselle
                             2nd rainy season , start Aug.: Bulrush millet, m. mat. sorghum, ratoon sorghum (S.-Aug.); e.
                                 mat. beans like Rosecoco (GLP 2), green grams; onions, kales, tomatoes
                             Whole year: Bananas (nematodes danger) 7 , pineapples, sisal
                             Fair yield potential
                             1st rainy season: Rice, bambarra groundnuts (in light soils, even in poor ones), cowpeas;
                             tobacco
                             2nd rainy season: Maize H 515, 623; pigeon peas (Sep.-July), cowpeas, m. mat. groundnuts
                                 like Serere 116; sweet potatoes; simsim; cabbages; cotton (July-Feb.) 9
                                 like HS 345
                             Whole year: Sugar cane (on less suitable soils and near LM 3 marginal), Robusta coffee,
                             citrus, mangoes
                             Pasture and forage
                             0.5-0.7 ha/LU on high grass savanna with Hyparrhenia and Panicum dominating; down to
                             about 0.15 ha/LU feeding Napier resp. Bana grass and banana leaves. Siratro and Desmodium
                             for soil and pasture improvement, Leucaena


          LM 2         =       Marginal Sugar Cane Zone with a long to medium cropping season followed by a (weak)
          l/m^(s/m)            short to medium one
                              Small and transitional. Crop potential like LM 2 l^(m/s) i but m. mat. sorghum in 2nd rainy
                              season and bananas only fair, maize H 513, 515 in 2nd rainy season and sugar cane marginal
                              only (also on good soils). Ratooning or late mat. sorghum 1st to 2nd rainy season good.
                              Stocking rates ~10% less




      1
        All these percentages are climatical, assumed that the place has suitable soil and is well fertilized and manured.
      2
        Edible pods, vines and tubers. Fixes a lot of nitrogen (see Nat. Ac. of Science: The Winged Bean: A High Protein Crop for the
        Tropics. Washington 1975). Needs very high rainfall.
      3
        Sometimes rotting because of too wet conditions
      4
        With add. irrigation (Dec.-Feb.) well growing
      5
        Staggered planting dates are advised in order to minimize the risk of yield decrease or failures; early planting risky due to the
        danger of dry spells in late Feb. and early March, best planting time mid to end of March.
      6
        Danger of Fungus disease
      7
        Windbreaks against the daily winds from the lake, light shade and mulching or compost are necessary to re-establish the former
        forest eco-system, otherwise bananas and coffee grow poorly. Hardpan soils should be avoided.
      8
        Should be intercropped with maize because of higher yields and minimizing occasionally hail stone damage.
      9
        Although climatically less suitable, cotton is mainly planted in 2nd rainy season because of more labour availability. It can be inter
        planted in maize already during July.



236
KAKAM. GROUP 17




                  237
      KAKAM. GROUP 18


      SOIL DISTRIBUTION, FERTILITY AND MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS

      The major part of the district shows a rather uniform undulating topography, but its eastern boundary is formed
      by the Nandi Escarpment, a prominent topographical feature. West of Soy, in the northeastern area of the district,
      there is a plateau with moderately deep soils (units LI3, LIA1 and LIA2).The dominant soils of the district are
      found on upper middle-level uplands (units Uh, Um and Ul. They are poor in plant nutrients.

      On plateaus and higher-level structural plains, soil unit L of low natural fertility is found. On hills and minor scarps
      soils of units HGC, HIC, HU1 and HUC1 occur. Their fertility is variable.Valley bottom soils with waterlogging
      can be seen in some places in the northern, western and northeastern part of the district.

      LEGEND TO THE SOIL MAP OF KAKAMEGA GROUP OF DISTRICTS

                                                          physiography)

      M        Mountains and Major Scarps (steep; slopes predominantly over 30%; relief intensity more than 300 m
               (Mountains) or more than 100 m (Major Scarps); altitudes up to 4250 m)

      H        Hills and Minor Scarps (hilly to steep; slopes predominantly over 16%; relief intensity up to 100 (Minor
               Scarps) to 300 m (Hills); altitudes up to 2850 m)

      L        Plateaus (very gently undulating to undulating; slopes less than 8%; altitudes between 1200 and 1600 m
               – Maseno/Kisumu/Muhoroni/Sondu – and between 2000 and 2500 m – Uasin Gishu and Siria Plateaus

      R        Volcanic Footridges
               hilly; slopes between 5 and 30%; altitudes between 2000 and 3000 m; Mount Elgon/Tinderet Mountains/
               Mau Forest

      F        Footslopes (at the foot of Hills and Mountains; gently undulating to rolling; slopes between 2 and 16%;
               various altitudes)

      U        Uplands

      Uh       Upper Middle-Level Uplands (undulating to rolling; slopes between 5 and 16%; altitudes between 1650
               and 2650 m, here 2200 m)

      Um       Lower Middle-Level Uplands (gently undulating to undulating; slopes between 2 and 8%; altitudes
               between 1200 and 2200 m)

      Ul       Lower-Level Uplands (very undulating to undulating; slopes between 2 and 8%; altitudes between
               1200 and 2100 m

      A        Floodplains and River Terraces


      B        Bottomlands

      V        Minor Valleys (V or U-shaped valleys; slopes mainly up to 16%, exceptionally up to 30%; width mainly
               250-500 m, up to about 1000 m; depth up to about 100 m; various altitudes


      2        Explanation of second character (lithology)

      A        Recent Alluvial Sediments from various sources
      B        Basic Igneous Rocks (basalts, nepheline phonolites; older basic tuffs included
      D        Mudstones and Claystones
      F        Gneisses Rich in Ferromagnesian Minerals and Hornblende Gneisses



238
                                                                                      KAKAM. GROUP 19


G       Granites and Granodiorites
I       Intermediate Igneous Rocks (andesites, phonolites, syenites, etc.)
R       Quartz-Feldspar Gneisses
S       Sandstones, Grifts and Arkoses
U       Undifferentiated Basement System Rocks (predominantly Gneisses)
V       Undifferentiated or various Igneous Rocks
X       Undifferentiated or various Rocks
Y       Acid Igneous Rocks (Syenites, etc.)

3       Soil descriptions

MU2     Well drained, very shallow to shallow, brown to reddish brown, stony and rocky, gravely to very gravely
        sandy loam to sandy clay loam:
        LITHOSOLS and dystric REGOSOLS, rocky and stony phases.

HGC     Complex of:
        Somewhat excessively drained, shallow, stony and rocky soils of varying colour, consistency and
        texture:
        dystric REGOSOLS and RANKERS, with ferralic and humic CAMBISOLS, lithic, rocky and stony
        phases, LITHOSOLS and Rock Outcrops

HIC     Complex of:
        Well drained, shallow to deep, dark red to strong brown, friable, gravely sandy clay; over petroplinthite
        or rock; in many places very shallow, stony and rocky:
        ferralo-chromic CAMBISOLS and orthic and rhodic FERRALSOLS, partly lithic, stony and rocky
        phases, with LITHOSOLS

HU1     Well drained, moderately deep to deep, dark reddish brown, friable sandy clay loam to clay, with an acid
        humic topsoil:
        humic CAMBISOLS

HUC1 Complex of:
     Excessively to well drained, shallow, dark red to brown, sandy clay loam to clay; in many places stony,
     bouldery and rocky; in places with an acid humic topsoil and/or moderately deep to deep:
     dystric REGOSOLS, with humic and (ferralo)-chromic CAMBISOLS, lithic, bouldery and rocky phases,
     with LITHOSOLS and Rock Outcrops

LI3     Well drained, very deep, dark reddish brown to dark red, friable clay:
        nito-rhodic FERRALSOLS

LIA1    Association of:
        well drained, moderately deep to deep, dark red, very friable clay; over petroplanthite; on relatively
        higher parts (60%):
        rhodic FERRALSOLS, partly petroferric phase
        and
        well to imperfectly drained, shallow to moderately deep, dark red to brown, friable clay; over petroplinthite
        or rock; in many places mottled, in places very shallow and/or rocky; near depressions and valley sides
        (20%):
        ferralic and gleyic CAMBISOLS, petroferric and lithic phases, with LITHOSOLS and Rock Outcrops
        and

        many places over petroplinthite; in depressions (20%):
        mollic GLEYSOLS, partly petroferric phase

LIA2    Association as in unit LIA1 but with:
        30%: rhodic Ferralsols, partly petroferric
        50%: ferralic and gleyic CAMBISOLS, with LITHOSOLS and Rock Outcrops
        20%: mollic GLEYSOLS, partly petroferric phase


                                                                                                                        239
      KAKAM. GROUP 20


      FUC     Complex of:
              Well drained, deep, dark reddish brown to dark yellowish brown soils of varying consistency and texture;
              in places moderately deep, gravely and/or stony:
              orthic FERRALSOLS, orthic ACRISOLS and ferralic ARENOSOLS, partly stony phases

      UhB3    Well drained, shallow to moderately deep, dark red, friable clay; over pisoferric material:
              ferralo-chromic CAMBISOLS and rhodic FERRALSOLS, pisoferric phase


      UhB5    Well drained, deep to extremely deep, dark red, friable clay; in places moderately deep over pisoferric
              material:
              rhodic FERRALSOLS, partly pisoferric phase

      UhD1    Well drained, very deep, dark reddish brown to yellowish red, friable clay:
              ferralo-orthic ACRISOLS

      UhD2    Well drained, extremely deep, dusky red to dark red, vary friable clay:
              nito-rhodic FERRALSOLS

      UhDC Complex of:
           Soils of unit UhD1:
           ferralo-orthic ACRISOLS
           and
           Unit UhD2:
           nito-rhodic FERRALSOLS


              acid or thick acid humic topsoil:
              humic and ferralo-humic ACRISOLS


              with an acid humic topsoil:
              humic ACRISOLS, bouldery phase

      UhG6    Well drained, deep to extremely deep, dark red, very friable clay; in many places bouldery and rocky:
              rhodic FERRALSOLS, bouldery and rocky phase

      UhGA1 Association of:

              coarse sandy clay; on moderate slopes (60%):
              dystric CAMBISOLS
              and
              somewhat excessively drained, very shallow to shallow, brown, friable, bouldery and extremely rocky,
              gravely coarse sandy clay loam; in places with an acid humic top soil; on steep slopes (40%):
              LITHOSOLS and RANKERS, rocky and bouldery phase

      UhI2    Well drained, deep to very deep, strong brown to dark reddish brown, friable clay, with a humic to acid
              humic topsoil; in places shallow to moderately deep:
              luvic PHAEOZEMS, partly lithic phase

      UhV1    Well drained, extremely deep, dark red, friable clay, in places with a humic topsoil:
              dystric NITISOLS, with dystro-mollic NITISOLS

      UmB1 Well drained, extremely deep, dark red, friable clay:
           dystric NITISOLS

      UmD1 Well drained, very deep, red to dark red, friable clay:
           dystric NITISOLS


240
                                                                                  KAKAM. GROUP 21


UmD2 Well drained, deep to very deep, reddish brown to strong brown, friable clay:
     orthic FERRALSOLS

UmD3 Well drained, extremely deep, dark red, very friable clay:
     rhodic FERRALSOLS

UmF1    Well drained, moderately deep to deep, dark yellowish brown, friable, gravely clay; in many places with
        a humic topsoil, in places shallow:
        eutric CAMBISOLS and haplic PHAEOZEMS, partly lithic phases

UmG2 Well drained, deep, dark yellowish brown to dark brown, friable sandy clay loam to sandy clay; in places
     gravely in the deeper subsoil:
     ferralo-orthic ACRISOLS

UmG3 Well drained, deep to very deep, red to dark brown, friable sandy clay to clay:
     ferralo-orthic/chromic ACRISOLS

UmG5 Well drained, moderately deep to deep, dark yellowish brown to dark reddish brown, friable, gravely
     sandy clay to clay, with an acid humic topsoil:
     humic ACRISOLS

UmG7 Somewhat excessively drained, shallow, very dark grey to strong brown, friable, fairly rocky, fairly
     bouldery, coarse sandy loam with an acid humic topsoil; in places moderately deep to deep, coarse sandy
     loam:
     RANKERS and humic CAMBISOLS, lithic phase

UmR1 Well drained, deep to very deep, dark red to brownish yellow, friable clay; in places moderately deep:
     orthic FERRALSOLS and ferralo-orthic ACRISOLS

UmU1 Well drained, very deep, red to dark red, very friable clay:
     rhodic FERRALSOLS

UmU2 Well drained, moderately deep to deep, strong brown to red, friable sandy clay loam to clay; in many
     places over petroplinthite; in places rocky:
     orthic and rhodic FERRALSOLS, with ferralic CAMBISOLS, partly petroferric phases; with Rock
     Outcrops

UmV1 Well drained, very deep to extremely deep, dark red, friable clay, in places deep:
     eutric NITISOLS, with chromic LUVISOLS


        moderately deep over petroplinthite; in places rocky or stony:
        chromic and orthic ACRISOLS, partly petroferric and stony phase; with Rock Outcrops

UlD1    Well drained, moderately deep to very deep, dark red to strong brown, friable clay; in many places
        shallow over petroplinthite:
        chromic and orthic ACRISOLS and rhodic FERRALSOLS, partly petroferric phases, and dystric phases,
        with dystric NITISOLS

UlG1    Well drained, deep to very deep, yellowish red to strong brown, friable clay; in places moderately deep,
        over petroplinthite or rock; in places rocky:
        orthic ACRISOLS; with Rock Outcrops

UlG2    Well drained, moderately deep to deep, dark reddish brown to red, friable; stony, gravely sandy clay to
        clay; over petroplinthite or rock; in places shallow or rocky:
        orthic ACRISOLS; with orthic FERRALSOLS, stony and partly petroferric phases; with Rock
        Outcrops




                                                                                                                   241
      KAKAM. GROUP 22


      UlG3    Well drained, shallow to moderately deep, dark yellowish brown to strong brown, friable sandy clay;
              over petroplinthite; in places very shallow, stony or rocky:
              orthic and ferralo-orthic ACRISOLS, petroferric and partly stony phase, with LITHOSOLS and Rock
              Outcrops


              of loose to friable sand to sandy loam; partly over rotten rock:
              dystric PLANOSOLS, partly lithic and paralithic phase

      UlGC1 Complex of:
            Well drained, moderately deep to very deep, reddish brown to yellowish brown, friable clay; over
            petroplinthite (70%):
            orthic FERRALSOLS, with orthic ACRISOLS, partly petroferric phases
            and
            moderately well drained, shallow, brown to dark brown, sandy clay loam; over petroplinthite (30%):
            ferralic CAMBISOLS, petroferric phase

      UlRA    Association of:
              Well drained, deep, strong brown to yellowish red and dark red, friable sandy clay loam to sandy clay; in

              orthic FERRALSOLS with rhodic FERRALSOLS, partly petroferric phases
              and
              well drained, moderately deep to deep, dark yellowish brown to brown, friable sandy clay loam to clay,
              with an acid humic topsoil; in places shallow; on steeper valley sides (30%):
              humic CAMBISOLS; partly lithic phase

      UlS1    Well drained, moderately deep to deep, dark reddish brown to strong brown, friable sandy clay loam to
              clay, over petroplinthite; in places shallow:
              orthic ACRISOLS, with orthic FERRALSOLS, partly petroferric phase

      UlU1    Well drained, very deep, red to darl red, very friable clay:
              rhodic FERRALSOLS

      UlX1    Well drained, deep to very deep, dark red strong brown, friable clay; in many places shallow or moderately
              shallow or moderately deep petroplinthite:
              orthic to rhodic FERRALSOLS, partly petroferric phase

      UlY1    Well drained, moderately deep to deep, yellowish red to strong brown, friable clay; over petroplinthite or
              rock; in places shallow over petroplinthite or bouldery:
              orthic FERRALSOLS, partly petroferric or bouldery phase



              eutric FLUVISOLS, with vertic FLUVISOLS and vertic and eutric GLEYSOLS, partly saline-sodic
              phases


              places over petroplinthite; Uasin Gishu plateau:
              mollic GLEYSOLS, partly petroferric phase

      BX2     Imperfectly to poorly drained, deep to very deep, greyish brown to very dark grey and black, mottled,

              bottomlands:
              eutric GLEYSOLS and pellic VERTISOLS, partly saline-sodic phases




242
                                                                                   KAKAM. GROUP 23


BXC1   Complex of:

       clay to cracking clay, in many places abruptly underlying a topsoil of friable sandy loam; in places saline
       and sodic:
       dystric PLANOSOLS, dystric and vertic GLEYSOLS and pellic VERTISOLS; partly saline-sodic
       phases

BXC2   Complex of:


       places peaty or with an acid humic or histic topsoil:
       dystric and humic GLEYSOLS, dystric PLANOSOLS and dystric HISTOSOLS

VXC    Complex of:
       Well drained, shallow to deep soils of varying colour, consistency and texture (on valley sides):
       CAMBISOLS, ACRISOLS and FERRALSOLS, partly lithic phases, with Rock Outcrops
       and


       GLEYSOLS, with VERTISOLS and HISTOSOLS




       NOTES for definitions (of underlined words):
       mollic Nitisols and chromo-luvic Phaeozems: soils are equally important
       mollic Nitisols, with chromic-luvic Phaeozems: Nitisols are prevalent
       in places: in < 30% of the area
       in many places: in 30-50% of the area
       predominantly: in > 50% of the area
       deeper subsoil: below 80 cm




                                                                                                                     243
      KAKAM. GROUP 24


      3.4.2 POPULATION AND LAND

      BUTERE-MUMIAS DISTRICT

      The population of this district during the 1999 census was 478,928 people living on an area of 939.3 km2 of
      land (Table 5). Out of this area, 710 km2 is suitable for crop and livestock production. This is approximately
      75.6% of the total land area of the district. The area lies within the AEZ LM 1 (Table 7) that is well suited
      for sugar cane growing as a cash crop.

      The population density in this region has risen since the 1979 census when it was 298 persons per km2. It
      rose by 76% to 525 persons per km2 during the 1999 census. As a consequence, the agricultural land avail-
      able per household and per person has reduced considerably. In 1979, a household of 4.81 persons had 1.27
      ha at its disposal, representing 0.26 ha per person. In 1999 however, a household of 4.4 persons (Table 6)
      had only 0.66 ha, translating to 0.15 ha per person (Table 7) which was not enough. The estimate for 2005
      is 538,670 people, it means 0.13 ha per person which is a catastrophe on the exhausted soils.


      TABLE 5: POPULATION IN BUTERE-MUMIAS DISTRICT PER DIVISION
               AND LOCATION (Source: Census 1999)

      DIVISION/LOCATION                           Male        Female          Total     Area in km2        Density
      MATUNGU                                   51,284        57,030       108,314           259.80            417
      Koyonzo                                   24,372        27,493        51,865           123.80            419
      Matungu                                   26,912        29,537        56,449           136.00            415
      MUMIAS                                    81,453        87,290       168,743           326.40            517
      Etenje                                    22,058        24,478        46,536            95.02            489
      Nabongo                                   26,749        26,829        53,578            96.60            555
      Shibinga                                  32,646        35,983        68,629           134.60            510
      BUTERE                                    53,162        58,475       111,637           209.80            532
      Township                                   7,630         7,980        15,610            22.60            691
      Central Marama                             9,009         9,724        18,733            38.40            488
      West Marama                               11,749        12,963        24,712            51.20            483
      North Marama                               7,970         8,859        16,829            32.50            518
      Marenyo                                    4,766         5,261        10,027            18.50            542
      Shianda                                    4,173         4,688         8,861            13.20            671
      South Marama                               4,684         5,389        10,073            17.80            566
      Manyala                                    3,181         3,611         6,792            15.60            435
      KHWISERO                                  41,144        47,090        88,234           143.30            616
      West Kisa                                  4,611         5,032         9,643            17.60            548
      Shirombe                                   4,089         4,676         8,765            10.60            827
      Central Kisa                               7,612         8,904        16,516            24.50            674
      Mulwanda                                   9,155        10,495        19,650            28.60            687
      North Kisa                                 6,637         7,667        14,304            26.00            550
      East Kisa                                  4,603         5,415        10,018            16.30            615
      Kisa South                                 4,437         4,901         9,338            19.70            474
      BUTERE/MUMIAS DISTRICT                   227,043       249,885       476,928           939.30            508




244
                                                                                      KAKAM. GROUP 25


TABLE 6: COMPOSITION OF HOUSEHOLDS IN BUTERE-MUMIAS DISTRICT
         PER DIVISION AND LOCATION (Source: Census 1999)

                              Households             Family           Relatives & Persons per
DIVISION/LOCATION               total         >15years    < 15years     others     household
MATUNGU DIVISION                   23,522            1.9          1.9          0.8          4.6
Koyonzo                            11,259            1.9          1.9          0.8          4.6
Matungu                            12,263            2.0          1.9          0.7          4.6
MUMIAS DIVISION                    38,804            1.9          1.7          0.7          4.3
Etenje                             10,427            2.0          1.7          0.8          4.5
Nabongo                            13,769            1.7          1.4          0.7          3.8
Shibinga                           14,608            2.0          1.9          0.8          4.7
BUTERE DIVISION                    24,625            2.0          1.6          0.9          4.5
Township                            3,515            1.9          1.6          0.8          4.3
Central Marama                      4,021            2.0          1.8          0.8          4.6
West Marama                         5,261            2.0          1.8          0.9          4.7
North Marama                        3,651            2.0          1.7          0.9          4.6
Marenyo                             2,162            2.0          1.6          1.0          4.6
Shianda                             2,099            1.9          1.5          0.8          4.2
South Marama                        2,285            1.9          1.5          1.0          4.4
Manyala                             1,631            1.9          1.3          1.0          4.2
KHWISERO DIVISION                  19,798            1.9          1.5          1.0          4.4
West Kisa                           2,216            1.9          1.4          1.0          4.3
Shirombe                            2,108            1.9          1.4          0.8          4.1
Central Kisa                        3,744            1.9          1.4          1.1          4.4
Mulwanda                            4,381            2.0          1.4          1.1          4.5
North Kisa                          3,114            2.0          1.5          1.1          4.6
East Kisa                           2,175            1.9          1.6          1.1          4.6
Kisa South                          2,060            1.9          1.6          1.0          4.5
BUTERE-MUMIAS DISTRICT            106,749            1.9          1.7          0.8          4.4
TABLE 7: AVAILABLE LAND AREA IN BUTERE-MUMIAS DISTRICT PER AEZ AND
         HOUSEHOLD (Source: Calculated from DAO’s Reports)

                                               In ’00 ha = km2                                                    In ha
                                                      Agricultural land




                      Non agricultural land                               Area in agro-ecological zones    Agricultural land per
    DIVISION/                                                                        (total)
    LOCATION
                   Unsuitable steep slopes, forest                                                          House
                 reserve, lakes, swamps and others                        UM 1       LM 1       LM 2                    Person
                    (roads, homesteads, rivers)                                                             hold
BUTERE                         63.8                           146                       209.8                   0.588      0.131
Township                       6.9                           15.7                        22.6                   0.435      0.101
Central Marama                 11.7                          26.7                        38.4                   0.662      0.143
West Marama                    15.6                          35.6                        51.2                    0.67      0.144
NORTH MARAMA                   9.9                           22.6                        32.5                   0.618      0.134
Marenyo                         5.6                          12.9                        18.5                   0.594      0.129
Shianda                          4                             9.2                       13.2                   0.436      0.104
South Marama                    5.4                          12.4                        17.8                   0.541      0.123
Manyala                         4.7                          10.9                        15.6                   0.667       0.16
KHWISERO                       29.3                           114             3.75      143.3                   0.571      0.129
West Kisa                       3.6                             14            3.75       17/6                   0.626      0.145
Shirombe                        2.2                            8.4                       10.6                   0.395      0.096
Central Kisa                     5                           19.5                        24.5                   0.519      0.118
Mulwanda                        5.8                          22.8                        28.6                   0.518      0.116
North Kisa                      5.3                          20.7                          26                   0.656      0.145
East Kisa                       3.3                             13                       16.3                   0.591       0.13
Kisa South                      4.1                          15.6                        19.7                   0.755      0.167
MATUNGU                        59.8                         200.0                       259.8        2.0        0.847      0.185
Koyonzo                        27.7                          95.3                       123.8                   0.844      0.184
Matungu                        31.3                         104.7                         136        2.0        0.851      0.185
MUMIAS                         61.2                         170.0                       231.2                   0.592      0.139
Nabongo                        25.6                          71.0                        96.6                   0.506      0.133
Shibinga                       35.6                          99.0                       134.6                   0.673      0.144
Etenje/S.Wanga                 15.2                          80.0                        95.2                   0.765      0.172
TOTAL AREA                    229.3                         710.0             3.75      937.3        2.0        0.660      0.149



                                                                                                                           245
      KAKAM. GROUP 26


      KAKAMEGA DISTRICT

      According to the 1999 population census statistics the population of Kakamega district was 603,422 people
      residing in an area of 1,395 km2 (Table 8). The agricultural land LM 1, LM 2 and UM 1 suitable for both
      crop and livestock production is estimated at 1,147 km2. The larger part of the district is within the Agro-
      Ecological Zones (AEZs) LM 1 and LM 2 suitable for dairy, sugar cane, tea and coffee production.

      The population density averages 433 persons per km2 and ranges from the low of 313 persons in Shinyalu to
      the high of 1,485 persons in Municipality Division. Available agricultural land per household of 4.8 persons
      (Table 9) has declined from an average of 1.30 ha in 1979 to 0.83 ha in 1999, for an average household of
      4.8 (Table 10). This implies that agricultural land per person was only a mere 0.17 ha. This scenario points
      to a serious population pressure on land in the district. The estimate for 2005 is 749,860 people, it means
      0.13 ha per person!

      TABLE 8: POPULATION IN KAKAMEGA DISTRICT PER DIVISION AND
               LOCATION (Source: Census 1999)

      DIVISION/LOCATION                      Male         Female           Total       Area in km2       Density
      NAVAKHOLO                             31,254         34,083         65,337            173.40           377
      Bunyala West                          13,214         14,690         27,044             72.20           386
      Nambacha                              10,460         11,189         21,649             56.70           382
      Bunyala East                           7,580          8,204         15,784             44.50           355
      KABRAS                                72,250         77,260        149,510            424.20           352
      Kabras West                            9,229          9,922         19,151             46.60           411
      Shirugu                               10,125         10,760         20,885             62.90           332
      Kabras Central                        11,306         12,190         23,496             72.80           323
      Shivanga                              11,156         12,319         23,475             67.60           347
      Kabras East                           14,687         15,560         30,247            101.90           297
      Kabras South                          15,747         15,509         32,256             72.40           446
      ILEHO                                 15,151         16,394         32,545             77.70           419
      Kambiri                                9,499          9,217         18,716             41.80           448
      Ivihiga                                6,652          7,177         13,829           35.9.00           385
      SHINYALU                              49,124         54,824        103,948            332.20           313
      Ilesi                                  8,071          8,826         16,897             23.70           713
      Khayega                               14,745         17,478         32,223             38.00           848
      Murhanda                              11,724         12,463         24,187            177.30           136
      Shibuye                               14,584         16,057         30,641             93.60           327
      IKOLOMANI                             43,306         48,798         92,104            142.90           645
      Isulu                                  7,607          8,271         15,878             26.90           590
      Shisere                               10,543         11,386         21,929             40.00           548
      Shirumba                               7,485          8,399         15,884             19.30           823
      Iguhu                                  9,195         10,328         19,523             32.70           597
      Erege                                  3,328          4,220          7,548               9.20          820
      Shikumu                                5,148          6,194         11,342             14.80           766
      LURAMBI                               41,270         44,593         85,863            194.10           442
      Butsotso North                        17,200         18,420         35,620             82.30           433
      Shikoti                                7,829          8,550         16,379             31.70           517
      Butsotso South                         9,047          9,944         18,988             48.90           388
      Bukura                                 7,194          7,682         14,876             31.20           477
      MUNICIPALITY                          36,988         37,127         74,155             49.90         1,485
      Shieywe                               17,563         17,874         35,437             18.50          1916
      Bukhungu                              19,425         19,253         38,678             31.40         1,232
      KAKAMEGA DISTRICT                    290,343        313,079        603,422          1,394.80           433



246
                                                                                                                                                             KAKAM. GROUP 27


TABLE 9: COMPOSITION OF HOUSEHOLDS IN KAKAMEGA DISTRICT PER DIVISION
         AND LOCATION (Source: Census 1999)
                                                                        Households                                           Family           Relatives &                      Persons per
DIVISION/LOCATION                                                                                                     >15years    < 15years
                                                                          total                                                                 others                          household
NAVAKHOLO                                                                     13,032                                         2.1          2.1           0.8                              5.0
Bunyala West                                                                    5,559                                        2.0          2.2           0.8                              5.0
Nambacha                                                                        4,275                                        2.1          2.0           1.0                              5.1
Bunyala East                                                                    3,198                                        2.1          2.0           0.8                              4.9
KABRAS                                                                        29,022                                         2.2          2.0           0.9                              5.1
Kabras West                                                                     3,818                                        2.2          2.1           0.7                              5.0
Shirugu                                                                         3,976                                        2.2          2.0           0.8                              5.1
Kabras Central                                                                  4,480                                        2.2          2.0           1.0                              5.2
Shivanga                                                                        4,543                                        2.2          2.0           1.0                              5.2
Kabras East                                                                     5,660                                        2.2          2.1           1.0                              5.3
Kabras South                                                                    6,545                                        2.2          1.9           0.8                              4.9
ILEHO                                                                           6,476                                        2.1          1.7           1.1                              4.9
Kambiri                                                                         3,692                                        2.1          1.7           1.0                              4.8
Ivihiga                                                                         2,784                                        2.1          1.8           1.1                              5.0
SHINYALU                                                                      21,377                                         2.1          1.7           1.0                              4.8
Ilesi                                                                           3,488                                        2.1          1.7           1.0                              4.8
Khayega                                                                         6,719                                        2.0          1.7           0.9                              4.6
Murhanda                                                                        4,944                                        2.1          1.8           1.0                              4.9
Shibuye                                                                         6,226                                        2.1          1.7           1.1                              4.9
IKOLOMANI                                                                     19,577                                         2.0          1.6           1.1                              4.7
Isulu                                                                           3,360                                        2.0          1.7           1.0                              4.7
Shisere                                                                         4,560                                        2.1          1.7           1.0                              4.8
Shirumba                                                                        3,446                                        2.0          1.6           1.0                              4.6
Iguhu                                                                           4,020                                        2.1          1.6           1.1                              4.8
Erege                                                                           1,625                                        1.9          1.5           1.0                              4.4
Shikumu                                                                         2,566                                        1.9          1.5           1.0                              4.4
LURAMBI                                                                       17,429                                         2.1          1.9           1.1                              4.9
Butsotso North                                                                  7,156                                        2.1          2.0           0.9                              5.0
Shikoti                                                                         3,361                                        2.1          1.8           0.9                              4.8
Butsotso South                                                                  3,830                                        2.1          1.8           1.0                              4.9
Bukura                                                                          3,082                                        2.1          1.7           0.9                              4.7
MUNICIPALITY                                                                  18,268                                         1.8          1.3           0.8                              3.9
Shieywe                                                                         9,331                                        1.7          1.2           0.8                              3.7
Bukhungu                                                                        8,937                                        1.9          1.4           0.8                              4.1
KAKAMEGA DISTRICT                                                            125,181                                         2.1          1.8           0.9                              4.8

TABLE 10: AVAILABLE LAND AREA IN KAKAMEGA DISTRICT PER AEZ AND
          HOUSEHOLD (Source: Calculated from DAO’s Reports)
                                              In ’00 ha = km2                                                                           In ’00 ha = km2                                           in ha

                                           Non-agricultural land                                                              Area in agro-ecological zones (total)                  Agricultural
                                                                                                                                                                                      land per
                 Unsuitable steep slopes




                                                                         Others (roads, home-
                                               Forest reserve, lakes,




                                                                                                Agricultural land




      DIVISION
                                                                            steads, rivers)




                                                                                                                                                                                      Household
                                                     swamps




                                                                                                                                                                                                          Person




                                                                                                                    UM 1 UM 2 UM 3 UM 4 LM 1              LM 2        LM 3 UM 0




 MUNICIPALITY        -      -                                              13.00 36.90 30.00                                  -       -      - 15.00    2.00              -   2.00   0.104                0.013
 LURAMBI             -      -                                              11.10 183.0        -                               -       -      - 180.00   3.00              -      -   3.616                0.452
 NAVAKHOLO           -   3.40                                              10.00 160.00       -                               -       -      - 156.00   4.00              -      -   4.240                0.530
 KABRAS           2.30 18.00                                               13.00 391.00       -                           20.00   10.00 113.00 20.00 200.00           61.30      -   4.536                0.567
 ILEHO            2.00 31.00                                                7.00 37.70 20.00                                  -       -      - 17.00 15.70                - 25.00    3.816                0.477
 SHINYALU         2.60 102.00                                               8.00 220.00 215.60                                -       -      - 10.00    5.00              - 102.00   5.120                0.640
 IKOLOMANI        4.00   5.00                                              15.00 118.90 28.30                                 -       -      - 91..90   7.00           13.0      -   2.482                0.310
 TOTAL AREA      10.90 159.40                                              77.10 1047.75 293.90                           20.00   10.00 113.00 486.90 234.70          74.30 124.00   0.916                 0.19



                                                                                                                                                                                                                   247
      KAKAM. GROUP 28


      LUGARI DISTRICT

      According to the 1999 population census, the population of Lugari District was 215,920 people. The total
      land area of the district is 670.2 km2 (Table 11). The agricultural land that supports crop and livestock pro-
      duction is estimated at 484 km2. The lower portion of the district lies within AEZ LM 2 which is mainly
      suitable for sugar cane production. The main part of the district lies within AEZ UM 4, where intensive
      maize and sunflower cultivation are the main cash income crops cultivated, in addition to various food
      crops.

      The population density averages 322 persons per km2 and ranges from the low of 302 persons to the high
      of 437 persons in Likuyani and Matete Divisions, respectively (Table 11). The available agricultural land
      has declined considerably per household and per person. In 1979, a household of 6.40 persons had 4.32
      ha, i.e. 0.68 ha per person. This can be compared to 1999 figures of a household having 5.1 persons with
      1.56 ha, i.e. 0.30 ha per person (Tables 12 & 13). The estimate for 2005 is 268,320 people, it means 0.24
      ha agricultural land per person.


      TABLE 11: POPULATION IN LUGARI DISTRICT PER DIVISION AND LOCATION
                (Source: Census 1999)

                   DIVISION/LOCATION           Male       Female       Total   Area in km2 Density
                LIKUYANI                        44,499      46,711      91,210      302.00    302
                Sinoko                           7,707       8,209      15,916        50.70   314
                Nzoia                           10,846      11,349      22,195        55.20   402
                Kongoni                         16,125      17,334      33,459        99.30   337
                Likuyani                         9,821       9,819      19,640        96.80   203
                LUGARI                          39,217      40,915      80,132      266.30    301
                Lugari                          10,925      11,123      22,048        81.20   272
                Mautuma                          9,534      10,037      19,571        83.60   234
                Lumakanda                       11,478      11,783      23,261        59.30   392
                Chekalini                        7,280       7,972      15,252        42.20   361
                MATETE                          21,557      23,021      44,578      101.90    437
                Luandeti                         9,714      10,647      20,361        44.30   460
                Chevaywa                        11,843      12,374      24,217        57.60   420
                LUGARI DISTRICT                105,273     110,647     215,920      670.20    322



      TABLE 12: COMPOSITION OF HOUSEHOLDS IN LUGARI DISTRICT PER
                DIVISION AND LOCATION (Source: Census 1999)

                                                Households              Family              Person per
               DIVISION/LOCATION
                                                  total          >15 years < 15 years       household1)
               LIKUYANI                               17,782            2.1       2.0               5.1
               Sinoko                                   3,068           2.1       1.9               5.2
               Nzoia                                    4,552           2.0       1.9               4.9
               Kongoni                                  6,315           2.1       2.1               5.3
               Likuyani                                 3,847           2.1       1.9               5.1
               LUGARI                                 15,140            2.1       2.0               5.2
               Lugari                                   4,150           2.1       2.1               5.2
               Mautuma                                  3,545           2.2       2.1               5.5
               Lumakanda                                4,634           2.1       1.9               5.0
               Chekalini                                2,811           2.2       2.0               5.3
               MATETEe                                  8,742           2.1       2.0               5.1
               Luandeti                                 3,914           2.2       2.1               5.2
               Chevaywa                                 4,828           2.1       1.9               5.0
               LUGARI DISTRICT                        41,664            2.1       2.0               5.1
               1)




248
                                                                                                 KAKAM. GROUP 29


TABLE 13: AVAILABLE LAND AREA IN LUGARI DISTRICT PER AEZ AND
          HOUSEHOLD (Source: Calculated from DAO’s Reports)

                                     In ‘00 ha = km2                                  In ’00 ha = km2                  In ha

                           Non-agricultural land                              Area in agro-ecological zones    Agricultural land per
DIVISION /
LOCATION                            Forest                     Agricultural
               Unsuitable steep                Others (roads,     land
                                   reserve,     homesteads,                 UM 4 UM 2-4 UM 3-4 LM 1 Household Person
                   slopes           lakes,        rivers)
                                   swamps
LIKUYANI                     160        4,816              980       24,244   213                  29                  1.36      0.27
Nzoia                         33           946             187        4,354    44                                      0.96      0.20
Sinoko                        30           860             170        4,010    40                                      1.31      0.25
Kongoni                       45        1,290              255        8,340    69                  14                  1.32      0.25
Likuyani                      52        1,720              368        7,540    60                  15                  1.96      0.38
LUGARI                       400        2,230            2,500       21,500   183                  80                  1.73      0.33
Mautuma                      150           700             800        6,710    54                  30                  1.88      0.34
Lumakanda                    100           430             600        4,800    49                  10                  1.03      0.21
Chekalini                     50           300             500        3,370    42                                      1.20      0.23
Lugari                       100           800             600        6,620    41                  40                  1.60      0.30
MATETE                       505           190           1,105        8,390    19        40                 58         0.95      0.19
Luandeti                     250            50             500        3,500    19        37                  3         0.95      0.18
Chevaywa                     255           140             605        4,800                3                55         0.96      0.19
TOTAL AREA                 1,069        7,236            4,485       54,134   415        40       109       58         1.34      0.26


VIHIGA DISTRICT
During the 1999 census, the population of Vihiga district was 498,883 people living within an area of 563
km2 of land (Table 14). Agricultural land that supports crop and livestock production was estimated at 409
km2, averaging 72.6% of the total land area (Table 16). Most parts of this productive land area lies within
the AEZs LM 1 and UM 1 that are suitable to sugar cane, coffee and tea growing as cash crops besides the
staple food crops – maize, beans, cowpeas, etc. The estimate for 2005 is 595,180 people.

The population density has risen from 692 persons per km2 in 1979, to 886 persons per km2 in 1999 and
ranges from 616 persons per km2 in Tiriki East division to 1,068 persons per km2 in Sabatia division (Table
14).

The available agricultural land, just like in Kakamega and Lugari Districts, has equally shrunk due to the
rapid increase in population. Currently, agricultural land available per household of 4.7 persons (Table 15)
stands at 0.33 ha. (0.07 ha per person) (Table16). The current comparable estimates for 2005 are 0.25 and
0.06, respectively. If this trend remains unchecked, there will soon be almost no land available for cultiva-
tion in Vihiga district.

TABLE 14: POPULATION IN VIHIGA DISTRICT PER DIVISION AND LOCATION
          (Source: Census 1999)
   DIVISION/LOCATION                    Male            Female              Total            Area in km2             Density
LUANDA                                   43,096           49,365              92,462                  98.6                       938
Central Bunyore                          11,199           13,246              24,445                  29.4                       831
West Bunyore                             15,255           17,255              32,510                  28.7                     1,133
S.W. Bunyore                              8,052            9,189              17,241                  20.2                       854
South Bunyore                             8,590            9,676              18,266                  20.3                       900
EMUHAYA                                  31,833           37,417              69,250                  74.6                       928
North Bunyore                             8,426            9,583              18,009                  20.6                       874
N.E. Bunyore                              9,758           11,495              21,253                  24.3                       875
East Bunyore                              7,441            8,820              16,261                  16.2                      1004
Wekhomo                                   6,208            7,519              13,727                  13.5                      1017
SABATIA                                  54,675           63,188             117,863                 110.4                     1,068
Izava                                     5,819            6,803              12,622                   9.8                     1,288
Chavakali                                 7,963            8,732              16,695                  15.4                     1,084



                                                                                                                                        249
      KAKAM. GROUP 30


      TABLE 14: Cont.
         DIVISION/LOCATION   Male       Female       Total      Area in km2      Density
      West Maragoli            8,969      10,626       19,595            16.4         1,195
      Busali West              4,704       5,575       10,279            10.4            988
      Busali East              5,184       5,808       10,992            13.3            826
      Wodanga                  9,821      10,649       19,570            19.5         1,004
      North Maragoli           8,093       9,271       17,364              16         1,085
      Izava North              5,022       5,724       10,746             9.6          1,119
      TIRIKI EAST             28,245      31,698       59,943              97            616
      Shaviringa              16,367      18,203       34,570            72.6            476
      Shamakhokho             11,878      13,495       25,373            24.4         1,040
      TIRIKI WEST             36,048      40,322       76,370            92.1            829
      Gisambai                 9,389      10,460       19,849           23.40            848
      Banja                   10,083      11,780       21,863           27.30            801
      Tambua                   8,313       8,835       17,148           22.30            769
      Jepkoyai                 8,263       9,247       17,510           19.10            917
      VIHIGA                  38,823      44,172       82,995           90.30            919
      Lugaga                   5,109       5,805       10,914           12.00            910
      Wamuluma                 7,132       8,163       15,295           11.40         1,342
      Central Maragoli        10,263      11,313       21,576           17.60         1,226
      South Maragoli           7,883       8,736       16,619           28.40            585
      Mungoma                  8,436      10,155       18,591           20.90            890
      VIHIGA DISTRICT        232,720     266,163      498,883         563.00             886

      TABLE 15: COMPOSITION OF HOUSEHOLDS IN VIHIGA DISTRICT PER DIVISION AND
                LOCATION (Source: Census 1999)
                             Households          Family         Relatives &     Person per
      DIVISION/LOCATION                   >15 years < 15 years
                               total                              others        household
      LUANDA                      20,830          2.0       1.5           0.9             4.4
      Central Bunyore               5,457         1.9       1.6           0.7             4.5
      West Bunyore                  7,355         2.0       1.4           1.0             4.4
      S. W. Bunyore                 3,838         2.0       1.6           0.8             4.4
      South Bunyore                 4,180         2.0       1.5           0.9             4.4
      EMUHAYA                     15,449          2.0       1.5           0.9             4.4
      NORTH BUNYORE                 4,069         2.0       1.5           0.9             4.4
      N. E. Bunyore                 4,684         2.0       1.5           1.0             4.5
      East Bunyore                  3,705         1.9       1.4           1.1             4.4
      Wekhomo                       2,991         2.0       1.5           1.0             4.5
      SABATIA                     23,763          2.1       1.5           1.3             4.9
      Izava                         2,594         2.1       1.5           1.3             4.9
      Chavakali                     3,561         2.0       1.5           1.1             4.6
      West Maragoli                 3,934         2.1       1.5           1.3             4.9
      Busali West                   2,020         2.1       1.5           1.3             4.9
      Busali East                   2,175         2.1       1.6           1.3             5.0
      Wodanga                       3,792         2.1       1.5           1.3             4.9
      North Maragoli                3,563         2.1       1.5           1.2             4.8
      Izava North                   2,124         2.2       1.6           1.2             5.0
      TIRIKI EAST                  12,011         2.1       1.6           1.7             4.9
      Shaviringa                    6,891         2.1       1.6           1.2             4.9
      Shamakhokho                   5,120         2.2       1.5           1.2             4.9
      TIRIKI WEST                 15,144          2.1       1.7           1.2             5.0
      Gisambai                      4,028         2.0       1.6           1.3             4.9
      Banja                         4,264         2.1       1.7           1.2             5.0
      Tambua                        3,314         2.1       1.7           1.2             5.0
      Jepkoyai                      3,538         2.1       1.6           1.1             4.8
      VIHIGA                      17,749          2.0       1.5           1.1             4.6
      Lugaga                        2,331         2.1       1.4           1.2             4.7
      Wamuluma                      3,285         2.0       1.4           1.2             4.6
      Central Maragoli              4,712         2.0       1.4           1.1             4.5
      South Maragoli                3,514         2.1       1.6           1.0             4.7
      Mungoma                       3,907         2.0       1.5           1.2             4.7
      VIHIGA DISTRICT            104,946          2.0       1.5           1.2             4.7



250
                                                                                                                                                                KAKAM. GROUP 31


TABLE 16: AVAILABLE LAND AREA IN VIHIGA DISTRICT PER AEZ AND HOUSEHOLD
          (Source: Calculated from DAO’s Reports)

                                               in ’00 ha = km2                                                                                in ’00 ha = km2                                        in ha

                                Non-agricultural                                                                                Area in agro-ecological zones AEZ                       Agricultural
                                     land                                                                                                                                                land per
        without townships
        Location/Division




                                                                                                Agricultural land
                                                Forest reserve, lakes,



                                                                         homesteads, rivers)
                            Unsuitable steep




                                                                           Others (roads,




                                                                                                                                                                                         household
                                                      swamps




                                                                                                                                                                                                             person
                                slopes



                                                                                                                    LH 1     UM 1   UM        UM 4 LM 1 LM 2        LM        UM 0
                                                                                                                                    2-3                             3-4




 LUANDA                                   -                         -      26.6                   72                    -      59         -        -      13    -         -       -      0.35                0.08
 EMUHAYA                                  -                         -        26                 48.6                    -      39         -        -     9.6    -         -       -      0.31                0.03
 SABATIA                                  -                         -        21                 89.4                    -      70         -        -    19.4    -         -       -      0.37                0.07
 TIRIKI                                   -                         -        20                 72,1                    -      60         -        -    12.1    -         -       -      0.47                0.09
 VIHIGA                                   -                         -        25                 65.3                    -      44         -        -    21.3    -         -       -      0.37                0.08
 VIHIGA DISTRICT                          -                         -      98.6                347.4                    -     272         -        -    75.4    -         -       -      0.33                0.07




3.4.3 AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS

Development and Trends of Major Cash Crops in Butere-Mumias District

The district was curved from the larger Kakamega district in 1998. The agricultural potential in the district
comprise the AEZ LM 1 and LM 2, in which sugarcane is predominantly grown. Currently, sugarcane is
cultivated on an estimated land area of 43,000 ha including the nucleus estate of Mumias Sugar Company
and the Outgrowers. The yield averages 85 metric tons per hectare (Table 17).

TABLE 17a: BUTERE-MUMIAS DISTRICT SUGARCANE: AREA,PRODUCTION AND
         YIELD TRENDS (Source: Ministry of Agriculture, DAO’s Annual Reports & CBS)

              Year
                                                                                               Area                                  Production                                Yield
   (created in 1998 from the
                                                                                                ha                                      tons                                  tons/ha
   larger Kakamega district)
 1998/99                                                                                                            43,100                              3,664                                           85
 1999/00                                                                                                            43,100                              3,664                                           85
 2000/01                                                                                                            43,200                              3,570                                           85
 2001/02                                                                                                            43,250                              3,613                                           86
 2002/03                                                                                                            43,000                              3,655                                           85



Development and Trends of Major Cash Crops in Kakamega District

It should be noted that out of the total land area of 139,480 ha, 85% is covered by infertile Acrisol soils. The
KARI station is however situated within the fertile Nitosol soils. The information from the research centre
therefore gives an optimistic picture of the agricultural production potential of the district. The well distrib-
uted rainfall supports the erroneous general opinion that the whole district is of high agricultural potential.
Approximately 2,000 ha of tea are planted and produce some 4,900 kg of green leaf per ha per year. Coffee
covers approximately 700 ha and yields about 810 kg of clean coffee per ha per year. Sugarcane is the cash
crop in the lower western zones, covering around 15,000 ha since many years without significant changes




                                                                                                                                                                                                                      251
      KAKAM. GROUP 32


      TABLE 18a: KAKAMEGA DISTRICT TEA: AREA, PRODUCTION AND YIELD TRENDS
      (Source: Ministry of Agriculture, DAO’s Annual Reports & CBS)

                 Year              Area              Production             Yield
                                    ha                  tons                kg/ha
       1980/81                             1,953                1,953                1,000
       1981/82                             2,050                2,049                1,000
       1982/83                             2,020                2,020                1,000
       1983/84                             2,024                3,441                1,700
       1986/87                             2,200                4,400                2,000
       1987/88                             2,258                5,453                2,415
       1988/89                             1,984                5,537                2,719
       1989/90                             1,976                6,056                3,016
       1990/91                             2,008                7,723                3,908
       1991/92                             2,125                6,724                3,164
       1992/93                             2,060                8,023                3,895
       1993/94                             2,569                9,155                3,564
       1994/95                             2,084               10,027                4,811
       1996/97                             2,100               10,050                4,785
       1997/98                             2,150               10,250                4,767
       1998/99                             2,090               10,005                4,787
       1999/00                             2,045                9,995                4,886
       2000/01                             2,067               10,000                4,838
       2001/02                             2,000                9,950                4,975
       2002/03                             1,998                9,900                4,955




      TABLE 18b: KAKAMEGA DISTRICT COFFEE : AREA, PRODUCTION AND YIELD
                 TRENDS (Source: Ministry of Agriculture, DAO’s Annual Reports & CBS)

                  Year              Area              Production             Yield
                                     ha                  tons                kg/ha
       1981/82                             1,345                320,000                  283
       1982/83                             1,200                310,000                  258
       1983/84                             1,530                311,000                  203
       1984/85                             1,154                320,000                  277
       1987/88                             1,697              1,340,000                  697
       1988/89                             1,136              1,143,000                  790
       1989/90                             1,539              1,231,000                 1006
       1990/91                             1,391              1,455,000                  800
       1991/92                             1,503              1,196,000                 1047
       1992/93                             1,305                979,000                  796
       1993/94                             1,279              1,002,000                  750
       1994/95                             1,284                822,000                  784
       1997/98                               738                638,000                  800
       1998/99                               750                640,000                  864
       1999/00                               800                676,000                  853
       2000/01                               796                637,000                  845
       2001/02                               701                561,000                  801
       2002/03                               693                561,000                  809




252
                                                                                  KAKAM. GROUP 33


Development and Trends of Major Cash Crops in Lugari District

The district was hived off Kakamega in 1995 and the agricultural statistics begin in 1994/95. The agricultur-
al potential of the district lies in arable land estimated at 48,400 ha. The smallholder farmers grow sugarcane
and maize in small units. Currently sugarcane is cultivated on an area approximately 3,100 ha and yields an
average of 80 mt per ha. Maize crop covers about 9,700 ha with an average yield of 1.7 mt per ha, a decline
of more than 30% since 1995 due to depletion of the soils..



TABLE 19a: LUGARI DISTRICT SUGARCANE: AREA, PRODUCTION AND YIELD
           TRENDS (Source: Ministry of Agriculture, DAO’s Annual Reports & CBS)

              Year
                                        Area                  Production                    Yield
   (created in 1995 from the
                                         ha                      tons                      tons/ha
   larger Kakamega district)
            1994/95                    15,160                  1,213,000                      80
            1996/97                    15,200                  1,216,000                      80
            1997/98                    15,000                  1,200,000                      80
            1998/99                    15,300                  1,224,000                      80
            1999/00                    15,225                  1,142,000                      75
            2000/01                    15,150                  1,136,000                      75
            2001/02                    15,190                  1,139,000                      75
            2002/03                    15,235                  1,219,000                      80




TABLE 19b: LUGARI DISTRICT MAIZE: AREA, PRODUCTION AND YIELD TRENDS
(Source: Ministry of Agriculture, DAO’s Annual Reports & CBS)

              Year
   (created in 1995 from the            Area                  Production                    Yield
   larger Kakamega district)             ha                      tons                       kg/ha
            1994/95                    6,819                      168                       2500
            1995/96                    7,026                      183                       2600
            1996/97                    6,900                      179                       2600
            1997/98                    7,150                      179                       2500
            1998/99                    7,500                      210                       2800
            1999/00                    7,000                      168                       2400
            2000/01                    9,735                      160                       1600
            2001/02                    9,435                      174                       1800
            2002/03                    9,700                      167                       1700




                                                                                                                  253
      KAKAM. GROUP 34


      Development and Trends of Major Cash Crops in Vihiga District

      The district was created from the larger Kakamega district in 1990. The agricultural potential in the district
      comprise the AEZs UM 1 (Coffee-Tea Zone) and LM 1 (Sugarcane Zone). Coffee is cultivated on 1,250 ha
      and yields about 390 kg of clean coffee per ha per annum. Smallholder tea growers cultivate some 2,000 ha
      yielding approximately 5,000 kg of green leaf per annum.

      TABLE 20a: VIHIGA DISTRICT TEA: AREA, PRODUCTION AND YIELD TRENDS
      (Source: Ministry of Agriculture, DAO’s Annual Reports and CBS)

                 Year                      Area                    Production                    Yield
                                            ha                        tons                       kg/ha
               1990/91                     3,011                     9,855                       3,273
               1991/92                     2,591                     9,188                       3,564
               1992/93                     2,602                     9,570                       3,678
               1993/94                     2,639                     9,975                       3,780
               1994/95                     3,102                     12,284                      3,960
               1996/97                     3,089                     12,820                      4,150
               1997/98                     3,098                     13,724                      4,430
               1998/99                     2,991                     14,312                      4,785
               1999/00                     3,009                     14,714                      4,890
               2000/01                     3,012                     14,879                      4,940
               2001/02                     3,108                     15,509                      4,990
               2002/03                     4,003                     19,935                      4,980


      TABLE 20b: VIHIGA DISTRICT COFFEE: AREA, PRODUCTION AND YIELD TRENDS
      (Source: Ministry of Agriculture, DAO’s Annual Reports & CBS)

                 Year                      Area                    Production                    Yield
                                            ha                        tons                       kg/ha
               1990/91                     2,360                       435                        184
               1991/92                     1,315                       265                        202
               1992/93                     1,218                       865                        710
               1993/94                     1,230                       490                        398
               1994/95                     1,340                       485                        362
               1996/97                     1,340                       485                        362
               1997/98                     1,350                       450                        330
               1998/99                     1,300                       470                        360
               1999/00                     1,400                       450                        320
               2000/01                     1,225                       480                        390
               2001/02                     1,300                       475                        365
               2002/03                     1,250                       488                        390




254
                                                KAKAM. GROUP 35


DISTRIBUTION OF FARMING ACTIVITIES DURING THE YEAR PER WEEK AND
AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES




                                                                  255
      KAKAM. GROUP 36




256
KAKAM. GROUP 37




                  257
      KAKAM. GROUP 38




258
KAKAM. GROUP 39




                  259
      KAKAM. GROUP 40


      3.4.4 FARM SURVEY IN KAKAMEGA GROUP OF DISTRICTS

      The Farm Survey (FS) was carried out during the year 2004 in nine sites covering the AEZs (UM 1 and 4;
      LM 1 and 2), with different Subzones (Table 22). Farm holdings in Kakamega Group of districts are small.
      Many households have farm sizes of between 0.4 ha and 1.2 ha.
      Virtually all the farm holdings were formally registered as private individual holdings in the name of a man.
      There were a few exceptions, where widows were found. Due to the reduced land size per household, some
      amount of land is put under forage for zero-grazing. Sheep and goats are also important components of the
      livestock in the district with numbers almost the same as cattle. The stocking rate tends to be too high. This
      is an indication of the important role livestock plays in these districts (Table 23). Farmers grow more than
      one crop in any one given season (Table 24), but use comparatively low amounts of fertiliser (Table 25).
      Maize crop still dominates the farming landscape in these districts (Table 24). It is usually intercropped with
      a legume (e.g. beans, cowpeas, soybeans). The low maize yields reported in these districts (Table 25) are a re-
      flection of low usage of fertilisers and manure to improve the nutrient depleted soils. According to the Farm
      Survey of 1977 the yields were more than 50% higher than those reported during the Farm Survey 2004!
      The graphs in Table 21 indicate that most farmers plant and cultivate their maize crop at the recommended
      time of the year. In Agroecological Units, where soil fertility has diminished, selection of suitable crops,
      which demand fewer nutrients like sweet potatoes, cassava, Napier grass, etc., high and reliable yields can be
      achieved here as well to ensure food security.

      The poor road infrastructure in these districts is one of the major constraints explaining why its agricultural
      potential has not yet been fully realised. The production of maize, milk, beef and horticultural products,
      cash crops could be increased substantially if the all weather roads were improved. To achieve this goal,
      labour productivity must be increased as far as possible, road infrastructure development, access to credit
      facilities and market information are improved.




      TABLE 22: FARM SURVEY SITES IN KAKAMEGA DISTRICT GROUP
                                           Agro-Ecological Unit
       District          No. in
                         Kenya                                Soil       Farm Survey Areas
                                    AEZone      Subzone
                                                              Unit
                         17         LM 1        p or two      UlG 1      Mumias Division, East Wanga Location,
       BUTERE-                                                           Lushenya Sub-location
       MUMIAS                                                            Matungu Division, Koyonzo Location,
                         18         LM 1        l^m i         UlS 1      Munami Sub-location
                         19         LM 1        l^m i         UmG 3      Lurambi Division, North Botsotso Location
                         20         UM 1        p or two      UhI 2      Shinyalu Division, Khayega Location
                         21         LM 1        p or two      UmG 3      Lurambi Division, Butsotso South Location
       KAKAMEGA
                         22         LM 2        l/m^(s/m)     UmG 5      Kabras Division, Kabras Central Location
                         22a        UM 1        p or two      UhG 2      Kabras Division, Kabras East Location
                                                                         Kabras Division, Kabras Central Location,
                         23         LM 2        l^(m/s)i      UmG 5
                                                                         Magui Sub-location
       LUGARI            24         UM 4        l/vl or two   UmG 3      Lugari Division, Lugari Location
                                                                         Hamisi Division, Tambua Location,
                         25         UM 1        p or two      UhGA 1
                                                                         Jepkoyai Sub-location
                                                                         Vihiga Division, Muigai and Muhandi Sub-
       VIHIGA            26         UM 1        p or two      UhV 1
                                                                         locations
                                                                         Sabatia Division, Chavakali Location,
                         27         UM 1        p or two      UhD 1
                                                                         Igunga Sub-location



260
KAKAM. GROUP 41




                  261
      KAKAM. GROUP 42


      TABLE 23a: ASSETS, LAND USE, FARMING INTENSITY AND INPUTS IN AEZ LM 1 OF
                 BUTERE-MUMIAS DISTRICT

      Subzone: p or two, Soil Unit: UlG 1                                                              Survey area 17 (Lushenya)
                                             Assets                                                    People on farm
                                           Livestock Numbers                                                         Number of
      Range        Land                                                                      Family     Casual
                                           Sheep &     Poultry  Poultry                                            children under
                    ha          Dairy Zebu                                                   Adults    Labourers
                                             Goats (Indigenous) (Exotic)                                              14 years
      Avg.0         2.31        0.57  2.73    1.3        9.2      0.27                        4.03       1.67           2.53
      Avg.1         2.31        2.43  4.32    3.25       18.4       8                         4.03       2.63           2.92
      Up. Qu.       2.76        0.25    4       3       10.25       0                          5         2.25           3.25
      Lo. Qu.       0.88          0     0       0         0         0                           2          0              1

                                                                        Land Use
                          Ann. Crops           Perm. Crops            Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops      Fallow      Other Use
      Range
                              ha                   ha                                ha                       ha           ha
      Avg.0                  0.58                 0.94                              0.30                     0.49         0.13
      Avg.1                  0.58                 1.13                              0.50                     0.97         0.27
      Up. Qu.                 0.8                 1.23                              0.48                      0.2         0.26
      Lo. Qu.                 0.2                  0.2                              0.18                     0.16          0.1

                                                     Farming Diversity & Stocking Intensity
                                                                        Stocking Rate
                 Cropping                       Farm Land                   Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops
                                                                                                             Improved Cattle
      Range       Diversity                      TLU/ha                                 TLU/ha
                                                                                                             % of total cattle
                 Crops/year           Total                                   Total
                                                     Dairy          Zebu                Dairy       Zebu
                                      TLU                                      TLU
      Avg.0              4             1.5            0.27          1.19       11.5      1.9         9.0          17.27
      Avg.1              4             3.0            1.16          1.88       14.0      5.0         9.0          72.73
      Up. Qu.           4.3            2.1            0.14          1.98        9.5      0.5         8.9           2.27
      Lo. Qu.            3              0               0             0          -        -           -              0
      TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit is a KARI derived factor loading for animals stock in the tropics e.g. dairy = 1.1,
           local breeds = 1.0, cross breeds = 1.05, sheep = 0.11, goats = 0.09. Hence, sheep & goats mixed = 0.1

                                                                     Inputs Applied
                                       Fertilizer applied as pure nutrient
                                                                                                            Plant protection
                  Improved                            kg/ha                           Manure applied
      Range       seed %                                                                  t/ha          Insecticide     Fungicide
                                           N                 P2O5          K2O
                  of area                                                                                  kg/ha           kg/ha
                                    AC         PC      AC       PC       AC    PC      AC       PC      AC      PC     AC      PC
      Avg.0             52.7        15.1       9.3     15.4     9.6       -     -      0.9      0.6      0       0     0.03 0.02
      Avg.1             65.9        17.4       9.0     17.8     9.2       -     -      2.1      1.1      0       0      0.9     0.4
      Up. Qu.           68.8        12.5       8.2     12.5     8.2       -     -      0.7      0.4      0       0       0       0
      Lo. Qu.           15.1         4          4       4.8     4.8       -     -       0        0       0       0       0       0

      NOTES:
      Avg.0                   = average of all sample farms
      Avg.1                   = average of farms, excluding zero entries
      Up. Qu./Lo. Qu.         = Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
      AC                      = Annual crops
      PC                      = Perennial crops




262
                                                                                                   KAKAM. GROUP 43


TABLE 23b: ASSETS, LAND USE, FARMING INTENSITY AND INPUTS IN AEZ LM 1 OF
           BUTERE-MUMIAS DISTRICT

Subzone: l^m i, Soil Unit: UlS 1                                                                   Survey area 18 (Munami)
                                                   Assets                                          People on farm
                                                 Livestock Numbers                                               Number of
Range               Land                                                                  Family    Casual
                                                            Sheep &                                            children under
                     ha           Dairy           Zebu                     Poultry        Adults   Labourers
                                                             Goats                                                14 years
Avg.0               2.09             0.1           1.73       0.2           13.17           3.8      0.87            2.6
Avg.1               2.09              1            2.74        2            21.94          3.8       2.36             3
Up. Qu.             2.59              0              3         0            16.25          4.25      1.25             4
Lo. Qu.             1.55              0              0         0              0              3         0              1

                                                                 Land Use
                    Ann. Crops             Perm. Crops         Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops         Fallow    Other Use
Range
                        ha                     ha                             ha                          ha         ha
Avg.0                  0.84                   0.67                           0.36                        0.23       0.13
Avg.1                  0.84                   0.71                           0.53                        0.30       0.27
Up. Qu.                1.03                    0.9                           0.43                        0.23       0.26
Lo. Qu.                0.64                    0.4                             0                         0.08        0.1

                                             Farming Diversity & Stocking Intensity
                                                                  Stocking Rate
           Cropping                        Farm Land                  Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops
                                                                                                       Improved Cattle
Range       Diversity                       TLU/ha                                TLU/ha
                                                                                                       % of total cattle
           Crops/year           Total                                   Total
                                                Dairy         Zebu                Dairy       Zebu
                                TLU                                      TLU
Avg.0             5.8            0.9            0.05           0.8        5.2      0.3         4.8            7.8
Avg.1             5.8            1.8             0.5           1.3        7.5      2.2         5.2           77.8
Up. Qu.            7             1.8              0            1.3        6.5       0          6.5             0
Lo. Qu.            5              0               0             0          -        -           -              0
TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit is a KARI derived factor loading for animals stock in the tropics e.g. dairy = 1.1,
     local breeds = 1.0, cross breeds = 1.05, sheep = 0.11, goats = 0.09. Hence, sheep & goats mixed = 0.1

                                                               Inputs Applied
                                 Fertilizer applied as pure nutrient
                                                                                                        Plant protection
            Improved                            kg/ha                           Manure applied
Range       seed %                                                                  t/ha            Insecticide   Fungicide
                                     N                 P2O5          K2O
            of area                                                                                    kg/ha         kg/ha
                              AC         PC      AC       PC       AC    PC         AC       PC     AC      PC    AC     PC
Avg.0             38.5        13.2       16.7    16.7     21.1      -     -         1.4      1.7     0       0     0       0
Avg.1             52.5        16.5       19.5    17.9     21.1      -     -         2.9      3.4     0       0     0       0
Up. Qu.           59.5        19.5       22.2    19.5     22.2      -     -         0.5      0.6     0       0     0       0
Lo. Qu.            0           2.4        3.8    13.7     21.9      -     -          0        0      0       0     0       0

NOTES:
Avg.0                   = average of all sample farms
Avg.1                   = average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. Qu.         = Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
AC                      = Annual crops
PC                      = Perennial crops




                                                                                                                                263
      KAKAM. GROUP 44


      TABLE 23c: ASSETS, LAND USE, FARMING INTENSITY AND INPUTS IN AEZ LM 1 OF
                 KAKAMEGA DISTRICT

      Subzone: l^m i, Soil Unit: UmG 3                                                      Survey area 19 (North Butsotso)
                                         Assets                                  People on farm
                                       Livestock Numbers                                          Number of
      Range        Land                                            Family  Casual Permanent
                                          Sheep &                                               children under
                    ha       Dairy Zebu            Poultry Rabbits Adults Labourers Labourers
                                            Goats                                                  14 years
      Avg.0         2.55      1.1   2.2      0.9    7.03    0.07     4.3     1.5         0.03        2.87
      Avg.1         2.55     2.36  3.47      2.08   9.17      2      4.3    2.37          1          3.74
      Up. Qu.        3.3       2   3.25       2     10.5      0       6       2            0           5
      Lo. Qu.         1        0     0        0      1.5      0     2.75      0            0         0.75

                                                                     Land Use
                           Ann. Crops         Perm. Crops         Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops      Fallow     Other Use
       Range
                               ha                 ha                             ha                       ha          ha
       Avg.0                  0.71               0.84                           0.18                     0.46        0.36
       Avg.1                  0.71               1.12                           0.30                      3.2        0.54
       Up. Qu.                1.01                1.3                            0.1                     0.58        0.31
       Lo. Qu.                0.4                0.08                             0                      0.50        0.02

                                                Farming Diversity & Stocking Intensity
                                                                   Stocking Rate
                     Cropping                  Farm Land             Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops
                                                                                                             Improved Cattle
       Range          Diversity                 TLU/ha                              TLU/ha
                                                                                                             % of total cattle
                     Crops/year      Total                            Total
                                                    Dairy     Zebu            Dairy        Zebu
                                     TLU                              TLU
       Avg.0                6.2       1.4            0.5       0.9     19.4     6.4        12.8                    33.3
       Avg.1                6.2       1.1            0.5       0.6     15.0     6.4         8.5                    50.8
       Up. Qu.               8        1.7            0.7       1.0     25.0      15        23.0                     50
       Lo. Qu.             4.75        0              0         0       -