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Biomechanical Analysis of the Tennis serve

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									Biomechanical Analysis of the
Tennis serve
The preparation phase primarily consists of the mental set in which
the athlete prepares mentally for the skill he/she is about to perform
Head is stable and eyes are intently
focused on the target.

                                       Shoulders and
                                       trunk are
                                       rotated. This
Balance – Good                         will allow force
base support                           production in
                                       next phase
Left foot points
at tennis post.
Right foot
Parallel with
base line
  Wind Up
The purpose of the wind-up is to produce FORCE.

Force Summation results in the production of a tremendous amount of
force and momentum.
   Force Summation
                     Use of long levers
                     in the racquet arm

Timing of

                           Large muscle
                           groups first
Wind Up
During the course of the windup the athletes weight is initially shifted from
the front foot to the rear foot.

Concurrently the left arm tosses the ball; consistency is imperative to the
performance of the serve.

The left arm carries up to a fully extended position and aids concentration on the
The purpose of the wind up is to store elastic potential energy and then to convert it
into Kinetic energy
  Wind Up
The action of the non-racquet and racquet arm is an example of Newton’s
third law:
   ‘every action has an equal and opposite reaction’.

The action of the left arm balances that of the right arm so that the
racquet arm does not initiate unwanted angular momentum
Weight is shifted to the back leg, knees are bent, this enables the use of
‘Ground Reaction forces’.
      Wind Up
                                       This enables
                                       him to
                                       generate more
                                       thrust against
                                       the ground
                                       generating a
As the action of the arms and torso
                                       powerful jump
occur the weight is shifted from the
                                       into the air.
rear leg back to the front
                                       This concept
leg and the knees are bent in order
                                       is known as
to develop force summation with
the large lower body muscle
      Force Generation
      ‘the hit’
    The striking action of the force generation phase is initiated via the
    extension of the legs and the downward acceleration of the tossing arm.

According to Newton’s third
law, as the athlete pushes
against the ground, the
earth pushes
back up against the athlete
with the same force, this is
also known as a ground
reaction force
   Force Generation
   The sequential body movements of the hips, torso, shoulder, arm, elbow,
   forearm, wrist and racquet simulate the action of a whip.

 The body is comprised of a series of segments, which form third class lever
The Racquet arm is full extended to create the longest possible lever and there
                           fore the greatest FORCE.
Force Generation
                   Long Lever
                   Great Force
The sequential body movements of the hips, torso, shoulder,
   arm, elbow, forearm, wrist and racquet stimulate the
   action oh a whip

   The ball is contacted through the
    centre of the racquet.
   The athlete can also apply top spin by
    flexing the wrist over the ball.
       Follow Through
Right shoulder pointing towards
direction of ball. Indication of follow
thru is in correct direction therefore
direction of forces produced have
been accurate

                                                                   Head is
                                                                   balanced and
  Rotation of torso                                                direction of
  brings right leg                                                 ball
  around and on to the

                       Body is front on and ready to play next point
                                   Head position not
                                 focused on direction
   Preparation                         of shot

                   Small base support, this will
                 create instability during ball toss
                             Lack of torso rotation, this
                             will hinder the production
     Wind Up                 of angular momentum

   Counter balance of arms   Lack of force
   is ineffective due to      Summation
   position of racquet arm
The Hit
                                 Over rotation of
                                  torso creating

           the base
          result will

                        Left arm moving in wrong
                        direction this will limit the
                        whip effect and reduce the
                        production of force
Follow Through

                                                          outside of

                                            Continuation of over
Right leg moving trying to land inside      rotation and
under COG for balance. This is too far to   instability causes
the left and in a poor position to play     server to
next point                                  overbalance

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