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# Biomechanical Analysis of the Tennis serve

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Biomechanical Analysis of the
Tennis serve
Preparation
The preparation phase primarily consists of the mental set in which
the athlete prepares mentally for the skill he/she is about to perform
Preparation
Head is stable and eyes are intently
focused on the target.

Shoulders and
trunk are
rotated. This
Balance – Good                         will allow force
base support                           production in
next phase
Left foot points
at tennis post.
Right foot
Parallel with
base line
Wind Up
The purpose of the wind-up is to produce FORCE.

Force Summation results in the production of a tremendous amount of
force and momentum.
Force Summation
Use of long levers
in the racquet arm

Timing of
body
segments

Large muscle
groups first
Wind Up
During the course of the windup the athletes weight is initially shifted from
the front foot to the rear foot.

Concurrently the left arm tosses the ball; consistency is imperative to the
performance of the serve.

The left arm carries up to a fully extended position and aids concentration on the
ball.
The purpose of the wind up is to store elastic potential energy and then to convert it
into Kinetic energy
Wind Up
The action of the non-racquet and racquet arm is an example of Newton’s
third law:
‘every action has an equal and opposite reaction’.

The action of the left arm balances that of the right arm so that the
racquet arm does not initiate unwanted angular momentum
Weight is shifted to the back leg, knees are bent, this enables the use of
‘Ground Reaction forces’.
Wind Up
This enables
him to
generate more
thrust against
the ground
therefore
generating a
more
As the action of the arms and torso
powerful jump
occur the weight is shifted from the
into the air.
rear leg back to the front
This concept
leg and the knees are bent in order
is known as
to develop force summation with
ground
the large lower body muscle
reaction
groups.
force
Force Generation
‘the hit’
The striking action of the force generation phase is initiated via the
extension of the legs and the downward acceleration of the tossing arm.

According to Newton’s third
law, as the athlete pushes
against the ground, the
earth pushes
back up against the athlete
with the same force, this is
also known as a ground
reaction force
Force Generation
The sequential body movements of the hips, torso, shoulder, arm, elbow,
forearm, wrist and racquet simulate the action of a whip.

The body is comprised of a series of segments, which form third class lever
systems.
The Racquet arm is full extended to create the longest possible lever and there
fore the greatest FORCE.
Force Generation
Whip
+
Long Lever
=
Great Force
The sequential body movements of the hips, torso, shoulder,
arm, elbow, forearm, wrist and racquet stimulate the
action oh a whip
Contact

   The ball is contacted through the
centre of the racquet.
   The athlete can also apply top spin by
flexing the wrist over the ball.
Right shoulder pointing towards
direction of ball. Indication of follow
thru is in correct direction therefore
direction of forces produced have
been accurate

balanced and
focused
towards
Rotation of torso                                                direction of
brings right leg                                                 ball
around and on to the
court

Body is front on and ready to play next point
Comparisons
focused on direction
Preparation                         of shot

Small base support, this will
create instability during ball toss
Comparisons
Lack of torso rotation, this
will hinder the production
Wind Up                 of angular momentum

Counter balance of arms   Lack of force
is ineffective due to      Summation
position of racquet arm
The Hit
Over rotation of
torso creating
instability

COG
outside
the base
support,
result will
be
instability

Left arm moving in wrong
direction this will limit the
whip effect and reduce the
production of force

COG
outside of
body

Continuation of over
Right leg moving trying to land inside      rotation and
under COG for balance. This is too far to   instability causes
the left and in a poor position to play     server to
next point                                  overbalance

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