Social & Emotional Development in Young Children by m65m129S


									Social & Emotional Development
       in Young Children

           Dr. Judith Romano
           Board Member, Ohio Chapter, American Academy of Pediatrics
           Chair, Early Education and Childhood Committee
Child Care Providers Play A Key Role in

• Offering a safe, healthy, and nurturing environment
• Ensuring optimal development of the young children in your care
Development is Integrated: Establishing the Model

The Architecture Model
1.   First, lay the foundation
2.   Then, put up the frame
3.   Then, add wiring and plumbing
4.   Then, hang the drywall
Development is Integrated: Establishing the Model

The Architecture Model for Brain Development
1.   The Foundation: social-emotional development; responsive,
     supportive relationships

2.   The Frame: physical brain and body; genetic makeup

3.   The Wiring and Plumbing: neural circuits; cognition

4.   The Walls: sequential development; experiences affect structure
Early Experiences Last a Lifetime

Early Experiences determine whether a child’s brain
architecture will provide a strong or weak foundation
for all future learning, behavior, and health.
The Bricks and Mortar

1. Emotional Well-Being

2. Social Competence

3. Emerging Cognitive Abilities

   These are highly interrelated and together provide
   the foundation for human development
Like Homes, Brains are Built Over Time

Like houses, the building of a brain is done in a predictable

That’s why…
A child must have a strong foundation.

    The more solid the foundation, the greater the chance
                   of a positive outcome!
Can you see me? Can you hear me?

• Babies naturally reach out for interaction with babbling,
  facial expressions and words.
• Adults should respond by vocalizing and gesturing back.
• These activities help wire neural connections in a baby’s brain!
Early Experiences Last A Lifetime

Interaction with those who are important to babies and
children have the most influence on their brain structure
and function.

(This includes you!)
Stress and the Developing Brain

Stress in early childhood can be growth-promoting or toxic
to the developing brain.
Growth-Promoting Stress: Positive Stress

Definition: Moderate, short-lived physiological responses to wants
such as meeting new people or dealing with frustration.

How to help: Supportive relationships keep the stress response
small and help children develop self mastery and self control.

Examples: A child starting child care or moving to the next room.
Growth-Promoting Stress: Tolerable Stress

Definition: Events that could trigger physiological responses large enough
to disrupt brain architecture, but can be relieved by supportive relationships.

How to Help: Family members or care givers help the baby or young child
by adaptive coping, which restores the heart rate and stress hormones to
normal levels.

Examples: Divorce, death of a parent, a natural disaster such as Hurricane
Toxic Stress

Definition: Strong and prolonged activation of the body’s stress
response systems without the buffering protection of adult support.

How does this affect a child: Persistent elevations of stress
hormones cause the brain’s architecture and chemistry to be
disrupted. This can lead to problems in learning and memory, as
well as an increased susceptibility to physical and mental illness.

Examples: Child abuse and neglect, severe maternal depression,
parental substance abuse.
Providing Stability

Sometimes, the child care provider offers the most stable
adult relationship.

A trusted adult’s presence protects the child, which literally turns down
their stress response system.
Out-of-Home Settings

• 90,000 infants and toddlers in Ohio are cared for in
  out-of-home settings.
• 100% of care outside the home is considered educational.
• The AAP uses the term Early Education and Child Care,
  the education world uses Early Care and Education. The
  intent is the same – to reinforce the importance in the quality
  of these settings and the experiences they represent.
Quality Matters

• The science of child development provides proof that
  quality is a critical component of early care and education
• Quality programs have a beneficial impact while low quality
  programs can be harmful.
Quality programs have:

•   Highly skilled teachers
•   Small class sizes with high adult-to-child ratios
•   Age appropriate curricula and stimulating materials
•   Safe physical settings
•   Language rich environments
•   Warm, responsive interactions between staff and children
•   High and consistent levels of child participation
How to Recognize Warning Signs and the
   Importance of Early Recognition
Key Definitions

Process of recognizing children that may be at risk of
developmental delays – either physical or emotional.

Use of standardized tools to identify and refine that recognized risk.

A complex process, aimed at identifying specific developmental
disorders. These evaluations are performed by medical and/or
psychological professionals.
Key Definitions

Emotional Development
The child’s emerging ability to become secure, express feelings,
develop self awareness and self regulate.

Social Development
The child’s development of an understanding of self and others,
and the ability to relate to other people and the environment.
Importance of Early Identification

• Early problems can become “hard wired” into a child’s
  developing brain, making him or her possibly destined
  for a lifetime of disability.
• You are the front-line, a key component, in identifying
  social-emotional problems!
Important Point About Screening

• Screening DOES NOT diagnose an infant or child with
  a particular problem.
• It simply says “there may be a problem, and it’s time
  to seek professional help.”
Screening Tools
   ASQ: SE
To Be Reliable, Screening Tools Must Be:

•   Sound, low cost and reliable.
•   Valid – having similar responses across large numbers
    of children.
•   Sensitive and specific. In other words children that
    need to be identified are and children that need further
    evaluation are not missed.

An easy-to use tool for parents or care givers to identify possible
warning signs in a child’s social and emotional growth.

Addresses 7 behavioral areas

1.   Self Regulation
2.   Compliance
3.   Communication
4.   Adaptive Functioning
5.   Autonomy
6.   Affect
7.   Interaction with People

Self Regulation
Child’s ability or willingness to calm or settle down.

The child’s ability to conform to the directions of others and follow rules.

The child’s ability or willingness to respond to or initiate verbal or
nonverbal signals to indicate feelings.

Adaptive Functioning
The child’s success or ability to cope with physiological needs.
For example, sleeping, eating, elimination.

The child’s ability or willingness to self-initiate or respond without guidance.

The child’s ability or willingness to demonstrate his or her own feelings and
empathy for others.

Interaction With People
The child’s ability or willingness to respond to or initiate social responses
to parents, other adults and other children.
Practice Using the ASQ: SE

As you become more familiar with the screening tool, you will
find the content to be very similar to the things you already
notice in infants and young children.
Importance of the ASQ: SE

The ASQ:SE will help you organize and sort your
observations and identify children who are developing
normally and those that require further evaluation.
You’re the First Line of Recognition

This Matters!

As with all developmental areas, early identification allows for
early intervention and the opportunity to influence a life in the
best possible way.
Suggested Resources
  Other Opportunities
For Child Care Providers

        Debbie Wright, MS, RN
        Chief, Bureau of Early Intervention Services
        for The Ohio Department of Health
Infant Toddler Guidelines

•   Module 3: Emotional Development

•   Module 4: Social Development

    Approved SUTQ Training – 3 hours each
Key Resources:

•   Center on Social and Emotional Foundations for
    Early Learning (CSEFEL)
    •   National resource center for disseminating research
        and evidence-based practices.
    •   Developed to assist early childhood educators in meeting
        the needs of children with challenging behavior and
        mental health challenges.

•   DECA and the Incredible Years/EMCH Consultants
•   Healthy Child Care Ohio (HCCO)
Healthy Child Care Ohio (HCCO)

•   Based at the Ohio Department of Health.

•   Funded through the MCH Block Grant, with additional
    dollars from the Child Care and Development Fund
    (ODJFS) and Part C of IDEA.

•   Provides a statewide Child Care Health Consultant
    network through a contract with the Ohio Child Care
    Resource and Referral Association.
Child Care Health Consultants (CCHCs)

•   Registered Nurses representing nine agencies.
•   Serve all 88 counties in Ohio.
•   Are the equivalent of 6.75 full-time positions.
•   Offer services to any child care provider for FREE.
•   Provided 1729 consultations, 644 trainings, 3805 vision
    screenings and 1040 hearing screenings last year.
HCCO Training Topics

•   Reducing the Risk of SIDS in Child Care
•   Medication Administration for Out-of-Home Child Care
•   Asthma & Allergies
•   Keep It Clean (handwashing & diapering)
•   Child Care plus+
    (Inclusion of children with special needs)
HCCO Training

CCHCs will offer free statewide training on the ASQ and
ASQ:SE to childcare providers beginning in January 2008.

•   Ohio Child Care Resource and Referral Association
•   Access contact information by region at
•   1-877-547-6978
Questions and Answers

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