Docstoc

Enlightenment

Document Sample
Enlightenment Powered By Docstoc
					     Enlightenment is a NOUN

• Intellectual, moral, or spiritual
  improvement
• Awareness
• Understanding
      Essential questions
• What beliefs did Enlightenment thinkers
  (or Philosophes) share? What united
  them?

• How did the ideas of the Enlightenment
  spread?
           The Enlightenment:
                1650-1800
   Not as much of a movement, as a way of
   looking at the world among European
   intellectuals called philosophes of the
   1700s
An intellectual is a person who:
• uses his/her mind creatively
• places a high value on or pursues things of interest to the intellect
• relies on reason rather than on emotions.
         The Philosophes
•  Philosophes means philosophers in
   French. They were often not really
   philosophers, but rather were thinkers,
   social critics, and writers.
1. Use reason to examine everything
2. Human progress
3. Get rid of superstition, religious
   fanaticism, ignorance, and torture.
   Targets of Enlightenment
           Thinkers
• Organized Church—religious intolerance,
  censorship, torture
• Governments (state)—censorship, legal torture
• Monarchs--(many, but not all philosophes)
  attacked “Divine Right of Kings” and the
  absolute monarchies
• Slavery
• Beliefs based on superstition, not reason
• Ignorance--promoted spread of education
   Enlightenment spreads
• Centered in France and Great Britain, but
  spreads across Northern Europe and into
  North America
• How? Encyclopedias, books, pamphlets,
  novels (new form of communication),
  salons, personal contacts with ruling elites.
• Confined largely to middle and upper
   classes (educated, could read)
• Lower classes generally unaffected
Salons were informal gatherings, often set
 up by middle- or upper-class women,
 attended by Enlightenment thinkers where
 new ideas would be discussed
   Why France and Britain?
• France and Britain had a larger middle class and higher
  levels of prosperity and cultural development than other
  European countries.
•
• England was a constitutional monarchy, more freedom of
  speech
           Important EarLY
        Enlightenment Thinkers




Thomas Hobbes 1588-1679              John Locke 1632-1704
• pessimistic about humans           • optimistic about humans
• Influenced by execution of
                                     • Believed in natural rights
  Charles 1 in 1649
                                       from birth: life, liberty, and
• believed in a powerful monarchy,
  but not based on divine right;       property
  constitutional monarchygth         • Believed in constitutional
                                       government
    Important Enlightenment
           Thinkers




• Baron de Montesquieu---   • Cesare Beccaria—
  To combat despotism:        attacked torture and
  Separation of powers in     secret legal proceedings
  government: executive,    • Torture made no sense
  legislative, judicial
• Against slavery
    Important Enlightenment
           Thinkers




• Voltaire— propagandist    • Jean-Jacques Rousseau
• exposed religious and       — social contract, people
  government abuses and       are good, belief in
  intolerance                 “general will” of people
• freedom=being governed    • Direct democracy
  by rule of law, equally   • Man improved by
  applied                     returning to nature and
                              living a peaceful life.
             Voltaire Part Deux
                                 • Not a democrat, common
                                   people often superstitious
                                   and fanatical
                                 • Supported “Enlightened
                                   Despotism”

• Religious tolerance,           • Also critical of the naïve
  opposed to war and               optimism of some other
  conflict driven by religious     Enlightenment thinkers
  intolerance
                         18c Politics
► BRITAIN – Constitutional Monarchy, king ruled but with a
parliament
 FRANCE  Royal Absolutism, monarch ruled by divine right,
absolute power, “L’etat, ces’t moi” Louis XIV 1643-1715
► PRUSSIA, HABSBURG EMPIRE, RUSSIA  “Enlightened
Despotism” oxymoron! , monarchs made educational, commercial,
religious, and economic reforms to gain greater popular support for the
state. Many philosophes admired this combination: strong ruler +
reforms


► OTTOMAN EMPIRE – traditional
              Pair Share
• Do the forms of government that
  Enlightenment thinkers advocate remind
  you of anything in United States?
The Enlightenment and Women
• There were women Philosophes
• Women, particularly in France, played a
  key role in spreading the ideas of the
  Enlightenment through salons and
  publishing
• But generally the idea of equality applied
  only to men
• Rights of women were limited to home and
  family
      Women Critics of the
        Enlightenment
                        • Women were not equal in
                          the minds of male
                          philosophes
                        • 1792 published “A Vindication
                          of the Rights of Woman”
                          calling for equal education for
                          girls
                        • Women shouldn’t depend
                          on their husbands
                        • Women needed
                          education to participate
                          equally with men in
                          society
Mary Wollenstonecraft

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:12
posted:11/24/2011
language:English
pages:17