Exercise six by HC111124011737


									Review for Final Exam
Geog160 Physical Geography
Dr. Hengchun Ye
1.    Air pressure always decreases with height. b) true; b) false
2.    What is the name of the instrument that measures air pressure?
3.    What is an isobar?
4.    Compare two weather maps: one describes weather patterns at the 850mb level and the other is at the 500mb level; which map
      describes weather patterns that are closer to the earth’s surface?
5.    Colder air is likely to produce ______ (higher, lower) air pressure on the earth’s surface and warmer air is likely to produce _______
      (higher, lower) air pressure on the earth’s surface.
6.    What is the definition of pressure gradient force?
7.    What are the forces that produce geostrophic wind?
8.    How does geostrophic wind flow?
9.    In the Northern Hemisphere, the Coriolis effect deflects any movement toward the _______ (right, left) and toward the _________
      (right, left) in Southern Hemisphere.
10.   Around a surface low-pressure center, the air is ________ (convergent, divergent) in a _______ (clockwise, counterclockwise)
      direction in the Northern Hemisphere.
11.   A cyclone is a _____ (high, low) pressure system, and an anticyclone is a ______ (high, low) pressure system.
12.   The primary force that produces wind is a) Coriolis force; b) pressure gradient force; c) surface friction; d) all of them
13.   Wind speed is mostly determined by the magnitude of the a) Coriolis force; b) pressure gradient force; c) frictional force; d) all of the
14.   Wind direction is determined by a) Coriolis force; b) pressure gradient force; c) frictional force; d) all of the above.
15.   The Coriolis effect cannot change wind speed, but can change wind direction. (a) true; b) false
16.   A low-pressure system is associated with ________ (ascending, descending) air over the center, hence it is associated with
      __________ (cloudy/raining, clear sky) weather.
17.   In a weather map, if the isobars are very close to each other, the pressure gradient is _______ (large, small), so the pressure gradient
      force is ________ (large, small), so the wind speed is ________ (high, low).
18.   Coriolis force ________ (increases, decreases) with latitude, and also _________ (increases, decreases) with wind speed.
19.   The maximum Coriolis effect is found at: a) poles; b) the equator; c) middle latitudes; d) they are the same everywhere.
20.   The Coriolis force on any fast moving object over the equator should be zero. (a) true; b) false
21.   The two lines below represent sections of two isobars in the Northern Hemisphere. Please draw short, straight arrows showing the
      pressure gradient force, geostrophic wind, and surface wind direction (with moderate friction) for the location indicated by “Box A”.




22. Please draw and describe the surface air flow pattern around a low and a high pressure system over Northern Hemisphere.
23. What are the major forces that produce geostrophic wind? Where is geostrophic wind observed?
24. The diagram below shows a high and a low-pressure center next to each other in the Northern Hemisphere. Please draw, at both points
    A and B on the diagram: (a) the direction of the pressure gradient forces; (b) the geostrophic wind; (c) the surface winds with
    moderate friction.


                    H         A                  L

25. Based on the global circulation pattern discussed in the lecture, label the following systems on the globe provided below. (a) Inter-
    tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ); (b) subtropical high; (c) polar front; (d) westerly wind belt; (e) northeast trade wind



26. Where is the place that most deserts are located on the diagram above? Why?
27. If a high-pressure system is located due west of Los Angeles, CA, what is the surface wind direction in Los Angeles? If the high
    pressure system moves into the east side of the city later during the day, what is the wind direction?
28. What is the Hadley cell?
29. If the wind is blowing from the southeast towards the northwest during the day, what is the wind direction that is reported during the
    meteorology report on the evening news? (For that day)
30. A coastal city near a cold ocean surface water body is most frequently affected by: (a) a high pressure system; (b) a low pressure
31. What is a gyre?
32. Where upwelling occurs, the surface ocean water is colder than the surrounding water. (a) true; (b) false
33. What are upwelling and downwelling and where does each occur?
34. What is El Nino and where does it originate?
35. Affected by a northeasterly surface trade wind, ocean water flows ________ (a) from northeast to southwest; (b) from southwest to
    northeast; (c) from east to west; (d) water is affected by surface wind
36. What is Southern Oscillation?
37. Over a cold water body, an atmospheric surface pressure system is likely to be a _______ (cyclone,; anticyclone), and over a warm
    water body, a ______ (cyclone; anticyclone) is more likely to form.
38. The largest water reservoir is ______ (oceans, ice and glaciers, underground water).
39. The largest water resource ready for human consumption is from ___________ (oceans, ice and glaciers, underground water, streams
    and lakes, water in the atmosphere).
40. The phase change from water vapor to water or vapor to ice _______ (releases, absorbs) latent heat.
41. The major water source for precipitation over land is from ______.
42. When ice is melting and water evaporates, latent heat is _______ (released, absorbed).
43. Which of the following does NOT apply to saturated air? (a) The relative humidity of the air is 100%; (b) the dew point temperature
    equals the air temperature; (c) the air is holding the maximum amount of water vapor; (d) moisture will continue to increase in the
    atmosphere if more water is available.
44. What is relative humidity?
45. What will happen to relative humidity when each of the following changes occur? (a) the amount of water vapor in the air increases;
    (b) the amount of water vapor in the air decreases; (c) the air temperature increases; (d) the air temperature decreases
46. Does relative humidity have diurnal (daily) change if the amount of moisture in the air does not change during a day? If it does, when
    is relative humidity the lowest and when it is the highest?
47. When air is warmer, the moisture holding capacity of the air is _______ (higher, lower, is not related to air temperature).
48. The dew point temperature is the temperature: (a) when the air is saturated; (b) when the relative humidity is 100%; (c) when dew
    starts to form; (d) that cannot be higher than the air temperature; (e) all of the above are correct.
49. Warm saturated air has a higher relative humidity than cold saturated air. (a) true; (b) false

Clouds can be identified, in part, on the basis of height and the amount of vertical development. Answer the questions 50-57 by selecting
the letter of the correct grouping of clouds from the list below.
a) stratus, altostratus, cirrostratus;
b) cirrostratus, cirrocumulus, cirrus;
c) altostratus, altocumulus;
d) cumulonimbus, nimbostratus;
e) stratus, stratocumulus, nimbostratus
f) cumulonimbus, cumulus
g) cumulus, altocumulus, cirrocumulus

50. Clouds that are actively producing rain.
51. Middle clouds without much vertical development.
52. High clouds without much vertical development.
53. Layered clouds at different altitudes.
54. Low clouds without much vertical development.
55. Clouds with appreciable vertical development.
56. Puffy, globally shaped clouds at different heights.
57. Ice crystal clouds.
58. Based on Koppen’s classification system, what are the A, B, C, D, and E climate regimes?
59. What is the major difference between mesothermal (C) and microthermal (D) climate?
60. What are the three types of A climate?
61. What are the two types of B climate?
62. What are the three types of C climate?
63. What are the two types of D climate?
64. Which climate zone is Los Angeles likely in?
65. How does advection fog form?
66. How does radiation fog is form? What are the important conditions for radiation fog to form?
67. The fog occurs in LA during summer season is the _____fog. (radiation; advection).
68. What is the name of instrument that measures humidity in the air?
69. List all severe weather discussed in the class.
70. What causes lightning?
71. Which type of cloud is associated with severe weather?
72. Which state has the largest amount of thunderstorm days?
73. What are the 4 states that consists a tornado alley?
73. Hurricane normally affect ___ coast of a continent (west, east).
74. What are the two major characteristics of a hurricane?
75. In tropical region, hurricane moves from _____ affected by Northeast trade wind (east to west, west to east).
76. Which of the following is not associated with physical weathering? (a) temperature change; (b) pressure change; (c) acidity change in
77. Which type of physical weathering is most common in a cold place? (a) frost action; (b) crystallization; (c) pressure release jointing
78. The weathering process related to_____ is most common in dry places. (a) frost action; (b) crystallization; (c) unloading
79. The breakdown of rocks by hydrolysis and oxidation is a _____ weathering process. (a) physical; (b) chemical; (c) biological
80. Lists all the physical weathering processes.
81. Carbon acid action (carbonation) is most destructive to ______. (a) limestone and marble; (b) sandstone; (c) igneous rocks
82. What is the most important ingredient for chemical weathering? What kind of climate is favorable for chemical weathering processes
     to occur?
83. The slowest process of mass wasting is (a) soil creep; (b) earthflow; (c) mudflow; (d) landslide; (e) rockfall
84. The mass wasting associated with high water content is (are): (a) soil creep; (b) earthflow; (c) mudflow; (d) landslide; (e) both b and
85. The most dramatic and least frequent mass wasting is: (a) soil creep; (b) earthflow; (c) mudflow; (d) rockfall (e) landslide
86. What is a drainage basin?
87. What is an oxbow lake? Oxbow lake are created by ____ (fluvial processes; glaciers; ocean waves; wind)
88. Water moves at the same speed anywhere along a river. (a) true; (b) false
89. What are the types of load transported by a stream?
90. What are the features or landform created by the carbonation of limestone?
91. What are the features of fluvial depositional landforms?
92. What is a regolith?
93. Exfoliation in granite observed in Yosemite National Park, CA is result of ____.
94. The cliff dwelling site in Canyon de Chelly, Arizona that created a niche in the rock was partially formed by which physical
     weathering process?
95. What are the two types of stream erosion?
96. In a meandering stream, the greatest erosion occurs on the ____ (outer, inner) portion of the curve where water speed is higher, and
     sediments fill in the ____ portion of the curve called a point bar.
97. List four major erosion agencies for the earth.
98. Ocean waves are directly caused by (a) the rotation of the earth; (b) atmospheric wind; (c) the interaction between water and beaches
99. Wave action tends to straighten coastlines with headlands and bays over time. (a) true; (b) false
100. The beach area is _____ in the summer when waves are relatively _____. (a) larger, gentle; (b) larger, rough; (c) smaller, gentle; (d)
     smaller, rough
101. Erosion by wave action is concentrated on ____ (headlands, bays), while deposition occurs in _____ (headlands, bays)
102. As a result of littoral drift and longshore current, sediments are transported ______ with the shoreline and sandpit forms down the
     shore. (a) parallel; (b) perpendicular; (c) randomly
103. Sea arches and stacks are permanent landforms of the shore. (a) true; (b) false
104. Cliffs, sea arches, and stacks are the _____ landforms of wave action. (a) erosional (b) depositional
105. Coral reefs are mostly found at (a) the Antarctic coast; (b) middle-latitude coasts; (c) coasts of warm, tropical islands.
106. List all the depositional landforms from the ocean waves
107. What are tides and what causes the tides?
108. Under what conditions do we have spring tides and neap tides? Which one is a high tide?
109. What are the three zones of ocean water?
110. What are the 5 components that affect the coastal system?
111. What is the average salinity of sea water?
112. Where can we find the lowest salinity water and the highest salinity water? (equatorial, subtropical)
113. What is the wave of transition? Do water molecules move with wave energy?
114. List all the erosional coastal features.
115. Which of the following is correct about coral reefs? (a) they are biologically derived sedimentary rocks (b) they develop around
     tropical volcanic islands (c) they are sensitive to climate change (d) They like warm tropical water (e) all of the above are true
116. ______ moraines are generally associated with mountain glaciers only. (a) terminal; (b) ground; (c) lateral; (d) medial; (e) c and d;
     (f) a and b
117. U-shaped valleys are associated with ____ erosion, and v-shaped valleys are associated with ______ erosion. (a) stream; (b) glaciers;
     (c) ocean wave; (d) strong wind
118. Waterfalls form in hanging valleys; a degraded landform is caused by:             (a) continental glaciers; (b) cirques; (c) valley glaciers
119. ____ moraines mark the farthest extension of a glacier; (a) recessional; (b) terminal; (c) ground
120. The poorly sorted sediments that consist of a mixture of all sizes of material are most likely deposited by (a) running water; (b)
     glaciers; (c) ocean waves
121. It the equilibrium line moves down to lower elevation in a valley glacier, the glacier is _____ (expanding; retreating) due to increases
     in the accumulation zone and decreases in the ablation zone.
122. Negative net balance associated with glaciers makes them _______. (a) grow bigger; (b) retreat.
123. Fjords are produced by _____ along the coasts; (a) continental glaciers; (b) cirques; (c) valley glaciers
124. Tarns are related to (a) continental glaciers; (b) cirques; (c) valley glaciers
125. There are two types of glacial movement, glacial creep and glacial sliding. Which one is the internal deformation of ice with crystals
     slipping over one another?
126. Which of the following glaciers is a continental glacier? A) cirque; b) valley glacier; c) piedmont glacier; d) ice sheet.
127. Which of the following is not related to continental glaciers? (a) drumlins; (b) eskers; (c) kettles; (d) fjords
128. A _______ is generally found in the outwash plain of a retreating glacier. (a) esker; (b) drumlin; (c) kettle; (d) kame
129. Comparing tills with stratified drifts, which material is deposited during the ablation stage of a glacier?
130. List the depositional landform of alpine glaciers.
131. What is the zone of ablation?
132. What are the two types of glacier erosion? Which one produces a smooth surface on bad rocks?
133. List all the features of the erosional landform of an alpine glacier.
Keys Geog160
Dr. Hengchun Ye
    1. a; 2. barometer; 3. a line connecting places with equal pressure; 4. 850mb is closer to the surface; 5. cold
       air-higher surface pressure, warm air-lower surface pressure. 6. pressure gradient force points from high to
       low pressure and perpendicular to isobars 7. pressure gradient force and Coriolis force 8. geostrophic wind
       flows parallel to isobars at constant speed 9. right in NH, left in SH. 10. around low pressure, air is
       convergent in counterclockwise direction in NH. 11. low pressure-cyclone, high pressure-anticyclone 12.
       (b) 13. (b) 14. (d) 15. (a) true 16. low pressure-ascending, cloudy/raining weather. 17. large, large, high. 18.
       increases and increases 19. (a) 20. (a) true. 21. pressure gradient force points to north, geostrophic wind is
       westerly, surface wind is southwesterly. 22. Around a surface low pressure center, air flows counter-
       clockwise and convergent. Around a surface high pressure center, air flows clockwise and divergent. 23.
       Pressure gradient force and Coriolis force produces geostrophic wind and it is observed in the upper
       atmosphere. 24. At A: pressure gradient force points to east, geostrophic wind is northerly, surface wind is
       northwesterly. At B: pressure gradient force points to southwest, geostrophic wind is southeasterly, surface
       wind is easterly or northeasterly. 25.(a) at equator; (b) at 30 degree latitude; (c) at 60 laitude (d) at between
       30 and 60 degree latitude (e) at between equator and 30 degree latitude. 26.at 30 degree latitude due to
       subtropical high; 27. NW when high is on the west, SE if high is on the east; 28. Hadley cell rises at equator
       and subsides at 30 latitude; 29. SE; 30. (a); 31. a gyre is a large circular ocean current system. 31.(a); 32.
       upwelling is the cold and nutritious water rising to replace the surface water that was swept away by the
       wind, common found over west coast of tropical land area. Downwelling is the water descends into depth
       due to accumulation of water surface water, common over the east coast of a tropical land area. oceans 34.
       El Nino is the abnormally warm water occurring over the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. It usually
       originates over the west coast of Peru; 35. (c); 36. Southern Oscillation is the reversal of surface pressure
       over the eastern and western tropical Pacific.37. anticyclone, cyclone; 38.Ocean; 39. underground water 40.
       release 41. ocean 42. absorbed 43. (d) is not true 44. percentage of water vapor in the air to the maximum
       holding capacity at the given temperature 45. (a) relative humidity increase (b) decreases (c) decreases (d)
       increases 46. Yes. Relative humidity is lowest in the afternoon when air temperature is highest, RH is
       highest in the morning when air temperature is lowest .47. higher; 48. (e); 49. (b) false; 50. (d); 51. (c);
       52.(b); 53.(a); 54. (e); 55. (f); 56. (g); 57. (b); 58. A is tropical rainy, B is dry, C is mild and humid, D is
       snowy forest, E is polar climates. 59. The mean monthly temperature in the coldest month. If it is below –
       3C, it is D climate, otherwise C climate. 60. Af tropical rain forest; Am tropical monsoon climate; Aw;
       tropical savanna, wet in summer dry in winter 61.Bs steppe climate, BW desert climate; 62. Cf mild humid
       climate with no dry season; Cw mild humid climate with a dry winter Cs mild humid climate with a dry
       summer; 63. Df snowy forest climate with a moist winter; Dw snowy forest climate with a dry winter; 64.
       Cs mild humid climate with a dry summer. 64. Mediterranean Cs; 65. warm moist air moves over a cold
       surface produce advection fog; 66. cooling of earth’s surface by radiation heat loss produces radiation fog,
       clear sky and calm night; 67. advection fog; 68. hydrometers; 69. thunderstorm, hail, tornado; hurricane; 70.
       release of electricity charge between two objects of opposition electricity; 71. cumulonimbus; 72. Florida;
       73. Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska; 74. eye and eyewall; 75. east to west.
        76.(c); 77.(a); 78.(b); 79.(b); 80. frost action, crystallization, hydration, and pressure-release jointing; 81. (a); 82.water, warm and
        wet climate; 83.(a); 84.(e); 85.(d); 86. a spatial geomorphic unit occupied by a river system; 87. a former meander that was cut off
        from the rest of the river, fluvial; 88. (b); 89. suspended load, solution load, bed load; 90. sink holes, caves and caverns 91. flood
        plains, stream terraces, river delta, natural levees; 92. partially weathered rock overlaying bedrock; 93. pressure-release joint; 94.
        crystallization; 95. hydroaction and abrasion; 96. outer, inner; 97. flowing water, wind, glacier, and ocean waves; 98. (b); 99.(a);
        100.(a); 101. headlands, bay; 102. (a); 103.(b); 104. (a); 105. (c); 106. barrier spit, bay barrier, lagoon, tombolo, beaches, barrier
        islands; 107. complex daily oscillations in sea level caused by the gravity pulls of the moon and the sun; 108. high tide is spring
        tide, when earth, moon, and sun line up in one line, there is the largest gravity pull and is related to high tides. It occurs during full
        or new moon; when the gravity pull of the sun is perpendicular to that of the moon, it has neap tides; 109. mixing zone,
        thermocline transition zone, an deep cold zone; 110. solar energy, atmospheric wind, climatic regimes, the nature of coastal rock,
        human activities; 111. 35 parts per thousand; 112. equator has lower salinity; subtropical ocean has high salinity; 113. a simple
        cyclic undulations of water that transfer energy for molecules to molecules. Water molecules do not move with wave; 114. sea
        cliffs, sea stacks, sea caves, sea arches, wave-cut platform (or terrace); 115. (e); 116. (e); 117. (b), (a); 118. (c); 119.(b); 120. (b);
121. expanding; 122. retreats; 123. (c); 124. (b); 125. glacial creep; 126. (d); 127 (d); 128 (c); 129. stratified drifts; 130. lateral
moraine, medial moraine, terminal moraine; ground moraine; 131.a region of waste ice and snow via melting, wind, calving of ice
blocks, and sublimation; 132. plucking and abrasion, abrasion; 133. hanging valleys and water falls, horns, U-shaped valleys,
cirques and tarns;

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