Understanding Global Cultures

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					  Understanding
  Global Cultures

  A “Four-Stage Model” of
Cross-Cultural Understanding
A Four-Stage Model of Cross-
Cultural Understanding

I.    four-cell typology of process / goal
      orientation

II.   more specificity

III. inclusion of other “etic” or culture-
     general dimensions along which
     specific cultures have been shown to
     vary

IV.   cultural metaphors are employed for
      understanding a culture
A Four-Stage Model of Cross-
Cultural Understanding

I.   four-cell typology of process / goal
     orientation
“Four-Stage Model”

one variable of the is the degree to which
process such as effective communication
and getting to know one another in depth
should precede discussion of specific goals
“Four-Stage Model”

another variable is the degree to which a
culture fosters and encourages open
emotional expression
Fig. 1.1. Process, Goals, and Expression of Emotions
                            (p. 14)



                Open Expression of Emotions and Feelings
                            Lower             Higher

Degree to
Which          Lower
                        England,       United States and
Process Must
                        Ireland, and   Germany
Be
Emphasized              Scotland
               Higher
Before Goals            China,         Mexico, Spain, and
Can Be                  Japan, and     Italy
discussed               India
Cultural Metaphors

four generic types of cultures

  horizontal collectivism
      community sharing

  vertical collectivism
      hierarchical (authority) ranking

  horizontal individualism
      equality matching

  vertical individualism
      market pricing
Fig. 1.2. Four Generic Types of Cultures (p. 15)



                          INDIVIDUALISM   COLLECTIVISM

                            Equality       Community
              Low
                            Matching        Sharing
           (horizontal)
                            (interval)       (nominal)
POWER
DISTANCE
                             Market         Authority
              High
            (vertical)       Pricing        Ranking
                              (ratio)        (ordinal)
Fig. 1.2. Four Generic Types of Cultures (p. 15)



                          INDIVIDUALISM   COLLECTIVISM

                            Equality       Community
              Low
                            Matching        Sharing
           (horizontal)
                            (interval)       (nominal)
POWER
DISTANCE
                             Market         Authority
              High
            (vertical)       Pricing        Ranking
                              (ratio)        (ordinal)
Four Generic Types of Cultures


1. Horizontal Collectivism /
   Community Sharing

    reflects community sharing in which
    members of the in-group share all of
    their goods

     • as in a small village

     • even to the extent that there is no such
       phenomenon as theft
Four Generic Types of Cultures


1. Horizontal Collectivism /
   Community Sharing

    not much differentiation between
    individuals

    ethics are based on group membership
     • in-group or out-group
     • members of out-groups are viewed as
       nonpersons
Fig. 1.2. Four Generic Types of Cultures (p. 15)



                          INDIVIDUALISM   COLLECTIVISM

                            Equality       Community
              Low
                            Matching        Sharing
           (horizontal)
                            (interval)       (nominal)
POWER
DISTANCE
                             Market         Authority
              High
            (vertical)       Pricing        Ranking
                              (ratio)        (ordinal)
Four Generic Types of Cultures


2. Vertical Collectivism / Authority
   Ranking Cultures

    Ch.   02   The Thai Kingdom
    Ch.   03   The Japanese Garden
    Ch.   04   India: The Dance of Shiva
    Ch.   05   Bedouin Jewelry and Saudi Arabia
    Ch.   06   The Turkish Coffeehouse
    Ch.   07   The Brazilian Samba
    Ch.   08   The Polish Village Church
    Ch.   09   Kimchi and Korea
Four Generic Types of Cultures


2. Vertical Collectivism / Authority
   Ranking Cultures

    authority ranking

    found in large parts of Asia, Africa, and
    Latin America

    involves a psychological relationship
    between the leader or leaders and all
    others in the culture
Four Generic Types of Cultures


2. Vertical Collectivism / Authority
   Ranking Cultures

    frequently, such a culture is
    symbolized not by the handshake,
    which reflects equality, but by
    different forms of bowing
Four Generic Types of Cultures


2. Vertical Collectivism / Authority
   Ranking Cultures

    there is a dynamic, two-way
    relationship between subordinates and
    leaders in authority ranking cultures
      • although the leaders receive more
        rewards, they are responsible for
        safeguarding the livelihoods of
        subordinates
Fig. 1.2. Four Generic Types of Cultures (p. 15)



                          INDIVIDUALISM   COLLECTIVISM

                            Equality       Community
              Low
                            Matching        Sharing
           (horizontal)
                            (interval)       (nominal)
POWER
DISTANCE
                             Market         Authority
              High
            (vertical)       Pricing        Ranking
                              (ratio)        (ordinal)
Four Generic Types of Cultures


3. Horizontal Individualism /
   Equality Matching Cultures

    Ch. 10 The German Symphony
    Ch. 11 The Swedish Stuga
    Ch. 12 Irish Conversations
Four Generic Types of Cultures


3. Horizontal Individualism /
   Equality Matching Cultures

    equality matching

    dominant in Scandinavian nations
     • Sweden
     • Norway

    all individuals are considered equal,
    even when some are taxed heavily
Four Generic Types of Cultures


3. Horizontal Individualism /
   Equality Matching Cultures

    it is expected that those who cannot
    make individual contributions to the
    common good will do so at a later time
    if possible
Fig. 1.2. Four Generic Types of Cultures (p. 15)



                          INDIVIDUALISM   COLLECTIVISM

                            Equality       Community
              Low
                            Matching        Sharing
           (horizontal)
                            (interval)       (nominal)
POWER
DISTANCE
                             Market         Authority
              High
            (vertical)       Pricing        Ranking
                              (ratio)        (ordinal)
Four Generic Types of Cultures


4. Vertical Individualism / Market
   Pricing Cultures

     Ch. 13 American Football
     Ch. 14 The Traditional British House
Four Generic Types of Cultures


4. Vertical Individualism / Market
   Pricing Cultures

    market pricing

    found in the United States and other
    market-dominated nations
Four Generic Types of Cultures


4. Vertical Individualism / Market
   Pricing Cultures

    although individualism is emphasized,
    so, too, is the free market

     • inequality resulting from the operation of
       the free market is deemed acceptable
Four Generic Types of Cultures


4. Vertical Individualism / Market
   Pricing Cultures

    there is equality of opportunity and a
    level playing field

     • but not equality of outcomes
Four Generic Types of Cultures


4. Vertical Individualism / Market
   Pricing Cultures

      ethics revolves around the operation
      of a free market
Cultural Metaphors

four generic types of cultures, plus

  “Cleft National Cultures”
   • one in which the subcultures of the diverse
     ethnic groups are difficult to integrate . . .


  “Torn National Cultures”
   • one, such as Russia, that has been torn
     from its roots at least once
Cultural Metaphors

 “Cleft National Cultures”
  Ch. 15 The Malaysian Balik Kampung
  Ch. 16 The Nigerian Marketplace
  Ch. 17 The Israeli Kibbutzim and
         Moshavim
  Ch. 18 The Italian Opera
  Ch. 19 Belgian Lace
Cultural Metaphors

 “Torn National Cultures”
  Ch. 20 The Mexican Fiesta
  Ch. 21 The Russian Ballet
Cultural Metaphors

     “Same Metaphor,
    Different Meanings”
  Ch. 22 The Spanish Bullfight
  Ch. 23 The Portuguese Bullfight
Cultural Metaphors

“Beyond National Boarders”
  • Ch. 24 The Chinese Family Altar
                 Scaling
  1. nominal
  2. ordinal
  3. interval
  4. ratio
After H. Russell Bernard, Research Methods in Anthropology, 1994
Fig. 1.2. Four Generic Types of Cultures (p. 15)



                          INDIVIDUALISM   COLLECTIVISM

                            Equality       Community
              Low
                            Matching        Sharing
           (horizontal)
                            (interval)       (nominal)
POWER
DISTANCE
                             Market         Authority
              High
            (vertical)       Pricing        Ranking
                              (ratio)        (ordinal)
Scaling


1. Horizontal Collectivism /
   Community Sharing

      nominal scaling

      only names are given to entities

          • in-group vs. out-group
Scaling


  nominal scaling

     naming something
Scaling



   nominal scaling

      a nominal variable is an item on
      a list of things

          • the variables are mutually exclusive

          • but they do not exhaust the
            possibilities
Scaling



    religion
             Hindu
             Moslem
             Buddhist
             Christian
             Druid
             “Other”
Fig. 1.2. Four Generic Types of Cultures (p. 15)



                          INDIVIDUALISM   COLLECTIVISM

                            Equality       Community
              Low
                            Matching        Sharing
           (horizontal)
                            (interval)       (nominal)
POWER
DISTANCE
                             Market         Authority
              High
            (vertical)       Pricing        Ranking
                              (ratio)        (ordinal)
Scaling


2. Vertical Collectivism /
   Authority Ranking Cultures

      ordinal scaling

      individual A may be more important
      than individual B, and individual C may
      be more important than individual B,
      but there is no common unit of
      measurement
Scaling


  ordinal scaling

     putting things in order
Scaling



   ordinal scaling

      ordinal variables are exhaustive
      and mutually exclusive

      and their values can be rank
      ordered
Scaling



   ordinal scaling

          • high
          • medium
          • low
Scaling



    socioeconomic class (SES)

          • upper class

          • middle class

          • lower class
Scaling


   types of political organization
          • “peasant society”
          • “primitive state”
          • “chiefdom”
          • “tribe”
          • “band”
Scaling



   ordinal scaling

      in general, concepts are
      measured at the ordinal level
Scaling



    level of acculturation

          • very acculturated

          • somewhat acculturated

          • unacculturated
Scaling



   ordinal scaling
      what ordinal variables do not tell us is
      how much more
      the most important characteristic of
      ordinal measure is that there is no way
      to tell how far apart the attributes are
      from one another
Fig. 1.2. Four Generic Types of Cultures (p. 15)



                          INDIVIDUALISM   COLLECTIVISM

                            Equality       Community
              Low
                            Matching        Sharing
           (horizontal)
                            (interval)       (nominal)
POWER
DISTANCE
                             Market         Authority
              High
            (vertical)       Pricing        Ranking
                              (ratio)        (ordinal)
Scaling


3. Horizontal Individualism /
   Equality Matching Cultures
      interval scale

      culture does have a common unit of
      measurement, but it does not make
      value judgments about individual
      worth
          • there are too many dimensions along
            which individuals can be measures
Scaling


  interval scaling

     putting items at fixed intervals
Scaling



   interval scaling

      interval variables are exhaustive
      and mutually exclusive

      and their values can be rank
      ordered
Scaling



   interval scaling

      and the distances between the
      attributes are meaningful
Scaling



   interval scaling

          •30° Fahrenheit
          •40° Fahrenheit

          •70° Fahrenheit
          •80° Fahrenheit
Scaling



   interval scaling

          • 40° F - 30° F = 10° F

          • 80° F - 70° F = 10° F
Scaling



   interval scaling

          • but there is no “zero
            point”

          • i.e., 80° Fahrenheit is not
            twice as warm as 40°
            Fahrenheit
Scaling


  interval scaling

     concrete, observable things are
     often measured at the interval
     level

      • but not always
Fig. 1.2. Four Generic Types of Cultures (p. 15)



                          INDIVIDUALISM   COLLECTIVISM

                            Equality       Community
              Low
                            Matching        Sharing
           (horizontal)
                            (interval)       (nominal)
POWER
DISTANCE
                             Market         Authority
              High
            (vertical)       Pricing        Ranking
                              (ratio)        (ordinal)
Scaling


4. Vertical Individualism /
   Market Pricing Cultures
      scale is ratio

      there is a common unit of
      measurement
      and a true zero point
          • allows members of the culture to transform
            every other dimension and compare them
            monetarily
Scaling



   ratio scaling

      interval variables that have a
      zero point

      there are few interval variables
      that are not also ratio variables
Scaling



   ratio scaling

      a 40-year-old is 10 years older
      than a 30-year-old

      a 40-year-old is twice as old as a
      20-year-old
Scaling



   ratio scaling

      it is common practice in the
      social sciences to refer to ratio
      variables as interval variables
Scaling



   ratio scaling
          •   years of education
          •   income in dollars, Euros . . .
          •   years spent migrating
          •   population size
          •   # doctors / 100,000
          •   # violent crimes / 100,000
Fig. 1.2. Four Generic Types of Cultures (p. 15)



                          INDIVIDUALISM   COLLECTIVISM

                            Equality       Community
              Low
                            Matching        Sharing
           (horizontal)
                            (interval)       (nominal)
POWER
DISTANCE
                             Market         Authority
              High
            (vertical)       Pricing        Ranking
                              (ratio)        (ordinal)
A Four-Stage Model of Cross-
Cultural Understanding

I.    four-cell typology of process / goal
      orientation

II.   more specificity

III. inclusion of other “etic” or culture-
     general dimensions along which
     specific cultures have been shown to
     vary

IV.   cultural metaphors are employed for
      understanding a culture
         Emics / Etics

emics
    from “phonemics”
    viewing a culture from the
     inside

etics
    from “phonetics”
    viewing a culture from the
     outside
other “etic” or culture-general dimensions


    achievement motivation
    uncertainty avoidance
    time horizon
    femininity or assertiveness
    tightness or looseness of rules
    collectivistic / individualistic
    etc.
   Culture Counts
and it counts quit a bit
but when does culture
        matter?
When Culture Does, and Does Not Matter


    frequently occupational
    similarities neutralize culture

     • e.g., two doctors working on a
       problem
When Culture Does, and Does Not Matter


    similarity of class can diminish
    the importance of culture

     • e.g., middle class use of positive
       reinforcement in raising children
When Culture Does, and Does Not Matter


    sometimes powerful groups will
    exclude others from
    opportunities and then
    stereotype them negatively, thus
    consigning them to permanent
    inferior status

     • e.g., English / Irish in Ireland
     • e.g., Apartheid in South Africa
     • e.g., Rom (Gypsies) in many countries
When Culture Does, and Does Not Matter



    sometimes the nature of the
    problem minimizes the
    importance of cultural
    differences

     • e.g., companies from two countries
       working on problem supported by
       top managements
When Culture Does, and Does Not Matter



    when trust is present, culture
    decreases in importance
When Culture Does, and Does Not Matter



    culture is particularly important
    in cross-cultural negotiations
When Culture Does, and Does Not Matter



    culture is also important when
    individuals move to another
    nation or culture for an extended
    period of time
When Culture Does, and Does Not Matter



    to what extent do technological
    changes such as the Internet
    influence culture?
     • internet crime
     • more differentiation than
       integration
     • any indirect form of communication,
       such as e-mail, presents special
       difficulties and opportunities
Cultural Metaphors

   “Metaphors are not
      stereotypes.”


         Why?

				
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