How to Outline:
The most important principle for an outline's form is consistency. An outline can use TOPIC or SENTENCE structure, but be consistent in form all the way through. You should begin with the main topic or idea of the essay and then proceed to show the development of its main points using one of the following: A TOPIC outline uses words or phrases for all points; uses no punctuation after entries . For this class I encourage a sentence outline—practice makes perfect. A SENTENCE outline uses complete sentences for all entries; uses correct punctuation ▪ Advantages — presents a more detailed overview of work including possible topic sentences; is easier and faster for writing the final paper. Alternating patterns of upper and lower case letters with alternating progressions of Roman and Arabic numerals mark the level of subordination within the alpha-numeric form of the outline. Progressive patterns of decimals mark the levels of subordination in decimal form of outlining. The decimal form has become the standard form in scientific and technical writing. For example, The alpha-numeric form the decimal form I. 1.0 A. 1.1 B. 1.2 1. 1.2.1 2. 1.2.2 a.
A summary reviews the most important points of the text. It should be brief (short). Furthermore, the summary should be written as much as possible in your own words. It contains only the main ideas and does not include much explanation or examples. How to write a summary 1. Before you begin your summary, check that you have identified the main points of the text. 2. Underline/highlight and/or take notes on the text. 3. Write a sentence which includes the author’s main idea or purpose for writing the text. To do this, identify the topic (subject of the text) and then what the author says about the topic. This sentence is the topic sentence (main sentence) of your summary. 4. Try to use your own words. If you must use the words of the author, use quotation
marks and give the page number. 5. Next, give the major supporting information which the author gives to explain the main idea. 6. Finally, give YOUR evaluation of the text. Did the author convince you to accept his/her main claims? Was the text effectively written? For each question: If yes, give at least two reasons why.
If no, give at least two reasons why.
Example of Summary
Yoder, J. D., Hogue, M. Newman, R., Metz, L. & LaVigne, T. (2003). Exploring moderators of gender differences: Contextual differences in door-holding behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32, 1682-1686. The social roles theory suggests that social contexts have different gender role expectations and those gender role expectations can maximize or minimize gender differences. For instance, there are three competing hypotheses as to why and in what situations certain people hold doors for others. The gender neutral stance hypothesizes an equal amount of door holding would consistently be done by both sexes for both sexes. Chivalry is associated with male roles and is another hypothesis that predicts that men hold doors open for women as an act of helpfulness. Yet another stance looks at male dominance and how it is expressed in door holding behavior. This stance adds to the social role theory hypothesizing that door holding behaviors will be different depending on the emphasis on gender roles in the social context. The research done by Yoder, Hogue, Newman, Metz and LaVigne (2003) looks at door holding behavior in a dating situation as opposed to everyday life situations, predicting that males will hold open doors more often during a dating situation than in an everyday life situation. Seven hundred and sixty-nine mixed-gender, college-age, male-female pairs were unobtrusively observed in 16 different locations. The locations selected were places where either dating or non-dating couples were most likely to be found. These locations included shopping malls, universities and fast-good restaurants, for non-dating couples, and sit down restaurants and skate rinks, for dating couples. The amount of door holding for the other, either male of female, was measured. In an everyday context 55.2% more women, in the couples observed, held the door open for men than men did for women. In a dating context the reverse was found, 66.8% more men, in the couples observed, held the door open for women than women held the door open for men. This study contradicts studies done about 20 years ago, which suggests that door holding practices and gender roles have changed somewhat over the years in everyday life scenarios but remain similar in dating scenarios. Applying these results to the social role theory also suggests that door holding behavior may be different in dating versus everyday life scenarios because gender roles are more prominent in dating scenarios. This makes sense to me as I try to impress my dates, but may not follow that behavior at other times. But I wonder if age is a factor in this behavior as well.