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									                    State of Israel
                 Ministry of Education
                 English Inspectorate



Integrating Higher-Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)
        with the Teaching of Literature




            The Teachers’ Handbook
                Updated Version
                     April, 2011
                                         Table of Contents

Introduction                                                                   2

Announcements in the Director-General Bulletin:                               3-5
December 2010, September 2009, September 2008

Changes in Literature Program – October 2010 (Hebrew)                          6
Changes in Literature Program – October 2010 (English)                        7-9

Key Components of Teaching Literature                                        10-12
Suggestions for Implementing the Key Components                              13-16

Literary Terms for Students Taking Module F                                  17-21
Literary Terms for Students Taking Module D                                  22-24

Thinking Skills for Teaching Literature in EFL                               25-29
Options for How to Integrate HOTS with Teaching Literature (Methodologies)    30
Ideas about How to Explicitly Teach the HOTS                                  31


Unit Planner                                                                 32-33

Key Components Checklist for the Log and the Exam                             34

The Log
       Description                                                            35
       Criteria for Approving Literary Texts                                  36
       Approval for Literary Texts for the Log                                37
       School Report for Literature Module                                    38
       Calculation of the Grade of a Unit for the Log                         39
       Checklist for the Evaluation of a Unit                                 40
       Calculation of the Final Grade for the Log – Module F                  41
       Calculation of the Final Grade for the Log – Module D                  42
       Reporting the Grades to the Ministry of Education                      43
                                  Table of Contents (continued)

The Literature Bagrut Examination
       Description                                                                                  44
       National Literature Program Module F                                                       45-46
       National Literature Program Module D                                                       47-48
       Table of Specifications Module F                                                           49-50
       Table of Specifications Module D                                                           51-52
       Rubrics for Marking Literature Module F                                                    53-55
       Rubrics for Marking Literature Module D                                                    56-58
       Calculation of the Grade of a Unit for the Exam                                              59
       Calculation of the Final Grade of the Literature Program for the Bagrut Exam F               59
       Calculation of the Final Grade of the Literature Program for the Bagrut Exam D               60

Calculation of the School Grade for All the Modules                                               61- 62

Suggested Rubric for Post-Reading Activity – Module F                                               63
Suggested Rubric for Post-Reading Activity – Module D                                               64

Teaching the Literature Program to Four-Point Students                                             65-66
Teaching the Literature Program to Mixed Four- and Five - Point Classes                           67-68
Information about Students with Learning Disabilities and the Literature Program                    69

Backward Design for Teaching the Literature Program - Module F                                      70
Backward Design for Teaching the Literature Program - Module D                                      71

High School English Studies Planner                                                                 72
Example of High School English Studies Planner - Five-Point Students                                73
Example of High School English Studies Planner - Four-Point Students                                74




Please note: There is a new site aimed at supporting teachers with the teaching of the literature program.
The site is called Thinking through Literature and Culture (TLC) and can be accessed at: tlc.cet.ac.il
March, 2010
                      Integrating Higher -Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)
                               with the Teaching of Literature
Introduction
The English Inspectorate, in conjunction with the Department for Pedagogical Affairs and the High
School Division of the Ministry of Education, is pleased to announce The Literature Module Program for
teaching and assessing literature in English in high schools. The program is based on innovative Ministry
of Education policy to teach and assess higher-order thinking skills (HOTS) via either a Bagrut
examination or school-based assessment (the Log). The program is also a response to teacher feedback
concerning the assessment in the current Bagrut program.

A pilot program was carried out from January 2008 to January 2009. The results of the pilot program are
very encouraging. According to reports by many teachers and students, as a result of integrating HOTS
with the learning of literature, students were actively involved in the learning process, their writing
improved, and their reading comprehension improved (not only of literary texts, but also of reading
unseen passages). Moreover, students applied the HOTS they learned to other areas of learning as well as
to aspects of their own lives.

The purpose of this handbook is to introduce the different facets of the literature program. Detailed
guidance for implementation of the program is given in the in-service courses being offered by the English
Inspectorate.

I would like to take this opportunity to express my thanks to all the teachers who participated in the pilot
program. Their job was not an easy one! But as a result of their efforts, these teachers have contributed
significantly to the advancement of English teaching in Israel. I also want to thank the teachers who sent
their recommendations for the literary texts for the literature module Bagrut exam and also to those
teachers who have begun implementing the literature program in their classes, asked questions and given
feedback, enabling us to tailor the program as best we can.

And finally, my sincerest thanks to Adele Raemer and Judie Segal who have worked on the online and
face-to-face courses continuously and are constantly willing to help and to the Steering Committee, who
devoted endless hours to design the program and bring it to fruition. (The names appear in alphabetical order):
                Marsha Hachmon                                   Dr. Shoshana Plavin
                Dr. Miriam Kluska                                Dr. Judy Steiner
                Tziona Levy                                      Debby Toperoff
                Dr. Debbie Lifschitz – National Coordinator      Dr. Avi Tsur


                                                       2
                                          ‫מדינת ישראל‬
                                            ‫משרד החינוך‬
                                        ‫המזכירות הפדגוגית‬
                                           ‫אגף מפמ"רים‬
                                      ‫הפיקוח על הוראת האנגלית‬



                                 ‫הודעה בחוזר מנכ"ל בדצמבר 2020‬

           ‫בתכנית הלימודים בספרות אנגלית ומבנה ההיבחנות בה שינויים 3.4–31 )עא(‬

‫1. בהמשך לאמור בחוזר "הודעות ומידע" סט/1, וכדי להקל על המורים לאנגלית בהטמעת תכנית הלימודים בספרות‬
        ‫אנגלית, הוחלט כי בשלוש השנים הראשונות של יישום התכנית (התשע"א – התשע"ג) ייערכו השינויים האלה:‬
‫א. לקראת ההיבחנות בשאלוני הספרות (שאלון ‪ D‬ברמה של 4 יח"ל ושאלון ‪ F‬ברמה של 5 יח"ל) אין חובה‬
‫ללמד את מיומנויות החשיבה. בבחינות תהיה בחירה בין שאלה שבה התלמידים נדרשים לבחור מיומנות‬
                           ‫חשיבה ולנמק את בחירתם, לבין שאלה נוספת הבודקת הבנה של היצירה.‬
‫אם בוחרים בכל זאת ללמד את מיומנויות החשיבה לקראת הבחינה: מספר מיומנויות החשיבה שחובה‬
              ‫ללמד הוא שש בלבד (פירוט המיומנויות יתפרסם באתר של הפיקוח על הוראת האנגלית).‬
‫ב. למורים הבוחרים בתלקיט )‪ :(Log‬יש ללמד שש מיומנויות חשיבה (על פי בחירת המורה), ובמטלת הסיכום‬
‫)‪ (Summative Assessment‬תהיה בחירה בין שאלה במיומנויות החשיבה לבין שאלת הבנה, כמפורט‬
                                                                              ‫בסעיף א' לעיל.‬
‫ג. יישום התכנית ב-4 יח"ל יידחה לשנת הלימודים התשע"ב (כלומר, יישום התכנית יהיה תקף לתלמידים‬
‫שבשנה"ל התשע"ב ילמדו בכיתה י'). עם זאת בבתי ספר שבחרו ללמד על-פי התכנית החדשה בספרות‬
‫אנגלית בכיתות י' כבר מהשנה הנוכחית, יוכלו תלמידי 4 יח"ל להיבחן על-פיה בשאלון הספרות ובתלקיט‬
                                        ‫כבר במועד קיץ התשע"ג-3102, על פי לוח הזמנים המקורי.‬
                                                ‫ד. לוח הזמנים ליישום התכנית ב-5 יח"ל לא השתנה.‬

                                  ‫2. השינויים שפורטו לעיל הם בנוסף לשינויים שכבר נעשו לאור משוב מהשטח:‬
                                  ‫א. צמצום מספר היצירות הספרותיות הנלמדות ברמה של 4 ו-5 יח"ל‬
                                            ‫ב. צמצום מספר המושגים הספרותיים הנלמדים ב-4 יח"ל‬
‫ג. פרסום יחידות לימוד מקוונות בתכנית החדשה באתר הפיקוח על הוראת האנגלית - יחידות הכוללות‬
   ‫הרצאות מוקלטות, תצלומים של דגמי הוראה בכיתה והנחיות להוראת התכנית לתלמידים לקויי למידה‬
‫ד. בבחינה ברמה של 4 יח"ל - צמצום מספר השאלות הדורשות שימוש במיומנויות ברמה גבוהה והעלאת אחוז‬
                                    ‫הנקודות עבור שאלות הדורשות שימוש במיומנויות ברמה נמוכה‬
                            ‫ה. צמצום מספר היצירות במיקוד הבחינה ברמה של- 4 יח"ל לעומת 5 יח"ל.‬




                                                 ‫3‬
                                         ‫מדינת ישראל‬
                                           ‫משרד החינוך‬
                                       ‫המזכירות הפדגוגית‬
                                          ‫אגף מפמ"רים‬
                                     ‫הפיקוח על הוראת האנגלית‬


                               ‫הודעה לחוזר מנכ"ל ספטמבר 2220‬


                   ‫עדכונים והבהרות לחוזר מנכ"ל ספטמבר 2220 – (סט) 3-4.3‬



    ‫1. בחוזר מנכ"ל מספטמבר 8002 פורסם כי החל משנת הלימודים התש"ע יבוטלו שאלון ד' (50161, 4 י"ל)‬
       ‫ושאלון ו' (70161, 5 י"ל) במתכונת הנוכחית לתלמידי כיתה י'. שאלונים אלה יומרו בשאלון ספרות.‬
                                                             ‫2. להלן עדכונים והבהרות להודעה הנ"ל:‬
‫תלמידים המתחילים לימודיהם בכתה י' בשנה"ל תש"ע יחויבו להיבחן בשאלוני ספרות כאשר‬          ‫‪‬‬
                                           ‫יהיו בכתה יא' (תשע"א) או בכתה יב' (תשע"ב).‬
                                       ‫תלמידי כתה י' לא רשאים להיבחן בשאלוני ספרות.‬     ‫‪‬‬
‫רק מורים אשר השתתפו בהשתלמות בנושא התכנית החדשה בספרות מטעם הפיקוח על הוראת‬             ‫‪‬‬
 ‫האנגלית בהיקף של 65 שעות יהיו רשאים להגיש תלמידים לבחינה בספרות במועדים הבאים:‬
                          ‫- במועד קיץ תש"ע - תלמידים בכתה יא' או יב'‬
                                ‫- במועד קיץ תשע"א – תלמידים בכתה יב'.‬




                                                ‫4‬
                                          ‫מדינת ישראל‬
                                             ‫משרד החינוך‬
                                         ‫המזכירות הפדגוגית‬
                                            ‫אגף מפמ"רים‬
                                       ‫הפיקוח על הוראת האנגלית‬



                               ‫הודעה בחוזר מנכ"ל ספטמבר 2220‬

                                                          ‫בחינות הבגרות באנגלית: הפעלת שאלון ספרות‬


‫1. החל משנת הלימודים תש"ע לתלמידי כיתה י' יבוטל שאלון ד' (50161) (4 יח"ל) ושאלון ו' (70161) )5‬
  ‫יח"ל( במתכונת הנוכחית. שאלונים אלה יומרו בשאלון ספרות עליו ניתן יהיה להיבחן בשתי חלופות:‬
                                                                         ‫א. בחינת בגרות חיצונית.‬
                                            ‫ב. הערכה בית ספרית באמצעות ה-‪( LOG‬תלקיט)‬
                                                         ‫בתיה"ס יוכלו לבחור אחת מבין השתיים.‬
‫2. החל משנת הלימודים תשס"ט, בבתי הספר המעוניינים תהיה אפשרות לתלמידים להיבחן בבחינת‬
‫(תלקיט) במקום שאלון ו' בלבד‬   ‫‪Log‬‬   ‫בגרות חיצונית בספרות או בהערכה בית ספרית באמצעות ה-‬
                                                    ‫בתנאי שלמדו את תוכנית הספרות במלואה.‬
                ‫3. על ההערכה הבית ספרית )‪ (Log‬יערך מדגם חיצוני שמטרתו לתקף את ציוני המורים.‬
‫4. החל משנת הלימודים תשס" ט תתקיימנה השתלמויות מורים מטעם הפיקוח על הוראת האנגלית,‬
‫שמטרתן לתת למורים את הכלים הנדרשים להובלת השינויים בבחינות הבגרות. ההשתתפות חובה‬
                                                        ‫למורים המלמדים כיתות לבחינות הבגרות.‬
‫5. מידע מפורט על תכנית הספרות, ההערכה הבית ספרית )‪ (Log‬ובחינת הבגרות החיצונית, יפורסמו באתר‬
                                          ‫‪www.education.gov.il/english‬‬    ‫הפיקוח על הוראת האנגלית:‬


                                                                               ‫נבחנים אקסטרנים‬
                                             ‫המרת השאלונים תחול על נבחנים אקסטרנים החל מתשע"ב.‬




                                                  ‫5‬
                                                  ‫מדינת ישראל‬
                                                ‫משרד החינוך‬
                                             ‫המזכירות הפדגוגית‬
                                                ‫אגף מפמ"רים‬
                                          ‫הפיקוח על הוראת האנגלית‬

                                                                                                   ‫71 אוקטובר 0102‬
                                                                                                     ‫ט' חשון תשע"א‬


                       ‫שינויים בתוכנית הלימודים בספרות אנגלית ומבנה ההיבחנות בה‬


        ‫1. בהמשך לאמור בחוזר מנכ"ל מספטמבר 9002 ,ועל מנת להקל על המורים לאנגלית בהטמעה של תוכנית‬
  ‫הלימודים בספרות אנגלית, הוחלט כי בשלוש השנים הראשונות של יישום התוכנית (תשע"א – תשע"ג) ייערכו‬
                                                                                            ‫השינויים הבאים:‬
  ‫‪ ‬אין חובה ללמד את מיומנויות החשיבה. בשאלוני הספרות (‪ D‬ב-4 יח"ל ו- ‪ F‬ב- 5 יח"ל) תהיה בחירה בין‬
‫שאלה בה נדרשים התלמידים לבחור מיומנות חשיבה ולנמק את בחירתם, לבין שאלה נוספת הבודקת הבנה‬
                                                                              ‫של היצירה.‬
 ‫‪ ‬מספר מיומנויות החשיבה יצטמצמו לשש מיומנויות בלבד. (פירוט המיומנויות יתפרסם באתר של הפיקוח‬
                                                                                    ‫על הוראת האנגלית.)‬
   ‫‪ ‬בתלקיט )‪ (Log‬מורים ילמדו רק שש מיומנויות החשיבה ובמטלת הסיכום )‪(Summative Assessment‬‬
                                             ‫תהיה בחירה בין שאלות כמו שמפורט לעיל בנושא הבחינה.‬
 ‫‪ ‬יישום התוכנית של 4 יח"ל יידחה לשנה"ל תשע"ב. (כלומר, תחילת יישום התוכנית תהיה לתלמידים שיהיו‬
                                                                    ‫בשנה"ל תשע"ב בכיתה י'. )‬


                                ‫2. השינויים שפורטו לעיל הם בנוסף לשינויים שכבר נעשו לאור משוב מהשטח:‬
                                     ‫‪ ‬צמצום מספר היצירות הספרותיות הנלמדות ברמה של 4 ו-5 יח"ל.‬
                                                   ‫‪ ‬צמצום מספר מושגים ספרותיים הנלמדים ב- 4 יח"ל.‬
      ‫‪ ‬פרסום באתר הפיקוח על הוראת האנגלית יחידות לימוד מקוונות למורים לתוכנית החדשה בספרות,‬
‫הכוללות הרצאות מוקלטות, צילומים בכיתות של דגמי הוראה והנחיות על הוראת התוכנית לתלמידי לקויי‬
                                                                                     ‫למידה.‬
‫‪ ‬בבחינה של 4 יח"ל: צמצום מספר השאלות הדורשות שימוש במיומנויות מסדר גבוה והעלאת אחוז הנקודות‬
                                                  ‫עבור שאלות הדורשות שימוש במיומנויות מסדר נמוך.‬
                        ‫‪ ‬המיקוד עבור הבחינה של 4 יח"ל יכלול פחות יצירות מאשר הבחינה של 5 יח"ל.‬

‫_____________________________________________________________________________________‬
                   ‫בנין לב-רם, רח' דבורה הנביאה 2, ירושלים 11919 טל': 7853065-20 פקס: 6953065-20‬
                                         ‫‪www.education.gov.il/english‬‬




                                                        ‫6‬
                                               State of Israel
                                            Ministry of Education
                                            English Inspectorate


October 24, 2010

                                Changes in the Literature Program


The following are explanations and clarifications to the announcement posted on the site of the English
Inspectorate on October 18, 2010 regarding the changes in the literature program.

General Comments
1. The English Inspectorate highly recommends the teaching of higher-order thinking skills (HOTS).
   The teaching of HOTS not only enhances students‟ ability to analyze literature, but also gives them the
   ability to better answer reading comprehension questions in expository texts, and improves their
   writing skills as well as their thinking skills.
2. It will be compulsory for students in four-point classes who will be in the tenth grade next year
   (September 2011) to take the D Literature Module in Summer 2014. However, for teachers who have
   already started teaching the literature program to their four-point tenth grade students this year,
   students will be able to take the D Literature Module in Summer 2013, as originally scheduled. The
   time schedule for the F Literature Module has not changed.


The Literature Bagrut Exam
1. In certain questions there will be a choice on the test and students will not be required to answer the
   justification question. Even if your students decide not to answer the justification question on the
   literature module, learning HOTS will enable your students to better answer the other questions not
   only on the literature module, but on the other Bagrut modules as well.
2. It should be noted that students who have not been taught how to answer the justification question will
   not benefit from the available choice as they will be limited to answering the alternative question.
3. Teachers who are preparing their students for the exam do not have to include the teaching of HOTS
   for the first three years, even though it is recommended.
4. The process of teaching literary texts remains the same; the Key Components for teaching a literary
   text have not changed.



                                                      7
5. The following are the higher-order thinking skills that are required to be taught to students answering
   the justification question:
       a. comparing and contrasting
       b. distinguishing different perspectives
       c. explaining cause and effect
       d. explaining patterns
       e. inferring
       f. problem solving
6. It is highly recommended to teach the above HOTS to all students, including those who might not
   answer the justification question.
7. Examples of alternative questions will be posted in the near future.


The Log
1. Teachers who are preparing their students for the Log have to include the teaching of six HOTS.
2. Teachers can decide on which six higher-order thinking skills to teach from the list of HOTS in the
   Handbook, in accordance with their selected literary texts.
3. Teachers can choose to teach more than six HOTS, in accordance with the program as it was originally
   designed that appear in the Literature Handbook, which can be accessed at:
   (http://cms.education.gov.il/EducationCMS/Units/Mazkirut_Pedagogit/English/Bagrut/LiteratureMod
   ule/Handbook.htm).


For Your Information
1. Information about the literature program can be found on the English Inspectorate site by going into Bagrut
   and then the literature module.
2. Also on the site is information about how to register for the in-service literature courses (both online
   and face-to-face).
3. In addition, information and tools that can be used for the implementation of the literature program can be
   found on the TLC (Thinking through Literature and Culture) site which has been designed as a resource
   center for English teachers to learn about the implementation and assessment of the English Inspectorate‟s
   literature program. The site includes official information, details and examples of the different elements
   included in the literature program, including webcasts of how to explicitly teach HOTS, webcasted lectures
   about the Key Components, approved sample Unit Planners and accompanying activities, as well as

                                                      8
   recordings of teachers teaching the program in their classrooms. On the site you can find recordings of most
   of the literary texts from the exam options, accompanied by the screening of highlighted text segments
   during the reading. The site can be found at: http://tlc.cet.ac.il/
4. I encourage teachers to join the Partnership of Teachers and Inspectors. This professional forum
   gives official answers to your questions and provides an additional channel for professional dialogue
   between teachers and the Ministry of Education. Information for registering can be accessed at:
   http://cms.education.gov.il/EducationCMS/Units/Mazkirut_Pedagogit/English/Partnerships/




If you have any questions regarding the above changes, please feel free to contact me at:
judysh@education.gov.il.


Wishing you and your students every success!
Dr. Judy Steiner
Chief Inspector for English Language Education




_____________________________________________________________________________________
             Lev Ram Building Jerusalem 91911           Tel. 02-5603587/8     Fax 02-5603596
                                          www.education.gov.il/english




                                                       9
                         Key Components of Teaching Literature


The teaching of a literary text consists of the following key components:
       Pre-Reading Activity
       Basic Understanding
       Analysis and Interpretation
       Bridging Text and Context
       Post-Reading Activity
       Reflection
       Summative Assessment




The following are descriptions of the Key Components:
   Pre-Reading Activity
    Pre-reading activities motivate the students and encourage involvement in the topic and theme of
    the text.
   Basic Understanding of Text
    Activities for Basic Understanding ensure that all students have understood the basic story line or
    literal meaning of a story, play, or poem. This involves the use of lower-order thinking skills
    (LOTS). Activities should include questions that relate to the literal meaning of the text. It also
    includes teaching relevant lexical items and relating to grammatical structures when relevant.
    Activities should include the pre-teaching of high-frequency words that students are unfamiliar
    with and recycling them. When appropriate, necessary background knowledge that will enable
    students to understand the text should be taught.
   Analysis and Interpretation
    Activities for Analysis and Interpretation enable students to analyze and interpret the text.
    Activities should include questions that go beyond the literal meaning of the text, as well as
    questions that relate to relevant literary terms. In addition, activities should include questions that
    relate to the specific higher-order thinking skills (HOTS). HOTS need to be taught explicitly.
    HOTS can be taught before, during or after reading a text. Decisions about when to teach them are
    driven by the following considerations:


                                                        10
          i. the text being studied: length of text, theme, setting, characters.
         ii. the choice of HOTS being introduced: Some HOTS cannot be taught after a text has
              been read (e.g. prediction) while others cannot be taught before the class has finished
              reading the text (e.g. synthesis).
         iii. the level of the class.
         iv. teacher preference.


   Bridging Text and Context
    Activities for Bridging Text and Context expose the students to the historical, social and cultural
    contexts of the text and its author and how these are reflected in the text or how they have
    influenced the writing of the text. Teachers or students bring in information relevant to the
    historical, social and cultural contexts of the text and/or its author. The information should be
    discussed in class in relation to the text and how it deepens students‟ understanding and
    enjoyment of the text. This component may be taught at any stage in the teaching of the unit
    where the teacher feels it is most effective e.g. it may be taught as the pre-reading activity.
.
       Post-reading Activity
    Post-reading activities offer the students the opportunity to make connections with the text(s) and
    their own experiences. It allows for self-expression and creative responses after having read and
    analyzed the text. These activities enable students to apply a more global understanding and
    interpretation of the text and integrate information from different parts of the text.


       Reflection
    Activities for Reflection encourage students to articulate their thoughts about what they have
    learned and their thinking process. The reflection should be personal and relate to the following
    aspects of studying the text:
          i. reflection on the piece of literature
         ii. reflection on the process of learning and applying HOTS.
         iii. reflection on how this process has influenced their reading of the text, giving specific
              examples.




                                                      11
   Summative Assessment
The Summative Assessment provides the students with the opportunity to demonstrate their
knowledge, understanding and interpretation of the text, including the specific HOTS studied.
Inclusion of a Summative Assessment for each literary text studied ensures that the student‟s
grade for the Log is valid and reliable and ensures that students taking the Bagrut exam will be
well prepared. The Summative Assessment for each unit must follow the Table of Specifications
for the Literature Bagrut exam (see Table of Contents for page number).       It is suggested that you
refer to the Assessment folder in the Toolbox on the TLC site, where you can find literature
exams. The Toolbox also has sample units which include sample Summative Assessments.


Teachers may add additional parts to their Summative Assessment which reflect their classroom
teaching, e.g. vocabulary exercises and additional analysis questions. The assessment is done
individually in class and is graded by the teacher. Teachers can decide if it is an open-book test
i.e. students have the literary texts with them during the classroom test. It is also possible to have
one Summative Assessment task for two pieces of literature. The Summative Assessment task
will be counted for both units.




Please note: The process of learning the literary texts is the same for both the Log and the Bagrut
exam i.e. all seven Key Components are taught for each literary text. The difference between the
two is the final assessment of this process, the Log or the Literature Bagrut exam.




                                                  12
                 Suggestions for Implementing the Key Components




                                                              What goes into the           Assessment
Key Components           Examples of Activities
                                                                    Log                       Ideas

Pre-Reading          Oral discussion                         If oral activity, then
Activity             Short written activity                  nothing is put in Log.
                     Props, photos                           If written activity, then
                     Historical, social and/or cultural      completed activity is
                      information that is necessary to help   put in Log.
                      students understand the text
                     YouTube clips
                     A song

Basic                Vocabulary: Before reading the text,    Completed activities         Questions that
Understanding         pre-teach high-frequency words that     are put in Log.               demand use of
(LOTS)                the students are unfamiliar with.                                     explicit
                      Recycle high frequency words                                          information
                      through contextually-based exercises                                  from the text
                      after reading the text.                                              Vocabulary
                     Graphic organizers                                                    quizzes

Analysis and         Graphic organizers                      Completed activities         Questions
Interpretation       Note-taking/making                      are put in Log.               referring to
                     Webcasts for teaching HOTS                                            analysis,
                      explicitly                                                            interpretation,
                     Examples of activities for teaching                                   HOTS and
                      HOTS explicitly (See TLC site)                                        literary terms.
                                                                                           Questions that
                                                                                            apply the
                                                                                            explicit HOTS
                                                                                            taught in the
                                                                                            context of the
                                                                                            literary text.




                                                13
         Suggestions for Implementing the Key Components (continued)




                                                                  What goes into the          Assessment
  Key Components           Examples of Activities
                                                                        Log                      Ideas

Bridging Text and       Suggested resources:                      Completed activity.         Make a Power
Context                   Photos                                 The length can vary          Point
                          YouTube clips                          from a few sentences to      presentation
                          Biographies                            a page.                     Find YouTube
                          Quotations by the author/poet                                       clips or photos
                          See the Toolbox for suggested                                       of the context
                           sites                                                               and explain
                                                                                               how they are
                                                                                               related to the
                                                                                               text.
                                                                                              Sample
                                                                                               assessment
                                                                                               rubric in
                                                                                               Handbook (See
                                                                                               TOC)

Post-Reading Activity    Writing a letter to the author.         The completed task,         Sample
                         Making up a new ending.                 which might be written,      assessment
                         Drawing a picture illustrating          visual, or recorded on a     rubric in
                          some aspect of the text, explaining     CD.                          Handbook (see
                          how the picture relates to the                                       TOC).
                          students' interpretation of the text.
                         Enactments
                         PowerPoint Presentations
                         Video clips made by students
                         Drawings
                         Diary journals




                                                 14
         Suggestions for Implementing the Key Components (continued)



                                                         What goes into the     Assessment
  Key Components        Examples of Activities
                                                               Log                 Ideas

Reflection             Teaching students how to        Answers to the
                        reflect (see the Reflection     reflection questions.
                        component in the Key
                        Components section on the TLC
                        site)
                       Written reflection on the piece
                        of literature: Did the students
                        enjoy reading it? Why or why
                        not? What did they find
                        interesting, memorable,
                        surprising, annoying, moving,
                        challenging, upsetting, etc.?
                       Reflection on the process of
                        learning HOTS.
                       Reflection on how this process
                        has influenced their reading of
                        the text, giving specific
                        examples.
                       Reflection on the wider
                        application of thinking skills.
                       Sample Techniques for
                        Reflection and Scaffolding
                        Reflection Questions for
                        Module D (see the Reflection
                        component in the Key
                        Components section on the TLC
                        site)




                                           15
        Suggestions for Implementing the Key Components (continued)




                                                           What goes into the    Assessment
  Key Components          Examples of Activities
                                                                 Log                Ideas

Summative Assessment   A test based on the Table of        The test              Examples of
                       Specifications in the Literature                           Summative
                       Handbook.                                                  Assessments
                       Teachers can add additional tasks                          (see Sample
                       which reflect their classroom                              units and
                       teaching.                                                  Assessment in
                                                                                  the Toolbox on
                                                                                  the TLC site)
                                                                                 Sample rubrics
                                                                                  for grading
                                                                                  different types
                                                                                  of questions on
                                                                                  the exam in
                                                                                  Handbook,
                                                                                  (see TOC).




                                              16
                     Literary Terms for Students taking Module F


Note: This is a partial list of literary terms which teachers may find useful. Teachers should incorporate
the teaching, spiraling and use of literary terms into their Analysis and Interpretation component of their
unit when appropriate. Teachers may include other literary terms which are not on this list when they see fit.




General        Hero/heroine           The central male or female character of a literary text. Usually,
Terms                                 the hero or heroine has a high moral character and is courageous.
Across
Genres         Protagonist            The main character of the story or drama, the hero, who is faced
                                      with an opposing force he/she must overcome in order to achieve
Talking
                                      his/her goal.
about the
characters     Antagonist             A person or a natural force that opposes the protagonist in the
                                      main conflict of the story or drama.

               Character              A person or a thing presented as a person, in a literary text.

               Characterization       What we know about a character. There are three fundamental
                                      methods of characterization: 1) direct presentation of the physical
                                      and moral aspects of the character by the narrator, either when
                                      the character is first introduced in the story, or bit-by-bit
                                      throughout the story. 2) The actions and speech of the character,
                                      from which the reader infers the traits. 3) The inner thoughts of
                                      the character, which are a window to his/her soul.

               Stereotype             Presenting a person as if they represent the social group to which
                                      they belong, by using physical appearances, accent, clothing,
                                      foods etc. The emphasis on belonging to the group makes the
                                      stereotyped person less individualized.

               Dialogue               The conversations that take place between characters in a literary
                                      work of narrative or drama and more rarely, in poetry.




                                                      17
            Literary Terms for Students taking Module F (continued)


Talking      Plot                 The structure and pattern of events of the story in a narrative or
about the                         in a drama.
plot
             Climax               This is the point of highest interest, the crisis, and is therefore
                                  also at the turning point of the action.

             Conflict             The struggle between opposing forces. At least one of the
                                  opposing forces is a character. We designate different kinds of
                                  conflict: 1) a struggle against Nature. 2) a struggle against
                                  another person. 3) a struggle against society. 4) a struggle within
                                  the person themselves. The two sides of the conflict are the
                                  protagonist and the antagonist.

             Resolution           The conclusion of the story or drama, when all the problems are
                                  solved in one way or another. It‟s the logical outcome of
                                  everything that happened before. It comes after the climax.

             Foreshadowing        Events narrated at an earlier point in the story that hint at, and
                                  prepare the reader, for something that will happen later in the
                                  story.

Talking      Symbolism/symbol Something which is both itself and also represents an idea, for
about                         example a rose may symbolize beauty.
meaning in
language     Connotation          The associations which are attached to a word, as opposed to its
                                  literal meaning, for example the color green may have the
                                  connotation of youth, spring, and growth.

             Paradox              A situation or statement that seems to contradict itself, but really
                                  doesn‟t.

             Theme                Usually we can find the theme of a literary work by answering
                                  the question: “What is this work about?” Theme looks at the
                                  message or general idea of the work.

             Genre                There are different types of literature categorized by subject
                                  matter, form and technique; the following are examples of
                                  genres: tragedy and comedy, novel and short story, poetry and
                                  prose.

Style        Tone                 The attitude with which a story is told, or the attitude with which
                                  something or someone is described, for example, ironic, cynical,
                                  humorous.




                                                  18
Literary Terms Literary Terms for Students taking Module F (continued)



Terms for   Short story     A short narrative work. The length of a short story varies from
Narrative                   one or two pages up to forty pages.
Texts
(Novels     Setting         The background against which the story unfolds. This includes
and Short                   1) the geographic location, scenery, and the inside of homes or
Stories)                    other places; 2) the social community in which the story unfolds
                            (upper class, working class etc); 3) the season, or period (the
                            period of the French Revolution in A Tale of Two Cities)

            Flashback       Providing information about events that happened before the story
                            begins, usually through the memory of one of the characters, or by
                            narrating the events to someone. A flashback interrupts the sequence
                            of events that is happening now in the story or play.

            Novel           A narrative work that tells a story that is quite long, usually at
                            least 100 pages.

            Narrative       How the story is told: the style, the characters, descriptions, and
                            events, that make up the telling of the story.

            Point of View   The focus from which the story or drama is told. The story can be
                            told 1) by one of the characters who experienced the events, 2)
                            by an all-knowing narrator who knows the „whole‟ story, or 3) by
                            a character telling someone else‟s story.




                                            19
            Literary Terms for Students taking Module F (continued)



Terms for    Imagery        Words used in images in poetry that use our five senses: sight,
Poetry                      smell, hearing, taste, and touching.

             Metaphor       Describing one thing in terms of something else e.g. the bronze
                            sun.

             Simile         The resemblance of two things, usually introduced by „like‟ or
                            „as‟.

             Oxymoron       An image made up of two opposing qualities, or that may seem a
                            contradiction in terms: Bittersweet,

             Rhyme          Used in poetry most often at the end of lines when the last
                            syllables of the words at the ends of the lines share the same
                            sound, homophony. For example:
                            My little horse must think it queer
                            To stop without a farmhouse near (Robert Frost)

             Rhyme scheme   The pattern of rhymed words at the end of lines in a stanza or
                            throughout a poem.

             Stanza         A group of lines, which form a unit in a poem. This unit usually
                            repeats itself in the poem.

             Verse          A single line of a poem usually using rhythmed language. Poetic
                            form as distinguished from prose.

             Alliteration   A sound pattern repeated at the beginning of words or repeated
                            within words, usually consonants. For example: “I have stood
                            still and stopped the sound of feet” (Robert Frost).




                                           20
        Literary Terms for Students taking Module F (continued)



Terms for   Comedy        A literary text that is funny and ends well, even though there is
Drama                     usual some tension along the way.

            Tragedy       Tragedy is a type of drama that ends badly for the hero or
                          protagonist. It is usually a story that focuses on one person, the
                          protagonist, whose life changes from a happy one to suffering
                          and disaster.

            Scene         A sub-division of an act in a play, but also the place where the
                          action takes place. Usually, each act has several scenes. Many
                          scenes may take place in the same place (scene).

            Act           One of the major divisions of a play. There are usually 5 acts to a
                          play, but sometimes only 3. In any case there are always an
                          uneven number of acts in a play.

            Drama         A literary work that is written in dialogue to be performed by
                          actors acting the story on the stage

            Comedy        A literary text that is funny and ends well, even though there is
                          usual some tension along the way.




                                       21
                      Literary Terms for Students taking Module D

Note: This is a partial list of literary terms which teachers may find useful. Teachers should incorporate
the teaching, spiraling and use of literary terms into their Analysis and Interpretation component of their
unit when appropriate. Teachers may include other literary terms which are not on this list when they see
fit.

Terms from the list for Module F can also be used if they are appropriate for the class and the literary text.



General        Hero/heroine            The central male or female character of a literary text. Usually,
Terms                                  the hero or heroine has a high moral character and is courageous.
Across
Genres         Protagonist             The main character of the story or drama, the hero, who is faced
                                       with an opposing force he/she must overcome in order to achieve
Talking
                                       his/her goal.
about the
characters     Character               A person or a thing presented as a person, in a literary text.

               Stereotype              Presenting a person as if they represent the social group to which
                                       they belong, by using physical appearances, accent, clothing,
                                       foods etc. The emphasis on belonging to the group makes the
                                       stereotyped person less individualized.

               Dialogue                The conversations that take place between characters in a literary
                                       work of narrative or drama and more rarely, in poetry.

Talking        Plot                    The structure and pattern of events of the story in a narrative or
about the                              in a drama.
plot
               Climax                  This is the point of highest interest, the crisis, and is therefore
                                       also at the turning point of the action.

               Conflict                The struggle between opposing forces. At least one of the
                                       opposing forces is a character. We designate different kinds of
                                       conflict: 1) a struggle against Nature. 2) a struggle against
                                       another person. 3) a struggle against society. 4) a struggle within
                                       the person themselves. The two sides of the conflict are the
                                       protagonist and the antagonist.




                                                        22
            Literary Terms for Students taking M odule D (continued)



Talking       Symbolism/symbol Something which is both itself and also represents an idea, for
about                          example a rose may symbolize beauty.
meaning in
language      Theme                Usually we can find the theme of a literary work by answering
                                   the question: “What is this work about?” Theme looks at the
                                   message or general idea of the work.

              Genre                There are different types of literature categorized by subject
                                   matter, form and technique; the following are examples of
                                   genres: tragedy and comedy, novel and short story, poetry and
                                   prose.

Terms for     Short story          A short narrative work. The length of a short story varies from
Narrative                          one or two pages up to forty pages.
Texts
(Novels       Setting              The background against which the story unfolds. This includes
and Short                          1) the geographic location, scenery, and the inside of homes or
Stories)                           other places; 2) the social community in which the story unfolds
                                   (upper class, working class etc); 3) the season, or period (the
                                   period of the French Revolution in A Tale of Two Cities)

              Flashback            Providing information about events that happened before the story
                                   begins, usually through the memory of one of the characters, or by
                                   narrating the events to someone. A flashback interrupts the sequence
                                   of events that is happening now in the story or play.

              Novel                A narrative work that tells a story that is quite long, usually at
                                   least 100 pages.

              Point of View        The focus from which the story or drama is told. The story can be
                                   told 1) by one of the characters who experienced the events, 2)
                                   by an all-knowing narrator who knows the „whole‟ story, or 3) by
                                   a character telling someone else‟s story.




                                                   23
            Literary Terms for Students taking Module D (continued)



Terms for    Metaphor       Describing one thing in terms of something else e.g. the bronze
Poetry                      sun.

             Simile         The resemblance of two things, usually introduced by „like‟ or
                            „as‟.

             Rhyme          used in poetry most often at the end of lines when the last
                            syllables of the words at the ends of the lines share the same
                            sound, homophony. For example:
                            My little horse must think it queer
                            To stop without a farmhouse near (Robert Frost)

             Stanza         A group of lines, which form a unit in a poem. This unit usually
                            repeats itself in the poem.




                                           24
                    Thinking Skills for Teaching Literature in EFL

The English Inspectorate highly recommends the teaching of higher-order thinking skills (HOTS). The
teaching of HOTS not only enhances students‟ ability to analyze literature, but also gives them the ability
to better answer reading comprehension questions in expository texts, and improves their writing skills as
well as their thinking skills.

The following are the higher-order thinking skills that are required to be taught to students answering the
justification question on the Bagrut exam option up until and including the exam for ‫:תשע"ג‬
        a. Comparing and contrasting
        b. Distinguishing different perspectives
        c. Explaining cause and effect
        d. Explaining patterns
        e. Inferring
        f. Problem solving


Teachers who are doing the Log option with their students have to include the teaching of at least six
HOTS. Those teachers can decide on which six higher-order thinking skills from the list below, in
accordance with their selected literary texts.




                                                     25
 Lower-Order Thinking Skills




 Thinking Skill            Students will be able to:                      Sample Tasks/Questions

Recognizing        relate to the literal meaning of the text.   Who? What?
key vocabulary,                                                 Where? When?
setting,                                                        Do you know…?
characters and                                                  Can you identify…?
events in the
text

Higher-Order Thinking Skills

Thinking Skill            Students will be able to:                     Sample Tasks/Questions

Predicting        predict the content or the outcome of the         How do you think ___ will react?
                  text, either before or during reading             How do you think the story will end?
                  based on available information.

Applying          apply previously learned concepts, terms,         How can you apply ___ to your own
                  techniques and skills to new situations.           life?
                                                                    How can you apply ___ to something
                                                                     else you have learned?

Inferring         infer implicit meaning from the text by           What do you think the character
                  being able to read-between-the-lines.              meant when s/he said, “___”?
                                                                     What does ___‟s behavior suggest?
                                                                     What is the purpose or function of
                                                                     this information?
                                                                    What different meanings can be
                                                                     inferred from this line in the poem?




                                                       26
Higher-Order Thinking Skills (continued)


 Thinking Skill          Students will be able to:                    Sample Tasks/Questions


 Sequencing        explain how the sequence of events in a       Sequence the events in chronological order.
                   text, when not in a chronological order,      How do flashbacks affect your
                   affects understanding of the text.             understanding of the text/plot?
                                                                 Why do you think the events are not in
                                                                  chronological order?



 Identifying       explain how the parts function together       How does one part of the story contribute
 parts and whole   within the whole text.                         your understanding to the whole text?
                                                                 How does the title/ending relate to
                                                                  different parts of the story/poem/play?
                                                                 What does the rhyme scheme of the
                                                                  poem contribute to the whole poem?


 Classifying       categorize the elements of the text           Categorize the characters according to
                   according to criteria.                         their relationships/values.

 Comparing         find similarities (comparing) and             Compare and contrast the conflicts/
 and               differences (contrasting) and draw             problems/dilemmas in two stories or
 contrasting       conclusions.                                   poems.
                                                                 Compare and contrast the text and the
                                                                  film.
                                                                 Compare and contrast characters in a text.


 Explaining        identify and explain different patterns       Explain why certain lines/phrases/words
 patterns          in the text and explain their                  are repeated.
                   significance.                                 What behavior does the character repeat?
                                                                 Where is the rhyme scheme of the poem
                                                                  broken and why?


 Explaining        describe and explain the causal               What were the results of ___„s action?
 cause and         relationships between actions or events       What caused ___ to think that ___?
 effect            in a text.




                                                     27
Higher-Order Thinking Skills (continued)


 Thinking Skill         Students will be able to:                    Sample Tasks/Questions


 Distinguishing   identify the different perspectives           Identify how different characters respond
 different        within the text and/or among the               to a central event in the story.
 perspectives     readers of the text.                          How does your understanding of the
                                                                 characters‟ actions/events in the story
                                                                 change as you read?
                                                                Do you share the same perspective as the
                                                                 narrator? Explain.
                                                                How does your understanding of the
                                                                 story/the character/the scene differ from
                                                                 other students in your class?


 Problem          identify a problem/dilemma and either         Define the problem facing the
 Solving          identify its solution in the text or           protagonist.
                  suggest a possible solution, taking into      How should ___ decide what to do?
                  account the constraints and the options       What should ____ take / have taken into
                  present in the text.                           account?
                                                                What is the central conflict in this text
                                                                 and how is it resolved? Explain.
                                                                What dilemma does ___ face at this point
                                                                 in the story?


 Uncovering       identify motives that explain the             Why do you think that __ did __?
 motives          character‟s behavior and support this          Support your answer.
                  with evidence from the text.                  What made ___ change his/her mind?
                                                                 Give supporting details.


 Generating       create something new on the basis of          Create a new character for the story.
 possibilities    what is understood from the text.             Explain how s/he will affect the
                                                                 development
                                                                Generate possible options for
                                                                 characters/plot outcomes/sequels or
                                                                 prequels.
                                                                Add an element/an event to the existing
                                                                 text that influences the development
                                                                 and/or the outcome of the plot.




                                                    28
Higher-Order Thinking Skills (continued)


 Thinking Skill         Students will be able to:                     Sample Tasks/Questions

 Synthesizing     integrate different aspects of/insights        Write a summary of the story.
                  to the text.                                   How does information we learn later in
                                                                  the text change the way we understand
                                                                  a character/issue/conflict?


 Making           make connections between specific              How does the description of the setting
 connections      aspects of the text.                            connect to the characterization of __?
                  make connections between the text and          To what extent do events in the text
                  other contexts in relation to historical,       reflect events in the life of the author?
                  and cultural contexts or pertinent             How does your understanding of the
                  information from the author‟s                   story/the character/the scene differ
                  biography.                                      when you learn about a topic related to
                                                                  the literary text?

 Evaluating       make judgments about different aspects         What makes this a good story? Explain.
                  of the text and justify opinions and/or        Is ___ a believable character? Explain.
                  evaluate someone else‟s opinion.               Is the resolution of the conflict
                                                                  satisfying? Explain.




                                                     29
  Options for How to Integrate HOTS with Teaching Literature

                         Deductive Methodology #1

Process                                    Description

Stage 1   Explicit teaching of the HOTS

Stage 2   Application of HOTS to other areas of the students‟ lives

Stage 3   Reading the text

Stage 4   Checking basic comprehension through LOTS

Stage 5    Application of HOTS to the text through tasks in Analysis and Interpretation


                         Deductive Methodology #2

Process                                    Description

Stage 1   Reading the text

Stage 2   Checking basic comprehension through LOTS

Stage 3   Explicit teaching of the HOTS

Stage 4   Application of HOTS to the text through tasks in Analysis and Interpretation

Stage 5   Application of HOTS to other areas of the students‟ lives


                             Inductive Methodology

Process                                    Description

Stage 1   Reading the text

Stage 2   Checking basic comprehension through LOTS

Stage 3   Analysis and Interpretation including tasks that require the use of a HOTS
          that has not yet been explicitly taught

Stage 4   Eliciting the name of the HOTS based on the tasks in Analysis and
          Interpretation

Stage 5   Application of HOTS to other areas of the students‟ lives


                                          30
                Ideas about How to Explicitly Teach the HOTS



One of the unique aspects of this literature program is that it incorporates explicit teaching of HOTS.
The following are some points that should be taken into consideration when explicitly teaching HOTS:


      Keep it short. Teaching HOTS should be no more than ten minutes.
      Try to make it experiential. The more memorable it is for the students, the easier it will be for
       them to access the skill and use it in other areas of their lives, as well as in English.
      Spiral the use of HOTS that were already taught. Remind the students of when they applied the
       HOTS previously.
      Try and choose ways to teach HOTS that do not require additional texts.


Additional ideas, including webcasts, for teaching the HOTS explicitly are posted in the Toolbox on
the TLC site.




                                                  31
                                                State of Israel
                                             Ministry of Education
                                             English Inspectorate

                                                Unit Planner

Teacher’s Name:                                         Date:
Name of School:                                         Piece #:                   Grade taught:
                                                                                      10     11     12
Name of Literary Text:                                  Genre:                Level:           4     5
                                                        poem/story/play/novel
Targeted Higher-Order Thinking Skills                        Methodology used for Teaching HOTS
(HOTS) for Analysis and Interpretation                            (Inductive or Deductive)
1.
2.
3.
                                 Relevant Literary Terms to be Taught




              Targeted Benchmarks in the Domain of Appreciation of Literature and Culture

      Recognize the use of literary techniques in a variety of genres
      Interpret literary texts
      Are aware of the author‟s background and the cultural, historical and/or social themes in literary texts or
      other cultural products
      Are aware of how cultural practices are reflected in various literary and cultural products

     Note:
       The process of learning the literary texts is the same for both the Learning Log and the Bagrut
         exam. The difference between the two groups is the assessment of this process.
       Every unit needs to include the seven Key Components.
       It is recommended to teach one HOTS for a poem, two HOTS for a short story, and three HOTS
         for the play or novel.
       The presentation of the HOTS can be sequenced differently depending on the methodology
         chosen.
       Teachers have the choice of where to present Bridging Text and Context.
       Teachers are required to:
         a. give a grade for at least two Key Components:
                 - Summative Assessment
                 - additional Key Component(s)
         b. write short, meaningful comments on the student‟s reflection.

                                                        32
                             Unit Planner (continued)




                                                              List of attached
Lesson #   Date   Key Component                Activity/ies     worksheets
                                                               (when used)




                                        33
                                             State of Israel
                                          Ministry of Education
                                          English Inspectorate


                  Key Components Checklist for the Log and the Exam


Use this checklist to be sure you have included all of the seven Key Components in each piece of
literature you teach.


                                      Key Component

   1. Pre-Reading

   2. Basic Understanding (LOTS)

   3. Analysis and Interpretation:
            teach students HOTS explicitly (including definition of HOTS and
             appropriate vocabulary)

            have students apply the targeted HOTS to the text

            have students apply the targeted HOTS to their lives and other areas of
             learning

            additional analysis and interpretation tasks (e.g. literary terms, etc.)

   4. Bridging Text and Context

   5. Post-Reading Activity

   6. Reflection

   7. Summative Assessment (to be graded)




                                                     34
                                             The Log

The Log provides evidence of the students' learning. Students are afforded the opportunity to record,
structure, plan, develop, and reflect upon their learning by means of the various tasks included in the Log.
The Log also enables them to gain insights into the application of diverse strategies that can be used to
analyze literature. In addition, it shows how students become increasingly and actively involved in the
process of learning both thinking skills and literature.


The Log consists of units for each literary text taught (eight units for five-point students and seven units
for four-point students). The unit includes the seven Key Components described above.


Teachers are required to:
        a. grade the unit as follows:
              i. The Summative Assessment is 50% of the grade for the unit.
             ii. One additional Key Component is 30% of the unit grade.
                    - If you want to include additional graded activities in the 30% above, you may do so.
                    - If any of the graded activities you included above is an oral activity, a grading
                        rubric must be included in the Log for each student.
             iii. Inclusion of all activities (graded or not) in the Log is the remaining 20% of the grade for
                  the unit.
        b. write brief, constructive comments on the student‟s reflection.


Teachers choose the literary texts they want to teach according to the requirements of the National
Literature Program:
           Five Points:
                a. One play or novel
                b. Three short stories
                c. Four poems
           Four Points:
                a. Four short stories
                b. Three poems




                                                      35
For assessing a unit in the Log, rubrics for Bridging Text and Context and for the Post-reading Activity
can be used. For the Summative Assessment, the rubrics from the Answer Key of the exam can be used
(please see the TOC for the page numbers for all of these rubrics).


                                  Criteria for Approving Literary Texts

The choice of the literary texts must be based on the criteria set by the English Inspectorate:


  Criteria                                                 Explanation

Authentic        Text has not been simplified or abridged.

Language         The text was written originally in English.*
                 The language of the text is accessible.

Literary Merit The text was written by a recognized, published author.
                 The literary text enriches students and encourages them to respond to the text.
                 Re-readings of the text reveal multiple interpretations.

Universality     Themes of the text span place and time.

Length           Length of texts should be comparable to the length of the texts in the core program.

* If teachers are interested in using a text that was not written originally in English, they can submit their
request to the Chief Inspector for English Language Education.


Teachers are required to receive the approval of the literary texts from the English Inspector of the school
on the following form, Approval for Literary Texts for the Log.

Teachers get paid by the Testing Department for marking the Logs. The number of Logs marked per hour
is the same as for the number of exams marked for modules D and F.

In addition, the English coordinator must notify the English Inspector of the school on the form School
Report for Literature Module (see TOC about which option they are choosing: the Log or the exam, no
later than October of the year they begin teaching the literature program (in either the 10th or 11th grades).




                                                      36
                                        State of Israel
                                     Ministry of Education
                                     English Inspectorate

                         Approval for Literary Texts for the Log

Name of School:                                Semel #:
Name of Teacher/Coordinator:                   Fax number of school:

                                             Five Points

     Genre           Name of Literary Text and Author                          Source
                                                              (Title and Publisher of Coursebook or Site)
One Play or Novel
Three Short
Stories


Four Poems




                                         Four Points

     Genre           Name of Literary Text and Author                          Source
                                                              (Title and Publisher of Coursebook or Site)
Four Short
Stories




Three Poems




Name of Coordinator: _______________    Signature: _______________           Date: __________

 ********************************************************
The Literature program is: Approved Not Approved
Comments:



Name of English Inspector: _______________     Signature: _______________       Date: __________

                                                 37
                                             State of Israel
                                          Ministry of Education
                                          English Inspectorate

                             School Report for Literature Module

Fill out the information on the form and email it to the English Inspector of your school no later than
October of the year you begin teaching the literature program (in either the 10th or 11th grades). If a
decision is made at your school to change from the Log to the Exam or from the Exam to the Log, you
need to correct the form and resend it to your Inspector.

Name of School:                            Name of Coordinator:                           Semel #:
Fax number of school:                        Name of English Inspector:                   Date:
Grade:         10          11           12



                                                  Module D

                                                                        Date of           Date and place
                                                                        Approval of       of in-service
   Name of
                    ID Number      Email Address       Log     Exam     Literature        course for
   Teacher
                                                                        Program           Literature
                                                                        (Log)             Program




                                                  Module F

                                                                        Date of           Date and place
                                                                        Approval of       of in-service
   Name of
                    ID Number      Email Address       Log     Exam     Literature        course for
   Teacher
                                                                        Program           Literature
                                                                        (Log)             Program




                                                     38
                 Calculation of the Grade of a Unit for the Log



                            Element                                  % of Grade for Unit

Unit contains all the required activities for the Key Components            20%

At least one additional Key Component                                       30%
          Additional graded activities may be included
          If any of the graded activities you included is an oral
           activity, a grading rubric must be included in the
           Log for each student.

Summative Assessment                                                        50%




                                              39
                                          State of Israel
                                       Ministry of Education
                                       English Inspectorate



                           Checklist for the Evaluation of a Unit




 Student’s Name:                                      Date:

 Name of Literary Text:




                                                         Included in         Grades
                                                           the Log      for at least one
                               Short Description of                      Key Component
   Key Components                    Activity                                 and
                                                        Yes      No     for Summative
                                                                         Assessment

1. Pre-Reading Activity

2. Basic Understanding

3. Analysis and
   Interpretation

4. Bridging Text and
   Context

5. Post-Reading Activity

6. Reflection

7. Summative
   Assessment

TOTAL




                                                 40
       Calculation of the Final Grade of the Literature Program
                                     for the Log


The calculation of the final grade of the literature program for students doing the
Log is comprised of the following elements:




                                     Module F

                   Elements                         % of Final Grade         Grade

Presentation of the Log
Includes: title page, table of contents,
headings, and page numbers                                  10%
The Log is aesthetic, neatly presented, and
handed in on time.

Play                                                        22%

Short Story                                                 12%

Short Story                                                 12%

Short Story                                                 12%

Poem                                                         8%

Poem                                                         8%

Poem                                                         8%

Poem                                                         8%

TOTAL                                                      100%




                                           41
     Calculation of the Final Grade of the Literature Program
                             for the Log (continued)




                                     Module D

                   Elements                     % of Final Grade   Grade

Presentation of the Log
Includes: title page, table of contents,
headings, and page numbers                             12%
The Log is aesthetic, neatly presented, and
handed in on time.

Short Story                                            17%

Short Story                                            17%

Short Story                                            17%

Short Story                                            16%

Poem                                                   7%

Poem                                                   7%

Poem                                                   7%

TOTAL                                                  100%




                                           42
                     Reporting the Grades to the Ministry of Education




The 9540 form with the final grades for the Literature Program for the Log needs to be given to
the tachana klita in the summer moed only (a day before the date of the English Bagrut exam
or on the day of the English Bagrut exam). The form also must be sent by fax to the English
Inspector of the school no later that the date of the English Bagrut exam.


All the Logs must be in the school by the date of the English Bagrut exam in a safe place.
During the two weeks following the English Bagrut exam, the English Inspector will notify
you if s/he will be coming to your school in order to do a random sampling of the Logs.
Schools will be informed of the procedure of the random sampling in a letter.




                                                     43
                             The Literature Bagrut Examination:
                                            Module D and F



The Literature Bagrut examination assesses the students‟ understanding of the literary texts and their
ability to use both lower-order and higher-order thinking skills that they have learned and applied in the
learning process. The learning process includes the teaching of the seven Key Components for each
literary text studied as described above.


Scoring of the answers on the Literature Bagrut exam are mainly on content, however accuracy are taken
into consideration, as indicated in the Table of Specifications (e.g. grammar, spelling).

The Literature Bagrut examination – Module F (Winter 2009) and the General Guidelines for marking the
module can be accessed on the site of the English Inspectorate on this page, as well as in the ToolBox on
the TLC site, in the Assessment section.

On the sites you will find links to the following:
Bagrut Literature Examination - MODULE F, Winter 2009
      Answer Key and General Guidelines for Marking the Bagrut Literature Examination – MODULE F
      Bagrut Literature Examination – Module D (Sample Exam)
      Answer Key and General Guidelines for Marking the Bagrut Literature Sample Examination -
       MODULE D
      Examples of the types of questions which can be answered instead of the justification questions.




                                                     44
                                            State of Israel
                                         Ministry of Education
                                         English Inspectorate


                              National Literature Program - Five Points*
                              One play or novel; 3 short stories; 4 poems



                                              Option One




               Genre                                 Literary Text

                           All My Sons by Arthur Miller
             One Play
             or Novel      The Wave by Morton Rhue

                           “Mr. Know All” by W. Somerset Maugham
             Three
             Short         “A Summer‟s Reading” by Bernard Malamud
             Stories
                           “Rules of the Game” by Amy Tan

                           “As I Grew Older” by Langston Hughes

                           “Introduction to Poetry” by Billy Collins
             Four
             Poems         “The Road Not Taken” by Robert Frost

                           “Ozymandias” by Percy Bysshe Shelley


* The links to most of the texts can be found on the TLC site.




                                                    45
           National Literature Program - Five Points (continued)
                One play or novel; 3 short stories; 4 poems



                               Option Two




  Genre                                   Literary Text

             All My Sons by Arthur Miller
One Play
or Novel     The Wave by Morton Rhue

             “The Split Cherry Tree” by Jesse Stuart
Three
Short        “A Summer‟s Reading” by Bernard Malamud
Stories
             “The Enemy” by Pearl Buck

             “Count That Day Lost” by George Eliot

             “Grandmother” by Sameeneh Shirazie
Four
Poems
             “The Road Not Taken” by Robert Frost

             “Ozymandias” by Percy Bysshe Shelley




                                     46
                                            State of Israel
                                         Ministry of Education
                                         English Inspectorate



                             National Literature Program - Four Points*
                                        4 short stories; 3 poems


                                             Option One




                 Genre                                  Literary Text

                                  "The Treasure of Lemon Brown" by Walter Dean Myers

                                  “Mr. Know All” by W. Somerset Maugham
          Four Short Stories
                                  “The Split Cherry Tree” by Jesse Stuart

                                  “Thank You, Ma‟m” by Langston Hughes

                                  “Introduction to Poetry” by Billy Collins

          Three Poems             “The Road Not Taken” by Robert Frost

                                  “Count That Day Lost” by George Eliot




* The links to most of the texts can be found on the TLC site.




                                                   47
             National Literature Program - Four Points (continued)
                            4 short stories; 3 poems


                                 Option Two

  Genre                              Literary Text

             "The Treasure of Lemon Brown" by Walter Dean Myers

             “A Summer‟s Reading” by Bernard Malamud
Four Short
Stories
             “The Split Cherry Tree” by Jesse Stuart

             “Thank You, Ma‟m” by Langston Hughes

             “Grandmother” by Sameeneh Shirazie
Three
             “The Road Not Taken” by Robert Frost
Poems
             “Count That Day Lost” by George Eliot




                                       48
                                              State of Israel
                                           Ministry of Education
                                           English Inspectorate

            Table of Specifications for Literature Bagrut Exam – Five Points
                The alternative question in the table below is until and including Summer 2013

                                                     Part A

                      # of                                                           Possible Item    Assessment
Benchmarks                            Weighting            Item Description
                    Questions                                                           Types          Criteria

Students:         Short           Total = 70%       Students answer questions        multiple-       Content 80%
                  story/poem:                       on (a) a short story or          choice
 describe                       Each Basic                                                           Coherence
                                                    poem and (b) a play or
  main            2 Basic        Understanding                                       sentence         Relevance
                                                    novel. For each text,
  characters,     Understanding question = 5 pts
                                                    students:
                                                                                     completion       Supporting
  setting and     2 Analysis and (5x4=20)                                                              information
                                                      answer two Basic              open-ended
  events in       Interpretation
                                                       Understanding                                  Accuracy
  literary                       2 Analysis and                                      t/f with          of reporting
                                                       questions                     justification
  texts                          Interpretation
 interpret       Play or Novel: questions = 20 pts  answer one Analysis            extended
                                                       and Interpretation
  literary        2 Basic        (10x2=20)                                           answer          Language 20%
                                                       question that may
  texts           Understanding                        include under-                                 Grammar
 recognize       2 Analysis and 2 Analysis and
                                 Interpretation        standing of literary                           Spelling
  the use of      Interpretation
                                 questions = 30 pts    terms.                                         Punctuation
  literary
  techniques                     (15x2=30)            answer one or
                  Total # of                           Analysis and
  in a            questions:
                                 The 15 points         Interpretation question
  variety of
                  4 Basic        consist of:           that may include
  genres
                  Understanding                        understanding of
                  4 Analysis and   10 points for      literary terms where
                                    the answer to      they:
                  Interpretation
                                    the question          a. identify the HOTS
                                   5 points for             they chose to
                                    identifying and          answer the question.
                                    justifying the        b.answer the question.
                                    choice of             c. justify their choice
                                    HOTS                     based on the literary
                                          OR                 text in 1-2 sentences
                                                             (The list of HOTS
                                   Additional               will be given.)
                                    Analysis and             OR
                                    Interpretation    Answer an additional
                                    questions (15      Analysis and
                                    points each)       Interpretation question
                                                       which does not require
                                                       HOTS justification




                                                     49
  Table of Specif ications for Literature Bagrut Exam – Five Points (continued)



                                                Part B

                        # of                                             Possible Item      Assessment
  Benchmarks                      Weighting      Item Description
                      Questions                                             Types            Criteria

Students:                1          30%       Students are given         extended        Content: 80%
                                              background                 answer           Coherence
 are aware of the
  author‟s
                                              information about two      (paragraph)      Accuracy of
                                              texts/authors studied in                     reporting
  background and
  the cultural,
                                              class.                                      Making
  historical                                  Students choose one of                       connections
  and/or social                               the texts and explain                        between literary
  themes in                                   how the background                           text and new
  literary texts or                           information adds to                          information
  other cultural                              their understanding of                     Language 20%
  products                                    the text.                                   Grammar
                                              (Recommended length:                        Spelling
                                              80-100 words.)                              Punctuation




                                                 50
                                              State of Israel
                                           Ministry of Education
                                           English Inspectorate

             Table of Specifications for Literature Bagrut Exam - Four Points
                      The alternative question in the table below is until Summer 2013

                                                      Part A

                       # of                                                              Possible        Assessment
 Benchmarks                            Weighting            Item Description
                     Questions                                                         Item Types         Criteria

Students:          For one text:    Total = 76%        Students answer                 multiple-       Content 90%
                                                       questions on two literary       choice           Coherence
 describe         3 Basic          Each Basic
  main             Understanding                       texts: a short story or         sentence         Relevance
                                    Understanding
  characters,      2 Analysis and                      poem. For each text,            completion       Supporting
                                    question = 6 pts students:
  setting and      Interpretation                                                                        information
                                    (6x6=36)             answer three Basic           open-ended
  events in                                                                                             Accuracy of
                   For one text:                          Understanding                t/f with          reporting
  literary texts
                                                          questions
 interpret        3 Basic
                                                                                       justification   Language 10%
                                    1 Analysis and       answer one Analysis
  literary texts   Understanding                          and Interpretation           extended          Grammar
 recognize                         Interpretation
                   1 Analysis and                         question that may            answer            Spelling
                                    question = 10 pts
  the use of       Interpretation                         include understanding                          Punctuation
  literary                          2 Analysis and        of literary terms.
  techniques
  in a variety
                                    Interpretation       answer one Analysis
                                    questions = 30 pts    and Interpretation
  of genres                         (15x2=30)             question that may
                                                          include understanding
                   Total # of       The 15 points         of literary terms where
                   questions:       consist of:           they:
                   6 Basic            10 points for        a. identify the HOTS
                   Understanding       the answer to            they chose to
                   3 Analysis and      the question             answer the
                   Interpretation     5 points for             question.
                                       identifying          b. answer the
                                       and justifying           question.
                                       the choice of        c. justify their
                                       HOTS                     choice based on
                                                                the literary text in
                                            OR                  1-2 sentences
                                     Additional                 (The list of HOTS
                                     Analysis and               will be given.)
                                     Interpretation             OR
                                     question (15           d. Answer an
                                     points each)               additional
                                                                Analysis and
                                                                Interpretation
                                                                question which
                                                                does not require
                                                                HOTS justification.


                                                       51
  Table of Specifications for Literature Bagrut Exam – Four Points (continued)
               Lower-Order Thinking Skills (LOTS); Higher-Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)




                                                Part B

                        # of                                             Possible Item      Assessment
  Benchmarks                      Weighting      Item Description
                      Questions                                             Types            Criteria

Students:                1          24%       Students are given         extended        Content: 90%
                                              background                 answer           Coherence
 are aware of the
  author‟s
                                              information about two      (paragraph)      Accuracy of
                                              texts/authors studied in                     reporting
  background and
  the cultural,
                                              class.                                      Making
  historical and/or                           Students choose one of                       connections
  social themes in                            the texts and explain                        between literary
  literary texts or                           how the background                           text and new
  other cultural                              information adds to                          information
  products                                    their understanding of                     Language 10%
                                              the text.                                    Grammar
                                              (Recommended length:                         Spelling
                                              60 - 80 words.)                              Punctuation




                                                 52
                                         State of Israel
                                      Ministry of Education
                                      English Inspectorate


                              Rubrics for Marking Module F



  Rubric 1 (Question is worth 10 points.)


  Criteria                                   Descriptors

               Answer is relevant              Answer is partially           Answer is not
                to the question.                 relevant to the                relevant to the
Content        There is sufficient              question.                      question.
                and fully accurate              There is some                 There is no
                reference to the                 reference to the               reference to the
                text.                            text and/or the                text or the
               The answer                       reference is                   reference is not
                includes supporting              partially accurate.            inaccurate.
                details/examples                The answer does               The answer is
                when necessary.                  not include                    general and does
               Message is clear.                sufficient details             not relate to the
                                                 examples when                  text.
                                                 necessary.                    Message is
                                                Message is partially           unclear.
                                                 clear.

                       8                7               6               5            4-0

               Correct use of                  Partially correct              Incorrect use of
                language: grammar,               use of grammar,                grammar,
Language        vocabulary,                      vocabulary,                    vocabulary,
                spelling and                     spelling and                   spelling and
                punctuation.                     punctuation.                   punctuation.


                       2               ---              1               ---           0




                                               53
                                            State of Israel
                                         Ministry of Education
                                         English Inspectorate


                         Rubrics for Marking Module F (continued)



   Rubric 2 (Question is worth 5 points.)


  Criteria                                         Descriptors

                Correlation between                 Partial correlation              No correlation
                 choice of thinking                   between choice of                 between choice of
Content          skill and                            thinking skill and                thinking skill and
                 explanation.                         explanation                       explanation
                Relevant reference                  Partially relevant               No relevant
                 to the text.                         reference to text.                reference to text.

                         4                  ---                3                ---            0

                Correct use of                      Partially correct                Incorrect use of
                 language: grammar,                   use of grammar,                   grammar,
Language         vocabulary, spelling                 vocabulary,                       vocabulary,
                 and punctuation*                     spelling and                      spelling and
                                                      punctuation*.                     punctuation*

                             1               ---             ---                ---                0%



   In these items there is more than one possible answer. Different thinking skills may be relevant, as
   long as they are supported by the text and can be explained in question e.




                                                    54
                                           State of Israel
                                        Ministry of Education
                                        English Inspectorate



                         Rubrics for Marking Module F (continued)


   Rubric 3: Bridging Text and Context (30 Points)


Criteria                                       Descriptors

             All information is              Most information is           Most information is
              relevant and                     relevant and                   irrelevant or
 Content      accurate.                        accurate.                      inaccurate.
             Details/examples                Details/examples              No details/
              from the text are                given to support the           examples are given
              given to support                 answer are                     to support the
              the answer.                      insufficient and/or            answer.
             Answer clearly                   not entirely                  Answer does not
              shows connection                 appropriate.                   show connection
              between the new                 Answer partially               between the new
              information and                  shows connection               information and the
              the text.                        between the new                text.
             Answer is well                   information and the           The answer is
              organized.                       text.                          poorly organized.
             Message is clear.               Answer is fairly              Message is unclear.
                                               well organized
                                              Message is partially
                                               clear.

                    24                                 18                          12 - 0

             Correct use of                  Mostly correct use            Incorrect use of
              basic language                   of basic language              basic language
              structures.                      structures.                    structures.
Language     Mostly correct use              Incorrect or no use           Many errors of
              of advanced                      of advanced                    mechanics
              language                         language structures.           (spelling,
              structures.                     Some errors of                 punctuation).
             Hardly any errors                mechanics (spelling,
              of mechanics                     punctuation).
              (spelling,
              punctuation).

                     6                                 3                             0


There is no deduction for answers shorter/longer than recommended length.

                                                  55
                                       State of Israel
                                    Ministry of Education
                                    English Inspectorate



                             Rubrics for Marking Module D



Rubric 1 (Question is worth 10 points.)


  Criteria                                      Descriptors

                  Answer is relevant             Answer is partially           Answer is not
  Content          to the question.                relevant to the                relevant to the
                  There is sufficient             question.                      question.
                   and fully accurate             There is some                 There is no
                   reference to the                reference to the               reference to the
                   text.                           text and / or the              text or the
                  The answer                      reference is                   reference is not
                   includes                        partially accurate.            accurate.
                   supporting details             The answer does               Message is
                   / examples when                 not include                    unclear.
                   necessary.                      sufficient details /
                  Message is clear.               examples when
                                                   necessary.
                                                  Message is partially
                                                   clear.

                         9                8               7               5            0

                  Mostly correct use                                            Incorrect use of
  Language         of grammar.                                                    grammar.

                         1                ---            ---              ---        0%




                                                56
                                             State of Israel
                                          Ministry of Education
                                          English Inspectorate


                        Rubrics for Marking Module D (continued)



 Rubric 2 (Question is worth 5 points.)


    Criteria                                         Descriptors

                  Correlation                       Partial                      No correlation
 Content           between choice of                  correlation                   between choice
                   thinking skill and                 between choice                of thinking skill
                   explanation.                       of thinking skill             and explanation.
                                                      and explanation.             No relevant
                  Relevant
                                                     Partially relevant            reference to the
                   reference to the
                                                      reference to the              text.
                   text.
                                                      text.

                          4                  ---            3              ---            0

                  Mostly correct use                                              Incorrect use of
 Language          of grammar.                                                      grammar.

                          1                   ---          ---              ---           0


In these items there is more than one possible answer. Different thinking skills may be relevant, as
long as they are supported by the text.




                                                    57
                                             State of Israel
                                          Ministry of Education
                                          English Inspectorate


                         Rubrics for Marking Module D (continued)



   Rubric 3: Bridging Text and Context (24 Points)



 Criteria                                           Descriptors

              All information is                    Most information             Most
               relevant and accurate.                 is relevant and               information is
Content       Details / examples from                accurate.                     irrelevant or
               the text are given to                 Details / examples            inaccurate.
               support the answer.                    given to support             No details /
              Student clearly shows                  the answer are                examples are
               connection between the                 insufficient and /            given to support
               new information and                    or not entirely               the answer.
               the text.                              appropriate.                 Answer does
              The answer is well                    Answer partially              not show
               organized.                             shows connection              connection
              Message is clear.                      between the new               between the
                                                      information and               new information
                                                      the text.                     and the text.
                                                     Answer is fairly             Answer is
                                                      well organized.               poorly
                                                     Message is                    organized.
                                                      partially clear.             Message is
                                                                                    unclear.

                       21                     19            17              11         4-0

              Correct use of basic                  Mostly correct use           Incorrect use of
               language structures.                   of basic language             basic language
Language      Hardly any errors of                   structures.                   structures.
               spelling, punctuation,                Some errors of               Many errors of
               capitalization, and run-               spelling,                     spelling,
               ons.                                   punctuation,                  punctuation,
                                                      capitalization, and           capitalization,
                                                      run-ons.                      and run-ons.

                        3                     2             1               ---         0

There is no deduction for answers shorter/longer than recommended length.


                                                   58
                    Calculation of the Grade of a Unit for the Exam
                                    Modules F and D

                                       Element                                         % of Grade
                                                                                        for Unit
  At least one graded Key Component (aside from Summative Assessment)                      30%
              Additional graded activities may be included
              If any of the graded activities you included are oral, a grading
               rubric must be included in the Log for each student.

  Summative Assessment                                                                     70%


                         Calculation of the Final Grade of the
                    Literature Program for the Bagrut Examination


The Literature Bagrut examination assesses the students‟ understanding of the literary texts and
their ability to use both lower-order and higher-order thinking skills that they have learned and
applied in the learning process. The learning process includes the teaching of the seven Key
Components for each literary text studied.


The grade for each literary text is based on at least one of the graded Key Components and a
Summative Assessment. The calculation of the final grade of the literature program for students
taking the Bagrut examination is comprised of the following elements:

                                              Module F
                          Literary Text                       % of Final Grade        Grade
        Play                                                          20%
        Short Story                                                   12%
        Short Story                                                   12%
        Short Story                                                   12%
        Poem                                                          6%
        Poem                                                          6%
        Poem                                                          6%
        Poem                                                          6%
        Matkonet Test                                                 20%
        TOTAL                                                         100%

                                                  59
            Calculation of the Final Grade of the
 Literature Program for the Bagrut Examination (continued)




                       Module D

       Literary Text               % of Final Grade   Grade

Short Story                              15%

Short Story                              15%

Short Story                              16%

Short Story                              16%

Poem                                     6%

Poem                                     6%

Poem                                     6%

Matkonet Test                           20%

TOTAL                                   100%




                              60
                                         State of Israel
                                      Ministry of Education
                                      English Inspectorate

               Calculation of the School Grade (‫ )ציון בית ספרי‬for All the Modules


With the implementation of the literature program, the guidelines for calculating the school grade
for the different modules have been changed. It is compulsory to include:
   a. the grade for the Project or the Literature Bridging task
   b. extensive reading


 Four Points

                                                Project or
                                                                                   Project
                                              Bridging Task
                                              C      Lit D       E           C     Lit D     E
  Project Work or Literature Bridging Task    ---        ---    30%          30%     ---     ---

  Extensive Reading                          15% 15%             ---    or   ---    15% 15%

  Literature                                  ---        85%     ---         ---    85%      ---

  Classwork, homework, tests, etc.           85%         ---    70%          70%     ---     85%

  TOTAL                                                  100%                       100%


                                                    OR


                                                Project or
                                                                                   Project
                                              Bridging Task
                                              C      Lit D       E           C     Lit D     E
  Project Work or Literature Bridging Task   ---         ---    30%          30%     ---     ---

  Extensive Reading                          30%         ---    ---    or    ---    ---      30%

  Literature                                 ---     100% ---                ---   100%      ---

  Classwork, homework, tests, etc.           70%         ---    70%          70%     ---     70%

  TOTAL                                              100%                          100%



                                                    61
Five Points

                                              Project or
                                                                               Project
                                            Bridging Task
                                            E      Lit F      G          E      Lit F    G
 Project Work or Literature Bridging Task   ---        ---    30%        30%     ---     ---

 Extensive Reading                          15% 15%           ---   or   ---    15% 15%

 Literature                                 ---        85%    ---        ---    85%      ---

 Classwork, homework, tests, etc.           85%        ---    70%        70%     ---     85%

 TOTAL                                                 100%                     100%


                                                OR


                                              Project or
                                                                               Project
                                            Bridging Task
                                            E      Lit F      G          E      Lit F    G
 Project Work or Literature Bridging Task   ---        ---    30%        30%     ---     ---

 Extensive Reading                          30%        ---    ---   or   ---     ---     15%

 Literature                                 ---    100%       ---        ---   100%      ---
                                                       ---
 Classwork, homework, tests, etc.           70%               70%        70%     ---     85%

 TOTAL                                                 100%                     100%




                                                  62
                                            State of Israel
                                         Ministry of Education
                                         English Inspectorate


                    Rubric for Post-Reading Activity – Module F

                  This rubric can be adapted by the teacher according to the task given.


 Criteria                                        Descriptors

             Activity clearly shows            Activity partially               Activity does not
              connections with the               shows connections                 show connections
Content       text.                              with the text.                    with the text.
             Activity integrates               Activity partially               Activity partially
              information from                   integrates                        integrates
              different parts of the             information from                  information from
              text.                              different parts of the            different parts of the
                                                 text.                             text.
             All information is
              relevant and accurate.            Most information is              Most information is
                                                 relevant and                      irrelevant or
             Content is well
                                                 accurate.                         inaccurate
              organized.
                                                Content is fairly well           Content is poorly
             Message is clear.
                                                 organized.                        organized.
                                                Message is partially             Message is unclear.
                                                 clear.

                     80%                                60%                           40 - 0%

             Correct use of basic              Mostly correct use of            Incorrect use of
              language structures.               basic language                    basic language
             Mostly correct use of              structures.                       structures.
Language      advanced language                 Incorrect or no use              Many errors of
              structures.                        of advanced                       mechanics (spelling,
             Hardly any errors of               language structures.              punctuation)
              mechanics (spelling,              Some errors of
              punctuation)                       mechanics (spelling,
                                                 punctuation)

                     20%                                10%                                0%




                                                   63
                                            State of Israel
                                         Ministry of Education
                                         English Inspectorate




                    Rubric for Post-Reading Activity – Module D

                  This rubric can be adapted by the teacher according to the task given.


 Criteria                                        Descriptors

             Activity clearly shows            Activity partially               Activity does not
              connections with the               shows connections                 show connections
Content       text.                              with the text.                    with the text.
             Activity integrates               Activity partially               Activity partially
              information from                   integrates                        integrates
              different parts of the             information from                  information from
              text.                              different parts of the            different parts of the
                                                 text.                             text.
             All information is
              relevant and accurate.            Most information is              Most information is
                                                 relevant and                      irrelevant or
             Content is well
                                                 accurate.                         inaccurate
              organized.
                                                Content is fairly well           Content is poorly
             Message is clear.
                                                 organized.                        organized.
                                                Message is partially             Message is unclear.
                                                 clear.

                     90%                                70%                           40 - 0%

             Correct use of basic              Mostly correct use of            Incorrect use of
              language structures.               basic language                    basic language
             Hardly any errors of               structures.                       structures.
Language      spelling, punctuation,            Some errors of                   Many errors of
              capitalization, and run-           spelling,                         spelling,
              ons.                               punctuation,                      punctuation,
                                                 capitalization, and               capitalization, and
                                                 run-ons.                          run-ons.

                     10%                                5%                                 0%




                                                   64
              Teaching the Literature Program to Four -Point Students


1. What are the differences between the four- and the five-point literature Bagrut exams?


                                      Four-Point Exam                         Five-Point Exam

Number of literary texts      7 texts (no play or novel)            8 texts
studied

LOTS Questions                36%                                   20%

HOTS Questions                40%                                   50%

Bridging Text and Context 24%                                       30%
Question                  Recommended length:                       Recommended length:
                          60 - 80 words.                            80-100 words.

Assessment Criteria           Content 90%                           Content 80%
                              Language 10%                          Language 20%



2. Suggestions for teaching students taking Module D

   The learning process is the same for four- and five-point students.
   Teachers can work first on teaching the HOTS with reading comprehension and other domains
    and then when they teach the literature program, they will be able to re-enter them. The
    students will already be familiar with the HOTS, making it easier for them to deal with the
    analysis of the texts.
   If a teacher is teaching a class of three- and four-point students or a class of good three-point
    students, she can start teaching the literature program. If the students do not take the four-point
    exam, they will have benefited from learning the literature.
   All texts should be read to the students, with the students following in their copy of the text.
   Teachers should break down the tasks, giving as much scaffolding and explanation as possible.




                                                  65
      Teaching the Literature Program to Four -Point Students (continued)



   Teachers should model answers for the Key Components of the unit. The teacher should go
    over the answers, pointing out what makes a good answer. Then the teacher should do several
    tasks together, with her thinking aloud as she does them and then having the students give their
    input.
   The following are suggestions for breaking down the Bridging Text and Context task:
       1. Explain to the students the purpose of the task and that the information they are being
             given is NOT from the literary text they have read.
       2. Have the students identify the information that is given and list what they know. They
             should first write the information for themselves on a piece of paper and then share
             frontally – with the teacher compiling their answers on the board.
       3. Have the students relate the new information to the literary text. Encourage them to
             brainstorm their ideas.
       4. Have the students explain how that information enhances their understanding of the
             text.
       5. Help the students organize what they have done above into a paragraph.
   Use enactments and drama to engage weaker students to participate.
   Teachers should use the Unit Planners, allowing for sufficient time for the students to work at a
    slower pace, including devoting more lessons to this when necessary.
   When appropriate, texts should be read to the students, with the students following in their
    copy of the text.
   Don‟t worry about doing fewer unseen passages!


      Teachers are invited to send in their suggestions for teaching the literature program.




                                                  66
           Teaching the Literature Program to Mixed Four- and Five-Point Classes

Some schools have classes which are made up of four- and five-point students together all the way
through 12th grade. It is possible to have all of your students succeed in the program.
Here are a few suggestions to help you:
   The learning process is the same for a heterogeneous class.

   Take into account the difference in the structure of the programs, including the number of texts, the
    genre of the texts and the level of the texts when planning your literature program.

   Programs should be planned on a continuum. Begin with the pieces that are common to both
    programs.

   It may NOT be possible to carry through to the 12th grade with mixed four-five point classes.
    Four- point students have an additional short story to learn, while five-point students have an
    additional poem and play/novel. At some point, you may not be able to cater to the needs of
    both groups of students in one class setting.

   The choices of assignments may vary according to students' levels. Here are a few things you
    can take into account when teaching a unit of literature in a very heterogeneous class:

     1. Basic Understanding:
          i. Vocabulary: Consider giving out different lists of vocabulary and glossed words
             for stronger and weaker students. You can also create one longer list with core
             vocabulary which everyone must learn and including optional vocabulary for both
             the lower level and the higher level.

           ii. Basic Understanding Questions: You may find that you need to give the four-point
               students more LOTS questions in order to ensure good basic understanding while
               the five-point students may need less guidance in understanding the literary text.

     2. Analysis and Interpretation:
           i. The HOTS questions you ask while applying the explicitly taught HOTS to the
               text should be the same for all students. The level of language may vary. You can
               help four-point students answer the questions using guided writing and
               scaffolding.

             ii. You can ask the five-point students more HOTS questions, eliciting analysis
                 which combines a variety of thinking skills and which demands higher-level
                 language answers.

             iii. Spiraling the HOTS from other pieces helps both the weaker and the stronger
                  students, so do this a lot. Remind them of HOTS previously learned and apply
                  them to the text being studied.

                                                   67
Teaching the Literature Program to Mixed Four- and Five-Point Classes (continued)




3. Post-reading:
     i. Allow for different levels and types of presentation and group work.
    ii. Group your students heterogeneously and have them each contribute something to
         the final product.

4. Bridging Text and Context:
     i. Vary the types, length and difficulty of the information you bring to the students.
        You can bring longer texts for the stronger students, while adapting and shortening
        the text for weaker students. Keep in mind that the same themes should be present
        to allow for class discussion.
    ii. Use photos, video clips and music as well which can challenge all of your students.

5. Summative Assessment: Remember that you have taught different levels of each of the
   components. Therefore you need to test the students according to the Table of
   Specifications for the four-and five-point exams and assess them according to the
   relevant rubrics

6. Reflection: All students benefit from reflection. Use guided writing to help the four-
   point students express themselves. Allow them to reflect first in group discussion and
   then write their own reflections.

7. Regarding students who want to move from four points to five points:

       i. Students need be taught an additional poem as well as a novel or play.

      ii. The pieces they have studied will have to be on a five-point level.

      iii. For each unit studied at the four-point level, 10% of the grade will be deducted.

 8. Students who want to move from five points to four points:

      i.    Students need to have the appropriate number of texts and genres for the four-
           point program.

      For each unit studied at the five-point level, 10% of the grade will be added.




                                            68
       Information about Students with Learning Disabilities and the Literature Program


Accommodations for the Literature Bagrut (Modules D and F)

       There is no mutam exam for the literature exams.
       The oral exam (‫ )בעל-פה‬will be a complete exam given under oral testing conditions.


A document with guidelines and suggestions for teaching the literature program to students with
learning disabilities can be found in the Toolbox on the TLC site in the section Teaching Students
with LDs.




                                                69
             Backward Design for Teaching the Literature Program – Module F


     It is important to plan the literature program, regardless if you are assessing it via the Log or the
     Exam in order to ensure that all of the HOTS are taught. It is also important for the English staff to
     decide how many pieces and which genres are to be taught in which year, to allow for mobility
     between levels if necessary. The list below should be organized in the order in which the literary
     texts will be taught.




                              Literary
                                                                                                     Grade the
Name of Literary             Terms to be     HOTS to be Taught              HOTS that are
                                                                                                    Text will be
     Text                     Taught/                                         Spiraled
                                                                                                      Taught
                              Spiraled
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.




                                                       70
            Backward Design for Teaching the Literature Program – Module D

     It is important to plan the literature program, regardless if you are assessing it via the Log or the
     Exam in order to ensure that all of the HOTS are taught. It is also important for the English staff to
     decide how many pieces and which genres are to be taught in which year, to allow for mobility
     between levels if necessary. The list below should be organized in the order in which the literary
     texts will be taught.




                              Literary
                                                                                                Grade the
 Name of Literary            Terms to be
                                            HOTS to be Taught           HOTS that are Spiraled Text will be
      Text                    Taught /
                                                                                                 Taught
                              Spiraled

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.




                                                       71
                                     High School English Studies Planner



The following tool can be used to help you organize and plan English studies at your school. Two
examples of how one high school filled out the form, follows (one for a Five-point class and one for a
Four-point class). However, there are many other options of how to divide up the different requirements
of studying English.




                                          Four/Five-Point Students

Requirements                 10th grade                    11th grade                   12th grade

Bagrut Modules

Projects


Extensive
Reading

Literature
Exam/Log

Oral Bagrut




                                        Literature Program

                        Five Points                            Four Points

            a. One play or novel                      a. Four short stories
            b. Three short stories                    b. Three poems
            c. Four poems




                                                      72
                     Example of High School English Studies Planner



                                         Five-Point Students

Requirements              10th grade                     11th grade                  12th grade

Bagrut Modules                                                        E     Literature            G
                                                                            Module (F)

Projects                                                                    Project OR
                                                                            Literature
                                                                            Bridging
                                                                            task

Extensive        1 book         1 book          1 book          1 book      1 book
Reading

Literature       1 poem         1 short story   2 poems         1 play or   1 short story
Exam/Log                                        1 short story   novel       1 poem


Oral Bagrut                                                                                 Oral Bagrut




                                                   73
              Example of High School English Studies Planner (continue d)



                                         Four-Point Students

Requirements              10th grade                    11th grade                12th grade

Bagrut Modules                                                       C   Literature            E
                                                                         Module (D)

Projects                                                                 Project OR
                                                                         Literature
                                                                         Bridging
                                                                         task

Extensive        1 book         1 book         1 book          1 book    1 book
Reading

Literature                      1 poem         1 poem          2 short   1 short story
                                               1 short story   stories   1 poem
Exam/Log

Oral Bagrut                                                                              Oral Bagrut




                                                74

								
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