Group Members by 3n5ulPE

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									                             Model-based Inquiry Unit
        Investigating Comparative Embryology & Critical Times in Development




Essential Question: What is the most critical critical time during our development?

1a. Hooking                2a. Crafting initial                  3. Designing and
students                   models                                conducting the investigation
                                                                 (operationalizing variables
                                                                 & creating data tables)

                                                         Content-
                                                         methods & skills



     Wonderment                            Content                           Content                   Content
     questions


              1b. Building a                      2b. Crafting                   4. Analyzing data        5. Reconsidering the
              knowledge base to                   questions,                     and representing it      model, coordinating
              prepare for inquiry                 hypotheses,                    as evidence              evidence and theory
                                                  predictions




                                                                                                                                 1
1a. Hooking students
Group Members
        Ann Miley, Mollie Caka, Rachelle Louk, Tyrell Coates, Greg Brunkhorst, and John Urdal

Objectives:
   1.) Students will understand that embryos of different vertebrates have similar
       developmental stages.
   2.) Students will identify differences between different developmental stages and the
       differences between the developmental stages of different vertebrates.
   3.) Students will make connections that research on other vertebrates can be related to and
       applied to human systems.

Materials:
Pictures of the different developmental stages of the following vertebrates:
             Human
             Monkey
             Pig
             Chicken
             Salamander

Procedure:
Opening:
        Who has seen a human baby? What about a puppy? OK… well who has seen a chick?
What about a tadpole? So what do all of these different vertebrates have in common? (If
needed) What were all of these vertebrates before they became the small creatures I introduced
previously? … Great!! Yes they were all once embryos.
        And today we will begin to look more deeply into the developmental stages of the embryo
in different vertebrates along with getting into what things may affect the embryo as it develops.
But before we do this, we would like to become more familiar with the different stages of the
development of an embryo. We will do this through a group game. Before we start the game I
would like everyone to take a moment and read the question we made for you and ponder it while
you play the game.
        Question to pose to the students:
        How similar or different are the developmental stages of vertebrates?

Game:
        Students will break into groups of two or three. They will then receive the pictures of the
different developmental stages of the different vertebrates. The students will not know which
pictures goes with which vertebrate. The students will then work in groups to organize the
pictures to try and illustrate the correct order of the developmental stages. They will also try and
assign each sequence to each of the vertebrates.




                                                                                                   2
Class discussion:
        This will entail the groups sharing their results with the rest of class and elaborating on
the reason and logic they used to order them the way they did. The students will also reflect on
areas that are similar and different in the sequences.
For example, distinguishing differences by comparing the ratio of the sizes of different body
parts (tails, heads, nose…) and pointing out physical traits. Through this discussion it will also
be important to stress the similarities of all these different embryos in order to make a smoother
transition into comparative embryology. The teacher should also make sure to listen to the
students‟ language, specifically language that is used to express possible rules to explain the
relationships they see. For example, “The more cells that are apparent in the beginning stages,
the more developed the animal.”

Eliciting ideas:
        Questions to ask students:
             What conditions do all embryos need to survive? (USED)
             What types of environmental factors can affect the development of an embryo?
             What could harm the embryo? (USED)
             How do we find out how harmful things are to the embryo?
             Can we experiment on human embryos? (USED)
             How could you use fish eggs to learn about humans?
             What problems might you have when making connections

Closing:
        Today we have discovered the similarities and differences of how embryos of different
vertebrates develop. We have also begun to touch on what conditions are needed for the embryo
to survive, along with what factors may harm the embryo during its development. And finally
through our game and discussions we have started to see that because the embryos of different
vertebrates develop similarly, research that is done on other vertebrates can often be applied to
human systems!

Multicultural Responsiveness:

        Our lesson plan allows equal access to all students in a variety of ways. First, we are
introducing the inquiry project and the topics of comparative embryology and critical stages as a
game, so that learning after this lesson is based on that common experience. Therefore, students
need little cultural background knowledge to fully participate. During the game, groups will be
monitored to ensure that everyone has the chance to participate equally, and that students are
listening actively. During the eliciting ideas phase, the teacher will give recognition to students
for participating, while revoicing and helping other students build on those ideas. Consequently,
the students create the main concepts for the inquiry instead of obtaining them from a book or
authority figure. This student-centered scaffolding of ideas challenges the typical structure of
scientific classrooms, and gives students ownership and accountability for their ideas. Also, the
students will experience the authentic collaboration necessary for creating inquiries into real-life
phenomena, helping typically disengaged students to see the relevance of the project. Student
collaboration throughout the duration of the project not only challenges typical science class



                                                                                                      3
culture; it fosters academic and social relationships between classmates and an understanding of
others‟ experiences.
        The topics of embryology and environmental effects on embryo development can follow
controversial avenues, but provide excellent opportunities for recognizing others‟ worlds. For
example, our inquiry project will test the effects of alcohol and stimulants, such as caffeine, on
medaka embryo development; these results easily translate to similar effects on human embryos.
Therefore, students could gain insight into the development and maintenance of peers with fetal
alcohol syndrome and fetal drug addiction, if the students choose to explore that avenue. Other
hot issues, such as stem cell research, should be treated more delicately because of ethical or
religious sentiments. Handled appropriately, the exploration of such topics can be crucial to
students understanding of the relevance of their project and embryology as a whole.

About the Lesson

        Overall, we think the lesson went very well. But as in any lesson there are a few changes
we would like to introduce in order to make it better. First of all, it would have been more
helpful to the overall inquiry if we also had a fish represented in our various vertebrate
developmental stages. It would have also been interesting if we had introduced the
developmental stages of a spider, to show a completely different developmental sequence.
Introducing the different gastrulational periods would have also been very beneficial for the
students because it would have further helped them see the similarities and differences of the
different embryos. And finally we felt that we should have spent more time stressing the good
and bad things that affect human embryos along with emphasizing that these things can also hurt
embryos of different vertebrates. The students seemed to leave with not quite buying into the
idea that, because a fish embryo is similar to a human embryo, research done on a fish embryo
can be used to help human embryonic research.

What Students are Learning

        The students learned that development starts before the birth of an organism, not just
after. They also saw that these early developmental stages in different vertebrates are fairly
similar. They learned organizational and comparing skills through creating the best sequence of
developmental stages for each vertebrate by carefully looking at the different physical traits of
the organisms and using ratios of body parts to make comparisons between the different
embryos. They also began to see that embryonic development is divided up into specific stages.
This information will be useful when we discuss critical stages. And finally, the students began
to see that because of the similarities in the embryonic development of different vertebrates,
research on other vertebrate embryos can be used to aid research on human embryonic
development.




                                                                                                    4
1b. Building a knowledge base to prepare for inquiry

Eric DeJulio, Melissa Barga, Ryan Palmer, Amanda Stodelle, Kelly Chamberlin,

Christina Wilson



1/6/05

EDTEP 587



“Background building for Medaka fish inquiry: osmosis and semi-permeable

membranes”



9-10th grade science




                                                                               5
  Objectives:
  Objective 1: Students will know that a membrane can allow substances to pass through it.
  Objective 2: Students will know that a membrane prevents some substances from passing
  through             it.
  Objective 3: Students will apply knowledge of diffusion and membrane permeability to predict
              the movement of water/solutes between solutions of differing solute concentrations.
  Resources:
      PowerPoint slides
      RBC worksheet
      Saran wrap, flour, iodine, plastic cups, twist ties

  References:
      http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/e22/22c.htm
      http://www.tvdsb.on.ca/westmin/science/sbi3a1/Cells/Osmosis.htm
      Campbell (1996). Biology

  Do before class: Ready PowerPoint slideshow and set up demonstration.
  Safety note?: No special safety requirements

Opening:          Recently, we learned about the process of diffusion. Can anyone explain to me
(2 min)           what they remember about diffusion? (We learned that diffusion is the process
                  that involves the movement of molecules from areas of high concentration to areas
                  of low concentration.)
Demo              Today, we are going to further explore the process of diffusion by asking the
(5 min)           question “Does diffusion occur in living organism and if so, how?” What kinds
                  of chemicals can affect an unborn baby?

                  This plastic bag simulates a cell. In our cell is a solution made of water and flour.
                  In this cup, I‟ve got a solution of iodine and water. When flour and iodine mix the
                  solution turns blue/black (demonstrate this by putting a couple of drops of iodine
                  on a dry sample of flour). What do you think will happen when I place the plastic
                  bag in the cup containing the iodine solution? Why? Place a ball of chicken wire
                  and different sized rocks in a clear plastic container. Show them the
                  container explaining what is in it and then shake it up. Guiding Questions:
                  What kinds of things went inside the ball? What kinds of things didn‟t go
                  into the ball? What prevented the big rocks from going inside of the chicken
                  wire?

Building the      This plastic bag simulates a cell. In our cell is a solution made of water and flour.
concept of        In this cup, I‟ve got a solution of iodine and water. When flour and iodine mix the
osmosis and       solution turns blue/black (demonstrate this by putting a couple of drops of
membrane          iodine on a dry sample of flour). What do you think will happen when I place the
permeability:     plastic bag in the cup containing the iodine solution? Why?(Note: This
(20 min)          experiment will be fine tuned and use a material that will work more quickly
                  or do an actual time lapse)



                                                                                                   6
                  In groups of three or four , I will come around and give you the demonstration to
                  observe. I‟d like you to discuss what you think is happening in this demo. Please
                  write a few sentences and draw a diagram in your science notebook describing
                  what you think happened. We will then discuss your ideas as a class. You will
                  have 8 minutes to make your observations before we discuss as a class.

                  Guiding Questions as teacher monitors group work: What do you see
                  happening? Why do you think this is happening? Can you explain this using a
                  picture/diagram? Why did the solution turn blue inside the bag but remain yellow
                  outside the bag?
                  (The plastic is permeable to the water/iodine, but the plastic is NOT permeable to
                  the water/flour mixture, so only the flour/water mixture inside the plastic is blue).
Connecting
ideas/analogies
                  After 5 minutes have elapsed, Ok, so what do you think is happening in this
                  example? Have students come up to board and draw their diagram. Groups
                  can change or add the current picture. What is the motion of the water? Of the
                  flour? Of the Iodine? Why is this? How does this relate to the rocks and chicken
                  wire?

                  Probing questions:
                      How did the iodine get through the plastic?
                      Why isn‟t the water in the cup also blue?

                  (Guide students to understand that diffusion is occurring across the membrane. Big
                  “things” can’t fit through the membrane when small “things” can. The iodine
                  is small enough to fit through the “holes” in the membrane, but the flour is too big
                  to fit through the same “holes.” This is why the solution is blue only in the bag
                  rather than in both the cup and the bag.)

                  Work with students to draw a model on the board of the demonstration that shows
Sense-making      the relative sizes and locations of iodine, water, flour, plastic, cup, and pores. Also
                  show the direction of movement of water/iodine in the model.

                  How can we use what we learned from these two demonstrations to know
                  what kinds of chemicals can affect an unborn baby?
                  (What if a harmful chemical acts like Iodine did in the demonstration and the
                  plastic bag is like the fish egg? (that would be bad for the egg!!) Well, do you
                  think all chemicals act like Iodine? Which chemicals do? )

                  If time permits, show students video of cells being put in media with differing
                  osmolarities. Then give worksheet to students (with RBCs under different
                  osmolaric conditions) that has them label the movement of water in each condition
                  and give a short written explanation about what is happening. If time is short, this
                  can be given as a take-home assignment.
Assessment:       Mental note of what students understood from interactive concept building.


                                                                                                     7
                 Pictures and notes in lab book about Iodine exercise.
                 Worksheet with RBCs under different osmolarities, which shows student
                 understanding about what happens when semi-permeable membranes are put under
                 different conditions. Also, this worksheet allows students to show their
                 understanding of the process of osmosis, not just identifying cells under conditions
                 of different osmolarities.
Closure:              What did we learn today?
(3 min)               Where are we going from here? We can use the concept of semi-permeable
                         membranes and osmosis to explain the uptake (and non-uptake) of different
                         compounds by cells. This is an important element of our inquiry with
                         Medaka fish eggs, as it will help explain how the test compounds that we
                         give will enter the eggs.
                      So, we know that certain harmful chemicals can get into a fish egg or a
                         human fetus, but…what exactly will those chemicals do to them, and to
                         what extent? What things could make the effect worse, or less harmful?
                     (tomorrow’s class will be on critical times and this last question leads into
                     that. Is it worse to have alcohol the first month of pregnancy, or the last?
                     When is the baby most susceptible? What things will be affected at certain
                     times, ie heart, brain, lungs, etc)
Cultural         Different world views, knowledge construction process– Students will be offered
Responsiveness: common classroom experiences from which we will collaborate in discovering the
                concept of semi-permeable membranes.
                 Students will be encouraged to construct and share their own understanding of the
                process of osmosis through a semi-permeable membrane based upon their own
                observations of the demonstration and their previous life experiences
                 Developing an inclusive classroom community, prejudice reduction –
                 During group activity, students are encouraged to work together within groups and
                 as a class rather than compete. Teacher will monitor student interaction in groups
                 to ensure all students are participating and all ideas are honored. Teacher will
                 model the importance of honoring student ideas by re-voiceing them so that other
                 students' can hear and add to them.
                 Students will be working in small groups, of two to three students, creating the
                 chance to voice ideas, observations, their reasoning, and suggestions in a safe,
                 comfortable, and friendly atmosphere. This atmosphere will also be fostered
                 through a student centered forum of sharing and developing ideas.
                 Providing access through instruction and curriculum, content integration- students
                 are encouraged to explore their own ideas about diffusion, osmosis and semi-
                 permeable membranes and use their observations and previous knowledge to
                 create and integrate a new deeper understanding.
                 The important issues that need to be introduced and stressed will be done through
                 the numerous student centered activities and discussions
                 Content from other cultures is not addressed in this lesson.




                                                                                                 8
2a. Crafting initial models

Modeling Lesson Plan
                                             Mollie, Ann, Tyrell, Jon, Rachel, Greg
                                             1-10-05

Overarching question: How can we represent the relationships in this experiment in a simple
and predictive way?

Objectives:
1) Students understand how a model expresses relationships in a simple way that predicts
phenomena in science (and other places).
2) Students learn how to make their own initial model of the Medaka fish egg experiment.

Instructional Flow:
Introduction: (1 minute)

For the last couple of days we‟ve been exploring different factors that effect the development of
our fish eggs. Today we are going to work on finding a way to represent the relationships
between these factors in a simple and predictive way. Vana, unveil the overarching question:

How can we represent the relationships in this experiment in a simple and predictive way?

Before we start talking about our fish eggs, lets practice representing relationships with
something else that we are all familiar with to see how this works.

The Burger Model: (10-15 minutes)

Instructional guiding questions:

What are things that we need to think about when we make a burger?
            Right ingredients
            Cooking time
            Correct assembly at proper times
What goes into making a good hamburger?
            The ingredients are what we prefer.
            The ingredients are safe (quality meat, no e-coli, no rotten vegetables)
            The burger is cooked enough so it‟s safe, but not so long that it burns.
            It‟s cooked to our preference.
            The bun is put on at the proper time.
            The cheese is put on at the proper time.
What can make a hamburger taste bad?
            We don‟t prefer the ingredients on it (yogurt, mayonnaise, meat, etc.)
            The ingredients are unsafe.


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                The patty is frozen or burnt.
                The bun is put on the patty as the patty is cooking (resulting in a burnt bun).

 How do we represent these things in a succinct way? Well, some ways that I would represent all
 these ideas are the following…show the different models (concept maps, ven diagram, flow
 chart, sentence, mathematical equation, pictures, timelines, etc.)

 Medaka Fish Model: (25-35 minutes)

 So these are all ways to show the relationship between ingredients, cooking time, and proper
 assembly and a good/bad burger. Now we are going to look at the factors that relate to our fish
 eggs. Then we are going to, as a class, make a representation of the relationship of the factors
 to the quality of our fish eggs.

 Some of the things we have learned about the last few days have been
               Critical times of embryological development
               Permeability
               Potentially damaging substances (pesticides, caffeine, alcohol)
               Potentially positive substances (nutrients)
 First you will be put into two groups. Group one will state how potentially damaging
 substances, critical times of embryological development, and overall health of the fish relate.
 Also predict how these factors will affect the outcome of the fish. Group two will state how the
 potentially positive substances, critical times of embryological development, and overall health
 of the fish relate. You also need to predict how these factors will affect the outcome of the fish.
 These four factors that we have learned about are similar to the ingredients, cooking time, and
 assembly of the burger. I will give you about five minutes to discuss as a group how you would
 like to state this relationship.
 Instructors will circulate around the room and help individual groups.

 Now I want each group to choose one of the diagrams that we used earlier for the burger and try
 to represent your statement with the same type of diagram. Here is an example of what I mean.
 So a statement that I came up with earlier was the following. “Since the egg membrane allows
 oxygen to pass through it, more oxygen can be given to the embryo. If more oxygen is given to
 the embryo earlier in its development, it will be a healthier fish which can be seen in its greater
 weight at „birth.‟” I chose to represent this statement with the diagram below.




Conception       Stage 5                  Stage 10               Stage 15           “Birth”




                                                                                                   10
After the groups have worked for a while, they will present to each other, critique each other‟s
models, and revise their models.

Closure: (1 minute)

        Today we looked at how represent relationships in complex systems. We used the same
processes for a cheeseburger and for Medaka fish embryos. These predictive representations
are called models! Welcome to the beautiful world of modeling. Vana show „ em how it‟s done.
        Now that we have learned how to represent the relationships of factors in developing
embryos, we‟re going to move on to what factors we want to test for our grand experiment and
what we can predict about the effects of those factors.
        Thanks for your hard work today. You are some smart monkeys.


About the Lesson
        At first we chose to spend a lot of time developing a model that showed the predictive
relationships between factors and good/bad burgers. However, most of the time was spent on
brainstorming what goes into making a hamburger. We spent a little bit of time on the actual
relationships and the final model. More time should have been spent on the relationships
between ingredients and a good hamburger and how to represent these in certain diagrams. In
this new lesson more time is spent on brainstorming how these factors relate. Then we show
students a variety of finished representations or these relationships. That way, students see a
model and they are left with practice on stating relationships. Since students have already done
research on factors for our inquiry, they do not need to spend time brainstorming what are
factors. Instead, students are asked to state relationships and then spend time designing a
diagram/model of their predictive statement. Students are given exposure to modeling in both
words and a diagram.
        One of the values that are group wanted to see occur in this lesson is that models can look
any number of ways. Therefore, time is spent showing students many models. Students are
usually more motivated when they have a choice in the learning. So students are given the
opportunity to choose a previous model and work with it.

What Students are Learning
        Students learn that various diagrams and sentences can show simple and predictive
relationships. They learn that they are responsible for conveying their thoughts and working in a
group in order to formulate that thought.




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2b. Crafting questions, hypotheses, predictions



Eric DeJulio, Melissa Barga, Ryan Palmer, Amanda Stodelle, Kelly Chamberlin,

Christina Wilson



1/10/05

EDTEP 587



“Crafting Questions for the Medaka Fish Inquiry”



9-10th grade science




                                                                               12
  Objectives:
  Objective 1: Students will develop criteria for evaluating a testable question.
  Objective 2: Students will apply their knowledge of models to create testable questions.

  Resources:
     Butcher paper
     Colored Pens
     Testable Question Worksheet
     Model created previous day

  Do before class: Create Testable Question Worksheet
                   Acquire pens and paper
                   Write model on the board

  Safety note: Remind students not to ingest pens or paper.

Opening:          Today we are going to use the model we created yesterday to come up with a
(2 min)           question that we can investigate
                  Guiding Question: “What makes a „good‟ scientific question for our
                  inquiry”
Instructional     In groups of three we will give you 5 minutes to brainstorm questions that you
Flow:             would like to investigate related to the model. When you are done each students
(25 min)          will share one or two of questions with the class.
                  (remind students when one minute remains)
                  Have each person write 1 or 2 questions on the board.

                  Teacher will read students questions out loud to class
                  Teacher will ask some of the following about the list of questions;
                       Can we test this?
                       How could this be measured?
                       Do you need an investigation to answer this question?
                      Does anyone already know the answer to this question?
                      (How) Does this question relate to the model?
                      Is this a question about how we will do the experiment, or about why we are
                  doing the      experiment?
                  Affirm students contributions with how questions by letting them know we will
                  address them in a later lesson.

                  What do all of these questions (questions left) have in common?
                  Write down student rules on the board
                  Help students formulate rules for „good‟ questions

                  Now we would like you to use the rules you have created to decide which of the
                  questions on this worksheet are „good‟ questions.
                  Before you get started on that, I would like you to vote on the question you would


                                                                                                13
                   most like to investigate by writing down the symbol next to the question on a slip
                   of paper. When you are done please put the paper in the middle of your table.

                   Give students Testable Questions handout
                   Tabulate results while students work on handout.
Assessment:        *Testable Question Worksheet
                   *Evaluating student questions as a class
Closure:               Today we have come up with some really great rules for evaluating a „good‟
(3 min)               scientific questions and you all have voted to investigate “ ”

                       Tonight I would like you all to look at our information packet about this
                       subject and come up with a prediction for how you think “ “ will affect “ “
                       Tomorrow we will discuss your predictions.

Cultural         Different world views, knowledge construction process–Students will be
Responsiveness: encouraged to construct and share their own questions that reflect the student‟s
                unique interests. All student ideas will be discussed and considered.
                 Developing an inclusive classroom community, prejudice reduction –
                 During group activity, students are encouraged to work together within groups
                 and as a class rather than compete. Teacher will monitor student interaction in
                 groups to ensure all students are participating and all ideas are honored. Teacher
                 will model the importance of honoring student ideas by re-voiceing them so that
                 other students' can hear and add to them.
                 Students will be working in small groups, of two to three students, creating the
                 chance to voice ideas, observations, their reasoning, and suggestions in a safe,
                 comfortable, and friendly atmosphere. This atmosphere will also be fostered
                 through a student centered forum of sharing and developing ideas.
                 Student interest will be incorporated into the inquiry by allowing students to vote
                 for the question they find most interesting to investigate.
                 Teachers will avoid equating student questions as good or bad and will use
                 symbols to differentiate between questions rather than letters or numbers that
                 may reflect teacher bias or may bias the students.
                 Providing access through instruction and curriculum, content integration-
                 students are encouraged to create their own questions which will be used to
                 determine the rules for a scientific question.
                 Student generated questions will be used to guide the Medaka fish inquiry.
                 Content from other cultures is not addressed in this lesson.




                                                                                                  14
3a. Designing and conducting the investigation (operationalizing variables &
creating data tables)




Eric DeJulio, Melissa Barga, Ryan Palmer, Amanda Stodelle, Kelly Chamberlin,

Christina Wilson



1/12/05

EDTEP 587



“Designing an Investigation on Effects of Caffeine or Pesticides on Medaka Fish

Eggs ”



9-10th grade science




                                                                                  15
  Objectives:
  Objective 1: Students will know the components of an experimental design: i.e. hypothesis,
  variables, procedure.
  Objective 2:           it.
  Objective 3: Students will operationalize experimental variables.
  Objective 4: Students will design an experimental procedure.

  Resources:
     Pens
     Large Paper
     Post-it Notes

  References:

  Do before class: Post previously decided question and model
  Safety note?: No special safety requirements
  Note: Explain to students that they are in ninth grade, they have learned about the scientific
  method and have been tested on them.

Opening:           (Write on board the focus question: “What is a way we can answer our question” )
(2 min)
                   Yesterday, we developed a testable question that we are going to try to answer
                   using the model we created. (Review question, prediction, and model that are
                   posted on the board).

                   Yesterday we also decided to use both pesticides and caffeine. Today we are going
                   to figure out exactly how we can answer our question.

                   In order to test our question, we need to design an experiment. We have our
                   question and we have our prediction. What else do we need in order to be able to
                   go ahead and do our experiment? (have students generate a list with a brief
                   explanation of question, prediction, materials, variables, procedure, data
                   collection, analysis, etc)
Elicit             What are the main parts we need to do an experiment?
Ideas/Review       (Question/Hypothesis/Prediction, Materials, Variables, Procedure, Data
                   Collecting)

                   Guide students to elaborate on what you do for each experimental component i.e.
                   what do you mean by variables, what makes a good procedure.

                   Great list! If you remember, we already have the first component, the hypothesis:
                   “If eggs have received pesticides/caffeine earlier on in development then they will
                   be more likely to die or develop less quickly than the controlled eggs or those that
                   received pesticides/caffeine in later stages because we know pesticides kill other
                   living organisms (weeds).”
Experimental       Based on the list we developed, what is the next thing we need to do?


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Design:    Identify/label our variables. What are our manipulated variables? What are our
(20 min)   responding variables? Controlled variables? (What other things might affect our
           results? To get them to think of more controlled variables)

           Before we jump in to design our experiment, we need to know exactly what we are testing. This means we need to define
           our variables. In groups of three I am going to pass out to you a worksheet that will help you to define what our variables
           are. I will give you about 5 minutes and then we will make a statement as a class of what our variables are so that we are all
           on the same page when we go to make our procedures.



           Break students into groups of three and hand out worksheets. Walk around
           between groups as they are working to make sure they understand what each
           variable is (Responding is the thing that is affected, etc). Also help students if
           they are stuck (“What in our experiment is going to be affected? What are we
           going to do in the experiment? What do we need to keep constant for each egg to
           make sure that we are only testing the change of one thing?”). This process
           shouldn’t be too difficult so 5-7 minutes should suffice.

           Super! What‟s the next part we need to work on? Procedure.
           Great! Now that we have the variables, we can go ahead and create our
           procedure. In order to do this we are going to break into 2 groups of 3. Each
           group will work on designing a procedure for testing our hypothesis, keeping in
           mind the things we‟ve discussed. As a group, find a way of describing your
           procedure using the paper at your tables. This can be done by drawing the eggs
           and describing what you are going to do with them, or you can make a list of
           steps you will take, or any other way that you can best explain your procedure. I
           am going to give each group a copy of this sheet that has the instructions on it in
           case you missed something I said and a list of materials that will be available to
           you. Let me know if you would like to use something that is not on this list. After
           both groups have done this, we will do a wisdom walk to see what each group
           thought of in order to design a CLASS procedure from all of our ideas.
           Depending on how long the designing takes, we may not do the wisdom walk until
           tomorrow. We‟ll play it by ear.

           Break students into groups, hand out directions, paper, pens, petri dish, medaka

           egg pictures. Have pesticides and caffeine in front of room for students to see.

           Also have available the booklet on Medaka embryo development if students ask

           for more information on the eggs.


           (If time permits)

           Now we are going to begin the wisdom walk. For the next 5-7 minutes your group
           will look at the other group‟s design. Pay attention to aspects that you think are
           important to include in our class design. Write these ideas down on the post-its


                                                                                                                                  17
                provided and stick it on their design. After this we will come together as a class
                and create a class design based on all our ideas.
Closure:        You did a great job brainstorming and beginning the design process. Tomorrow
(1 min)         we will finish our class design and move forward from there.
Assessment:     -Teacher observation of design posters & comments from them on wisdom walk
                -Knowledge they have from previous science experiences (in relation to
                experimental design)
Cultural            1) Recognizing our own and other‟s worlds/ knowledge construction process.
Responsiveness: Teacher uses student‟s language during eliciting ideas section. This uses a
                language comfortable to students so their perspective is validated in class.
                Students are able to create their own design which gives them freedom to express
                things the way they wish.

                      2) Developing relationships to form inclusive communities/prejudice
                          reduction and equity pedagogy
                  Group work will allow students to interact with each other. Classroom norms will
                  push them to work together to not only produce a product together, but also to
                  better understand and respect another person who may be different. This is an on-
                  going process that requires much teacher monitoring.

                      3) Providing access (to the culture of science and school) through curriculum
                         and instruction/ content integration
                  Teacher makes materials available to their research.
                  Teacher allows students to play a large role in developing an experiment which
                  helps make the scientific ideas accessible to them.

                     4) Critiquing, challenging, and changing the culture of school and school
                         science/ empowering school culture and social structure
                  Teacher does not hand student a “cookbook” lab, but instead allows students to
                  have input into a project that they are designing themselves.
  For teacher reference:
  Variables:
  Controlled:
      [pesticide] & [caffeine]
      temp
      nutrient solution
      light
      species of fish
  Manipulated:
      time/if of development poison is added (critical time)
  Responding:
      health/development of embryo

  List of components of experiment outlined for board idea



                                                                                               18
Designing Your Procedure
       Work together as a group. Keeping in mind the ideas we have talked about
experimental design, come up with a way to test our hypothesis. In pictures or words,
explain the steps you are going to take to conduct your test. Be sure your design is clear
enough so the other group could use it to conduct the experiment on their own.


   Here are materials available to you from school (you may also bring materials from home):
          o Fish eggs will be in Petri dishes in a water solution
          o Microscopes
          o Pipets
          o Caffeine & Pesticides
          o Lab glassware
          o Reference books/materials on Madaka fish
          o Stop watch
          o Calendar


REVISED WORKSHEET:


                              Designing Your Procedure

       Using a flow chart, a list of directions, or Medaka egg drawings with descriptions of
what you are going to do with them, explain the steps you think we should take to find an
answer to our question. Be sure your design is so extra clear that the other group could use
what you‟ve written to conduct the experiment on their own. (The clarity will help other
groups during the wisdom walk and it is required by scientists to create clear procedures.)



    Here are materials available to you from school (ask us if there is something else you would
like to use):
            o Fish eggs will be in Petri dishes in a water solution (shown)
            o Microscopes
            o Pipets
            o Caffeine & Pesticides (shown)
            o Lab glassware
            o Reference books/materials on Madaka fish (shown)
            o Stop watch
            o Calendar



                                                                                               19
                                                               Name:_______________________
                                                                                   Per:_____
                                                                                 Date:______

                               What are our variables??
Our Question: (copy and paste the question students decide on as a class)
Our Prediction: (copy and paste the prediction students decide on as a class)

Our Variables:




Responding Variable(s)            Manipulated Variable(s)       Controlled Variables (at least 5)
(What change will you look        (How are you going to test    (What do you need to make sure
for if collecting data?)          your prediction? State how    to keep the same for each fish so
                                  much and when)                that only one thing is changed?)
1.                                1.                            1.

                                                                2.

                                                                3.
2.                                2.
                                                                4.

                                                                5.

3.                                3.                            6.

                                                                7.

                                                                8.

                                                                9.




Once we decide as a class, circle variables that you already have that we are using as a class, or
add new ones that is not already on your list.



                                                                                                 20
3b. Designing and conducting the investigation (operationalizing variables &
creating data tables)




Making a Data Table for Medaka Embryo Experiment

Tenth Grade Biology

Greg Brunkhorst, Tyrell Coates, Ann Miley, John Urdal, Mollie Caka, Rachelle
Louk

January 13, 2005




                                                                               21
Overarching Question:
How are we going to record and organize data during our experiment?

Objectives:
   Students will practice observation skills on one egg for all parameters to make those
      observations consistent for the class
   Students will design a data table for practical use in the laboratory
   Students will understand the purpose, elements, and structure of data tables

Materials:
   Microscope with a Medaka embryo on the slide hooked up to a television screen
   Pictures of six important stages of Medaka development, complete with labeled
      anatomical features
   Quicktime movie of Medaka development

Before class:
    Write the overarching question and the experimental parameters on the board
    Designate a space on board for questions better answered later in the unit

Opening (2 min.)
Yesterday, we decided on the experimental setup for our Medaka fish embryo experiment.
Today, we are going to get into the specifics of the experiment. First, we need to figure out
exactly what we are going to do when we get into the laboratory. Picture this: you enter the
laboratory, put an egg on a slide, and look through the microscope. Tadaa! This is what you
see:

Medaka embryo appears on television screen.

Instructional Flow (45 min.)
No doubt this egg is COOL, but what exactly are we looking at? Please check out the pictures
on your table of the key stages of Medaka development. (Point out features such as eye,
heartbeat, yolk, and body on television screen).

How exactly does that little egg get from one stage to another? It‟s hard to imagine all the
changes that must occur. Luckily, I have a video of the development of a Medaka egg, sped up
so the three week development becomes two minutes!
(Direct students‟ attention to Quicktime movie on projection screen.)

Yesterday, we decided as a class which parameters of fish development we want to observe and
record. I have listed these on the board. Now, we are going to practice observing this egg, and
we are going to measure each of these parameters for this one egg as a class. Please take out a
sheet of paper, and record our class measurements. I will also record them on the board.

From the parameters we chose yesterday, which do you want to measure first? How should we
measure that parameter?



                                                                                                22
Guidelines for data collection:
Draw eye/yolk/body
We need to measure heart rate
We need to assess the color of the blood
We need to assess the stage of embryo development, movement, heart development, eye
development/eye size

Do not state these guidelines at the beginning, but do use them to guide student ideas that are
elicited. As students explore each parameter, operationalize the measurement of each by pushing
them to answer „how”, and „which units‟? Organize student ideas into a simple table on the
board.

Now that we know what we‟re measuring and how we are measuring it, let‟s decide how we are
going to keep our data neat and organized.

Direct class‟ attention to table they created through observing sample egg on television screen.

Here is the data table we created for one control egg treated with only the nutrient solution.
Now, you will split into three groups of four, and each group will make a data table for four
eggs, treated with either Brush-B-Gone, Round-Up, or No-Doz. (Assign groups). You have five
minutes to create the table on the board, and then we will present the tables to the other groups.
Before you begin, decide who is the facilitator, timekeeper, recorder, and reporter.

After five minutes, reporter for each group shares design and rationale of data table.

Now that we have a data table for each treatment, let‟s decide how well they will hold our data.
As a group, please come up with one positive comment and one area of improvement for the
other groups‟ data tables.

Lead class discussion using above group comments, and following guide questions:

What are some good things about these tables?
What are the similarities between these tables?
What are the differences between these tables?
What things could be improved with these tables?
Which table is easiest to decipher?

Elicit ideas about the following essential question: What makes a good data table? Record
student ideas on board.

Guide discussion using the following elements of a good data table:
Clear
Easy to read
Easy to understand
Anyone can understand it (universal)
Plenty of space for drawing



                                                                                                   23
Aesthetically pleasing

To address missing elements, ask: “Since Janey is absent today, how will she understand the
data table based on (insert missing element here). How would you explain it to her?

By end of discussion, students should have altered tables to make them usable for whole class
data.

Closure (3 min.)
Great participation and ideas today. Tonight, I will combine our data tables to create one data
collection sheet for the class. Then we can start collecting data on our fish eggs! Once we have
some data, we will talk about representing it, and making conclusions. See you tomorrow!

Cultural Responsiveness
By using the video microscope to view an egg and showing the movie of the egg development, a
common experience is created for all students to draw on; there is no need to have experience in
order to follow along with finding the body parts or deciding on what data to collect. During the
eliciting ideas phase, the teacher will give recognition to students for participating, while
revoicing and helping other students build on those ideas. This student-centered scaffolding of
ideas challenges the typical structure of scientific classrooms, by transferring the ownership and
accountability of ideas from a book or the teacher to the students themselves. Additionally, by
using large group and small group strategies, there is the opportunity for multiple ways of
contributing to the class data table, encouraging participation from all students.




                                                                                                24
4. Analyzing data and representing it as evidence




Ann Miley, Mollie Caka, John Urdal, Rachelle Louk, Tyrell Coates, Greg Brunkhorst

1/19/05

EDTEP 587



“The Analysis of Data and Identification of Trends and Claims Concerning the

Embryological Development of Medaka Fish Eggs”



10th grade biology




                                                                                25
  Objectives:
  Objective 1: Students will choose the best method of graphical representation for their data and
              justify their reasoning
  Objective 2: Students will understand trends illustrated by the data
  Objective 3: Students will make claims based on evidence from the data

  Resources:
     Computer
     MS Excel
     Data from inquiry
     Different graphical representations of student data
     MS PowerPoint

  Do before class: Have PowerPoint for just-in-time instruction and graphical representations
                   ready for presentation to class. Also, have essential question and prediction
                   posted on board.

Introduction      Today we‟ll be spending our day looking at our data in order to answer our
(5 min)           question, “How does the introduction of a substance at different stages of
                  development affect Medaka fish eggs?”, and to see if our prediction and model still
                  make sense. We predicted that if eggs received harmful substances early on in
                  their development then they will be more likely to die or have delayed development
                  than the controlled eggs or those that received the harmful substance later.

                  Each member of the class has looked at the eggs and collected data. I know that
                  we‟ve used caffeine, Brush-B-gone, and Round-Up on the eggs, but today we will
                  be looking specifically at the control and Round-Up treated eggs. Also, we are
                  going to focus on the phases of development you observed, and will spend more
                  time examining the heartbeat and other factors later.

Instructional     Data table interpretation and graph choice First let‟s look at our data table of
flow              the developmental phases of the control and Round-Up eggs. Pull up data chart on
(7 min)           computer for class to see. Is there someone here who would like to explain what
                  information is given in this chart? (Elicit student ideas, listening for information
                  about phases, dates, and different eggs). We‟ve had experience looking at how to
                  make graphs already on Excel, so we‟re going to spend some time using Excel
                  individually and as a class today.

                  Look at possible different graphs (pie, scatter, and bar)
                  Have each student share which graph they would use. Then ask three or four
                  students to justify why they would use that graph. As a class, come to a consensus
                  about which graph to use.

                  Pull up the class‟ chosen graph onto screen. Graph represents control and


                                                                                                   26
           Round-Up data.

(20 min)   Understanding what the graph represents
           Explain to students what is represented by x-axis and y-axis, and what each color
           represents on the graph. Now you are going to get into groups and make your own
           graphs. Please count off by twos and split into two groups. Group one will make a
           graph of the eggs treated with caffeine, and group two will make a graph of the
           eggs treated with Brush-B-Gone.

(20 min)   Looking at trends and make claims (Just in time instruction)
           Trends
           When we look for trends in data, we want to be unbiased about what we think our
           data might say. When looking at graphs or tables, the pictures and numbers should
           stand alone; we don‟t need to look at titles or what the experiment is even about. In
           other words, this is the one time we should ignore our question, our prediction, our
           model and our research or anything we have talked about so far. We want to let
           the data speak for itself.
           --What does the graph of the control eggs say about the progression of
           developmental phases over time?
           --What does the graph of the Round-Up eggs say about the progression of
           developmental phases over time?
           --What does comparing the two graphs show us?

           Making claims about data
           Now that we have looked UNBIASEDLY at our data, we can ask some questions
           and make some claims about what we think those trends mean. These claims can
           now be used to directly address our question, prediction, model etc. We have to
           look at the trends we found and use them as evidence to back up the claims we
           make.
           --How did Round-Up affect the Medaka embryos?
           --At what stage does the introduction of Round-Up make the most difference? Is
           there any correlation between the time Round-Up was added to the eggs and their
           developmental rate?
           --Is there any data that doesn‟t follow the trends you found? Does it change the
           claim you might make?
           --What more do you need to know (research) to make your claim more meaningful?

           Closure (2 min):
           After all that hard work choosing a question, making models, and collecting data,
           we now have some real findings and conclusions about the impact of pesticides and
           caffeine on Medaka embryos. Tomorrow we will revise our original model to make
           claims about the impact of these substances on human embryos as well. Good job
           today!




                                                                                          27
Cultural Responsiveness

Individual Knowledge Construction

Students are given the opportunity graph in a way that makes sense to them, and
explain their ideas. There is no one right way to express data. Furthermore,
students are given the opportunity to interpret graphs in small groups in their own
unique way. Once again, many different inferences can be drawn from a single
graph.

Conversely, students are pushed to look at data without bias. This is in line with
the scientific way of thinking.

Community Building and Equity Pedagogy

This lesson builds community in the classroom by sharing the fruits of our labor:
drawing conclusions from the data we collected. The experiment has been building
to this exciting moment.

Although this lesson doesn’t address sharing of equal voices in group work, it is
crucial that the norms of the classroom be established such that all students have
a voice in groups. Ways to reinforce respectful conduct are: effective group
selection, public validation of undermined points of view, assigning group roles, and
self monitoring.

Access

This lesson is the culmination of a long unit with many access points for all
learners. The different components of looking at graphs are broken into simpler
components, trends and claims.

Empowering School Culture and Social Structure

This lesson is the product of a lot of hard work and real science. These graphs and
claims will help to communicate this class’s findings to the wider school community.




                                                                                     28
5. Reconsidering the model, coordinating evidence and theory

Eric DeJulio, Melissa Barga, Ryan Palmer, Amanda Stodelle, Kelly Chamberlin,

Christina Wilson



1/19/05

EDTEP 587



“Revising the model of the Effects of Caffeine or Pesticides on Medaka Fish Eggs”



9-10th grade science




                                                                               29
  Objectives:
  Objective 1: Students will understand that a scientific model is dynamic
  Objective 2: Students will synthesize a revised model based on trends/claims in data and
               background information

  Resources:
     Pens                                               Two packages of post-it notes of
     Large Paper                                         different colors
     Handout outlining data trends,
      background research and class claims
     PowerPoint
     Projecting Computer

  References:

  Do before class: Post previously decided model, claims, and Guiding Question
  Safety note?: No special safety requirements


Opening:          (Write on board the focus question: “How does our data change our
(2 min)           understanding of our initial model/how our system works?”)

                  Yesterday we discovered some trends in the data we gathered and began to make
                  some claims based on our data. (Post claims on board).

                  Today we are going to see how those trends (what our data shows us) can give us
                  a better understanding of how Medaka fish eggs develop as represented in our
                  model. We will begin with some individual work, then some small group work, and
                  finally some collaboration as a whole class.

Instructional     Quietly on your own we would like you to think about the data you collected, the
Flow              trends and claims we discovered as a class, and the background information you
                  read. We are going to pass out a photocopy of the worksheet you all created
                  yesterday in which you compiled this information. On your own sheet of paper
Individual        write down some ideas of how our model should be clarified, changed or
work              reinvented to reflect this new information. Please also write anything else that
(5 min)           you think will help us in representing our system.

                  You will have 5 minutes to work independently.. At the end of the 5 minutes we
                  will give you further instructions for the group portion of this activity.

Small Group       Great. Now that you have started thinking, we are going to move on to small
(10 min)          group work. When we tell you we would like you to get into groups of three. Then
                  we would like you to decide which elements from each group member should be
                  included in our revised model. Begin by discussing at least one idea from each
                  group member. Find a way to represent your ideas on the poster paper provided.


                                                                                              30
                  For this group activity each of you will be assigned a role to play in the group so
                  that everyone can contribute to the final group product. The organizer will keep
                  the group on task and make sure the ideas you come up with make sense and are
                  represented in an organized way. The friendly critic will look at each idea from
                  the opposite side to provide a balance. He/she will be friendly and constructive in
                  the way he/she presents the criticism (criticize the idea, not the person). The
                  presenter will “report out” to the rest of the class and explain the ideas the group
                  came up with. Please write who has which role somewhere on your poster paper.

                  Display slide of Guiding Questions

                  Allow students to work in groups together, occasionally adding probing questions
                  as appropriate to get them thinking critically about the model.
Groups Present
(5-7 min)         Nice group work. Now each group will now have about 3 minutes to present what
                  they came up with for their suggestions for improving our original model. Please
                  hold your questions for now. After all posters have been presented we will do a
                  “Wisdom Walk” so that each of you can select your two favorite changes or
                  ideas and two ideas you think need clarifying (please write your question or
                  specify what needs clarification on the sticky note. We will use these ideas to
                  create one new revised model together.

                  Groups present. Try to keep to 3 minutes if possible.

                  Pass out Post-it notes to each student (2 of each color/student). Give students 10
                  minutes to perform “wisdom walk”


Closure:          Great start on revising our model today. Tonight I will synthesize your ideas from
(1 min)           our wisdom walk and we will use those ideas to decide which parts of the model(s)
                  need clarification and revision and how to adapt our model to what we have
                  learned about critical times and the health of Medaka fish eggs.

Assessment:       -Teacher observation of revision posters & as they present to the class
                  -Teacher listening to discussion in small group work
                  -Teacher observation of what the students identify as important in the revised
                  model

Cultural         Different world views, knowledge construction process– Students will build upon
Responsiveness: the knowledge base constructed by all class members through individual research to
                develop and redefine the class model.
                 Students will be encouraged to construct independent views of the significance of
                the class data and all students will be encouraged to share their individual views
                with the class.




                                                                                                   31
Developing an inclusive classroom community, prejudice reduction –
Teachers will model the values of equality and inclusion by addressing each
student during the lesson period with an affirming comment or meaningful
question intended to foster total class participation.
During group activity, students are encouraged to work together within groups and
as a class rather than compete. Teacher will monitor student interaction in groups
to ensure all students are participating and all ideas are honored. Teacher will
model the importance of honoring student ideas by re-voicing them so that other
students' can hear and add to them.
Teacher will invest equal time and attention to all groups and will monitor
that involvement with groups does not stifle group creativity or idea flow.
In groups, students will be assigned one of three roles (presenter, organizer or
friendly critic) to focus their interaction during group work and to encourage all
members of the group to participate in meaningful ways to the group product.
By working in small groups, of two to three students, creating the chance to voice
ideas, observations, their reasoning, and suggestions in a safe, comfortable, and
friendly atmosphere. This atmosphere will also be fostered through a student
centered forum of sharing and developing ideas.

Providing access through instruction and curriculum, content integration- students
are encouraged to explore their own understanding of the connections between the
background knowledge, enquiry data and the original model to help develop a new
and refined understanding of the connections between critical times and fetal
development.
The important issues that need to be introduced and stressed will be done through
the numerous student centered activities and discussions
Content from other cultures is not addressed in this lesson.




                                                                             32
                                 Revising Our Model

Individual Work
        On your own brainstorm some ideas from your data, the trends and claims we discussed
as a class, and the background research you did that need to be included in the portion of our
model you are focusing on. Please write these on your own sheet of paper. Also include any
other ideas that you think will help us revise or model.

Group Work
       Now, as a group, decide which elements should be included (added, changed, or
removed) in your group‟s focus area of our model. Use the ideas that you wrote down on your
own and be sure to discuss at least one idea from each person in the group. Come to a group
consensus for what should be included and find a way of representing those ideas on the poster
paper provided (e.g. picture, words, etc.).

       For this group activity each of you will be assigned a role to play in the group so that
everyone can contribute to the final group product:
    The Organizer
          o keep the group on task and make sure the ideas you come up with make sense and
               are represented in an organized way.
    The Friendly Critic
          o look at each idea from the opposite side to provide a balance. He/she will be
               friendly and constructive in the way he/she presents the criticism (criticize the
               idea, not the person).
    The Presenter
          o “report out” to the rest of the class and explain the ideas the group came up with.
               Please write who has which role somewhere on your poster paper.

Guiding Q‟s:
      What part(s) of your original model does your data best speak to?
      What are some shortcomings of the original model?
      Are there any missing links?
      Are there any cases where the model does not apply?
      Does the model support our evidence?
      What did we learn from our data collecting and analysis (trends and claims)?
      How can these be represented in our model?




                                                                                                 33
Lessons from Our Inquiry Experience

   Student response is the most necessary part of teaching.
   Always do the experiment beforehand so you know what to expect,
    or even that it will be interesting
   Continue to communicate expectations and the processes that will
    be taken through the inquiry with students
   Prepare/be organized
   Put parts of process on a collective board
   Students are going to need a lot of structure and scaffolding when
    you take them through the inquiry process
   Observing fish eggs is an interesting and effective way to study
    development
   Assessment should include student investment and authentic
    discussion
   Make sure students understand and are on board with lesson
    direction
   For lessons: visual and hands on
   Clear operationalizing of variable helps in many steps of the
    inquiry (directions, data analysis, etc) and it‟s hard to do.




                                                                    34
Carolina Biological
800-334-5551

                                      Catalog                 Line
                        Description           Price Quantity               Deliver By
                                      Number                 Total
                       Medaka Egg Set 14-5574 $21.90   2     $43.80          1      4
                                               Each
                                                                                 2005

                       Embryo Rearing      85-9450 $10.35    1    $10.35     1      4
                       Solution,                    Each
                       Laboratory                                                2005
                       Grade, 500 mL
                       Petri Dish,         74-1334   $7.50   1    $7.50      1      4
                       Polystyrene,                  Each
                       Sterile, X Plate,                                         2005
                       Four 11-mL
                       Compartments,
                       Pk 20


  Subtotal:$61.65
  Note: Sales tax, shipping, and handling will be added as applicable.




                                                                                        35

								
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