Preschool Years by L78XvU8P

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									Preschool Years




                  1
 Children Learn What They Live
If a child lives with criticism,
             He learns to condemn.
If a child lives with hostility,
             He learns to fight.
If a child lives with ridicule,
             He learns to be shy.
If a child lives with shame,
             He lives to feel guilty.
If a child lives with tolerance,
             He learns to be patient    2
If a child lives with encouragement,
            He learns confidence.
If a child lives with praise,
            He learns to appreciate.
If a child lives with fairness,
            He lives justice.
If a child lives with security,
            He learns to have faith.
If a child lives with approval,
            He learns to like himself.
                                         3
       The Preschool Years
 Sociocultural and Personality Development

• Developmental Issues and Coping
  Patterns
• Aggression and Personal Behavior
• Peers Play and Development of Social
  Skills
• Understanding Self and Others
• Family Dynamics

                                             4
   I- Developmental Issues and
         Coping Patterns
Children Ages 2-6 must learn to manage a wide
  range of feelings and emotions:
Positive Feelings         Negative Feelings
Joy                       Anger
Affection                 Fear
Pride                     Anxiety
                          Jealousy
                          Frustration
                          Pain

                                            5
          Fear and Anxiety
• Fear is a response to a specific situation.
A child may fear the dark or the sound of
  thunder.
• Anxiety is a generalized emotional state.
A child may experience regular and
  continuous feelings of unease, often
  without knowing why.
     What are the Causes of Fear and
                   Anxiety?
                                                6
How Can We Help Children Cope
    with Fear and Anxiety?
• Modeling by parents
• Reduce unnecessary stress
• Professional help (systematic
  desensitization)
• Participant modeling




                                  7
    How Do Children Cope with Fear & Anxiety?
           Defense Mechanisms
•   Identification Projection
•   Denial          Reaction Formation
•   Displacement Regression
•   Rationalization Repression
•   Withdrawal


                                                8
         Emotion Regulation
         Claire Kopp (1989)
Dealing with emotions in a socially
 acceptable ways
Western societies expect children to inhibit
 the display of some emotions such as:
     anger and distress
     affection and joy
     sensuality and sexual curiosity

                                               9
       Developmental Conflicts
        (Autonomy vs. Shame)
          (Initiative vs. Guilt)
•   Compliance
•   Autonomy
•   Mastery and Competence
•   Guilt
•   Shame


                                   10
• Guilt                   • Shame


Involves the desire to    Associated with the
   undo certain            desire to undo
   behaviors.              aspects of the self
It is distinct from the   Shame leads the
   self.                   feeling of
It shouldn’t affect the    helplessness
   person’s core
   identity
Guilt may lead to the
   feeling of remorse.
                                                 11
           Erik Erikson
      Resolving the Conflicts
           Autonomy-vs.-Shame
       Early Part of Preschool Years
           (18 months – 3 years)
Children either become more independent
 and autonomous if their parents
 encourage exploration and freedom.
They can experience shame and self-doubt
 if they are restricted and overprotected.
                                             12
            Erik Erikson
       Resolving the Conflicts
                Initiative- vs.-Guilt
                   (age 3-age 6)
Children view of themselves undergoes major
  change as they face conflicts between the desire
  to act independently of their parents and the
  guilt that comes from the unintended
  consequences of their actions.
Parents who react positively can help their children
  avoid experiencing guilt.

                                                  13
   II- Aggression and Prosocial
             Behavior
• Hostile Aggression is behavior that is
  intended to harm another person
• Instrumental Aggression is behavior that
  is not intended to harm, but instead is
  incidental to gaining something from
  another person
• Assertiveness refers to standing up and
  defending one’s rights
                                         14
    Causes for Aggression
• Frustration-Aggression-Hypothesis
  (Discredited)

• Punishment

• Modeling and Aggression


                                      15
        Prosocial Behavior
• Reward and Punishment
• Role Playing (acting out roles to see things
  from the other person’s point of view)
• Induction (children are given reasons for
  behaving in a positive way)




                                            16
      Madsen and Shapiro
Prosocial behavior and such as cooperation
  change with age.
Children become less cooperative and more
  competitive as they grow older.
Older children are more likely to cooperate
  in cultures that emphasize group goals
  (Mexican, Israeli)


                                          17
Madsen’s Game




                18
III- Peers, Play, and Development
          of Social Skills




                                19
           Gender and Play
• Girls                   • Boys
Organized games and       Rough-and tumble play
  role-playing            Produce a lot of noise
Verbal Interaction with
  peers
Having conversations
  with dolls



                                               20
Five Developmental levels of Social
     Interaction Through Play
               Parten (1932-33)
1- Solitary Play
2- Onlooker Play (child observes other
  children)
3- Parallel Play (play alongside each other,
  but not directly interact)
4- Associative Play (share materials and
  interact, but don’t coordinate activities)
5- Cooperative Play (engage in a single
  activity together such as building blocks)
                                           21
          Make-Belief Play
       Imaginary Companions
• They help children deal with fears , provide
  companionship during periods of loneliness, and
  provide reassurance.
• Research indicates that 65% of young children
  have imaginary companions.
• They seem to help children social skills and
  practice conversations.
• Children who are adept at imagination may be
  better at mastering symbolic representation in
  the real world.

                                                22
    Popularity and Social Skills
       Unpopular Children
• Children who are rejected by their peers
  in early childhood are likely to be rejected
  in middle childhood as well.
• They are also more likely to have adjusting
  problems in adolescence and adulthood.
• Rejected children may be aggressive or
  withdrawn.
• They may be out of sync with their peers’
  activities and social interaction.
                                            23
    Why Do Some Children Lack the Social
      Skills that make Others Popular?
•   Abuse and neglect during the early years
•   Being sheltered
•   Allowed little interaction with peers
•   Being singled out as “different” by peers
•   Simply getting off a bad start when first
    entering a group


                                                24
       Characteristics of Popular
       Behavior in Kindergarten
•   Initiate activity
•   Sensitive to the needs of others
•   Don’t force themselves on other children
•   Content to play alongside other children
•   Possess strategies for maintaining friendships
•   Show helpful behavior
•   Are Good at maintaining communication
•   Are good at sharing information
•   Are responsive to suggestions
•   Possess strategies for conflict resolution
•   They are less likely to use aggression
                                                     25
    VI- Understanding Self and
              Others
           Self Concept
• Children develop a self-concept, their
  identity, or their set of beliefs.
• These are like dispositions- ways of
  being- that are consistent through time.
• Their view of the future is quite rosy.
• Their positive thoughts and feelings about
  the self are referred to as self-esteem.

                                           26
27
             Self-Concept
• Young children tend to describe
  themselves in terms of their physical
  characteristics, possessions, or activities.
• The tendency to describe themselves in
  terms of social connections increases.
• If a child is called “Bad Buster,” he is going
  to make a conscious effort to maintain his
  reputation (fitting into the label)
• Children tend to imitate their parents.
                                               28
Fitting into the Label




                         29
          Louis Sander (1975)
     Self-Constancy and Self-Esteem
Challenging the parents’ rules
Feeling Guilty
Achieving Harmony with parents
This experience Louis Sander called
A Sense of Self-Constancy
The self endures despite temporary disruptions in
  relationships
Example: A child breaks the rules and then
  restores harmony by saying sorry.
                                                    30
 Components of Self-esteem
• 1- Self-awareness
           Who Am I?
• 2- Self-worth
           What Can I Do?
• 3-Socialization
           Are They Going to Like Me?


                                        31
How Do You Enhance Self-Esteem?

Praise – Encouragement
Give responsibility
Allow them to explore their potential freely.
  Don’t inhibit their creativity.
Show them unconditional love (firm but kind)
Don’t set very high expectations


                                            32
Setting High Expectations




                            33
          Self and Gender
• Gender, the sense of being a male or
  female, is well established by the time
  children reach the preschool years.
• Sex is genetically determined and
  biological
• Genetics and culture may each set limits
  on gender roles-what is appropriate for a
  male or a female to be and do
                                              34
Gender Roles and Expectancies
   Boys             Girls
Are more apt to have   Are viewed as more
  traits involving:      likely to have traits
Competence               such as:
Independence           Warmth
Forcefulness           Expressiveness
competitiveness        Nurturance
                       submissiveness



                                                 35
        Male                        Female
Are born slightly longer and   Newborn girls have slightly
  heavier                        more mature skeletons
As toddlers, boys are more     They are a bit more
  aggressive                     responsive to touch
There are no consistent        Have a single edge in verbal
  difference in sociability,     abilities
  self-esteem, analytical      Actual differences
  skill, or motivation to        between boys and girls
  achieve                        are actually small, and
                                 there is considerable
                                 overlap between the
                                 sexes.

                                                         36
    The Development of Gender
            Schemes
 Level of   Approximate Characteristics of Behavior
 Schemes        Age
Gender        2 to 5     Children can label people as boys
Identity                 or girls; are confused about the
              years      meaning of gender; believe that
                         gender changes by changing
                         appearance
Gender        5 to 7     Can understand that gender is
Constancy                constant and stable; boys grow up
              Years      to become daddies or men; girls
                         grow up to become mommies or
                         women


                                                             37
    Different Perspectives on
              Gender
1- Biological Perspective

2- Psychoanalytic Perspective

3- Social Learning Perspective

4- Cognitive Approaches

                                 38
    1- Biological Perspective
Inborn biological factors produce gender
  differences
Androgens (male hormones)
Corpus Callosum (the human brain)
Sex-Linked Disorders
 Klinefelter Syndrome (males XXY, XXXY, XXXXY)
 Superfemal Syndrome (females XXX, XXXX, XXXXX)
 Supermale Syndrom (in males XYY, XYYY, XYYYY)
 Turner’s Syndrome (in females XO)

                                                  39
40
 2- Psychoanalysis Perspective
Gender development is the result of
  moving through a series of stages
  related to biological urges.
Phallic Stage
Oedipal Complex
Identification



                                      41
 3- Social Learning Perspective
Children learn gender-related behavior
 and expectations from their
 observation of others’ behavior
Reward when conforming to the norm
Observing gender-related behavior as
 represented in books, media, and TV



                                         42
    4- Cognitive Perspective
Through the use of gender schemas, developed early
  in life, preschoolers form a lens through which they
  view the world. They use their increasing cognitive
   abilities to develop rules about what is appropriate
                   for males and females.
              Gender schema/gender identity
               Gender consistency (ages 4-5)
       Sandra Ben likes to encourage children to be
 androgynous (A state in which gender roles encompass
         characteristics thought typical of both sexes)


               Is it a good idea?
                                                     43
    How We Normally Bring Up Boys

•   Don’t be a cry baby!
•   Don’t be soft. You have to be tough.
•   Don’t be a sissy!
•   Don’t play with dolls.

How does that affect boys in their relationship
  with girls when they grow up?
Are there any drawbacks to this upbringing?

                                                  44
                    Yes
    They Try Not to Get in Touch with
          Their Feminine Side
• They suppress their feelings
• They avoid being nurturing
• They avoid showing warmth and affection
• They become poor listeners
• Getting angry for them is easier than
  saying, “I am hurt.”
• They get angry and fall into the pattern of
  abuse
                                                45
        Culture and the Self
In Western cultures we say,
“the squeaky wheel gets the grease.”
Indicating that one should seek attention of others
  by standing out and making one’s needs known.
The Asian perspective says,
“the nail that stands out gets the pounding.”
Indicating that individuals should refrain from
  making themselves distinctive.

                                                  46
          Asian Societies
       Collective Orientation
• Asian Societies tend to have collective
  orientation, promoting the notion of
  interdependence.
• People in these cultures tend to see
  themselves as parts of a larger social
  network in which they are interconnected
  with others.


                                         47
         Western Societies
     Individualistic Orientation
• Children in Western cultures are more
  likely to develop an independent view of
  self, reflecting an individualistic
  orientation that emphasizes personal
  identity and the uniqueness of the
  individual.



                                             48
  Social Concepts and Rules
• At first, children imitate verbal patterns: A
  2-year-old says, “No, no!” as she marks on
  the wall with crayons.
• Here, she shows the beginning of self-
  restraint.
• In a few months, she should have
  developed enough self-control to arrest
  such impulses
                                              49
                   Morality
                    Piaget
Heteronomous Morality is the initial stage of
  moral development in which rules are seen as
  invariant and unchangeable.
From age 4-7, children play games rigidly,
  assuming that there is one, and only one way to
  play.
Example: “Daddy invented the game of
  marbles
At this stage, children do not take intention into
  account. They believe in immanent justice, a
  notion that broken rules earn immediate
  punishment.
                                                 50
 Hetronomous morality is replaced
    by 2 later stages of morality
1- Incipient cooperation Stage lasts from
  7 to 10. Children’s games become more
  clearly social. Children play according to
  the formal rules of the game.
2- Autonomous cooperation stage begins
  about age 10. Children become fully
  aware that formal game rules can be
  modified if the people who play them
  agree.

                                           51
      V- Family Dynamics
       Parenting Styles
1- Authoritative Parents
2- Authoritarian Parents
3- Permissive Parents
4- Indifferent Parents


                           52
Parenting Styles




                   53
Permissive Parents




                     54
Authoritarian parent




                       55
Effects of Different Parenting Styles
       A             Tend to produce
       U             children who are:
       T
       O               Withdrawn
       R
       I
                         Fearful
       T               Dependent
       A                 Moody
       R               Unassertive
       I                Irritable
       A
       N
                                         56
Effects of Different Parenting Styles

       P             Tend to produce
       E             children who are:
       R
       M               Rebellious
       S               Aggressive
       S              Self-indulgent
       I              Socially inept
       V                Creative
                        Outgoing

                                         57
Effects of Different Parenting Styles
        A           Tend to produce
        U
        T           children who are :
        H
        O
        R              Self-reliant
        I
        T
                     Self-controlled
        A          Socially competent
        T
        I            With high self-
        V                 esteem
        E
                   Do better in school
                                     58
Effects of Different Parenting Styles
        I          They produce children
        N                 who are:
        D
        I
                   The child feels free to
        F
        F
                   give rein to the most
        E          destructive impulses
        R
        E
        N
        T
                                         59
           Child Abuse
1- Physical Abuse

2- Psychological Abuse




                         60
61
 Forms of Psychological Abuse
1- Rejection
2- Denial of Emotional Responsiveness
3- Degradation
4- Terrorization
5- Isolation
6- Exploitation


                                        62
     Effects of Child Abuse
Damaged self-esteem
Isolation
Psychological problems
Aggression
Lack of trust
Fear of exploitation
School-related problems
Suicide
Depression
Following the same pattern

                              63
       Explanation of Abuse
• Psychiatric Explanations

• Sociological Explanations

• Situational Explanations




                              64
Discipline and Self-Regulation




                             65
             Discipline
• Rules

• Following Through

• Consequences




                          66
       Mild Social Disapproval
1- look at child
2- move close to child
3- serious facial expression
4- Brief negative verbalization about the
  behavior
5- calm and serious voice
6- nonverbal gesture consistent with
  disapproval
7-Immediate delivery
                                            67
10 Things to Do Instead of Spanking
1- Ignore
2- Suspend privileges
3- Logical consequences
4- Rearrange space or place
5- Redirect behavior
6- Grandma’s rule
7- Fines
8- Work detail
9- Model
10-Time out

                                  68

								
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