Microorganisms causing Diseases of the Nervous system

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					Microorganisms causing Diseases of the Nervous System

Microorganism                    Disease and Transmission              Signs and Symptoms                    Prevention and Treatment
Gram + endospore formers:
Clostridium botulinum            Botulism;vehicle, direct or           Flaccid paralysis                     Proper food handling, toxoid
Clostridium tetani               parenteral contact                                                          immunization
                                 Tetanus; parenteral, direct contact   Spastic paralysis                     Toxoid immunization
Gram +:
Streptococcus pneumonia          Meningitis; droplet contact           Serious, acute, most common           Vaccines; antibiotics
Listeria monocytogenes                                                 meningitis in adults                  Proper food prep, pasteurization;
                                 Meningitis, neonatal meningitis;      Meningitis in neonates, elderly and
                                 vehicle (food)                        immunocompromised

                                                                       Headache, painful & stiff neck,
                                                                       fever, increase in WBCs in CSF
Gram -:                                                                SEE above
E. coli                          Neonatal meningitis; during birth     Second most common cause of           -; IV antibiotics
Haemophilus influenza            Meningitis; droplet contact           Serious, acute, not common since      Hib vaccine; antibiotics
                                                                       vaccine available
Neisseria meningitidis           Meningococcal meningitis; droplet     Epidemic meningitis, very serious,    Vaccine; penicillin
                                 contact                               acute in children less than 2;
DNA viruses:
Herpes simplex virus 1 & 2       Encephalitis; transplacental          Inflammation of brain, behavior       Maternal screening for HSV;
                                                                       changes and confusion, decreased      acyclovir
                                                                       consciousness and seizures
RNA viruses:
Arboviruses                      Encephalitis; arthropod vector        SEE above                             Insect control, vaccine; none
Measles virus                    Subacute sclerosing                   SEE above                             None; none
                                 panencephalitis; persistence of
                                 measles virus
Poliovirus                       Poliomyelitis; fecal-oral,            Flaccid paralysis                     Live attenuated vaccine; none
                                 mechanical vector
Rabies virus                     Rabies; parenteral (bite), droplet    Fever, nausea, vomiting, headache,    Inactivated vaccine; passive and
                                                                       fatigue, hydrophobia, coma, death     active immunization postexposure
Cryptococcus neoformans              Meningitis; vehicle (air, dust)         SEE above, common in AIDS              -; amphotericin B
Coccidiodes immitis                  Meningitis; vehicle (air, dust, soil)   See above                              Avoid spores; amphotericin B

Acanthamoeba                         Meningoenchephalitis;direct             SEE above (contact lens wearers)       -; removal of granulomas
Toxoplasma gondii                    Subacute encephalitis;                  SEE above, stillbirth and blindness    Good hygiene and food prep;
                                     transplacental, infected meat, fecal-   in newborn                             antiprotozoan drugs
Trypanosoma burcei                   African sleeping sickness; Tsetse       Swollen lymph nodes and joint          Vector control; antiprotozoan drugs
                                     fly, transplacental                     pain, sleeping disorders, paralysis,
                                                                             coma, death
Creutzfeldt-Jakob prion              Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, subacute Spongioform encephalopathies,              Avoid contaminated tissue; none
                                     encephalitis; direct or parenteral  altered behavior, dementia,
                                     contact                             memory losee, impaired senses,
                                                                         delirium, uncontrolled muscle

Defenses & Normal Microbiota of the nervous system

Defenses                                                                     Normal Microbiota
Bony structures, blood-brain barrier, microglia, macrophages                 none

Virulence factors: capsule, endotoxin, intracellular growth, invasiveness, exotoxin

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