BIOLOGY 201 LAB MATERIALS THE SKELETAL SYSTEM OVERVIEW OF THE HUMAN SKELETAL SYSTEM 1 Overall the human skeleton is co by qha3fS

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									                                    BIOLOGY 201 LAB MATERIALS
                                       THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

OVERVIEW OF THE HUMAN SKELETAL SYSTEM
1. Overall, the human skeleton is composed of 206 bones. The skeleton is divided into 2 major divisions:
         a. The Axial Skeleton-those bones that lie along the center of the body.
         b. The Appendicular Skeleton-the bones that make up the appendages (arms and legs).
2. Within the human body, individual bones are classified as being either:
         a. Long bones-are longer than they are wide. These are composed mostly of compact bone.
         b. Short bones-are cube-shaped. These contain more spongy bone than compact bone.
         c. Flat bones-are very thin. These offer a great deal of protection for internal organs.
         d. Irregular bones-have an irregular shape.
3. Surface markings
         a. Human bones are covered by a variety of bumps, ridges, holes etc... These markings serve a
            number of functions for bones (such as serving as sites of attachment for muscles etc...). The
            major surface markings are listed on page 113 of your lab manual. This page may be helpful in
            defining these parts for you. We will talk more about these surface markings in lecture.

EXERCISE 9-OVERVIEW OF THE SKELETON: CLASSIFICATION OF BONES AND CARTILAGES
1. Find the bones listed in Figure 9.1 (page 88 of the lab manual) on the skeletons in the lab. BE CAREFUL
   WHEN HANDLING THE SKELETONS!!!
2. Using Figure 9.3 (page 92 of the lab manual), identify the osteocytes, lacunae, lamellae, and canaliculi
   on the provided bone model.
3. Using Figure 9.5 (page 94 of the lab manual) identify the intervertebral disc and the pubic symphysis
   from the skeleton in the lab.

EXERCISE 10-THE AXIAL SKELETON
1. PLEASE BE CAREFUL WITH THE SKULLS AND BONES THAT WE WILL BE USING IN LAB.
   Do not mark on the bones with pens or pencils.
2. Find the bones/surface markings from Figure 10.1 (page 100 of the lab manual) on the provided skulls.
3. Find the bones/surface markings from Figure 10.2 (page 101 of the lab manual) on the provided skulls.
4. From Figure 10.3 (page 101 of the lab manual) you need to identify the ethmoid bone, cribriform plate,
   crista galli, the sphenoid bone and the sella turcica. You may omit all other bones and surface markings
   on this figure.
5. Find the bones/surface markings from Figure 10.6 (page 104 of the lab manual) on the provided skulls.
6. Find the bones/surface markings on the mandible using Figure 10.7 (page 106 of the lab manual).
7. Using Figure 10.8 (page 106 of the lab manual), identify the hyoid bone.
8. Using Figure 10.12 (page 109 of the lab manual) identify the structures on a typical vertebra.
9. Identify the major structures associated with the atlas and the axis using Figure 10.13 (page 110 of the
   lab manual).
10. Identify the major structures associated with the sacrum using Figure 10.15 (page 112 of the lab
     manual).
11. Identify the major structures associated with the sternum using Figure 10.16 (page 113 of the lab
     manual).
12. Identify the major structures associated with the rib using Figure 10.17 (page 114 of the lab manual).

EXERCISE 11-THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON
1. Identify the surface markings associated with the clavicle using Figure 11.2 (page 123 of the lab manual).
2. Identify the surface markings associated with the scapula using Figure 11.2 (page 123 of the lab manual)
3. Identify the surface markings associated with the humerus using Figure 11.3 (page 124 of the lab manual).
4. Identify the surface markings associated with the radius and the ulna using Figure 11.4 (page 125 of the
   lab manual).
5. Identify the bones/surface markings of the wrist and hand using Figure 11.5 (page 126 of the lab manual).
   You only have to know the wrist bones as the carpals-you will not be required to know their individual
    names.
6. Identify the bones/surface markings of the bones of the pelvic girdle using Figure 11.6 (page 128 of the
   lab manual).
7. Identify the surface markings associated with the femur using Figure 11.7 (page 130 of the lab manual).
8. Identify the patella using Figure 11.7 (page 130 of the lab manual).
9. Identify the surface markings associated with the tibia and fibula using Figure 11.8 (page 131 of the lab
   manual).
10. Identify the bones/surface markings of the foot using Figure 11.9 (page 132 of the lab manual). Do be
    able to identify the calcaneus and the talus; however, the remainder of the bones of the ankle area you can
    simply learn as the tarsals.

EXERCISE 12-THE FETAL SKELETON
1. Identify the structures of the fetal skull using Figure 12.1 (page 142 of the lab manual).

EXERCISE 13-ARTICULATIONS AND BODY MOVEMENTS
1. From the provided knee model, identify the following parts:
         a. Meniscus                        e. Posterior cruciate ligament
         b. Collateral ligament             f. Tibia
         c. Anterior cruciate ligament      g. Fibula
         d. Patellar ligament               h. Femur

								
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