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									Human Anatomy,          First Edition
McKinley & O'Loughlin


  Chapter 1 Lecture Outline: A First
          Look at Anatomy



                                        1-1
A First Look at Anatomy
   Anatomy is the study of structure.
   The word anatomy is derived from
    Greek and means “to cut up” or “to cut
    open.”
       Anatomists examine the relationships
        among parts of the body along with the
        structure of individual organs.


                                                 1-2
Introduction to Anatomy
   Physiology
       The scientific discipline that studies the
        function of body structures.
       Structure and function cannot be
        completely separated.
       Form is related to function.



                                                     1-3
4
Levels of Organization in the
Human Body
   The simplest level of organization within
    the body is the chemical level, which is
    composed of atoms and molecules.
       Atoms are the smallest units of matter.




                                                  1-5
Levels of Organization in the
Human Body
   Molecules
       Two or more atoms combine to form a
        molecule, such as a protein, a water
        molecule, or a vitamin.
   Macromolecules
       Larger and more complex molecules such
        as DNA and proteins.


                                                 1-6
Levels of Organization in the
Human Body
   At the cellular level, specialized
    structural and functional units called
    organelles permit all living cells to share
    some common functions.




                                             1-7
Levels of Organization in the
Human Body
   Large molecules join in specific ways to
    form cells, the basic units of structure
    and function in organisms.
       The cell is the smallest structural unit that
        exhibits the characteristics of living things
        (organisms), and it is the smallest living
        portion of the human body.


                                                    1-8
Levels of Organization in the
Human Body
   Tissues
       Groups of similar cells with a common
        function form tissue.
       Tissues are precise organizations of similar
        cells that perform specialized functions.




                                                   1-9
Levels of Organization in the
Human Body
   Organs
       Different tissue types that work together to
        perform specific, complex functions form
        an organ.
       Organ Systems
            The organ system level consists of related
             organs that work together to coordinate
             activities and achieve a common function.
            There are 11 organ systems in the human
             body.

                                                          1-10
Levels of Organization in the
Human Body
   Organism
       All body systems function interdependently
        in a single living human being, the
        organism.




                                                1-11
The Four Types of Tissues in the
Human Body Are:

   Epithelial tissue covers exposed
    surfaces and lines body cavities.
         Example: The inner lining of the digestive
          system




                                                       1-12
The Four Types of Tissues
   Connective tissue protects,
    supports, and interconnects body
    parts and organs.
         Can be solid (such as bone), liquid (such
          as blood), or intermediate (such as
          cartilage).




                                                  1-13
The Four Types of Tissues
   Muscle tissue produces movement.
         Skeletal muscle
         Smooth muscle
         Cardiac muscle




                                  1-14
The Four Types of Tissues
   Nervous tissue conducts impulses
    for internal communication.
         Brain, spinal cord, and nerves




                                           1-15
Integumentary
   Provides protection
       Regulates body
        temperature
       Site of cutaneous
        receptors
       Synthesizes vitamin D
       Prevents water loss




                                1-16
Skeletal
   Provides support
    and protection
       Site of hematopoeisis
        (blood cell
        production)
       Stores calcium and
        phosphorus
       Allows for body
        movement


                                1-17
Muscular
   Produces body
    movement
       Generates heat when
        muscles contract




                              1-18
Nervous
   A regulatory system
    that controls body
    movement
       Responds to sensory
        stimuli
       Helps control all
        other systems of the
        body
       Also responsible for
        consciousness,
        intelligence, memory

                               1-19
Endocrine
   Consists of glands
    and cell clusters that
    secrete hormones,
    some of which
    regulate
          body and cellular
           growth
          chemical levels in the
           body
          reproductive
           functions


                                    1-20
Cardiovascular

    Consists of a pump
     (the heart) that
     moves blood through
     blood vessels in
     order to distribute
     hormones, nutrients,
     gases, and pick up
     waste products


                            1-21
Lymphatic
   Transports and
    filters lymph
    (interstitial fluid)
       Initiates an immune
        response when
        necessary




                              1-22
Respiratory
   Responsible for
    exchange of gases
    (oxygen and carbon
    dioxide) between
    blood and the air in
    the lungs




                           1-23
Digestive
   Mechanically and
    chemically digests
    food materials
       Absorbs nutrients
       Expels waste
        products




                            1-24
Urinary
   Filters the blood and
    removes waste
    products from the
    blood
       Concentrates waste
        products in the form
        of urine, and expels
        urine from the body



                               1-25
    Male Reproductive
    System

   Produces male
    sex cells
    (sperm) and
    male hormones
    (e.g.,
    testosterone)
       Transfers sperm
        to the female




                          1-26
       Female Reproductive
       System


   Produces female sex cells
    (oocytes) and female
    hormones (e.g., estrogen
    and progesterone)
   Receives sperm from male
   Site of fertilization of oocyte
   Site of growth and
    development of embryo and
    fetus

                                      1-27
     Anatomical
     Terminology
   Anatomic position is a
    specific body position in
    which an individual stands
    upright with the feet
    parallel and flat on the
    floor.
   The head is level, and the
    eyes look forward toward
    the observer.
   The arms are at either side
    of the body with the palms
    facing forward and the
    thumbs pointing away from
    the body.

                                  1-28
Anatomical Terminology
   A plane is an imaginary surface that
    slices the body into specific sections.
   The three major anatomic planes of
    reference are the coronal, transverse,
    and sagittal planes.




                                              1-29
     Sections
     and Planes

A coronal plane, also
called a frontal plane,
is a vertical plane that
divides the body into
anterior (front) and
posterior (back) parts.



                           1-30
        Sections
        and Planes
   A transverse plane, also
    called a cross-sectional
    plane or horizontal
    plane, cuts
    perpendicularly along
    the long axis of the body
    or organ separating it
    into both superior
    (upper) and inferior
    (lower) parts.


                                1-31
       Sections
       and Planes
   A sagittal plane or
    median plane,
    extends through
    the body or organ
    vertically and
    divides the
    structure into right
    and left halves.


                           1-32
Sections and Planes
   A sagittal plane in the body midline is a
    midsagittal plane.
   A plane that is parallel to the midsagittal
    plane, but either to the left or the right of it,
    is termed a parasagittal (or sagittal) plane.
   A minor plane, called the oblique plane,
    passes through the specimen at an angle.



                                                    1-33
Directional Terms of the Body
   Directional terms are precise and brief,
    and for most of them there is a
    correlative term that means just the
    opposite.




                                           1-34
Relative and Directional Terms
of the Body
   Relative to front (belly
    side) or back (back
    side) of the body :
       Anterior = In front of;
        toward the front surface
       Posterior = In back of;
        toward the back surface
       Dorsal =At the back
        side of the human body
       Ventral = At the belly
        side of the human body


                                   1-35
Relative and Directional Terms
of the Body
   Relative to the head
    or tail of the body:
       Superior = Toward the
        head or above
       Inferior = Toward feet
        not head
       Caudal = At the rear or
        tail end
       Cranial = At the head
        end



                                  1-36
Relative and Directional Terms
of the Body
   Relative to the midline
    or center of the body:
       Medial = Toward the
        midline of the body
       Lateral = Away from the
        midline of the body
       Deep = On the inside,
        underneath another
        structure
       Superficial = On the
        outside


                                  1-37
Relative and Directional Terms
of the Body
   Relative to point of
    attachment of the
    appendage:
       Proximal = Closest
        to point of
        attachment to trunk
       Distal = Furthest
        from point of
        attachment to trunk


                              1-38
Body Regions
   The human body is partitioned into two
    main regions, called the axial and
    appendicular regions.
       the axial region includes the head, neck,
        and trunk which comprise the main vertical
        axis of our body
       our limbs, or appendages, attach to the
        body’s axis and make up the
        appendicular region

                                                1-39
40
41
42
        Body Cavities
        and Membranes
   The posterior aspect
    of the body has two
    enclosed cavities
       A cranial cavity is
        formed by the
        cranium and houses
        the brain.
       A vertebral canal is
        formed by the
        individual bones of
        the vertebral column
        and contains the
        spinal cord.

                               1-43
Body Cavities
   Both the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
    are lined with thin serous membranes, which
    are composed of two layers:
       A parietal layer lines the internal surface of the
        body wall.
       A visceral layer covers the external surface of
        organs (viscera) within the cavity.
       Between the parietal and visceral layers of the
        serous membrane is a thin serous cavity,
        containing a lubricating film of serous fluid.


                                                         1-44
Body Cavities and Membranes
   Constant movement of the organs
    causes friction.
   The serous fluid reduces friction and
    helps the organs move smoothly
    against both one another and the body
    wall.


                                        1-45
46
        Body Cavities and Membranes

   The median
    space in the
    thoracic cavity is
    called the
    mediastinum.
   It contains the
    heart, thymus,
    esophagus,
    trachea, and major
    blood vessels that
    connect to the
    heart.
                                      1-47
    Body Cavities and Membranes




   Within the mediastinum, the heart is enclosed
    by a two-layered serous membrane called the
    pericardium.
                                                    1-48
Insert Fig 1.9d




                  49
The Thoracic Cavity
   The right and left sides of the thoracic
    cavity contain the lungs; they are lined
    by a two-layered serous membrane
    called the pleura.
       The outer layer is the parietal pleura; it lines the
        internal surface of the thoracic wall
       The inner layer is the visceral pleura; it covers
        the external surface of the lung
       The narrow, moist, potential space between
        them is called the pleural cavity

                                                         1-50
51
Abdominopelvic Cavity

   The abdominopelvic cavity consists
    of an abdominal cavity and a pelvic
    cavity.




                                      1-52
The Abdominopelvic Cavity
   The peritoneum
    is a moist, two-      Insert figure
    layered serous        1.9d
              .
    membrane that lines
    the abdominopelvic
    cavity.




                                          1-53
54
        Abdominopelvic Regions



   The abdominopelvic
    cavity is partitioned
    into 9 smaller,
    imaginary
    compartments.



                                 1-55

								
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