H03 CH. 23 ANIMAL KINGDOM (PRACTICE TEST) True/False Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false. ____ 1. Without exception, all animals are heterotrophs. ____ 2. The majority of animal species are classified as invertebrates. ____ 3. All animal cells lack cell walls. ____ 4. Multicellularity enables individual cells to specialize on one life task. ____ 5. A tissue is a group of dissimilar cells that are organized into a functional unit. ____ 6. The first animals to evolve in the ancient oceans had bilateral symmetry. ____ 7. Bilateral symmetry divides an organism into distinct left and right halves. ____ 8. Jellyfish and echinoderms both exhibit radial symmetry, demonstrating that they are close relatives. ____ 9. Most radially symmetric animals are aquatic. ____ 10. The development of a true coelom between the ectoderm and the mesoderm represents a true evolutionary advance over the pseudocoelomate body plan. ____ 11. All bilaterally symmetric animals have the same internal body plan. ____ 12. The development of a body cavity did not affect the evolution of organs. ____ 13. The body cavities of coelomates are located entirely within the ectoderm. ____ 14. Segmentation occurs in the bodies of higher vertebrates (annelids, arthropods, and echinoderms) but is not present in chordates. ____ 15. Animals are grouped into phyla based on similar body plans. ____ 16. Anatomy and physiology are never used to determine evolutionary relationships between animal phyla. ____ 17. Single celled organisms and sponges digest their food within their body cells. ____ 18. All animals have nerve cells. ____ 19. In a closed circulatory system, oxygen and nutrients are exchanged directly between the cells and the environment. ____ 20. Internal fertilization is a sexual reproductive strategy used by most terrestrial animals. Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____ 21. Refer to the illustration above. The organism labeled B in the diagram a. is asymmetrical. c. exhibits radial symmetry. b. is bilaterally symmetrical. d. has reverse symmetry. ____ 22. Refer to the illustration above. The organism labeled “A” in the diagram a. has no symmetry. c. exhibits radial symmetry. b. is bilaterally symmetrical. d. has reverse symmetry. ____ 23. Organism B is a. radially symmetrical. c. unilaterally symmetrical. b. bilaterally symmetrical. d. nonsymmetrical. ____ 24. Refer to the illustration above. The position of the arrow labeled ____ can be referred to as anterior. a. 1 c. 5 b. 4 d. 6 The diagrams below are cross sections of three types of animal bodies. ____ 25. Refer to the illustration above. An organism with no body cavity is shown in diagram a. A. c. C. b. B. d. None of the above ____ 26. Refer to the illustration above. The organism shown in diagram B is a(n) a. acoelomate. c. coelomate. b. pseudocoelomate. d. vertebrate. ____ 27. Refer to the illustration above. Humans have a body plan similar to that of the organism shown in diagram a. A. c. C. b. B. d. None of the above ____ 28. Refer to the illustration above. Which diagram shows an organism that probably has a circulatory system? a. A b. B c. C d. None of the organisms illustrated would have a circulatory system. Completion Complete each sentence or statement. 29. Since animals cannot make their own food, they are said to be ____________________. 30. Multicellularity allows for ____________________ of cells. 31. All animals are heterotrophs and are ____________________. 32. Since sponges do not have body parts that grow around a central point as do all other animals, the sponges are said to lack ____________________. 33. An animal whose body parts are arranged around a central point, like spokes around the hub of a wheel, has ____________________ symmetry. 34. A(n) ____________________ ____________________ is a term used to describe an animal’s shape, symmetry, and internal organization. 35. Animals with ____________________ symmetry have body parts arranged around a central axis. 36. Distinct right and left halves are characteristic of ____________________ symmetry. 37. Cephalization concentrates sensory organs in the ____________________ end of an animal. 38. Organisms that have left and right halves that mirror each other when divided by an imaginary longitudinal plane are said to have ____________________ symmetry. 39. The evolution of a definite head end is called ____________________. 40. The ____________________ is a fluid-filled cavity that develops within the mesoderm of higher invertebrates and vertebrates. 41. An animal without a body cavity is called a(n) ____________________. 42. A(n) ____________________ tree is a model developed by scientists used to illustrate relationships between animal phyla. 43. Animals without backbones are called ____________________. 44. Animals with backbones are called ____________________. 45. Annelids, arthropods, echinoderms, and chordates all have ____________________ bodies. 46. A(n) ____________________ is a collection of different tissues that work together as a unit to perform a particular function. 47. A group of different tissues that are dedicated to one function is called a(n) ____________________. 48. In simple animals, oxygen gas and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the ____________________ by diffusion. 49. Many aquatic organisms release their gametes into the water where ____________________ fertilization takes place. 50. An organism that produces both eggs and sperm is called a(n) ____________________. Essay 51. From a development point of view, what is the advantage of the coelomate body plan over the pseudocoelomate body plan? 52. Explain the advantage of internal digestion. 53. Why is external fertilization not a practical reproductive strategy for terrestrial animals? H03 CH. 23 ANIMAL KINGDOM (PRACTICE TEST) Answer Section TRUE/FALSE 1. T 14. F 26. B 38. bilateral 2. T 15. T 27. C 39. cephalization 3. T 16. F 28. C 40. coelom 4. T 17. T COMPLETION 41. acoelomate 5. F 18. F 29. heterotrophs 42. phylogenetic 6. F 19. F 30. specialization 43. invertebrates 7. T 20. T 31. multicellular 44. vertebrates 8. F MULTIPLE CHOICE 32. symmetry 45. segmented 9. T 21. C 33. radial 46. organ 10. F 22. B 34. body plan 47. organ 11. F 23. A 35. radial 48. environment 12. F 24. B 36. bilateral 49. external 13. F 25. A 37. anterior 50. hermaphrodite ESSAY 51. The development of the coelom totally within the mesoderm allows contact between the mesoderm and the endoderm. Such contact permits development of organ systems more complex than those in pseudocoelomate organisms. 52. Internal digestion allows animals to eat organisms larger than themselves by taking pieces of those organisms into the body to be digested. The gut of a cnidarian allows this process to take place. A sponge has no gut and is able to consume only organisms small enough to be absorbed by the cells lining its internal cavity. 53. External fertilization involves the fertilization of eggs by sperm within the environment. Flagellated sperm require a liquid medium to propel themselves towards eggs and potential fertilization opportunities. On land, gametes would quickly dry out limiting the likelihood of fertilization.
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