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What is Hypnosis

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					Hypnosis
Celeste Radelet Alicia Poston Kim Briggs

APA Definition
According to the American Psychological Association (APA)‘s Division of Psychological Hypnosis, hypnosis is a procedure during which a health professional or researcher suggests while treating someone that he or she experience changes in sensations, perceptions, thoughts, or behavior. Although some hypnosis is used to make people more alert, most hypnosis includes suggestions for relaxation, calmness, and well-being. Instructions to imagine or think about pleasant experiences are also commonly included during hypnosis. People respond to hypnosis in different ways. Some describe hypnosis as a state of focused attention, in which they feel very calm and relaxed. Most people describe the experience as pleasant.

Contents
           APA Definition of Hypnosis “Father of Hypnosis”--Mesmer History of Hypnosis Suggestibility/Susceptibility Hypnosis and Emotional Health Hypnosis and Physical Health Facts and Fiction False memory/Confabulation Self Hypnosis Hypnosis vs. Sleep and Dreams Brain Activity • Delta • Theta • Alpha • Beta Sources

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“Father of Hypnosis”
Franz Anton Mesmer
 Mesmer used the power of suggestion to ‗cure‘ illnesses in the 18th century. The Austrian physician referred to his ability as a type of animal magnetism. Although his abilities have since been discredited, he is immortalized in the verb ―to mesmerize‖. Born in Swabia, Germany 1734 In 1774, Mesmer had a patient swallow iron, and used magnets to ―heal‖ her. In 1775, Mesmer was unsuccessful in curing the blindness of a young musician. In 1777, scandal and embarrassment caused him to leave Vienna. Mesmer believed that illness was caused by obstruction of the free-flow of life processes, and as a conductor of animal magnetism he was able to help restore the natural process. The evolution of Mesmer's ideas and practices led James Braid to develop hypnosis in 1842.

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Mesmer‘s Treatment
Mesmer treated patients both individually and in groups. With individuals he would sit in front of his patient with his knees touching the patient's knees, pressing the patient's thumbs in his hands, looking fixedly into the patient's eyes. Mesmer made "passes", moving his hands from patients' shoulders down along their arms. He then pressed his fingers on the patient's hypochondriac region (the area below the diaphragm), sometimes holding his hands there for hours. Many patients felt peculiar sensations or had convulsions that were regarded as crises and supposed to bring about the cure. Mesmer would often conclude his treatments by playing some music on a glass armonica.

A glass armonica is a type of musical instrument that uses a series of glass bowls or goblets graduated in size to produce musical tones by means of friction.

History of Hypnosis
  18th Century Paris: Franz Anton Mesmer gained popularity for what he termed ―Animal Magnetism‖ 1784: The Royal Commission of Inquiry into Animal magnetism was established.
– They concluded that Animal Magnetism did not exist and therefore had no curative powers.

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Marquis de Puysegur renamed what we now know as hypnosis, artificial somnamulbism. The Abbe Jose Custodia di Faria called it lucid sleep. 1843: James Braid coined the term hypnosis, which comes from the Greek work for sleep, ―hypnos‖. 19th Century: Hypnosis was viewed as a matter of the degree of a person‘s suggestibility. Late 19th Century: A.A. Liebeault reconciled the sleep metaphor with suggestibility theory. End of the 19th Century: Two ―schools― of hypnosis were formed in France. First three decade of 20th century: Interest in hypnosis declined until Clark L. Hull‘s book, Hypnosis and Suggestibility: An Experimental Approach.

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World War II: Small group of hypnosis clinicians were able to provide pain relief and alleviation of suffering to their severely injured patients through the use of hypnosis. This group of clinicians banded together after the war and formed the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis and later on the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis. 1950‘s: Invention of the electroencephalogram (EEG) which measured differences between hypnosis‘ pattern that is indistinguishable from being relaxed, alert with eyes closed and sleep‘s EEG that consists of four distinct polygraph-defined stages. 1960-1990: ―Halcyon Days‖ of hypnosis. During this time, three major hypnosis laboratories for the research of hypnosis were formed. Today, one still remains in Philadelphia at the University of Pennsylvania.

Suggestibility and Susceptibility
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Highly susceptible subjects show significantly more brain activity in the left side of the prefrontal cortex. Under hypnosis the subject becomes more susceptible to suggestion than in his or her normal state. Dialogue is directly related to how the hypnotist directly or indirectly gives suggestions. It is possible to induce alterations in the following areas: – Memory – Perception – Sensation – Emotions – Feeling – Attitudes – Beliefs – Muscular states

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Subconscious: information contained in the mind, which although not presently in the conscious, maybe recalled by "directing attention to them", such as memories not being recalled at present, but still available to be recalled at will. Conscious: is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, selfawareness, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and one's environment. Unconscious: is the aspect (or alleged aspect) of the mind of which we are not directly conscious or aware.

Hypnosis and Emotional Health
Emotions and imagination, both part of the subconscious, are the underlining factors responsible for most of our behavior. Our present behaviors are usually linked to how our imagination has perceived a past event, and has tied certain emotions to that event. Accessing the subconscious through hypnosis can help to alleviate some or all symptoms associated with following difficulties people experience:

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Anxiety Depression Sleep difficulty Social anxiety Panic Phobias PTSD Self-esteem Abusive relationships Addiction

Hypnosis and Physical Health
Although the exact mechanism by which hypnosis works is still unknown, it appears that the effect that hypnosis has, results in an alteration of how the brain communicates with the rest of your body through nerve impulses, hormones and body chemicals, such as neuropeptides. This alteration is useful in helping control some of the physiological processes that occur within the body. The following list are examples of how hypnosis can be used to do this in order to help a person gain control of their physical well-being:
        Treat pain during childbirth and reduce labor time Control pain during dental and surgical procedures Relieve symptoms associated with Irritable Bowel Syndrome Lower blood pressure Control nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy Reduce the frequency and intensity of headaches, including migraines Treat and ease symptoms of asthma Hasten the healing of some skin diseases including warts, psoriasis and atopic dermatitis

Facts and Fiction about Hypnosis
  FICTION: When your under hypnosis you surrender your free will. FACT: Hypnosis is a heighten state of concentration and focus. When your under hypnosis you DO NOT lose your personality, free-will, or personal strength.

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FICTION: When your under hypnosis the therapist controls you. FACT: You do hypnotherapy only FOR YOURSELF. A hypnotherapist serves only as a guide or facilitator. FICTION: Under hypnosis you lose consciousness, or suffer from amnesia. FACT: A small number of people who go into a very hypnotic state, experience spontaneous amnesia. However MOST people remember everything that occurs under hypnosis. FICTION: You can be put under hypnosis without your consent. FACT: Successful hypnosis depends on your willingness to experience it—even with voluntary hypnosis, not everyone can be led into a hypnotic state.

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False Memory/Confabulation
 It is common experience that human memory may be unreliable to some degree, whether by failing to remember at all or by remembering incorrectly.

 Our sense of identity, of who we are and what we have done, is tied to our memories, and it can be disturbing to have those challenged.
 Memory is a complicated process, only partly understood; but research suggests that the qualities of a memory do not provide a reliable way to determine accuracy. For example, a vivid and detailed memory may be based upon inaccurate reconstruction of facts, or largely self-created impressions that appear to have actually occurred.

 Continuity of memory is no guarantee of truth, and disruption of memory is no guarantee of falsity.  Memory is believed to be a reconstructed phenomenon, and so it can often be strongly influenced by expectation (one's own or other people's), emotions, the implied beliefs of others, inappropriate interpretation, or desired outcome.

Self Hypnosis
The subconscious mind is like an obedient servant—it doesn‘t think or reason—and herein lies the power of self-hypnosis…

YOU have the power! Your subconscious mind will accept your suggestions and make them a part of your reality! It tells your unconscious that will act on these suggestions and your on your way to a more healthy lifestyle!

***It is important to remember that your subconscious mind does not know the difference between good or bad suggestion—so BE POSITIVE! Don‘t tell yourself that you are fat, or ugly or unworthy… You should always remain positive, constructive and beneficial! Otherwise, you will ACTUALLY start to believe it, and you will project this out in your personality!

Hypnosis vs. Sleep and Dreams
 SLEEP: While asleep, your brain automatically cycles down from the beta range into alpha, and briefly into theta and delta. Then it cycles back up into alpha where you spend most of your time sleeping and dreaming.
 HYPNOSIS: A hypnotist takes advantage of the above natural phenomena. Hypnosis is a technique that causes the brain to cycle down into alpha without going to sleep. In alpha, the subconscious mind is open for suggestive input.

Brain Activity
 Electroencephalography is the neurophysiologic measurement of the electrical activity of the brain by recording from electrodes placed on the scalp or, in special cases, within the subdural or the cerebral cortex.
 The resulting traces are known as an electroencephalogram (EEG) and represent an electrical signal (postsynaptic potentials) from a large number of neurons. The EEG is a brain function test, but in clinical use it is a "gross correlate of brain activity. Electrical currents are not measured, but rather voltage differences between different parts of the brain.

Beta: Alertness/ Concentration/ Cognition 12-40 Hz

EEG (electroencephalograph) 1 second sample. The signal is filtered to present only the gamma waves.

You are wide-awake, alert. Your mind is sharp, focused.  It makes connections quickly, easily, and you're primed to do work that requires your full attention. In the Beta state, neurons fire abundantly, in rapid succession, helping you achieve peak performance. New ideas and solutions to problems flash like lightning into your mind. Beta training is one of the frequencies that biofeedback therapists use to treat Attention Deficit Disorder.

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Beta-centered programs help you prepare to take an exam, play sports, give a presentation, analyze and organize information and other activities where mental alertness and high levels of concentration are key to your success. Beta waves range between 13-40 HZ. The Beta state is associated with peak concentration, heightened alertness, hand-eye coordination and visual acuity.

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Alpha: Relaxation/ Visualization/ Creativity 6-12 Hz

EEG (electroencephalograph) 1 second sample. The signal is filtered to present only the gamma waves.

When you are truly relaxed, your brain activity slows from the rapid patterns of Beta into the more gentle waves of Alpha. Your awareness expands.  Fresh creative energy begins to flow. Fears vanish. You experience a liberating sense of peace and well-being. In biofeedback, Alpha training is most commonly recommended for the treatment of stress.  Alpha waves range between 7-12 HZ. This is a place of deep relaxation, but not quite meditation.  In Alpha, we begin to access the wealth of creativity that lies just below our conscious awareness - it is the gateway, the entry point that leads into deeper states of consciousness. Alpha is also the home of the window frequency known as the Schuman Resonance - the resonant frequency of the earth's electromagnetic field.

Theta: Meditation/ Intuition/ Memory 4-7 Hz

EEG (electroencephalograph) 1 second sample. The signal is filtered to present only the gamma waves.

Going deeper into relaxation, you enter the elusive and mysterious Theta state where brain activity slows almost to the point of sleep, but not quite.

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Theta is the brain state where magic happens in the crucible of your own neurological activity. Theta brings forward heightened receptivity, flashes of dreamlike imagery, inspiration, and your long forgotten memories. Theta can bring you deep states of meditation. A sensation of "floating." And, because it is an expansive state, in Theta, you may feel your mind expand beyond the boundaries of your body.
Theta rests directly on the threshold of your subconscious. In biofeedback, it is most commonly associated with the deepest levels of meditation. Theta also plays an important part in behavior modification programs and has been used in the treatment of drug and alcohol addiction. Finally, Theta is an ideal state for super-learning, re-programming your mind, dream recall, and self-hypnosis. Theta waves range between 4-7 HZ. Theta is one of the more elusive and extraordinary realms we can explore. It is also known as the twilight state which we normally only experience fleetingly as we rise up out of the depths of delta upon waking, or drifting off to sleep. In Theta, we are in a waking dream, vivid imagery flashes before the mind's eye and we are receptive to information beyond our normal conscious awareness. Theta has also been identified as the gateway to learning and memory. Theta meditation increases creativity, enhances learning, reduces stress and awakens intuition and other extrasensory perception skills.

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Delta: Detached Awareness/ Healing/ Sleep 1-4 Hz

EEG (electroencephalograph) 1 second sample. The signal is filtered to present only the gamma waves.

Long, slow, undulating.  Delta is the slowest of all four brain wave frequencies. Most commonly associated with deep sleep, certain frequencies in the Delta range also trigger the release of Human Growth Hormone so beneficial for healing and regeneration. This is why sleep - deep restorative sleep - the kind that Delta frequencies help induce is so essential to the healing process.

 Delta is the brain wave signal of the subconscious, the seat from which intuition arises. Delta is not only ideal for sleep and deep regeneration potential, but also when you want to access your unconscious activity and help that wellspring of information flow to your conscious mind for clearing and for empowerment. Delta waves range between 0-4 HZ.

Gamma: Precognition/ Clarity/ Perception 40 Hz +

EEG (electroencephalograph) 1 second sample. The signal is filtered to present only the gamma waves.

Gamma brainwaves are the most rapid in frequency.  A gamma wave is a pattern of brain waves, associated with perception and consciousness. Gamma waves are produced when masses of neurons emit electrical signals at the rate of around 40 times a second (40 hertz or Hz), but can often be between 26 and upwards of 70 Hz.

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By one definition, gamma waves are manifest at 24 Hz and higher, though researchers have recognized that higher level cognitive activities occur when lower frequency gamma waves suddenly double into the 40 Hz range. Research has shown gamma waves are continuously present during low voltage fast neocortical activity (LVFA), which occurs during the process of awakening and during active rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Some researchers do not distinguish gamma waves as a distinct class but include them in beta brain waves. Until recently gamma brain waves have received the least attention and research, although more attention is currently being paid to them than in years past. During moments when bursts of precognition or high-level information processing occur, your brainwaves reach the Gamma state. The Gamma brain wave state corresponds to frequencies of 40Hz or higher.

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Vibrations from rhythmic sounds have a profound effect on our brain activity. It is no coincidence that 4.5 beats, or cycles, per second corresponds to the trance-like state of theta brain wave activity. You have your very own signature brain wave activity, unique to you. It has a rhythm and pattern and it incorporates Beta, Alpha, Theta, and Delta frequencies at varying levels over the course of a day as your brain modulates them to match your activities.

Sources
 www.brainsync.com  www.toolsforwellness.com  http://en.wikipedia.org  http://skepdic.com/falsememory.html  science.howstuffworks.com/hypnosis.htm  http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hypnosis/SA00084  http://www.fmsfonline.org/hypnosis.html  http://www.institute-shot.com/hypnosis_and_health.htm  http://hypnosis.com/whatishypnosis_history.aspx


				
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