IOAG-11 NASA Architecture Report

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IOAG-11 NASA Architecture Report Powered By Docstoc
					            Space Communications and Navigation Office




           NASA’s Concept:
“International Space Communications
       and Navigation Network
        Service Architecture”
           NASA Consolidated Network Services Team
          Space Communications and Navigation Office
                    NASA Headquarters


        Drawn from Rush / Hooke Presentation to IOAG-11
                 June 19, 2007, Cebreros, Spain

   Presented to CCSDS Cross Support Service Architecture BoF
                  Peter Shames, 13 March 2008
                                                               nasa-1
                                    Top Level
                   Space Communications & Navigation Architecture




                      Martian                                           Lunar Local
                      Local Network                                     Network




                                      Martian                   Lunar
                                      Trunk                     Trunk




                                                   L1/L2


                Individual
                Spacecraft
                Connections
                                                Earth
                                                Local Network


13 March 2008                                                                         nasa-2
                                             Cross Support Interfaces




Source: NASA IOAG Internetworking Proposal

13 March 2008                                                           nasa-3
                                        Background

    •   2005-2006: NASA’s Space Communications Architecture Working Group
        (SCAWG)

         •   Fresh look at NASA’s overall space communications and navigation infrastructure

         •   Created the “NASA Space Communications and Navigation Architecture -
             Recommendations for 2005-2030”:
             https://www.spacecomm.nasa.gov/spacecomm/




13 March 2008                                                                            nasa-4
                   Description of
           The Present Service Architecture
                                                             • Network-specific
                                                               service interfaces
• Network-specific                                           • Network-specific
  service interfaces     White Sands SN
                                                               service management
                       Ground Terminal          Network        interfaces          Mission
                       Second TDRSS             Control                           Operations
                       Ground Terminal           Center                            Center
                                                 (NCC)
                        Guam Remote
                       Ground Terminal
                                                                                 Mission
                                                                                Operations
                                                                                 Center
                                         GN
                                                 Wallops
                                                  Orbital
                                                                                 Mission
                                                 Tracking
                                               Information                      Operations
                                                 System                          Center
                                                 (WOTIS)

                                                                                 Mission
                                                                                Operations
                                                                                 Center
                                         DSN
                               Goldstone
                                                Network
                                Complex
                                               Operations                        Mission
                                Canberra                                        Operations
                                                Control
                                Complex                                          Center
                                                 Center
                                  Madrid        (NOCC)
                                Complex
                                                               NISN                            nasa-5
                     Description of
             The Future Service Architecture
                                                          • Standard service
                                                            interfaces
• Standard service                                        • Standard service
  interfaces           White Sands SN
                                                            management interfaces
                     Ground Terminal          Network                         Mission
                     Second TDRSS             Control                        Operations
                     Ground Terminal           Center                          Center
                                               (NCC)
                      Guam Remote
                     Ground Terminal                                               Mission
                                                                                  Operations
                                                                                   Center

                        GN
                                 Wallops
                                 Orbiting                           Enterprise
                                 Tracking                             Service
                               Information                         Management
                                  System                             Function
                                 (WOTIS)



                                                                                  Mission
                                                                                 Operations
                                       DSN                                        Center
                             Goldstone
                                              Network
                              Complex
                                             Operations                      Mission
                              Canberra                                      Operations
                                              Control
                              Complex                                        Center
                                               Center
                                Madrid        (NOCC)
                              Complex
                                                                NISN
                                                                                              nasa-6
                         Conceptual scope of NASA’s Networks




              End          Control        Earth Ground
                                                                  Relays      End
             Users         Centers          Stations
                                                                             Users
            (Earth)
                                                                           (Remote)

                                NASA SPACE COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK

                                               Data Flow
                                               Information Flow




   Source: Dave Israel


13 March 2008                                                                         nasa-7
                       NASA’s Layered Protocol Concept


                              End                                           End
                              User                                          User


                            User                                       User
                          Application                                Application

                        Service Access                          Service Access




                                             “on-ramps” for
                Layer (n+1)                accessing protocol                 Layer (n+1)
                                                services



                    Layer (n)                                            Layer (n)




                       Layer (n-1)                                   Layer (n-1)




13 March 2008                            Space Communications Path                          nasa-8
                              NASA’s view: Single Hop Communications


                                      User                                  User
                  End                 End                                   End               End
                  User                                                                        User
                 (Earth)
                                      System                                System          (Remote)


                        User                                                       User
                      Application                                                Application




                Application                                                                Application
                 Service                                                                    Service
                                                     “on-ramps” for
                    Transport                      accessing protocol                    Transport
                     Service                            services                          Service


                           Network                                                     Network
                           Service                                                     Service


                                 Link                                          Link
                                Service                                       Service


                                     Physical                               Physical
                                     Service                                Service

13 March 2008                                   Space Communications Path                                nasa-9
                              NASA’s view: Multi Hop Communications


                                      User                                                 User
                  End                 End                     Relay                        End               End
                  User                                       System                                          User
                 (Earth)
                                      System                                               System          (Remote)


                        User                         Relaying Application:                        User
                      Application               Real Time or Store-and-Forward                  Application




                Application                                                                               Application
                 Service                                     “on-ramps” for
                                                                                                           Service
                                                           accessing protocol
                                                                services
                    Transport                                                                           Transport
                     Service                                                                             Service


                           Network                           Network                                  Network
                           Service                           Service                                  Service


                                 Link              Link                      Link             Link
                                Service           Service                   Service          Service


                                                               “Bent-
                                     Physical   Physical        pipe”           Physical   Physical
                                     Service    Service                         Service    Service

13 March 2008                                   Space Communications Path                                               nasa-10
                 NASA Space Communications Architecture:
                              where next?




          What concept unites all of these views into a cohesive,
                 consolidated “network of networks”?
13 March 2008                                                   nasa-11
                         NASA’s Concept:
                  provide “any-to-any” services …




                    Space Communication
        Mission                                     Mission
                            and
         User                                        User
                     Navigation Services




13 March 2008                                                 nasa-12
                … via an International Service Infrastructure …




                              International Space
        Mission                 Communications              Mission
         User                    and Navigation              User
                             Service Infrastructure




13 March 2008                                                         nasa-13
                                  … offering standard service interfaces




                                                                               Space
                                                                               Mission
                 Space                        Space                             User
                 Mission                      Mission
                  User                         User           Space
                                                              Mission
                                                                           Standard
                                                               User
                                                                           Services
            Standard                        Standard
            Services                        Services
                                                           Standard
                                                           Services

                                 Standard
                                 Services               International Space Communications and
                                                           Navigation Service Infrastructure



   Source: Mario Merri/Mike Kearney


13 March 2008
23 November 2011                                                                                 nasa-14
                         There are multiple phases involved
           with providing space communications and navigation services



                                             Mission
                   Discover                Formulation
                  Capabilities                Phase




                                             Mission
                    Negotiate                Design
                                                          Mission
                     Support                 Phase         User



                                            Mission
                    Provide                Operations
                    Services                 Phase


13 March 2008                                                            nasa-15
                      User/provider negotiations involve
                the selection and refinement of service options




                                             Select
                           Options




                        Service             Provide
                                                       Mission
                                                        User
                        Provider


13 March 2008                                                     nasa-16
                                       Activities across all Phases
                           should follow a principle of successive refinement

         Service
         Catalog            Select




        Service                      Mission
                                                Discover              Mission
       Capability                                                   Formulation
       Provider
                        Provide       User
                                               Capabilities

          Service
        Agreements          Select




       Service                                  Negotiate             Mission     Mission
                                     Mission                          Design
       Package
       Provider
                        Provide       User
                                                 Support                           User

        Configuration
          Profiles
                            Select




        Service                      Mission
                                                Provide              Mission
                                                                    Operations
        Provider        Provide       User
                                                Services

13 March 2008                                                                           nasa-17
                                          Mission Formulation Phase:
                discover available services; certify and register authorized users
                                         Mission “M” user browses the service catalog to determine which
                                         available network providers may potentially be available to support.
                      example:           User decides to explore potential support arrangements


                         Service Provider                                                       Mission User



                    Service Discovery Functions                                          Service Discovery Activities

                                                                       (Background
                                                                       administrative
                                                                        negotiation)




                                                           SM                      SM
                               Service                     I/F                     I/F
                               Catalog                             Service                               Mission
                                                                 Management                             Formulation
                                                                  Interface                              Manager




                                           Mission “M” user requests authority to enter exploratory support
                         example:          discussions.
                                           Users x, y and z are validated and authorized to negotiate during
13 March 2008                              formulation phase                                                            nasa-18
                                                Mission Design Phase:
                  negotiate service agreement; create configuration profiles
                                         “Service Agreement: per Service Package M23, SN will support
                     example:            Mission “M” with one S-band forward link at 8kbps or 16 kbps;
                                         one S-band return link with data rate in the 10 kbps – 2 Mbps
                                         range; and one-way or two-way Doppler tracking”

                        Service Provider                                                       Mission User


                       Service Negotiation                           (Background            Service Negotiation
                            Functions                                administrative              Activities
                                                                      negotiation)
                        Network
                       Integration
                        Manager
                                                                                              Mission       Service
                                                           SM                         SM                   Agreement
                                                           I/F                        I/F    Formulation
                                                                                              Manager         DB
                                                                   Service
                                                                 Management                                 Config
                                                                                                            Profile
                                                                  Interface                                  DB

                               Service     Service
                               Catalog    Agreement
                                             DB

                                           Config
                                           Profile
                 Network                    DB
                Engineering



                                          “Service Package M23, Configuration Profile C23.761: provide
                      example:            Mission “M” with S-band forward link at 8kbps, S-band return link
                                          with data rate = 1 Mbps, and one-way Doppler tracking service”
13 March 2008                                                                                                          nasa-19
                                      Mission Operations Phase:
                                           Provide Services
                                          “Provide a contiguous Telemetry, Telecommand and Raw
                          example:        Radiometric data acquisition pass for Mission “M”, per Service
                                          Package M23 and using configuration profile C23.761 with Station
                                          “S67”, between 15:00 and 15:45 Z on 2007-06-19”


                            Service Provider                                                           Mission User

                              Provider Scheduling and                                           Mission Planning, Scheduling
                              Execution Functions                                               and Execution
                                                                                                Functions
                                                   Service                                                           Service
                                                  Agreement                                                         Agreement
                                                     DB                                                                DB
                                                    Config                                                            Config
                                                    Profile                                                           Profile
                               Network               DB                                             Mission            DB
                              scheduling                                                           scheduling
                                                                                                                         Mission
                                                              SM                          SM                             Planning
                                                              I/F     Service             I/F                            Manager
                                 Equipment configuration,           Management
                                    control, monitoring                                              Mission planning
                                                                     Interface

                                                                    Service Utilization
                                                                        Interface                       FDF
                                                                                      1
                                                                                      2                                Service
                                                                                                                       Users
                                                                                                                     Mission
                                                                                      3                               User

                Station       Service Providing Resources
                 S67


                                                    1. Raw Radiometric service
                                example:            2. Forward CLTU telecommand service
                                                    3. Return All Frames telemetry service
13 March 2008                                                                                                                       nasa-20
                              NASA’s Proposed Approach

  • Consolidate NASA’s three current mission support networks around
     the organizing principle of a service-based architecture, that builds
     upon significant current international investment in “SLE”

  • Coordinate the development of that service-based architecture with
     other IOAG agencies to ensure future interoperability -
       •   NASA proposes that its networks should be a component of an
           international space communications and navigation service infrastructure

  • Evolve this international infrastructure by progressively exposing
     increasingly richer suites of services for cross support -
       •   Participating Agencies will agree to implement a common, evolving catalog
           of agreed Cross Support Transfer Services
            -   Supported by common, evolving Cross Support Service Management systems

  • Expand the scope of the international infrastructure to embrace new
     capabilities as needs emerge -
       •   Support of the Mission Design and Mission Formulation phases
       •   Provision of new network capabilities, e.g.,
            -   Lunar and Mars relays
            -   Space internetworking
13 March 2008                                                                        nasa-21
                                NASA’s Initial Scope

  • Initially focus on expanding
     NASA’s service infrastructure
     based on what we have today –
      • Earth-based networks
      • Basic communications and tracking
           services
       •   Consolidation of services in the
           Mission Operations Phase




                                              Primary
                                               Initial
                                               Scope

13 March 2008                                            nasa-22
                            Current state of the art for
                              standard capabilities

•   No uniform way to:                                                       Mission
     • obtain knowledge of network capabilities       Discover             Formulation
     • describe network services.                    Capabilities             Phase
     • negotiate or document mission support


•   Service Management defines
    Configuration Profiles to specify fixed or
    alternative mission parameters
•   Service Management defines some
                                                      Negotiate              Mission
                                                                             Design
                                                                                         Mission
    content of Service Agreements                      Support               Phase        User
     • But no process for negotiating that content

•   Full specification of basic “SLE” data
    transfer services
     • Growing deployment community
•   Service Management nearing initial
                                                       Provide              Mission
    Standard                                                               Operations
     • Prototypes under test                           Services              Phase
•   Generalization and expansion into “Cross
    Support Transfer Services”, including
    Radiometric and Monitoring                       Key: Exists
                                                          Emerging
13 March 2008                                             Does not exist                           nasa-23
                                           Goal for
                                     standard capabilities
• Fully standardized process defined for initial
    negotiation of network support
•   Internationally agreed Cross support Service            Discover               Mission
    Catalog defined and ready for operational use,                               Formulation
    providing access to uniformly-described                Capabilities             Phase
    service offerings of Agency networks
• Expansion to Lunar and Mars Relays and
    internetworked operations


• Fully standardized process defined for
    negotiating network support via Service
    Agreements                                              Negotiate              Mission     Mission
•   XML-based Service Agreements and
                                                             Support
                                                                                   Design
    Configuration Profiles defined and ready for
    operational use
                                                                                   Phase        User
• Expansion to Lunar and Mars Relays and
    internetworked operations


• Cross Support Transfer Services (CSTS) and
    Cross Support Service Management (CSSM)
    standards complete –                                     Provide              Mission
     •   Ready for widespread deployment and operational                         Operations
         use across international networks                   Services              Phase
• Expansion to Lunar and Mars Relays and
    internetworked operations
                                                           Key: Exists
                                                                Emerging
13 March 2008                                                   Does not exist                           nasa-24
                      First Step - Mission Operations Phase:
                         initial Earth-Based “Service Set”




                     Service Provider                                                        Mission User

                                                             SM                        SM
                                                             I/F     Service           I/F
                                                                   Management
                                                                    Interface
                           Forward
                         Data Delivery
                           Services



                                         Service Provision
                            Return
                         Data Delivery
                           Services                          SU                  SU                  Mission
                                                             I/F    Service      I/F                  User
                                                                   Utilization
                          Radiometric                              Interface
                           Services


                                                                                                        Service
                          Positioning
                                                                                                        Users
                           & Timing
                           Services

                Service Production




13 March 2008                                                                                                     nasa-25
                                           Initial Service Set:
                                    Earth-Based Return and Forward

       • Forward data delivery services:
            •   Forward File (CFDP)
            •   Forward Space Packet
            •   Internetworking
            •   Forward CLTU (TC Frame, AOS Frame,octet-stream)
            •   Forward Bitstream

       • Return data delivery services:
            •   Return File (CFDP)
            •   Return Space Packet
            •   Internetworking
            •   Return All Frames; Return Channel Frames
            •   Return Unframed Telemetry
            •   Return Bitstream

       • Radiometric services:
            •   Raw radio metric data
            •   Validated radio metric
            •   Delta-DOR

       • Position &Timing services:
            •   Position Determination
            •   Time Determination (Clock Correlation, Time distribution)




13 March 2008                                                               nasa-26
                             Initial Service Set - service data unit view:
                                   Earth-Based Return and Forward


                                                                          Service Provision




                                                                                                                Delta-DOR
                                                                                                 Radiometric
                   Packet
                   Space




                                                                               Position


                                                                                                 Validated
           File




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Packet
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Space
                                                                                          Time




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    File
                                  Internetworking Packet
                                                                                          Pos




                                                                                                                                                                                                              Internetworking Packet
       Application                                                                          &
                                                                                          Time
                                                                                                               Radiometric
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Application


                  Transport                                                                                                                                                                                                            Transport




                                                                                                                                                                                             Channel Frames
                                                                                                                                                                                All Frames
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Network




                                                                                                                                                           Unframed Telemetry
                            Network
                                                                   CLTU

                                                                           Bit-stream




                                                                                                                                              Bit-stream
                                                                                                                            Raw Radiometric

                                                           Link                                                                                                                                      Link


                                                                  Physical                                                                                               Physical

     Service Production
13 March 2008                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              nasa-27
                  Current Standard Service Set mapping to NASA Networks:
                              Earth-Based Return and Forward
                                                                                                **




                                                                                 DSN

                                                                                         SN

                                                                                                    GN
       • Forward data delivery services:
              •    Forward File (CFDP)
              •    Forward Space Packet
              •    Internetworking
              •    Forward CLTU (TC Frame, octet stream)
              •    Forward Bitstream*                                            L       L          L




       • Return data delivery services:
              •    Return File (CFDP)
              •    Return Space Packet                                           L

              •    Internetworking
              •    Return All Frames; Return Channel Frames
              •    Return Unframed Telemetry
              •    Return Bitstream*                                              L       L         L




       • Radiometric services:
              •    Raw radio metric data                                         L       L          L

              •    Validated radio metric                                        L

              •    Delta-DOR                                                     L



       • Positioning &Timing services:
              •    Position Determination                                         L       L         L

              •    Time Determination (Clock Correlation, Time distribution)     L       L          L



       * Deprecated DSN services; provided only to legacy missions
       ** “GN” has been renamed “NEN”                                          Current capability
                                                                               Planned Upgrade
                                                                               Proposed addition
  Source: Mike Kearney                                                         No planned service
                                                                               Deprecated
                                                                               Local standard           L

13 March 2008                                                                                               nasa-28
                           Communication View
                            Example – RAF Service


       Mission Space                                                                         Mission Ground
          Element                                                                               Element
         Mission Space                                                                        Mission Ground
          Application                                                                           Application


                                             NASA Space Communications
                                                   Infrastructure

                         NASA Space Communications
                                 Network
                              Ground Station/Relay
                                   Satellite
          Space RAF                        RAF                                                  Ground RAF
           Utilization                   Provision                                               Utilization

         AF Generation    AF Reception           SLE RAF TS              NISN                   SLE RAF TS
          R-S or Turbo    R-S or Turbo            SLE IPTS                                       SLE IPTS
                                                                         IP Routing
            encode          decode                     TCP                                          TCP
                                                        IP         IP                  IP
          P-R Seq Gen     P-R Seq Rem                                                                IP
                                                                  NISN                NISN
          Attach ASM       Frame Synch               NISN Link                                   NISN Link
                                                                  Link                Link
         conv encoding    conv decoding                           NISN                NISN
                              RF &              NISN Physical                                  NISN Physical
              RF &                                                Phys                Phys
           Modulation       Modulation




13 March 2008                                                                                                  nasa-29
                                            Proposed Next Steps
  NASA recommends that:
  •   IOAG/CCSDS should jointly focus on accelerated development of the Cross
      Support Service Architecture, with a view towards creating three new CCSDS
      Recommendations:
       • CCSDS Recommended Practice: Cross Support Service Architecture
       • CCSDS Recommended Standard: Cross Support Service Catalogs
       • CCSDS Recommended Standard: Cross Support Service Agreements
  •   IOAG/CCSDS should continue to push towards rapid completion of the current SLE
      Service Management Blue Book, and towards accelerated development of the
      generic Cross Support Transfer Services and Cross Support Service Management
      standards
  •   CCSDS should be asked to issue a communiqué to IOAG, detailing progress made
      on the Cross Support Service Architecture, and related standards, at the
      completion of the CCSDS Fall 2007 technical meeting
  •   IOAG should consider forming a working committee to:
       • Explore how to create and maintain the international IOAG Cross Support Service Catalog:
                -   Provide a guide to services exposed for inter-agency use within CCSDS-compliant agencies
                -   Indicate to CCSDS-compliant agencies where infrastructure development is needed
        • Coordinate the international prototyping and interoperability testing of specific services and
           their associated service management capabilities
13 March 2008                                                                                                  nasa-30
                             Current Status, March 08

          •     Developed a NASA Service Conceptual Architecture
                Description (CAD)
                 • Has been reviewed by the three NASA networks
                 • RIDs are being finalized
                 • Intended to form core of SCaN Services ADD, elaborated
                   during the next stage
          •     ADD promotes:
                 • Adoption of existing CCSDS standards where they exist
                 • Support for development of new CCSDS standards where
                   needed
                 • Use of NASA or network specific standards only where
                   essential
          •     Services ADD uses the four viewpoints (Physical,
                Enterprise, Service(functional), and Communications)
                from the IOAG Cross Support Service Architecture
          •     Agreement reached with NASA Constellation program
                (CxP) that supports this general approach for service
                delivery

13 March 2008                                                               nasa-31
Space Communications and Navigation Office




 Supplementary
    Material




                                             nasa-32
                                     Overall Architecture




                                                                         CROSSCUTTING ARCHITECTURE
                                 Networking Architecture

                                 Spectrum Framework

                                 Security Architecture

                                Navigation Architecture




                Earth-based   Earth-based         Lunar       Mars
                 Antenna         Relay            Relay       Relay
                 Element        Satellite        Satellite   Satellite
                               Element           Element     Element




                              ELEMENT ARCHITECTURES
13 March 2008                                                                  nasa-33
                               State of Interoperable Framework Development


  Status                       Layer*                                Notes

   TBD                        Application                     •Provides services such as file delivery or time service


                              Middleware                      •Provides common application interfaces over heterogeneous lower
   TBD                                                        layers

   TBD            Application Layer Security                  •Provides secure communications transparently to the lower layers


   TBD                          Transport                     •Provides transfer of data between end points


                                                              •Provides secure communications, while still allowing networking
   TBD
                   Network Layer Security                     functionality

                                                              •Network protocols for data forwarding at the packet level
   TBD                          Network                       •Use of common higher level protocols/applications over
                                                              heterogeneous links.
                                                              •Link layer switching (ie, “virtual channels”)
  Study                            Link                       •Frame level data accounting


  Study            Coding and Modulation                      •Allows for bitstream services

Complete /                                                    •Resolves issues of RFI
International                  Spectrum                       •Allows re-use of Front End RF Hardware
Dialog Underway
            *
13 March 2008 International   Standards prime consideration                                                                      nasa-34
                             Initial Service Set - service data unit view:
                                   Earth-Based Return and Forward


                                                                          Service Provision




                                                                                                       Delta-DOR
                                                                                        Radiometric
                   Packet
                   Space




                                                                                        Validated
           File




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Packet
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Space




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           File
                                  Internetworking Packet




                                                                                                                                                                                                     Internetworking Packet
       Application                                                                                    Radiometric
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Application


                  Transport                                                                                                                                                                                                   Transport




                                                                                                                                                                                    Channel Frames
                                                                                                                                                                       All Frames
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Network




                                                                                                                                                  Unframed Telemetry
                            Network
                                                                   CLTU

                                                                           Bit-stream




                                                                                                                                     Bit-stream
                                                                                                                   Raw Radiometric

                                                           Link                                                                                                                             Link


                                                                  Physical                                                                                      Physical

     Service Production
13 March 2008                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     nasa-35
                         Anticipated Service Set mapping to NASA Networks:
                                   Earth-Based Return and Forward
                                                                                                **




                                                                                 DSN

                                                                                         SN

                                                                                                    GN
       • Forward data delivery services:
              •    Forward File (CFDP)
              •    Forward Space Packet
              •    Internetworking
              •    Forward CLTU (TC Frame, AOS Frame, octet-stream)
              •    Forward Bitstream*                                            L       L          L




       • Return data delivery services:
              •    Return File (CFDP)
              •    Return Space Packet
              •    Internetworking
              •    Return All Frames; Return Channel Frames
              •    Return Unframed Telemetry
              •    Return Bitstream*                                              L       L         L




       • Radiometric services:
              •    Raw radio metric data
              •    Validated radio metric
              •    Delta-DOR

       • Positioning &Timing services:
              •    Position Determination
              •    Time Determination (Clock Correlation, Time distribution)
       * Deprecated DSN services; provided only to legacy missions
       ** “GN” has been renamed “NEN”                                          Current capability
                                                                               Planned Upgrade
                                                                               Proposed addition
  Source: Mike Kearney                                                         No planned service
                                                                               Deprecated
                                                                               Local standard           L

13 March 2008                                                                                               nasa-36
                          Lifecycle View




   Source: Erik Barkley
13 March 2008                              nasa-37
                           User View of Mission Formulation Phase

     •    Mission User:                                          •   Provider Network:
            • Establish “legitimacy” of mission to                    • Establish and maintain catalog of
                 negotiate with Provider Network (via                     services
                 registration, inter-agency agreement …)              •   Provide access to the Service Catalog
            •    Discover (identify, find, browse for, already            through a standard interface
                 know about …) services that are available            •   Analyze user objectives
                 from a Provider Network to meet mission              •   Confirm intention to negotiate support
                 objectives




   Source: Erik Barkley


13 March 2008                                                                                                      nasa-38
                                User View of Mission Design Phase

         •    Mission User:                                     •   Provider Network:
                 • Define requirements and configuration             • Assess feasibility of meeting mission
                      profiles (what, when, how much … )                 requirements and schedule
                 •    Negotiate for support via Service              •   Agree to terms of Service Agreement
                      Agreement
                       - Possibly revise requirements to meet
                           available services
                       - Possibly arrange for new or modified
                           services from Provider




   Source: Erik Barkley


13 March 2008                                                                                                  nasa-39
                           User View of Mission Operations Phase

   •    Mission User:                                    •   Provider Network:
           • Request specific instances of support            • Assess service requests
                (Service Packages)                            • Support or deny request
                 - Times, data rates, link parameters,        • Commit resources to support service
                    flexibility                                   package
           •    React to Provider Network responses           •   Provide mutually-agreed services
                 - Possibly revise requests to meet
                    available times, etc.
                 - Accept or cancel proposed support




   Source: Erik Barkley


13 March 2008                                                                                         nasa-40
                                     Ground-Based Earth Element
 2006                                                  ~2017                                                                2030

                    RLEP missions                        Lunar exploration - sorties, outpost

                                                                                                Mars human exploration

                    Earth Polar, LEO, GEO missions, and ELV


                    Earth LEO-GEO & Near Earth Missions

                     Deep space missions




                                                                   Build-up of downlink   Downlink arrays in steady state
                               antenna arrays supporting missions above GEO distance      for missions support
     Gradual decommission of
     large aperture DSN
     antennas




       Dedicated stations support Polar missions, Launch Head, and other LEO-GEO & Near Earth Missions


13 March 2008                                                                                                                nasa-41
                                    Near Earth Relay Element
2006          Satellite Attrition                          2015        Satellite Replenishment                       2030+

              Current Constellation                                          Future Constellation
                                                         Transition
                                                          Overlap
                  F9
                                                                                                     F14         F13
                EOL 2017
            F7                                                                                     BOL 2018    BOL 2017
          EOL 2019                   F4
                                   EOL 2007
     F8                                F10
   EOL 2019 WSC                      EOL 2019                                               GT 1
       F6
    EOL 2015                                                                                    Terrestrial     F12
               Terrestrial                                                       F11             Network      BOL2016
     F5 *       Network                       Guam GT                          BOL 2015

                                                                                                              GT 2
               F3
                                                                                                                GT #2
            2010 EOL


                                                        MIXED FLEET
               S-Band Demand Access (300 KBS)               AND         S-Band Demand Access Enhanced

                             Single Access              CAPABILITIES               Single Access
                       - S-band (6 MBS)                                      - S-band (6 MBS)
                       - Ku-Band (300 MBS)                                   - Ka-band (.6 – 1.2 Gbps)
                       - Ka-band (300 MBS) 3 sats                        Possible signal performance (6 dB+
                                                                         forward/3dB+ return)
               Global Coverage & Some Extended                          Global Coverage & Some Extended
                     Coverage Beyond LEO                                      Coverage Beyond LEO
                          Bent-pipe Design                                       Bent-pipe Design

               2 Ground Terminals (WSC & Guam)                             2 Ground Terminal locations

                Ground Obsolescence & Upgrades                                Web-based Scheduling
                                                                                IP/SLE Connectivity

                                                                        NASA wide Service Mgmt Protocol
                                                                                                                             nasa-42
                                                Lunar Relay Element
                         Robotic Exploration                                                      Human Exploration
                                                                      Global Sortie Access                                        South Pole Outpost
                                                      Lunar CEV   Sortie-1       Sortie-2       Sortie-3               Sortie-N      South Pole        South Pole
                              RLEP2                     Fly-by                                                                        Outpost           Outpost
                                                                                                                                       Visit 1           Visit 2



                                      RLEP3

                                                                                                                   +

                                              RLEP4      Relays are deployed
                                                         incrementally: # of +
                                                         relays, Coverage
                                                         and Capability is                                    Focused South Pole
                RLEP relays used to                      responsive                         +                 Outpost: Can be
                                                         to mission                                           supported by an elliptical
                mature technology                        evolution                                            orbit constellation of two
                and components for                                           +
                                                                                                              relays providing continuous coverage
                relay satellite
                                                              +
                capability at beginning                                                                                                           Orbit SMA 6541 km; Period 13.2 hr


                of Human Sortie                                                        Scalability:
                Phase                                                                  Numerous
                                                                                       intermediate
                                                                                       solutions available to
                                                                                       meet mission needs




                                                                                                           Global Capability Option:
                                                                                                           Possible with 6-relay
                                                                                                           constellation that provides
                                                                                                           continuous global lunar
                                                                                                           coverage


13 March 2008                                                                                                                                     Orbit SMA 9250 km SMA ; Period 22 hr   nasa-43
                                                      Mars Relay Element
                                                         (Evolves with Missions)

                                                        Robotic Exploration                                     Human Exploration


                                              MER           PHX   MSL Scout   AFL Scout Network Sample             First Human
                                                                                        Landers Return               Landing


                             MGS
                                                                          MSTO
                                                                                   ...                                       ...
                                           ODY          MRO

                                                                                                     Mars Areostationary
                                                                                                      Relay Satellites




     Phase 1 Mars Relay Architecture:
     • Science/Telecom Hybrid Relay Orbiters                                                             Phase 2 Mars Relay Architecture:
     • Standardized relay payload flown on each planned science orbiter                                  • Dedicated Telesats
     • Cost-effective strategy to grow Mars Relay infrastructure                                         • Redundant, continuous coverage of
     • Increased data return and imrpoved energy-efficiency relative to direct-                            human landing site
       to-Earth communications                                                                           • Higher-performance access link
     • Orbit characteristics constrained by primary science mission goals                                  and trunk line capabilites to meet
     • Spacecraft design and consumables for long extended relay ops                                       human era comm/nav rqmts




                                                                                                          Detailed Phase 2 orbit design will
                Software defined relay radio represents key architectural building block                  be responsive to human mission
                • Supports evolution of comm protocols over orbiter lifetime                              design and detailed comm/nav
                • Enables infusion of new capabilities in response to emerging technologies               requirements; areostationary
                  (e.g., improved coding)                                                                 option shown for reference
                • Allows flexible response to unanticipated mission needs




13 March 2008                                                                                                                                   nasa-44
                                           Navigation Architecture

           1      2-way coherent ranging originated by User   2   2-way coherent ranging originated by Relay

                               1                                                     2
                     2                                                 1

                         1                                                 2
                                    2                                                     1
                         2-way coherent originated by GT                       2-way coherent originated by GT

        3                          1-way Doppler to Relay     4                          1-way Doppler to User




                                   1-way Doppler to GT                                   1-way to User


       5       VLBI, Very Long Baseline Interferometry        6   Earth orbiters can use GNSS up to GEO
           Triangulate on User       Triangulate on Quasar




                              Baseline
                              distance                                                         Users achieve precise
                               known                                                           Orbit with GNSS &
                                                                                               Autonomous operations


13 March 2008                                                                                                          nasa-45
                               Security Architecture

                         Source Encrypt – Destination De-Crypt
                                                                       TT&C SUBSYSTEM

           APP LAYER (SSL)




                                               NETWORK LAYER (IPSec)



                   GROUND
                   NETWORK

                                                                               ON-BOARD
                                                                               PAYLOAD




                                        END-TO-END SECURITY
        END USER




13 March 2008                                                                             nasa-46
                                           Spectrum Framework
                                                                                                                Mission
                                        Mars                                                 Lunar              Data (Ka)
                   Mission Data         Orbit
                     (near X)                                                                Orbit
                                        User                                     Lunar
                                                                                             User                 TT&C (S)
                                                                                Surface
                                                                                 User
                   TT&C (UHF)                    Mars
           Mars                                                           Lunar
                                                Surface                                                                       TT&C &
           Relay
                                                 User                    Network                                              Mission
                                                                          (applies to                                         Data (Ka)
                                                                       Lagrange Points)                   Mission
                                                                                                                              Lunar
                                                                                                          Data (Ka)
                                                                                         TT&C (S)                             Relay
                                                          TT&C (X)
           Martian                                                    Near                                              TT&C &
           Network                                                    Earth
                                                                                          TT&C &                        Mission
                                                    Mission           Relay                                             Data (Ka)
                                                                                          Mission
                                                    Data (Ka)                 Emerg
                                                                                          Data (Ku)                   Emergency
                                                                               TT&C
                                                                                 (S)                                  TT&C (S)


                                                                            LV
                                                                     TT&C (S)
                Deep                                                                              Array               TT&C (S)
                Space                                                 Mission
                                  Mission Data (Ka)                   Data (Ka)
                                                                                             Ground-                   Mission
                                      TT&C (X)                         Mission             based Earth                 Data (Ka)
                                                                       Data (Ka)             Element

                                                                                       TT&C (S)
                                                       Earth                                                       Time &
                                                                              Earth                                Position
                                                      Network                 Orbit                                (L)
                                                                              User
                                                                                                          GPS


13 March 2008                                                                                                                             nasa-47
                                                                                               Spectrum Framework
                             Separate TT&C and mission data spectrum bands identified for any user throughout the solar system.

                                                                Link                                             TT&C/Mission    Band        Uplink/Forward       Downlink/Return


                          To/From Earth (Direct-to-User)                                                      TT&C              S       2025-2110 MHz         2200-2290 MHz
                          *Requires a new allocation in the ITU (in process).
                                                                                                              Mission           Ka      22.55-23.55 GHz*      25.5-27 GHz
         Earth Vicinity




                          Earth Relay Orbiter Trunk Line                                                      TT&C              S       2025-2110 MHz         2200-2290 MHz

                                                                                                              Mission           Ku      14.6-15.225 GHz       13.4-14.05 GHz

                          Earth Relay to Earth Orbital User                                                   TT&C              S       2025-2110 MHz         2200-2290 MHz

                                                                                                              Mission           Ka      22.55-23.55 GHz       25.5-27 GHz

                          To/From Earth (Direct-to-User)                                                      TT&C              S       2025-2110 MHz         2200-2290 MHz
                          *Requires a new ITU allocation (in process).
                                                                                                              Mission           Ka      22.55-23.55 GHz*      25.5-27 GHz

                          Lunar Relay Orbiter Trunk Line                                                      TT&C              S       2025-2110 MHz         2200-2290 MHz
                          **This use is subject to SFCG Rec. 14-2R5 which assigns priority to deep space
                          in the 37-37.5 GHz portion of the band.                                             Mission           Ka      40-40.5 GHz           37-38 GHz**
         Lunar Vicinity




                          Lunar Relay to Lunar Surface or Orbital User                                        TT&C t            S       2025-2110 MHz         2200-2290 MHz
                          t Relay Emergency Only
                                                                                                              Mission           Ka      22.55-23.55 GHz       25.5-27 GHz


                          Lunar Relay to Lunar Relay Xlink
                          *** Allocated for Space to Earth and Earth to Space. Must operate on a non-
                          interference basis with other services allocated to the band. Non-interference is
                          feasible since operational mitigation is practical.                                 Mission           Ka      37-38 GHz***          40-40.5 GHz



                          To/From Earth (Direct–to-User)                                                      TT&C              X       7145-7190 MHz         8400-8450 MHz

                                                                                                              Mission           Ka      34.2-34.7 GHz         31.8-32.3 GHz

                          Mars Relay Orbiter Trunk Line                                                       TT&C              X       7145-7190 MHz         8400-8450 MHz
      Mars Vicinity




                                                                                                              Mission           Ka      34.2-34.7 GHz         31.8-32.3 GHz

                                                                                                              Mission           Ka      40-40.5 GHz           37-38 GHz

                          Mars Relay to Mars Surface or Orbital User                                          TT&C              UHF     435-450 MHz           390-405 MHz
                          * User link spectral bands are located “near” trunk line bands but far enough
                          away in frequency to not cause interference on the relay satellite
                                                                                                              Mission           X       Near* 7145-7190 MHz   Near* 8400-8450 MHz

                                                                                                              Mission           Ka      Near* 34.2-34.7 GHz   Near* 31.8-32.3 GHz


13 March 2008                                                                                                                                                                       nasa-48

				
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