A Body Paragraph Where does a body paragraph fit into the research paper process? 1 Brainstorm Make it more Write down 2 3 the topic specific your topic Research Source cards Note cards 7 8 MLA citations Outline 10 9 11 Works cited page Thesis sentence Body 13 paragraphs 12 Parenthetical citations 14 Introductory Copy & paste works & concluding cited page to back of paragraphs research paper • A body paragraph is the basic paragraph of a research paper or an essay. • Body paragraphs are all the paragraphs between the introductory paragraph and the conclusion. • Body paragraphs support and prove your thesis. • You learned about them in middle school: Introduction Body paragraph #1 Body paragraph #2 Body paragraph #3 Conclusion We’re going to learn how to write an effective body paragraph for a research paper. The body paragraph’s structure may remind you of a certain food. Which of these three is your favorite? The McParagraph logic: Topic sentence Topic sentence Support sentence 1 Support reason 1 Proof sentence 1 Support reason 2 Support sentence 2 Proof sentence 2 Support reason 3 Support sentence 3 Conclusion Proof sentence 3 The McParagraph Concluding sentence sentences: Topic Sentences • Topic sentences state the main idea of the paragraph. • The rest of the paragraph must expand on, describe, or prove what the topic sentence states in some way. • A good topic sentence make a point and suggests the logical structure of the rest of the paragraph. Which are good topic sentences? • Texas has 267,000 square miles. • Texas is so big that you can find many things to do. • There are several ways of accurately telling how old fossils are. • The animal dies and sinks to the sea floor. Topic sentence Support sentence 1 Proof sentence 1 Now we’ll look Support sentence 2 at support and proof sentences Proof sentence 2 Support sentence 3 Proof sentence 3 Concluding sentence • A topic sentence is the first sentence in your body paragraph. • A support sentence gives a reason in support of the paragraph’s topic sentence. • A proof sentence proves a support sentence by providing a detail or quotation from a source. • A conclusion (one sentence) refers back to the topic, provides a logical closing, and may provide a transition to the next body paragraph. What makes each sentence in the following body paragraph what it is: a topic, support, proof, or concluding sentence? The political success of Lincoln's speech - the last speech in a series sponsored by the Young Men's Central Republican Union of New York that winter (Holtzer 13) - had something to do Topic with timing and luck. A sizable number of Republican leaders were worried that the front-running candidate, New York Senator Support William Henry Seward, was perceived by the Northern electorate as too close to the unpopular abolitionist movement (Holtzer 32). Proof “Lincoln’s best ally in the winter of 1860 was his lack of association with the abolitionists in the mind of New Yorkers,” Support according to Holtzer (32). Republicans were worried also that Proof Seward has little appeal in the West (Illinois, Ohio, etc.) (Burris 126). Burris asserts that “Indiana and Illinois Republicans Support perceived Seward as an Eastern liberal” (127). Lincoln also benefited from the political machinations of the speech series’s Proof sponsors. The Young Republicans planned the speech series ostensibly to introduce alternative candidates to Seward, but the real motivation of the group's leader, James A. Briggs, was to damage Seward enough to promote his favorite alternative, Ohio governor Salmon P. Chase (Holtzer 34). The Republican party’s soul-searching and the secret motivations of the series sponsors gave Lincoln the opening he needed. Using MLA Signal Phrases disputes emphasizes • A signal phrase is endorses acknowledges grants adds how you introduce illustrates implies quotes in your paper. insists notes observes points out admits agrees argues asserts • Here‟s a list of believes claims commonly used comments compares reasons reports signal phrases responds suggests thinks writes confirms contends declares denies You should integrate quotes as smoothly as possible but NOT make the quotes look like your words • According to ornithologist Jay Shepherd, „The bald eagle seems to have stabilized its population, at the very lease, almost everywhere” (96). • In the words of researcher Herbert Terrace, “…” (22). • As Flora Davis has noted, “…” (5). • “...,” claims linguist Noam Chomsky. It is not always necessary to quote full sentences from a source. At times you may wish to borrow only a phrase or to weave part of a source‟s sentence into your own sentences structure. • Brian Millsap claims that the banning of DDT in 1972 was “the major turning point” leading to the eagles‟ comeback (2). • The ultrasonography machine takes approximately 250 views of each side. Mary Spletter likens the process to “examining an entire loaf of bread, one slice at a time” (40). When you quote more than four typed lines, set off the quotation by indenting it ten spaces from the left margin. Desmond describes how Washoe, when the Gardners returned her to an ape colony in Oklahoma, tried signing to the other apes: One particularly memorable day, a snake spread terror through the castaways on the ape island, and all but one fled in panic. This make sat absorbed, staring intently at the serpent. Then Washoes was seen running over signing to him “come, hurry up” (42). Parenthetical Documentation Author in Signal Phrase, Page Number in Parenthesis Ordinarily, you should introduce the material being cited with a signal phrase that includes the author‟s last name &/ the title of the work: Flora Davis reports that a chimp at the Yerkes Primate Research Center “has combined words into new sentences that she was never taught” (67). The signal phrase—”Flora Davis reports”— provides the name of the author; the parenthetical citation gives the page number where the quoted sentence may be found. Author & Page Number in Parentheses If the signal phrase does not include the author‟s last name, the author‟s last name must appear in parentheses along with the page number: Although the baby chimp lived only a few hours, Washoe signed to it before it died (Davis 42). Two or More Works by the Same Author If your list of works cited includes two or more works by the same author, include the title of the work either in the signal phrase or in abbreviated form in the parenthetical reference: In Eloquent Animals, Flora David reports that a chimp at the Yerkes Primate Research Center “has combined words into sentences that she was never taught” (67). Flora David reports that a chimp at the Yerkes Primate Research Center “has combined words into sentences that she was never taught” (Davis, Eloquent 42). Writing the paragraphs In order to understand the importance of Graduation Project, it is important to understand its beginning. Jane Doe created what was then called Senior Project as a means of reaching her senior English students who were bored with the usual selection of classic British literature selections (Senior 1). Additionally, Doe saw that many of her students were, in her opinion, “wasting senior year with easy classes” (Doe 3). To illustrate this, Doe quotes one of her former students: “I saw that so many of my students thought that senior year would be an easy year; to me, that meant a meaningless year. I thought that a child‟s final year in high school should be more significant” (name 12). Doe thought that a project that students could relate to would help make senior year more meaningful. Once she started senior project, it quickly spread across California and the West Coast. By 2001, 297 high school across the country had made Senior Project a part of senior English (Facts 22). Even though the project started out small, so many teachers, students, and community members recognized its potential that Senior Project quickly became a reality for countless seniors.
Pages to are hidden for
"A Body Paragraph"Please download to view full document