A Body Paragraph by u2k9IA3


									A Body Paragraph
   Where does a body
  paragraph fit into the
research paper process?
         Brainstorm         Make it more                Write down
                       2                       3
          the topic           specific                  your topic


           Source cards                             Note cards

           MLA citations                                Outline


         Works cited page                    Thesis
                                            sentence            Body


 Parenthetical citations
14                                      Introductory
          Copy & paste works            & concluding
         cited page to back of          paragraphs
             research paper
• A body paragraph is the basic
  paragraph of a research paper or an
• Body paragraphs are all the paragraphs
  between the introductory paragraph
  and the conclusion.
• Body paragraphs support and prove
  your thesis.
• You learned about them in middle

Body paragraph #1

Body paragraph #2

Body paragraph #3

We’re going to learn how to write an
effective body paragraph for a
research paper.
The body paragraph’s structure may
remind you of a certain food.
Which of these three is your
The McParagraph
                   Topic sentence
   sentence        Support sentence 1

Support reason 1    Proof sentence 1

Support reason 2   Support sentence 2

                    Proof sentence 2
Support reason 3
                   Support sentence 3
                    Proof sentence 3

The McParagraph      Concluding
         Topic Sentences
• Topic sentences state the main idea of
  the paragraph.
• The rest of the paragraph must expand
  on, describe, or prove what the topic
  sentence states in some way.
• A good topic sentence make a point
  and suggests the logical structure of
  the rest of the paragraph.
  Which are good topic sentences?
• Texas has 267,000 square miles.
• Texas is so big that you can find many
  things to do.
• There are several ways of accurately
  telling how old fossils are.
• The animal dies and sinks to the sea
                  Topic sentence

                  Support sentence 1

                   Proof sentence 1
 Now we’ll look   Support sentence 2
 at support and
proof sentences    Proof sentence 2

                  Support sentence 3

                   Proof sentence 3

• A topic sentence is the first sentence in
  your body paragraph.
• A support sentence gives a reason in
  support of the paragraph’s topic
• A proof sentence proves a support
  sentence by providing a detail or
  quotation from a source.
• A conclusion (one sentence) refers
  back to the topic, provides a logical
  closing, and may provide a transition to
  the next body paragraph.
What makes each sentence in the
following body paragraph what it is:
a topic, support, proof, or
concluding sentence?
         The political success of Lincoln's speech - the last speech
in a series sponsored by the Young Men's Central Republican
Union of New York that winter (Holtzer 13) - had something to do       Topic
with timing and luck. A sizable number of Republican leaders
were worried that the front-running candidate, New York Senator
William Henry Seward, was perceived by the Northern electorate
as too close to the unpopular abolitionist movement (Holtzer 32).       Proof
“Lincoln’s best ally in the winter of 1860 was his lack of
association with the abolitionists in the mind of New Yorkers,”        Support
according to Holtzer (32). Republicans were worried also that           Proof
Seward has little appeal in the West (Illinois, Ohio, etc.) (Burris
126). Burris asserts that “Indiana and Illinois Republicans            Support
perceived Seward as an Eastern liberal” (127). Lincoln also
benefited from the political machinations of the speech series’s        Proof
sponsors. The Young Republicans planned the speech series
ostensibly to introduce alternative candidates to Seward, but the
real motivation of the group's leader, James A. Briggs, was to
damage Seward enough to promote his favorite alternative, Ohio
governor Salmon P. Chase (Holtzer 34). The Republican party’s
soul-searching and the secret motivations of the series sponsors
gave Lincoln the opening he needed.
Using MLA
     Signal Phrases
                          disputes       emphasizes

• A signal phrase is      endorses
  how you introduce       illustrates    implies

  quotes in your paper.   insists        notes
                          observes       points out
                          admits         agrees
                          argues         asserts
• Here‟s a list of        believes       claims
  commonly used           comments       compares
                          reasons        reports
  signal phrases          responds       suggests
                          thinks         writes
                          confirms       contends
                          declares       denies
   You should integrate quotes as smoothly as
 possible but NOT make the quotes look like your
• According to ornithologist Jay Shepherd,
  „The bald eagle seems to have stabilized
  its population, at the very lease, almost
  everywhere” (96).
• In the words of researcher Herbert
  Terrace, “…” (22).
• As Flora Davis has noted, “…” (5).
• “...,” claims linguist Noam Chomsky.
It is not always necessary to quote full sentences
 from a source. At times you may wish to borrow
    only a phrase or to weave part of a source‟s
    sentence into your own sentences structure.
• Brian Millsap claims that the banning of
  DDT in 1972 was “the major turning point”
  leading to the eagles‟ comeback (2).
• The ultrasonography machine takes
  approximately 250 views of each side.
  Mary Spletter likens the process to
  “examining an entire loaf of bread, one
  slice at a time” (40).
When you quote more than four typed lines, set off
 the quotation by indenting it ten spaces from the
                    left margin.
 Desmond describes how Washoe, when the
 Gardners returned her to an ape colony in
 Oklahoma, tried signing to the other apes:
    One particularly memorable day, a snake
    spread terror through the castaways on the
    ape island, and all but one fled in panic. This
    make sat absorbed, staring intently at the
    serpent. Then Washoes was seen running
    over signing to him “come, hurry up” (42).
         Parenthetical Documentation
    Author in Signal Phrase, Page Number in
Ordinarily, you should introduce the material being
  cited with a signal phrase that includes the
  author‟s last name &/ the title of the work:
Flora Davis reports that a chimp at the Yerkes
  Primate Research Center “has combined words
  into new sentences that she was never taught”
The signal phrase—”Flora Davis reports”—
  provides the name of the author; the
  parenthetical citation gives the page number
  where the quoted sentence may be found.
      Author & Page Number in
If the signal phrase does not include the
   author‟s last name, the author‟s last name
   must appear in parentheses along with the
   page number:
Although the baby chimp lived only a few
   hours, Washoe signed to it before it died
   (Davis 42).
  Two or More Works by the Same
If your list of works cited includes two or more
   works by the same author, include the title of the
   work either in the signal phrase or in abbreviated
   form in the parenthetical reference:
In Eloquent Animals, Flora David reports that a
   chimp at the Yerkes Primate Research Center
   “has combined words into sentences that she
   was never taught” (67).
Flora David reports that a chimp at the Yerkes
   Primate Research Center “has combined words
   into sentences that she was never taught”
   (Davis, Eloquent 42).
       Writing the paragraphs
      In order to understand the importance of Graduation Project, it
is important to understand its beginning. Jane Doe created what
was then called Senior Project as a means of reaching her senior
English students who were bored with the usual selection of classic
British literature selections (Senior 1). Additionally, Doe saw that
many of her students were, in her opinion, “wasting senior year with
easy classes” (Doe 3). To illustrate this, Doe quotes one of her
former students: “I saw that so many of my students thought that
senior year would be an easy year; to me, that meant a meaningless
year. I thought that a child‟s final year in high school should be more
significant” (name 12). Doe thought that a project that students
could relate to would help make senior year more meaningful. Once
she started senior project, it quickly spread across California and the
West Coast. By 2001, 297 high school across the country had
made Senior Project a part of senior English (Facts 22). Even
though the project started out small, so many teachers, students,
and community members recognized its potential that Senior Project
quickly became a reality for countless seniors.

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