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					    Psychology 11 – Chapter 2: Theories of Development
                            Lecture Guide
                       Theories of Development

                          •       Psychoanalytic
                              • Behaviorism
                          •   Social Learning Theory
                                  •   Cognitive
                              •   Sociocultural
                   •   Epigenetic Systems Theory

                          Questions to Ask
•       Do early experiences (breast feeding, bonding,
        abuse) linger into adulthood, even if seemingly
•       How important are specific school experiences in
        human intelligence?
•       Can a person develop moral values without being taught
•       Do a person’s chances of becoming a violent adult
        depend on whether he or she grows up in, say, Chile
        or Cambodia or Canada?
•       If your parents or grand parents suffer from
        depression, schizophrenia, or alcoholism, will you
        develop the same condition?
           (Why or why not, when and how, so what?)

                         What Theories Do
    •   Developmental theory - systematic statement of
        principles and generalizations that provides a coherent
        framework for studying development
         – Connects facts and observations

                Three Ways Theories are practical
    •    Insight and guidance regarding human development
    •    Basis for hypotheses
Psychology 11 – Chapter 2: Theories of Development
                        Lecture Guide

•    Provide a summary of our current knowledge about

                      What Theories Do
• Grand theories -comprehensive, traditional theories
           –   Psychoanalytic, Cognitive, Behaviorism
• Minitheories -theories that focus on specific area of
• Emergent theories - new, comprehensive groupings of
    minitheories (theories of tomorrow)
        • Sociocultural, epigenetic

                     GRAND THEORIES
                         Sigmund Freud
                     – Psychosexual Theory
•   Irrational, unconscious drives and motives
•   Many originate in childhood
•   Underlie human behavior

                    Psychoanalytic: Freud
•    Stages
                           • Oral ( 0-1 )
                            • Anal (1-3)
                          • Phallic ( 3-6)
                      •       Latency (7 – 11)
                          •    Genital ( 11+)
•  Sexual interest/pleasure centered on a part of the
The 3 systems of personality:
1. Id:
•   Unconscious, psychic energy
•   Satisfaction of basic urges:
•   Survival, aggression, reproduction
    Psychology 11 – Chapter 2: Theories of Development               NOTES
                            Lecture Guide

    •   Governs infants
           (Present at birth)

    2.       Ego:
    •   Tries to make rational choices
    •   Copes with the reality of daily life
    •   Keeps the id’s unconscious lust & superego under
    •   Begins to accommodate the world’s demands.

•       3.     Superego:
    •   The strict, moral judge:
    •   Moral Structure
           • Emerges around 4 –5 years of age
        – (The emotionally healthy person develops a strong
          ego, able to cope with the urges of both the id
          and the superego.)

                         GRAND THEORIES
                       Psychoanalytic: Erikson
    •   Erik Erikson (“son of myself”: Erik, Erik’s son)
         – Each stage has a challenge
         – Resolution depends on the social environment
         – Person’s relationship to the family

    •   Trust vs. Mistrust ( 0-1)
    •   Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt ( 1-3)
    •   Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6)
    •   Industry vs. Inferiority (7-11)
    •   Identity vs. Role Confusion (Adolescence)
                                          • Intimacy vs. Isolation
                                     • Generativity vs. Stagnation
                                          • Integrity vs. Despair
Psychology 11 – Chapter 2: Theories of Development
                        Lecture Guide
                           Grand Theories:
• Watson-founder of behaviorism
 • Behaviorism is built on laws of behavior and processes
                 by which behavior is learned
    – Focus: Ways we learn specific behaviors that can be
      described, analyzed, and predicted with scientific
                     •      “Learning Theory”

                           Laws of Behavior
•   Conditioning
     – Classical conditioning - Pavlov
        • stimulus and response
     – Operant conditioning - Skinner
        • Reinforcement
        • (instrumental)

                         Social Learning Theory
                           •   Albert Bandura
•   An application of behaviorism
•   Identification / Motivation
•   Behaviors are learned through observation & imitation
•   Modeling
•   Self- efficacy

                            Grand Theory:
                           Cognitive Theory
                           •    Jean Piaget

• Focuses on the structure and development of thought
    processes, which shapes perceptions, attitudes, and
    Psychology 11 – Chapter 2: Theories of Development
                            Lecture Guide

                      • Cognitive equilibrium:
                    State of mental balance
        – Cognitive adaptation –
           assimilation, accommodation of ideas

                           Emergent Theory
    •   Sociocultural Theory: Lev Vygotsky

        – Seeks to explain growth of individual knowledge,
             development, and competencies in terms of guidance,
             support, and structure supplied by the society

    Sociocultural theory
    •    Guided participation: Tutor engages learner in joint
         activities, providing instruction and direct
         involvement in learning
    •     Apprenticeship in thinking: Mentor provides
         instruction and support needed by novice
    •    Zone of proximal development- range of skills learner
         can do with assistance but not independently

    Sociocultural Theory
The Magic Middle or ZPD:
•       1.      Between boring and impossible
•       2.   Teacher/learner result is newly understood
        knowledge, new skills
    •   Intellectual excitement: the joy of instruction and
                         Emergent Theory:
                          Epigenetic Theory
    •    Emphasizes the interaction between genes and the
        environment -- the newest developmental theory
    Psychology 11 – Chapter 2: Theories of Development
                            Lecture Guide                          NOTES

        – Each human has a genetic foundation that is unique

        – Environment is very important and may cause a
          person to follow one path or another from their
          genetic bases, depending upon conditions

    •   Adaptation of the genes
         – Selective adaptation means that genes for the
           traits that are most useful will become more
           frequent, thus making survival of species more likely

•       The study of the evolutionary origins and species
•       Study of patterns of animal behavior
    •     This perspective has particular relevance for human

                   Comparisons and Controversies
    •   Psychoanalytic theory has made us aware of
        importance of early childhood experiences
    •   Behaviorism has shown effect of immediate
        environment on behavior
    •   Cognitive theory helps us understand how intellectual
        process and thinking affect actions
    •   Sociocultural theory has reminded us that development
        is embedded in a rich and multifaceted context
    •   Epigenetic systems theory emphasizes inherited forces
        that affect everyone within each particular context

                        Eclecticism and you
        Eclectic perspective
        Approach taken by most developmentalists in which
          they apply aspects of each of the various theories
          rather than staying with just one

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