Gregor Mendel used pea plants to study by 2J4P419

VIEWS: 166 PAGES: 104

									    Gregor Mendel used pea plants
              to study
1. flowering.           25%   25%   25%   25%

2. gamete formation.
3. the inheritance of
   traits.
4. cross-pollination.




1    2   3   4   5      1      2     3     4
 Offspring that result from crosses
between parents with different traits
1. are true-breeding.    25%   25%   25%   25%

2. make up the F2
   generation.
3. make up the
   parental
   generation.
4. are called hybrids.


1   2   3   4   5        1      2     3     4
Gregor Mendel removed the male parts from
   the flowers of some plants in order to

1.       prevent hybrids from      25%   25%   25%   25%
         forming.
2.       prevent cross-
         pollination.
3.       stimulate self-
         pollination.
4.       make controlled crosses
         between plants.




1    2    3   4   5                1      2     3     4
          The chemical factors that
          determine traits are called
1.       alleles.        25%   25%   25%   25%

2.       traits.
3.       genes.
4.       characters.




1    2    3   4   5      1      2     3     4
     Gregor Mendel concluded that
              traits are
1.       not inherited by          25%   25%   25%   25%
         offspring.
2.       inherited through the
         passing of factors from
         parents to offspring.
3.       determined by dominant
         factors only.
4.       determined by recessive
         factors only.



1    2    3   4   5                1      2     3     4
     When Gregor Mendel crossed a tall plant
     with a short plant, the F1 plants inherited

1.       an allele for tallness from each parent.
2.       an allele for tallness from the tall       25%   25%   25%   25%

         parent and an allele for shortness from
         the short parent.
3.       an allele for shortness from each
         parent.
4.       an allele from only the tall parent.

                                                    1      2     3     4




1    2    3   4   5
         The principle of dominance
                 states that
1.       all alleles are dominant.    25%   25%   25%   25%
2.       all alleles are recessive.
3.       some alleles are
         dominant and others are
         recessive.
4.       alleles are neither
         dominant nor recessive.




1    2    3   4   5                   1      2     3     4
When Gregor Mendel crossed true-breeding
tall plants with true-breeding short plants, all
        the offspring were tall because
1.       the allele for tall plants   25%   25%   25%   25%
         is recessive.
2.       the allele for short
         plants is dominant.
3.       the allele for tall plants
         is dominant.
4.       they were true-breeding
         like their parents.




1    2    3   4   5                   1      2     3     4
If a pea plant has a recessive allele
    for green peas, it will produce
1.       green peas if it also has a dominant
         allele for yellow peas.
2.       both green peas and yellow peas if it    25%   25%   25%   25%
         also has a dominant allele for yellow
         peas.
3.       green peas if it does not also have a
         dominant allele for yellow peas.
4.       yellow peas if it does not also have a
         dominant allele for green peas.
                                                  1      2     3     4




1    2    3   4   5
     A tall plant is crossed with a short plant. If
     the tall F1 pea plants are allowed to self-
                        pollinate,
1.       the offspring will be of    25%   25%   25%   25%
         medium height.
2.       all of the offspring will
         be tall.
3.       all of the offspring will
         be short.
4.       some of the offspring
         will be tall, and some
         will be short.



1    2    3   4   5                  1      2     3     4
    In the P generation, a tall plant was crossed
     with a short plant. Short plants reappeared
            in the F2 generation because
1.       some of the F2 plants produced gametes        25%   25%   25%   25%

         that carried the allele for shortness.
2.       the allele for shortness is dominant.
3.       the allele for shortness and the allele for
         tallness segregated when the F1 plants
         produced gametes.
4.       they inherited an allele for shortness from   1      2     3     4

         one parent and an allele for tallness from
         the other parent.



1    2    3   4   5
In the P generation, a tall plant was crossed
with a short plant. If alleles did not segregate
          during gamete formation,
1.       all of the F1 plants     25%   25%   25%   25%
         would be short.
2.       some of the F1 plants
         would be tall and some
         would be short.
3.       all of the F2 would be
         short.
4.       all of the F2 plants
         would be tall.



1    2    3   4   5               1      2     3     4
 When you flip a coin, what is the
probability that it will come up tails?
1.       1/2           25%   25%   25%   25%

2.       1/4
3.       1/8
4.       1




1    2    3    4   5   1      2     3     4
    The principles of probability can
               be used to
1.       predict the traits of the offspring
         produced by genetic crosses.
2.       determine the actual outcomes of
         genetic crosses.
3.       predict the traits of the parents used in
         genetic crosses.                            25%   25%   25%   25%

4.       decide which organisms are best to
         use in genetic crosses.




1    2    3   4   5
                                                     1      2     3     4
  In the P generation, a tall plant is crossed
 with a short plant. The probability that an F2
               plant will be tall is
1. 25%.                    25% 25%     25%  25%

2. 50%.
3. 75%
4. 100%.




1   2   3   4   5          1     2     3     4
Organisms that have two identical alleles for
      a particular trait are said to be

1.       hybrid.         25%   25%   25%   25%

2.       homozygous.
3.       heterozygous.
4.       dominant.




1    2    3   4   5      1      2     3     4
Figure 11–1
In the Punnett square shown in Figure 11–1,
    which of the following is true about the
      offspring resulting from the cross?
1.       About half are expected   25%   25%   25%   25%
         to be short.
2.       All are expected to be
         short.
3.       About half are expected
         to be tall.
4.       All are expected to be
         tall.




1    2    3   4   5                1      2     3     4
     A Punnett square shows all of
        the following EXCEPT
1.       all possible results of a   25%   25%   25%   25%
         genetic cross.
2.       the genotypes of the
         offspring.
3.       the alleles in the
         gametes of each parent.
4.       the actual results of a
         genetic cross.




1    2    3   4   5                  1      2     3     4
     If you made a Punnett square showing Gregor Mendel’s
    cross between true-breeding tall plants and true-breeding
    short plants, the square would show that the offspring had

1.        the genotype of one of    25%    25%    25%    25%
          the parents.
2.        a phenotype that was
          different from that of
          both parents.
3.        a genotype that was
          different from that of
          both parents.
4.        the genotype of both
          parents.


1     2    3   4   5                1       2       3       4
  What principle states that during gamete
formation genes for different traits separate
without influencing each other’s inheritance?
1.       principle of dominance       25%   25%   25%   25%
2.       principle of independent
         assortment
3.       principle of probabilities
4.       principle of segregation




1    2    3   4   5                   1      2     3     4
Figure 11–2
  The Punnett square in Figure 11–2 shows
that the gene for pea shape and the gene for
                  pea color
1. assort                25% 25%   25%  25%
   independently.
2. are linked.
3. have the same
   alleles.
4. are always
   homozygous.


1   2   3   4   5       1     2     3     4
   How many different allele combinations
would be found in the gametes produced by
  a pea plant whose genotype was RrYY?
1. 2                    25% 25%    25%  25%

2. 4
3. 8
4. 16




1   2   3   4   5       1     2    3     4
     If a pea plant that is heterozygous for round, yellow peas
     (RrYy) is crossed with a pea plant that is homozygous for
    round peas but heterozygous for yellow peas (RRYy), how
     many different phenotypes are their offspring expected to
                                show?
                                    25%    25%     25%    25%
    1.    2
    2.    4
    3.    8
    4.    16

1     2   3    4   5                 1       2       3       4
 Situations in which one allele for a gene is
not completely dominant over another allele
           for that gene are called
1. multiple alleles.     25% 25%     25%  25%

2. incomplete
   dominance.
3. polygenic
   inheritance.
4. multiple genes.



1   2   3   4   5        1     2     3     4
     A cross of a black chicken (BB) with a white
    chicken (WW) produces all speckled offspring
    (BBWW). This type of inheritance is known as

1. incomplete                25%   25%   25%   25%
   dominance.
2. polygenic
   inheritance.
3. codominance.
4. multiple alleles.



1   2   3   4   5            1      2     3         4
    Variation in human skin color is
             an example of
1. incomplete          25%   25%   25%   25%
   dominance.
2. codominance.
3. polygenic traits.
4. multiple alleles.




1    2   3   4   5     1      2     3     4
     Gregor Mendel’s principles of
          genetics apply to
1.       plants only.       25%   25%   25%   25%

2.       animals only.
3.       pea plants only.
4.       all organisms.




1    2    3   4   5         1      2     3     4
    Why did Thomas Hunt Morgan
     use fruit flies in his studies?
1.       Fruit flies produce a large number of       25%   25%   25%   25%


         offspring.
2.       Fruit flies take a long time to produce
         offspring.
3.       Fruit flies share certain characteristics
         with pea plants.
4.       Fruit flies have a long lifespan.           1      2     3     4




1    2    3   4   5
     A male and female bison that are both heterozygous for
    normal skin pigmentation (Aa) produce an albino offspring
      (aa). Which of Mendel’s principles explain(s) why the
                      offspring is albino?
1. dominance only                  25%    25%    25%    25%

2. independent
   assortment only
3. dominance and
   segregation
4. segregation only



1     2   3   4   5                 1       2      3       4
     The number of chromosomes in a
    gamete is represented by the symbol

1.       Z.            25%   25%   25%   25%

2.       X.
3.       N.
4.       Y.




1    2    3   4   5     1     2     3     4
    If an organism’s diploid number
       is 12, its haploid number is
1.       12.           25%   25%   25%   25%

2.       6.
3.       24.
4.       3.




1    2    3    4   5   1      2     3     4
                      Gametes have
1.       homologous             25%   25%   25%   25%
         chromosomes.
2.       twice the number of
         chromosomes found in
         body cells.
3.       two sets of
         chromosomes.
4.       one allele for each
         gene.



1    2    3   4   5             1      2     3     4
    Gametes are produced by the
            process of
1.       mitosis.         25%   25%   25%   25%

2.       meiosis.
3.       crossing-over.
4.       replication.




1    2    3   4   5       1      2     3     4
         What is shown in this figure?




                                      25%   25%   25%   25%
    1.       independent assortment
    2.       anaphase I of meiosis
    3.       crossing-over
    4.       replication
                                      1      2     3     4




1        2   3   4   5
        Chromosomes form tetrads
                during
1. prophase I of     25%   25%   25%   25%
   meiosis.
2. metaphase I of
   meiosis.
3. interphase.
4. anaphase II of
   meiosis.


1   2   3   4   5    1      2     3     4
        What happens between meiosis I and
        meiosis II that reduces the number of
                    chromosomes?
1. Crossing-over            25%   25%   25%   25%
   occurs.
2. Metaphase occurs.
3. Replication occurs
   twice.
4. Replication does not
   occur.



1   2    3   4   5           1     2     3      4
Unlike mitosis, meiosis results in
        the formation of
1.       diploid cells.       25%   25%   25%   25%

2.       haploid cells.
3.       2N daughter cells.
4.       body cells.




1    2    3   4   5           1      2     3     4
Unlike mitosis, meiosis results in
        the formation of
1. two genetically    25%   25%   25%   25%
   identical cells.
2. four genetically
   different cells.
3. four genetically
   identical cells.
4. two genetically
   different cells.


1   2   3   4   5     1      2     3     4
      Crossing-over rarely occurs in mitosis,
    unlike meiosis. Which of the following is the
                   likely reason?
1.       Chromatids are not involved in
         mitosis.
2.       Tetrads rarely form during mitosis.    25%   25%   25%   25%
3.       A cell undergoing mitosis does not
         have homologous chromosomes.
4.       There is no prophase during mitosis.




                                                1      2     3     4




1    2    3   4   5
    Which of the following assort
          independently?
1. chromosomes        25%   25%   25%   25%

2. genes on the
   same
   chromosome
3. multiple alleles
4. codominant
   alleles


1   2   3   4   5     1      2     3     4
                    Linked genes
1. are never separated.    25%   25%   25%   25%
2. assort
   independently.
3. are on the same
   chromosome.
4. are always
   recessive.



1   2   3   4   5          1      2     3     4
    If the gene for seed color and the gene for
       seed shape in pea plants were linked,

1.       all of Mendel’s F1 plants would have
         produced wrinkled, green peas.
2.       Mendel’s F2 plants would have exhibited a
         different phenotype ratio for seed color and
         seed shape.                                    25%   25%   25%   25%
3.       Mendel’s F1 plants would have exhibited a
         different phenotype ratio for seed color and
         seed shape.
4.       all of Mendel’s P plants would have
         produced wrinkled, green peas.


1    2    3   4   5                                     1      2     3     4
        Gene maps are based on
1. the frequencies of    25%   25%   25%   25%
   crossing-over
   between genes.
2. independent
   assortment.
3. genetic diversity.
4. the number of genes
   in a cell.


1   2   3   4   5        1      2     3     4
    If two genes are on the same chromosome
          and rarely assort independently,

1.       crossing-over never occurs
                                        25%   25%   25%   25%
         between the genes.
2.       crossing-over always occurs
         between the genes.
3.       the genes are probably
         located far apart from each
         other.
4.       the genes are probably
         located close to each other.




1    2     3   4   5                    1      2     3     4
    The farther apart two genes are
    located on a chromosome, the
    1.       less likely they are to be inherited
             together.
    2.       more likely they are to be linked.
                                                         25% 25% 25% 25%
    3.       less likely they are to assort
             independently.
    4.       less likely they are to be separated by a
             crossover during meiosis.




1        2   3   4   5                                   1    2   3    4
 A trait is a specific characteristic that varies
         from one individual to another.
        _________________________
1. True                       50%         50%
2. False




1   2   3   4   5              1            2
Gregor Mendel concluded that the tall plants in the
 P generation passed the factor for tallness to the
  F1 generation. _________________________

1. True                        50%         50%
2. False




1   2   3   4   5               1            2
An organism with a dominant allele for a particular
  form of a trait will sometimes exhibit that trait.
         _________________________

1. True                         50%         50%
2. False




1   2   3   4   5                1            2
    True-breeding plants that produced axial flowers were crossed with
     true-breeding plants that produced terminal flowers. The resulting
    offspring produced terminal flowers because the allele for terminal
            flowers is recessive. _________________________


1. True                                      50%             50%
2. False




1    2   3   4   5                             1                 2
    When alleles segregate from each other,
    they join. _________________________

1. True                     50%      50%
2. False




1   2   3   4   5            1          2
      If the alleles for a trait did not segregate during gamete
    formation, offspring would always show the trait of at least
         one of the parents. _________________________

1. True                                  50%           50%
2. False




1     2   3   4   5                       1               2
 The principles of probability can explain the
 numerical results of Mendel’s experiments.
      _________________________
1. True                      50%       50%
2. False




1   2   3   4   5            1           2
  The probability that a gamete produced by a pea plant
heterozygous for stem height (Tt) will contain the recessive
      allele is 100%. _________________________

1. True                             50%           50%
2. False




1   2   3   4   5                     1              2
      If two speckled chickens are mated, according to the
        principle of codominance, 25% of the offspring are
    expected to be speckled. _________________________

1. True                              50%          50%
2. False




1    2   3   4   5                    1              2
   Coat color in rabbits is determined by a
    single gene that has multiple alleles.
       _________________________
1. True                      50%       50%
2. False




1   2   3   4   5            1          2
    If an organism has 16 chromosomes in each of its
       egg cells, the organism’s diploid number is 32.
              _________________________

1. True                           50%         50%
2. False




1     2   3   4   5                1             2
  If an organism is heterozygous for a particular gene, the
two different alleles will be separated during anaphase II of
   meiosis, assuming that no crossing-over has occurred.
               _________________________
1. True                              50%           50%
2. False




1   2   3   4   5                     1               2
Mitosis results in two cells, whereas meiosis
              results in one cell.
      _________________________
1. True                       50%     50%
2. False




1   2   3   4   5           1           2
  If an organism has four linkage groups, it
           has eight chromosomes.
       _________________________
1. True                      50%      50%
2. False




1   2   3   4   5            1           2
Genes in the same linkage group are usually
           inherited separately.
      _________________________
1. True                   50%       50%
2. False




1   2   3   4   5          1          2
    The plants that Gregor Mendel crossed to
     produce the F1 generation made up the
      ____________________ generation.




1   2   3   4    5
            0 of 5
    The different forms of a gene are
    called ____________________.




1   2   3   4    5
            0 of 5
     If the allele for shortness in pea plants were dominant, all
    the pea plants in Mendel’s F1 generation would have been
                        ____________________.




1     2   3   4    5
              0 of 5
If the alleles for traits in pea plants did not segregate during
  gamete formation, offspring that were recessive for a trait
   could be produced only by crossing two plants that were
             ____________________ for that trait.




1   2   3   4    5
            0 of 5
    ____________________ is the likelihood
        that a particular event will occur.




1   2   3   4    5
            0 of 5
    If you flip a coin five times and it comes up heads
        each time, the probability that it will come up
     heads the next time is ____________________.




1    2   3   4    5
             0 of 5
Figure 11–1
In the Punnett square shown in Figure 11–1,
      the genotypes of the offspring are
          ____________________.




1   2   3   4    5
            0 of 5
         Pea plants that are TT,
____________________, or tt have different
              genotypes.




1   2   3   4    5
            0 of 5
    When two heterozygous tall pea plants are
    crossed, the expected genotype ratio of the
    offspring is _________________________.




1    2   3   4    5
             0 of 5
       The principle of independent assortment states that
    ____________________ for different traits can segregate
         independently during the formation of gametes.




1     2   3   4    5
              0 of 5
     If pea plants that are homozygous for round, yellow seeds (RRYY)
    were crossed with pea plants that are heterozygous for round, yellow
     seeds (RrYy), the expected phenotype(s) of the offspring would be
                        _________________________.




1     2   3   4    5
              0 of 5
Crossing a pink-flowered four o’clock with a white-flowered
   four o’clock will produce pink-flowered offspring and
       ____________________-flowered offspring.




1   2   3   4    5
            0 of 5
            An organism’s gametes have
        ____________________ the number of
    chromosomes found in the organism’s body cells.




1    2   3   4    5
             0 of 5
    Crossing-over occurs during the stage of
    meiosis called ____________________.




1   2   3   4    5
            0 of 5
 The relative locations of each known gene
can be shown on a ____________________
                     map.




1   2   3   4    5
            0 of 5
                     Define genetics.




1   2   3   4    5
            0 of 5
     What attributes of the garden pea plant
    made it an excellent organism for Gregor
           Mendel’s genetic studies?




1   2   3   4    5
            0 of 5
    What might have caused Gregor Mendel NOT to conclude
    that biological inheritance is determined by factors that are
              passed from one generation to the next?




1     2   3   4    5
              0 of 5
    How many recessive alleles for a trait must
    an organism inherit in order to exhibit that
                     trait?




1    2   3   4    5
             0 of 5
Figure 11–2
    What is the phenotype ratio of the offspring
    in the Punnett square shown in Figure 11–
                        2?




1    2   3   4    5
             0 of 5
 A pea plant heterozygous for height and seed color (TtYy) is crossed
with a pea plant heterozygous for height but homozygous recessive for
seed color (Ttyy). If 80 offspring are produced, how many are expected
                    to be tall and have yellow seeds?




1   2   3   4    5
            0 of 5
     What might happen if the gametes of a
        species had the same number of
    chromosomes as the species’ body cells?




1   2   3   4    5
            0 of 5
    How many sets of chromosomes
         are in a diploid cell?




1   2   3   4    5
            0 of 5
                Define homologous
                  chromosomes.




1   2   3   4    5
            0 of 5
       What happens to the number of
    chromosomes per cell during meiosis?




1    2   3   4    5
             0 of 5
    Contrast the cells produced by mitosis
      with those produced by meiosis.




1    2   3   4    5
             0 of 5
    Why did Gregor Mendel not observe gene
     linkage during his experiments with pea
                     plants?




1   2   3   4    5
            0 of 5
            What is a linkage group?




1   2   3    4    5
             0 of 5
    What does a gene map show?




1   2   3   4    5
            0 of 5
    The gene map of a fruit fly’s chromosome 2 shows the relative
locations of the star eye, dumpy wing, and black body genes to be 1.3,
13.0, and 48.5, respectively. Between which two genes does crossing-
                       over occur most frequently?




1   2   3   4    5
            0 of 5
A pea plant with yellow seeds was crossed with a plant with
   green seeds. The F1 generation produced plants with
 yellow seeds. Explain why green seeds reappeared in the
                       F2 generation.




1   2   3   4    5
            0 of 5
        You wish to determine whether a tall pea plant is
      homozygous or heterozygous for tallness. What cross
    should you perform to arrive at your answer? Explain your
                         choice of cross




1     2   3   4    5
              0 of 5
    Why are the results of genetic crosses shown in
    Punnett squares interpreted as probabilities, not
       certainties? Give some specific reasons




1    2   3   4    5
             0 of 5
       A cross between two organisms heterozygous for two
     different genes (AaBb) results in a 9 : 3 : 3 : 1 phenotype
    ratio among the offspring. Is the offspring’s genotype ratio
                  the same? Explain your answer




1     2   3   4    5
              0 of 5
    Explain the difference between incomplete
          dominance and codominance.




1    2   3   4    5
             0 of 5
     A florist wants to guarantee that the seeds she
    sells will produce only pink-flowered four o’clock
       plants. How should she obtain the seeds?




1    2   3   4    5
             0 of 5
The stages of meiosis are classified into two
divisions: meiosis I and meiosis II. Compare
      and contrast these two divisions.




1   2   3   4    5
            0 of 5
Suppose the homologous chromosomes that make
 up a tetrad fail to separate during anaphase I of
    meiosis. Predict the results of this event.




1   2   3   4    5
            0 of 5
 Explain why the daughter cells produced by meiosis are
genetically different from each other, whereas the daughter
             cells produced by mitosis are not.




1   2   3   4    5
            0 of 5
Define linkage, and explain how linkage
     is used to make gene maps.




1   2   3   4    5
            0 of 5

								
To top