Griggs Chapter 6: Thinking and Intelligence by 1jNFv9

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									General Psychology (PY110)

Chapter 6
Thinking & Intelligence
 Thinking

 Thinkingis the processing of
 information to solve problems and
 make judgments and decisions
     A Problem

   A situation in which there is a goal, but it is not
    clear how to reach the goal
    ◦ A well-defined problem is one with clear
      specifications of the start state (where you are), goal
      state (where you want to be) and the processes for
      reaching the goal state (how to get there)
    ◦ An ill-defined problem is a problem lacking clear
      specification of the start state, goal state, or the
      processes for reaching the goal state
Problem Solving
Involves two steps...




Interpreting            Trying to solve
the problem              the problem
 Blocks to Problem Solving
Interpretation blocks
 ◦ Fixation is the inability to
   create a new
   interpretation of a
   problem
 ◦ For instance, in the 9-dot
   problem, the directions do
   not say one cannot go
   “outside” the mental
   square formed by the
   9 dots
  Blocks to Problem Solving
Interpretation blocks
               ◦ Functional fixedness is the inability to
                 see that an object can have a function other
                 than its typical one
                   For example, if you need a screwdriver but
                    don‟t have one, a dime could be used to serve
                    the purpose of a screwdriver
                   Occurs during the definition phase of problem
                    solving
                   Limits our ability to solve problems that
                    require using an object in a novel way
                   To combat functional fixedness, you should
                    systematically think about the possible novel
                    uses of all the various objects in the problem
                    environment
 Blocks to Problem Solving
Strategy blocks
 ◦ Our past experience with problem solving can lead us to
   mental set, the tendency to use previously successful
   solution strategies without considering others that may be
   more appropriate for the current problem
 ◦ When searching for new approaches to a problem, we may
   experience insight, a new way of interpreting a problem
   that gives you the solution
The Matchstick Problem




 Move just one matchstick to make the sum correct.
Overcoming Blocks

   To combat the blocks in problems solving,
    ask yourself questions such as:
    ◦ Is my interpretations of the problem
      unnecessarily constraining possible solutions?
    ◦ Can I use any of the objects in the problem in
      novel ways to solve the problem?
    ◦ Do I need a new type of solution strategy?
Solution Strategies



Algorithm


               Heuristic
Algorithm
 A step-by-step procedure
  that guarantees a correct
  answer to a problem
 For example, using
  multiplication correctly
  guarantees you the
  correct solution to
  a multiplication
  problem
 However, over reliance on algorithms can
  result in Functional Fixedness
Heuristic

 „Rules of Thumb‟ or shortcuts which may help
  solve a problem quickly
 A solution strategy that seems reasonable
  given your past experiences with solving
  problems, especially similar problems
 May pay off with a quick correct answer, but it
  may lead to no answer or an incorrect one
Hypothesis Testing


Confirmation          Belief
   Bias           Perseverance



            Illusory
           Correlation
Confirmation Bias

   The tendency to seek evidence that agrees
    with one‟s belief system
    ◦ That is, people do not test their beliefs about the
      world by trying to disconfirm them, but rather, by
      trying to confirm them
    ◦ In example, some believed that there is a link
      between race and IQ
Illusory Correlation
          The erroneous belief that two variables
           are related when they actually are not
          We tend to focus on instances in which
           there seems to be a relationship between
           the variables in question, ignoring all
           disconfirming instances
           ◦ If we believe a relationship exists between two
             things (e.g., wearing a certain color shirt and
             getting a good grade on a test), then we will
             tend to notice and remember instances that
             confirm this relationship
     Belief Perseverance
   The tendency to cling to one‟s beliefs in the face of
    contradictory evidence
   Personal-who reasoning is questioning a well-
    established finding because you know a person (one
    instance) who violates the established finding
                           ◦ For example, a student may insist that
                             eating a steak, baked potato loaded
                             with butter, sour cream, cheese, and
                             salt for dinner is healthy because his
                             grandfather did so every night for 50
                             years and lived to be 90 years old
  Binet & Simon
                  The fist accepted intelligence test
                   was developed by Binet and Simon
                  It was developed a test to diagnose
                     children who were subnormal and likely
                     to experience problems is school
                    Based on the concept of mental
                     age – the age typically associated
                     with a child‟s level of performance
• If a child‟s mental age was less than their chronological
age, they would need remedial work
•Demonstrates a nurture emphasis on intelligence
    Lewis Terman
   Revised Binet and Simon‟s test at Stanford University for
    American school children
   This became known as the Stanford-Binet test of
    intelligence, Terman used the classic
    intelligence quotient formula
    ◦ IQ = (mental age/chronological age) X 100
    ◦ If a child‟s mental age is greater than the
      child‟s chronological age, the child‟s IQ was
      greater than 100
    ◦ When a child‟s mental age is less than the
      child‟s chronological age, the child‟s IQ was
      less than 100
    Weschler
 David Wechsler was Chief
  Psychologist at Bellevue Hospital in
  New York City in the 1930s and
  had adult patients from diverse backgrounds
  ◦ The Stanford-Binet was not designed to assess adult
     intelligence, and the IQ was particularly problematic for
     adults because at some point the mental age levels off but the
     chronological age keeps increasing (so a person‟s IQ declines
     simply because of natural aging)
 Developed his own tests, the Wechsler Bellevue Scale, in 1939
  (later called the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale –
  WAIS)
 Provides test scores for a battery of both verbal tests (such as
  vocabulary and comprehension) and performance (non-
  verbal) tests (such as block design and picture arrangement)
Deviation IQ Scores

 To calculate a person‟s deviation IQ, Wechsler
  compared how far the person‟s raw score was
  from the mean raw score in terms of standard
  deviation units from the mean
 To make the deviation scores resemble the IQ
  formula, he set the mean to 100 and the standard
  deviation to 15
    ◦ Deviation IQ score = 100 plus or minus (15x the
      number of standard deviation units a person‟s raw test
      score is from the mean for the relevant age group norms)
Deviation IQ Scores on the WAIS
  Psychometric Properties


Standardization

        Reliability

                Validity
    Standardization
 Allows test scores to be interpreted by against
  norms
 The test must be given to a large representative
  sample of the relevant population, and the scores
  of this sample serve as norms for interpretation
    ◦ For example, Terman standardized his Stanford-Binet on
      American children of various ages – any child‟s raw score
      could be compared to the standardization norms to
      calculate the child‟s mental age
    ◦ Wechsler collected standardization data for various adult
      age groups, and the data for each age group form a normal
      distribution
  Reliability
The extent to which the scores for a test are consistent
  ◦ In the test-retest method, the test is given twice to the same
    sample, and the correlation coefficient for the two sets of
    scores is computed
     A reliable test yields a strong positive correlation
  ◦ Alternate form reliability can be assessed if multiple forms
    of the test are available
     Here, a researcher gives different forms of the test to
      the same sample at different times and computes the
      correlation coefficient for performance on the two
      forms
  ◦ Split-half reliability is determined by correlating performance
    of two halves of one given test
     For example, the odd and even number items
    Validity

   The extent to which a test measures what it is
    supposed to measure or predict what it is supposed to
    predict
    ◦ Content validity means that the test covers the content
      that it is supposed to cover
    ◦ Predictive validity means that the test predicts behavior
      that is related to what is being measured by the test
   It is important to note that if a test is valid, it will also
    be reliable
    ◦ However, a test can be reliable, but not valid (e.g., using wrist
      size to measure intelligence; wrist size is quite reliable, but
      does not contain validity given the interest in measuring
      intelligence)
    Theories of Intelligence

   Cattell and Horn proposed two types of
    intelligence, which have been of interest to
    researchers in aging
    ◦ Fluid intelligence refers to abstract reasoning,
      memory, and the speed of information processing
    ◦ Crystallized intelligence refers to
      accumulated knowledge and verbal and numerical
      skills
          Theories of Intelligence

             Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences
              includes 8 independent types of intelligence
Linguistic               Language ability (e.g., reading, writing, speaking)
Logical-Mathematical     Mathematical problem solving & scientific analysis
Spatial                  Reasoning about visual spatial relationships
Musical                  Musical skills (e.g., the ability to compose and
                         understand music)
Bodily-Kinesthetic       Skill in body movement and handling objects
Intrapersonal            Understanding oneself
Interpersonal            Understand other people
Naturalist               Ability to discern patterns in nature
Theories of Intelligence
   Robert Sternberg’s triarchic theory of
    intelligence proposes three types of intelligence
    1. Analytical intelligence is essentially what is
       measured by standard intelligence tests, the
       necessary skills for good academic performance
    2. Practical intelligence could be equated with
       good common sense or “street smarts”
    3. Creative intelligence is concerned with the
       ability to solve novel problems and deal with
       unusual situations
Nature vs. Nurture

 Most contemporary psychologists believe
  that both heredity (nature) and
  environmental experiences (nurture) are
  important in determining intelligence
 The disagreement is over the relative
  contribution of each part to intelligence
The Case for Nature

   Genetic similarity studies are important in
    determining the relative contribution of nature
    and nurture to intelligence
    ◦ Identical twins have 100% genetic similarity
    ◦ Fraternal twins and siblings have 50% similarity
    ◦ Two unrelated people have 0% similarity
   If intelligence were due to heredity, the
    average correlations between intelligence
    scores should decrease as genetic similarity
    decreases, and researchers have found this to
    be the case
The Case for Nurture
 However, there are also results that
  support environmental influences on
  intelligence
 For example, if identical twins are raised
  together, the correlation between their
  intelligence test scores is +0.86, but if the
  identical twins are raised apart, the
  correlation falls to +0.72
Both Nature and Nurture

 The average correlation between fraternal
  twins raised together (+0.60) is less than that
  for identical twins reared apart (+0.72),
  indicating the influence of heredity
 The average correlation is greater than that for
  ordinary siblings reared together (+0.47),
  indicating environmental influences because the
  environment influences of fraternal twins is
  more similar than for ordinary siblings at
  different ages
The Case for Both Nature and
Nurture
 There is a modest correlation between the
  intelligence test scores of adopted children with
  their parents, and this correlation disappears as
  the children age
 The correlation between the scores for adopted
  children and their biological parents, however,
  increases as the children age
 This stronger relationship between a person‟s
  intelligence and that of their biological parents
  means that nature plays a larger role in
  determining a person‟s intelligence than
  environmental experiences
The Flynn Effect

 Refers to the fact that in the United States
  and other Western industrialized nations,
  average intelligence scores have improved
  steadily over the past century
 Proposed explanations involve many
  environmental factors such as better
  nutrition and more education

								
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