Reading and Writing

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					Reading and Writing


            By
      Ximena Schneider
Reading Next and Writing Next
       Carnegie Foundation's Reading Next and Writing Next

The reading and writing report from the Alliance for Excellent
Education by Giana Biancarosa and Catherine Snow research on
literacy for adolescent students has made some
recommendations to improve literacy in adolescences.
              Recommendations
                     For Reading
               1. Direct, explicit comprehension
This report    2. Effective instructional principles embedded
provides           in content
fifteen        3. Motivation and self-directed learning
elements       4. Text-based collaborative learning,
designed at    5. Strategic tutoring
improving      6. Diverse texts
middle and     7. Intensive writing
high school    8. A technology component
literacy       9. Ongoing formative assessment of students
               10. Extended time for literacy
               11. Professional development
               12. Ongoing summative assessment of
                   students and programs
               13. Teacher teams
               14. Leadership
               15. A comprehensive and coordinated literacy
                   program
Recommendations # 1 and # 2
•   #1       Effective comprehension              •   #2        Effective reading instruction
    instruction requires purposeful and               embedded in content
    explicit teaching:                            •   A teacher needs to
•    A teacher needs to:                          •   Provide interactions that support the
•   know what the student’s cognitive needs           understanding of all the subjects
•   to be clear                                   •   uses a range of techniques of specific
•   needs to have a purpose                           texts
•   provide scaffolded instruction in research-   •   is clear about the types of texts
    tested strategies                             •   provides discussions
•   to model the strategy and to allow students   •   provides writing in response to reading
    to use them



                  Strategies:                                     Discussions:
          Previewing the text and predicting                Student-led discussions
                  Chunking the text                        Balanced level of questions
             Read Aloud and think aloud                        Bloom’s Taxonomy
           Review, retelling, summarizing
            Graphic sources, organizers
                 (graphic organizers),
                     visual images
              Attending to text structure
Recommendations # 3 and # 4
•     #3 Motivation and self-directed                   •    #4 Effective reading instruction offers
      learning                                               Text-based collaborative learning
•     Effective reading comprehension                   •    A teacher needs to:
      instruction starts with motivation and            •    provide a rage of concepts and techniques
      attitude                                               for enhancing the value of student-student
•     A teacher needs to:                                    interaction
•     help the student to become aware of their         •    promote reading across the curriculum
      unique learning strengths                         •    encourage small group participation
•     show motivation her/himself                       •    promote interaction beyond discussion
•     provide the students with opportunities to        •    encourage decentralized learning
      choose reading materials/type
•     provide opportunities for success
•     emphasize progress rather than
      performance
•     allow students to have some control over
      the choices of text




                                                                      Collaborative learning:
                Builders of motivation:                             Positive interdependence:
             Presence of different genres                           “what helps one helps all”
    Books with different levels of reading difficulty                Individual accountability
     Goal: to enjoy and learn rather than a grade               Processing group interaction: time,
              Independent reading time                            number of members in a group
                                                            Heterogeneous and homogeneous grouping
Recommendations #5 and #6
•   # 5 Strategic tutoring                         •   # 6 Effective reading instruction offers
•    Needs to                                          a diversity of texts
•   provide students with intense                  •   A teacher needs to:
    individualized reading, writing, and content   •   provide a rage of concepts and techniques
    instruction as                                     for enhancing the value of student-student
•   Tutoring needs to                                  interaction
•   provide Intense and individualize              •   promote reading across the curriculum
    instruction                                    •   encourage small group participation
•   focus on specific area of reading (within      •   promote interaction beyond discussion
    the 5)                                         •   encourage decentralized learning
•   be offered during the school day



      Five areas of reading instruction:
            Phonemic awareness                              Weave a web of connections
                 Decoding                              within lessons, across lessons, and to
                  Fluency                                               students’
                Vocabulary                                    lives in and out of school.
              Comprehension
Recommendations # 7 and # 8
•    # 7 Effective reading instruction offers   •     # 8 A technology component
     Intensive writing                          •     Needs to use:
•    Reading to Writing activities              •     Technology as both an instructional tool
•    Dialogue journals                                and an instructional topic
•    Debate                                     •     Technology as a facilitator of literacy and a
•    Thematic units                                   medium of literacy
•    Writing to Reading activities              •     Needs to be use in different way or stages
•    Writing as a pre-reading activity                of literacy
•    Writing during reading activity            •     Computer applications for instruction:
•    Writing as a post reading activity                 – supplementary applications to used
                                                              along with other forms of instruction;
                                                              and stand-alone applications that
                                                              are used by students with minimal
                                                              teacher input


                                                    Software packages and Internet can provide
             The connection:                               literacy instruction to support
Reading and writing are natural partners                 a self-paced, stand-alone reading
 One cannot be done without the other                          and writing environment
 Writers write so their work can be read             Game /interactive activities are mediums
                                                          of learning and entertainment
  Recommendations # 9 and # 10
  •     # 9 On going assessment for students             •   # 10 Extended time for reading
  •     Pre-during-post assessments                      •   Reading instruction and practice needs to
  •     Running records (keep track of progress)             happen throughout the day
  •     Results need to be accessible to those           •   At least 2 to 4 hours of instruction
        who work with the kids                               connected to the Language Arts
  •     Make results (data) meaningful and have a        •   Time needs to be spend connecting
        purpose for testing                                  reading and writing
  •     Focus on one area of reading at the time         •   Reading time needs to be meaningful:
          – Reading fluency: accuracy, rate,                 quantity not always equals quality
             prosody                                     •   Make time for reading
          – Vocabulary
          – Comprehension (It must require
             students to demonstrate their level of
             reading comprehension by
             completing some task)




        Assessment should be meaningful                           I Have No Time
                     Use data to:
                 Promote learning
                                                         I have no time to dream a dream
Plan strategically, to individualize teaching/learning   Or think a splendid thought. . . . ..
     Provide evidence to support decisions as
    to where to focus resources and teaching.
                                                                 I need time to read!
Recommendations # 11 and 12
•     # 11 Professional Development                   •     # 12 Ongoing summative Assessment
•     Teachers should:                                      of Students and Programs
•     have on going professional development          •     Summative assessments
•     be offered to everyone that works directly      •     are typically used to evaluate the
      with the students                                     effectiveness of instructional programs and
•     should use data from research studies                 services at the end of an academic year or
                                                            at a pre-determined time
•     attend inservice of specific and non-
      specific content areas (to sharpen cross-       •     determine each student's ability
      curriculum instruction)                         •     are used to identify instructional areas that
•     seek professional development that is tied            need additional attention
      to the school, district, and state goals        •     are used to determine if students have
      (curriculum and standards) for student                mastered specific abilities
      achievement
•     Reflect on students’ need to seek the right
      inservice



                                                     Formative Assessments        Summative Assessments
                                                    Anecdotal records            Final exams

    Professional development can promote            Quizzes and essays           Statewide tests (ISAT,
        a positive school environment,                                           DWA)
       Improve individual teacher skills,           Diagnostic tests             National tests (SAT and
     team work, and student achievement.                                         ACT)
                                                    AR tests, selection tests
Recommendations # 13 and # 14

•   # 13 Teacher teams                                •    # 14 Leadership
•   Teams need:                                       •    Entitles
•   to be properly fashioned and managed              •    a principal and staff with a collective vision
•   to be diverse (strengths, abilities,              •    a principal and commitment and
    experience, expertise)                                 enthusiasm
•   need to distribute obligations and                •    a school with a defined mission statement,
    resources                                              a vision and goals and objectives
•   to last for prolonged period of time (to grow     •    a principal with knowledge of students
    effectively into productive teams)                     strengths and learning needs
•   to have accountability as a team                  •    teachers who are capable to assume a
•   to have informative assessments                        leadership role in teams or committees
•   to report to principal/supervisor


Two (or more) heads are better than one!



                               ―Leadership is not magnetic personality—that can just as well be a glib
                               tongue. It is not "making friends and influencing people―—that is flattery.
                                                  Leadership is lifting a person's vision
                                         to higher sights, the raising of a person's performance
                                           to a higher standard, the building of a personality
                                                      beyond its normal limitations.‖
                                                             Peter F. Drucker
Recommendation # 15
•   # 15 A comprehensive and Coordinated Literacy Program
•   A program that:
•   requires teachers to work and coordinate instruction
•   encourages interdisciplinary teams
•   promotes reading and writing teachers support and help content-area teachers
•   teachers to share writing and reading skills to support other subjects
•   reaches or initiates collaborations with our-of-school organizations
•   displays motivation, enthusiasm, commitments to learning and reflects these to
    the students




                     ―The achievements of an organization are the
                    results of the combined effort of each individual.‖
                                    Vincent Lombardi
One cannot be done without the
            other!
     Reading and Writing
      Reading                   Writing
   Shared reading           Shared writing
     TEACHER                  TEACHER

                        Helps students fine
May read aloud, ask
                        tune ideas, make
students to predict,
                        suggestions, ask
infer, conclude
                        questions, clarify
STUDENT                 STUDENT
                                                         Reading                    Writing
                        Accept responsibility
                                                  Guided reading            Guided writing
                        for fleshing out ideas,
Respond to questions   using personal            TEACHER                   TEACHER
Partner reading with   experiences,
peer, cross age tutor   illustrations.            Does reciprocal
                        Pattern writing style                              Uses reciprocal
                                                  teaching before, during
                        after another author                                teaching techniques to
                                                  and after reading
                                                                            guide writing, fine
                                                  Offers techniques,
                                                                            tuning writing
                                                  strategies
                                                  STUDENT                   STUDENT

                                                                            Accepts responsibility
                                                  Accepts more
                                                                            for writing, looks for
                                                  responsibility for
                                                                            guidance from teacher
                                                  reading when reading
                                                                            or "more literate other"
                                                  materials at their
                                                                            (peer, family member,
                                                  instructional level
                                                                            etc.
       READING                     WRITING
    Reading aloud              Modeled writing
TEACHER                     TEACHER

                            Demonstrates
                            planning,
Models fluency and
                            brainstorming,
expression
                            structuring, drafting,
Reads at student's
                            editing, revising,
listening level
                            rereading, thinking
                            aloud
       STUDENT                     STUDENT                     Reading                       Writing
                                                      Guided reading                 Guided writing
                            Observes                 TEACHER                        TEACHER
                            Learns by example
Is an attentive listener   Practices getting into
                            readers' and writers'     Does reciprocal               Uses reciprocal
                            minds                     teaching before, during        teaching techniques to
                                                      and after reading. Offers      guide writing, fine
                                                      techniques, strategies         tuning writing
                                                      STUDENT                        STUDENT

                                                                                     Accepts responsibility
                                                      Accepts more                  for writing, looks for
                                                      responsibility for reading     guidance from teacher
                                                      when reading materials         or "more literate other"
                                                      at their instructional level   (peer, mom, dad, tutor,
                                                                                     etc.
       Reading                       Writing
Independent reading         Independent writing
TEACHER                     TEACHER

Models own
                            Models a variety of
independent reading.
                            opportunities/genres for
Gives time to read:
                            writing, letters, journals,
DEAR, SSR, WARP,
                            notes, poems, stories
etc.
STUDENT                     STUDENT

Takes responsibility for
choice of reading           Makes personal
materials, practices        choice of writing topics,
reading skills learned in   takes responsibility for
guided reading, time for    completion of tasks,
practice, reflection.       practices skills learned
Finds time to read          in guided writing,
without deadlines.          reflects, and rewrites
              Recommendations
                       For Writing
This report    1.    Writing Strategies
provides       2.    Summarization
eleven         3.    Collaborative Writing
elements       4.    Specific Product Goals
designed at    5.    Word Processing
improving      6.    Sentence-Combining
               7.    Prewriting
middle and
               8.    Inquiry Activities
high school
               9.    Process Writing Approach
literacy
               10.   Study of Models
               11.   Writing for content learning
Recommendations 1 and 2
•   #1 Teaching Explicit Writing Strategies     •    #2 Summarization
•   Intensive instruction should focus on the   •    Students need to learn to express their
    following:                                       reading in a shorter version
•   Writing strategies
                                                •    The summary captures all the most
•   Knowledge of the elements of genres              important parts of the original (passage,
•   Self-regulation strategies                       story, article), but expresses them in a
                                                     shorter version




                  Brainstorming                                 Read the article.
                  Peer-revising                               Re-read the article.
             Journaling: response,                        Underline important ideas.
       double-entry journals, learning logs               Circle/underline key terms.
                 Gist statements                       Find the main point of the article.
       Focusing on one element at a time:                Divide the article into sections
        ideas, organization, word choice,       Write brief outline of the article/passage/story.
     sentence fluency, convention, and voice         Write a rough draft of the summary:
                    Exit Slips                      Combine these steps into paragraphs.
    SRSD: self-regulated strategy development    Read it to yourself, a peer and/or teacher
Recommendations # 3 and # 4
•   #3 Collaborative Writing                     •   #4 Specific Product Goals
•   Collaborative groups draw upon the           •   Students need attainable specific goals
    strengths of all their members               •   Be specific (element, trait, genre)
•   One student may be stronger in one area      •   Use models to attain specific goal
    (example one can be stronger in critical     •   Models show students what they should
    thinking skills, another may excel in            do, and avoid what they need to avoid
    organizing)
•    By working in groups, students learn from
    each other while they complete assigned
    tasks




           Students work together to                 ―If you don't know where you are going,
             plan, raft, revise, and                       you’ll end up someplace else.‖
             edit their compositions                                  Jogi Berra
           Positive interdependence:                                      Or
                                                           Alice in Wonderland found out,
           ―what helps one helps all‖                 "If you don't know where you're going,
                                                        then any road can take you there."
Recommendations #5 and #6
•   # 5 Word Processing                           •     # 6 Sentence Combining
•   Word processors are powerful assistants       •      Grammar instruction should be matched
•    World Wide Web provides new ways to                to the purpose of the user
    practice writing                              •     Kill two birds in one shot: encourage the
•   Word processors provide software to                 students to explain how incorrect usage of
    enhance writing: example, Inspiration               the words/sentences or passage in the
    (organizing, pre writing, outlining skills)         essay might affect the reader (writing and
                                                        reading)
                                                  •     When reading, point out the simple and
                                                        complex sentences
                                                  •     Ask students to find models of simple and
                                                        complex sentences as they read




                Word processing is
                                                                      Working with sentences:
         primarily about manipulating text:           http://www.geocities.com/fifth_grade_tpes/sentence2.html
        Add, edit, cut and paste, move text
Recommendations # 7 and # 8
•    # 7 Pre-writing                               •    # 8 Inquiry Activities
•    Allow some time in class for students to
                                                   •    Engage students in activities that target:
     engage in prewriting activities:
                                                   •    The development of ideas
•    Response Journals (prompts)
                                                   •    Analyzing
•    Dialogue Journals (interact with others and
     text)                                         •    Comparing and contrasting
•    Brainstorming                                 •    Evaluating
•    Mapping and webbing, flow charts and          •    Synthesizing
     trees                                         •    Collecting data and evidence
•    Free writing                                  •    Reflect on observations
•    Summaries and Questioning                     •    Work with other subjects (cross-
•    Annotated Bibliographies (when using               curriculum)
     resources)
•    Electronic Discussions (using technology)
•    Listing Outlines (start small and simple)
•    Models (see others pre-writing work)




       1) Why am I writing? (purpose)                                  Ideas:
        2) What will I write about? (subject)                     Create a brochure
            3) What will I say? (content)              Reporter assignment (newspaper article)
            4) How will I say it? (voice)                        Review of literature
    5) For whom am I writing? (audience)                      Present a historical event
                                                          Write about science processes
Recommendations # 9 and # 10
•    # 9 Process Writing Approach                     •   # 10 Study of Models
•    Encourages planning                              •   Studying models help students understand
                                                          the conventions
•    Encourages ownership and responsibility
     of one’s writing                                 •   It serves as a motivator (they want to
                                                          produce something like it)
•    Encourages dialogue with others writing          •   Models show students way to use the
•    Encourages questioning writing purpose               critical elements of writing
     and process
•    Encourages self-reflection and evaluation
•    Keeps in mind the different traits of writing:
       – Ideas
       – Organization
       – Word choice
       – Sentence fluency
       – Conventions
       – voice



                                                           ―A good example [model] has twice
           What do I write about?
                                                                the value of good advice‖
            Who is my audience?
       How do I structure my essay?
                                                             ―To accept good advice is but to
What sort of language and voice should I use?
                                                                increase one's own ability‖
                                                              Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
    I need to fix this, I need to fix that. . .
     I can add this, I can delete that. . . .
        Recommendations # 11
        •    # 11 Writing for Content Area

        •    All subjects should include some form
             of writing:
        •    Students should write for authentic
             audiences and purposes
        •    Students should know in advance the
             criteria that will be used to assess their
             writing
        •    Examples:
               –   Science: research, process, analytical,
                   compare and contrast, cause and effect,
                   sequence (step by step) papers
               –   Social Studies: research, cause and
                   effect, compare and contrast, narrative,
                   biographical papers
               –   P.E.: how to, cause and effect, compare
                   and contrast papers
               –   Mathematics: how to paper




                  Since each subject (content area) has its own conventions and style,
                            those conventions should be taught to students.
Then, content area teachers have the responsibility to teach reading and writing through the content area
Read like a writer and write like a reader!

				
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