Roman Empire Theme: Republic and Empire by uOKh5bX1

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									    Roman Empire

Theme: Republic and Empire


        Lesson 5
                ID & SIG:
• Augustus (Octavian), dictators, empire,
  Julius Caesar, patricians, plebeians,
  latifundia, pax romana, republic, tribunes
              Origins of Rome
• Rome was founded in the 8th Century B.C. and
  was originally a small city-state ruled by a single
  king
• Late in the 6th Century B.C., the city’s aristocrats
  deposed the king, ended the monarchy, and
  instituted a republic
   – A republic is a form of government in which delegates
     represent the interests of various constituents
• The Roman republic survived for over 500 years
  and at one time dominated the Mediterranean
  basin
Mediterranean Basin
   Legend of Rome’s Founding
• Aeneas migrated from Troy
  to Italy
• Two of his descendants,
  Romulus and Remus, were
  abandoned by an evil uncle
  in the flooded Tiber River
• A kindly she-wolf found
  them and nursed them to
  health
• The boys grew strong and
  courageous and in 753 B.C.,
  Romulus founded the city of
  Rome and established          Romulus and Remus being
  himself as its first king       nursed by the she-wolf
              Rise of Rome
• From humble beginnings, Rome grew into
  a strong commercial center, in part
  because of its geographic location
  – Rome enjoyed easy access to the
    Mediterranean via the Tiber River, but
    because it was not on the coast, it was safe
    from invasion or attack by the sea
• By the 6th Century B.C., trade routes from
  all parts of Italy converged in Rome
 Establishment of the Republic
• When the aristocracy deposed the king in
  509 and established a republic, they
  instituted a republican constitution
  – Executive responsibilities were entrusted to
    two consuls who wielded civil and military
    power
  – Consuls were elected by an assembly
    dominated by hereditary aristocrats and
    wealthy classes
  – Consuls served one year terms
   Establishment of the Republic
• The Senate was
  composed
  mostly of
  aristocrats with
  extensive
  political
  experience
• They advised
  the consuls and
  ratified all major
  decisions            Roman Senate house
    Patricians versus Plebeians
• Both the consuls and the
  Senate represented the
  interests of the
  patricians– the hereditary
  aristocrats and wealthy
  classes
• This caused tension
  between the patricians
  and the common people–
  the plebeians                Roman patricians
   Patricians versus Plebeians
• In the early 5th Century, tensions got so
  bad that the plebeians threatened to
  secede from Rome and establish a rival
  settlement
• In order to maintain the integrity of the
  Roman state, the patricians granted the
  plebeians the right to elect officials known
  as tribunes to represent their interests
   Patricians versus Plebeians
• Originally the plebeians were authorized
  two tribunes, but that number eventually
  rose to ten
• Tribunes had the power to intervene in all
  political matters and to veto measures
  they thought were unfair
  – Still the patricians continued to dominate
    Rome
    Increased Representation for
             Plebeians
• During the 4th Century, plebeians became
  eligible to hold almost all state offices and
  gained the right to have one of the consuls come
  from their ranks
• By the early 3rd Century, plebeian-dominated
  assemblies won the power to make decisions
  binding on all of Rome
• Republican Rome was gradually broadening the
  base of political participation
                    Dictators
• In times of civil
  or military crisis,
  the Roman
  constitution
  allowed for the
  appointment of a
  dictator who
  wielded absolute
  power for a term      Cincinnatus, shown here handing
  of six months         the rods of power back to the city
                          fathers, served as dictator of
                                   Rome twice
      Expansion of the Republic

• Rome expanded
  from central Italy,
  to the Italian
  Peninsula, to the
  Mediterranean
  basin
• Defeated the
  Carthaginians in
  the Punic Wars
  between 264 and
  146 B.C.              Territory under Roman control near
                          the end of the republic, 44 B.C.
     From Republic to Empire
• Imperial expansion brought wealth to Rome, but
  the wealth was unequally distributed which
  aggravated class tensions
  – Conflicts arose over political and social policies
  – During the 1st Century B.C. and the 1st Century A.D.,
    Roman civil and military leaders will gradually
    dismantle the republican constitution and replace it
    with a centralized imperial form of government
 Problems with Conquered Lands
• Conquered lands usually fell into the
  hands of wealthy elites who organized
  enormous plantations known as latifundia
• The owners of latifundia enjoyed great
  economies of scale and used slave labor
  to drive the owners of smaller holdings out
  of business
  Problems with Conquered Lands
• Tiberius and Gaius
  Gracchi worked to
  limit the amount of
  conquered land an
  individual could hold
• They met strong
  resistance from the
  wealthy and ruling
  classes and were
  both assassinated
            Bigger Problem
• The problem of land distribution was a
  symptom of a bigger problem
  – The constitution of the Roman republic had
    been designed for a small city-state
  – It was not suitable for a large and growing
    empire
• Roman politicians and generals began
  jockeying for power and several raised
  personal armies for support
                     Civil War
• The two most
  important generals
  were Gaius Marius
  and Lucius
  Cornelius Sulla
  – Marius sided with
    social reformers
    who favored
    redistribution of
    land
  – Sulla sided with the
    conservative and
    aristocratic classes   Marius   Sulla
                Civil War
• In 87 B.C., Marius marched on Rome,
  placed the city under military occupation,
  and began hunting down his enemies
• When Marius died the next year, Sulla
  moved to replace him
• In 83, Sulla seized Rome and began
  slaughtering his enemies
                    Sulla
• Sulla initiated a reign of terror that lasted
  almost five years until he died in 78
• During that period he killed some ten
  thousand individuals
• He imposed an extremely conservative
  legislative program that weakened the
  influence of the lower classes and
  strengthened the hand of the wealthy
              Julius Caesar
• Sulla’s program did not address Rome’s most
  serious social problems
• The latifundia continued to crush small farmers
  and poverty was rampant
• There were many social eruptions when times
  were especially hard
• Julius Caesar stepped into the chaos and
  inaugurated a process that replaced the Roman
  republican constitution with a centralized
  imperial form of government
             Julius Caesar
• Caesar was a
  nephew of Marius and
  he favored Marius’
  liberal policies and
  social reform
• In the 50s B.C.,
  Caesar led an army
  that conquered Gaul
  and made him very
  popular
                         Gaul (now mostly France)
              Julius Caesar
• In 49 Caesar
  marched his army to
  Rome and by early 46
  he had named himself
  dictator
• But instead of the
  constitutional six
  month term, Caesar
  claimed to be dictator
  for life
              Julius Caesar
• Caesar centralized military and political
  functions and brought them under his control
• He confiscated property from conservatives and
  distributed it among veterans of his army and
  other supporters
• He launched large scale building projects to
  provide employment for the poor
• He extended Roman citizenship to people in the
  imperial provinces
                 Julius Caesar
• But Caesar’s reforms
  alienated many of
  Rome’s elite who
  considered him a tyrant
• In 44 B.C. they
  assassinated him
• However it was too late to
  return to the old
  conservative ways and a
  new round of civil crisis
  ensued for thirteen years
   – Octavian emerged in
      power
                      Octavian
• Octavian was a
  nephew, protégé,
  and adopted son
  of Julius Caesar
• He defeated his
  principal rival,
  Mark Anthony,
  and Anthony’s
  ally Cleopatra at
  Actium, Greece
  in 31 B.C.            Anthony and Cleopatra by Sir
                          Lawrence Alma-Tadema
                        Augustus
• Octavian consolidated his
  rule and in 27 B.C., the
  Senate bestowed upon
  him the title Augustus
   – “Augustus” has religious
     connotations suggesting a
     divine or semidivine nature
• Augustus ruled virtually
  unopposed for 45 years
  in “a monarchy disguised
  as a republic”
                      Augustus
• Augustus
  centralized political
  and military power
  like Julius Caesar
  did, but he was
  careful to preserve
  traditional
  republican offices
  and forms of
  government and
  included members
  of the Roman elite
  in his government
   Government under Augustus
• Accumulated vast powers for himself and
  ultimately took responsibility for all important
  governmental functions
   – Placed individuals loyal to him in all important
     positions
• Reorganized the military system
   – Created a new standing army with commanders who
     owed allegiance to him
      • Eliminated the personal armies of earlier years
• Stabilized the land after the years of civil war
  and allowed the institutions of empire to take
  root
             Mare Nostrum
• After Augustus, the Roman Empire
  continued to grow to the point that it
  surrounded the Mediterranean
  – Romans called the Mediterranean mare
    nostrum (“our sea”)
• Expansion brought Roman soldiers,
  diplomats, governors, and merchants
  throughout the region
• Trade flourished
Roman Empire, 117 A.D.
              Pax Romana
• By stopping the civil wars, Augustus
  inaugurated an era known as pax romana
  (“Roman peace”) which greatly facilitated
  trade and communication
  – Lasted from 27 B.C. to 180 A.D.
• Also included applying standards of justice
  and a basic code of law throughout the
  empire
How were populations controlled by
         the Romans?
• Under the republic?




• Under the empire?
How were populations controlled by
         the Romans?
• Under the republic
  – Representation (consuls and Senate)
  – Resolution of conflicts between the patricians and
    plebeians (tribunes)
  – Dictators
• Under the empire
  – Julius Caesar centralized authority but alienated elite
  – Augustus continued centralization but placated elite
    and ensured loyalty through patronage
  – Pax romana stabilized region through trade,
    communication, and law
          Next Lesson
• Incas

								
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