Biology 112 Lab

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					                                  Biology 112 Lab Objectives

Lab quiz # 1
                                                   Body cavities
Spelling counts on all lab quizzes. You are        Fig. 2.1 p. 10
responsible for all objectives listed including
assigned lab manual exercises and questions                Thoracic
from lab reports.                                          Abdominal
                                                           Pelvic
                                                           Cranial
Exercise 4 – The Microscope                                Vertebral(spinal)
Read lab exercises; then complete lab report #
3, pp. 39 parts A                                  Organs
Be able to calculate total magnification using      Be able to
an objective lens                                  identify organs and
                                                   place in proper cavity.
Know following parts of the microscope and         Be able to answer lab report Part A p. 17
their functions. Complete lab report p. 40 Part         heart
D.                                                      lungs
                                                        brain
        Ocular lens                                    spinal cord
        Arm                                            trachea
        Rotating nosepiece                             esophagus
        Objective lenses                               stomach
        Stage                                          pancreas
        Stage clips                                    spleen
        Mechanical stage control                       liver
        Fine focus                                     small intestines
        Coarse focus                                   large intestines
        Light control                                  ovary/testes
        Condenser                                      urinary bladder
        Iris diaphragm lever

        Be able to determine why a slide is not   Membranes
         viewable                                  Fig. 2.2 a and Fig. 2.2b
        Be able to describe the proper way to     P. 11. Where are these membranes found in
         carry a microscope                        the body?
        Be able to describe proper way to store
         a microscope                                      parietal pericardium
                                                           visceral pericardium
Chapter Two – Body Organization and                        parietal pleura
Terminology                                                visceral pleura
                                                           parietal peritoneum
Using models learn the following anatomical                visceral peritoneum
terms.
                                                   Planes
Directional Terminology:                             Fig. 2.5 p. 13
Be able to answer lab report
Part C p. 18                                               Frontal(coronal)
                                                           Sagittal
Superior/Inferior                                          Transverse
Anterior/Posterior
Medial/Lateral
Proximal/Distal
Superficial/Deep
                                Biology 112 Lab Objectives


Abdominal quadrants (models)                   Exercise 5 – Cell Structure and Function
 Fig. 2.6 B p. 14.                             Fig. 5.1 p. 42
     RUQ                                      Fig. 5.2 p. 43
     LUQ                                      Lab report #5 p. 46 part C
     RLQ                                      Make your own cheek cell slide
     LLQ
                                               Use cell model to learn structures and functions
Body regions                                   of following cellular organelles
Fig. 2.7 (a & b), pp. 15-16
Lab report D and E p. 19                              Plasma (cell) membrane
Be able to label body regions on models               Cytoplasm
                                                      Nucleus
       Cephalic                                      Nucleolus
       Cervical                                      Nuclear envelope
       Vertebral                                     Chromatin
       Sternal                                       Golgi apparatus
       Axillary                                      Rough ER
       Acromial                                      Smooth ER
       Brachial                                      Mitochondria
       Antebrachial                                  Lysosome
       Cubital                                       Centrioles
       Antecubital                                   Ribosomes
       Carpal
       Palmar
       Umbilical                              Exercise 6 – Movements through membranes
       Lumbar                                 If time permits:
       Sacral                                 Perform lab procedure A. p.48
       Gluteal                                Perform lab procedure B. 48
                                               Perform lab procedure C p. 49
       Femoral
       Patellar
       Popliteal                              Be able to define the following terms:
       Plantar
                                                    Diffusion
                                                    Osmosis
                                                    Filtration
                                                   
                                               What happens to a cell placed in each of these
                                               solutions?

                                                      Hypertonic solutions
                                                      Hypotonic solutions
                                                      Isotonic solutions
                                  Biology 112 Lab Objectives

Lab Quiz #2                                         Chapter 10 - Muscle and nervous tissue
                                                    Fig. 10.1 p. 74 (study for test)
Spelling counts on lab quizzes. You are
responsible for all objectives listed including            Skeletal muscle
lab exercises and lab report questions.                    Smooth muscle
                                                           Cardiac muscle – intercalated discs
                                                           Nervous tissue - neuron
Exercise 7 – The Cell Cycle
Fig. 7.2 p. 57                                      Exercise 11- Integumentary System
Lab report # 7 pp. 59-62 parts A, B, C, and D       Fig. 11.1 p. 78
                                                    Fig. 11.2 p. 79
For test -- be able to identify the following
stages of the cell cycle using whitefish blastula   Using skin models and slides locate the
slides, photographs from p. 62 in lab manual,       following parts of the skin.
and from micrographs
                                                    Layers of the skin:
        Interphase                                     Epidermis
        Prophase                                       Dermis
        Metaphase                                      Hypodermis
        Anaphase
        Telophase                                  Skin structures:

Exercise 8 – Epithelial Tissues                            Hair follicle
Fig. 8.1 p. 64                                             Hair shaft
Lab report # 8 pp. 65-66 parts A & B. * study              Arrector pili muscle
the above sections for the test                            Sebaceous gland
                                                           Eccrine sweat gland
Using photographs and slides be able to                    Apocrine gland
recognize the following tissue types and cell
types in italics. You do not have to identify
where slides are located in the body.

        Stratified squamous - skin
        Simple squamous - lungs
        Simple columnar - stomach
        Simple cuboidal - kidney
        Pseudostratified columnar – trachea –
         goblet cell
        Transitional – bladder

Chapter 9 -Connective Tissue
Fig. 9.1 p. 68
Lab report 9 p. 69. (study for
test)
     Adipose – adipose slide
     Hyaline cartilage – trachea -
         chondrocyte
     Dense regular – tendon
     Loose (areolar) – areolar slide
     Blood – human blood slide –
         erythrocyte and leukocyte
     Bone – bone slide -osteocyte
                                  Biology 112 Lab Objectives

Lab Quiz # 3                                                Ilium
                                                            Ischium
Spelling counts on lab quizzes. You are                     Pubis
responsible for all objectives listed including             (acetabulum)
lab exercises and lab report questions.                     Femur ( head)
                                                           (Medial and lateral condyles)
Exercise 12: Bone structure                                 patella
Fig. 12.1 p.84 (study for test)                             Tibia ( medial malleolus)
                                                            Fibula ( lateral malleolus)
Exercise 13-17 – Skeleton                                   Tarsals - calcaneus
Fig. 13.1 p. 90                                             Metatarsals
Fig. 13.2 p. 91                                             Proximal, Middle and Distal Phalanges

You are not responsible for any other figures in   Exercise 18 Joints
Chapter 13-17 other than those listed above.       Locate the following joints on models.

Identify the following bones and their features.           Coronal suture
Bone features are in parentheses and italics.              Sagittal suture
                                                           Lambdoidal suture
         Frontal                                          Symphysis pubis (Pubis symphysis)
         Parietal                                         Sacroiliac joint
         Temporal ( mastoid process)
         (external auditory meatus)                Exercise 19 - 23 – Skeletal muscle
         Occipital ( foramen magnum)              Fig. 19.2 p. 140
         Ethmoid ( crista galli)                  You are not responsible for any diagrams on
         Sphenoid ( sella turcica)                muscles. Be able to
         Vomer                                    locate the following muscles on models.
         Nasal
         Zygomatic                                        Frontalis
         Maxilla ( palatine process)                      Temporalis
         Palatine                                         Orbicularis oculi
         Mandible ( TMJ)                                  Orbicularis oris
         Sternum( xiphoid process)                        Sternocleidomastoid
         (manubrium)                                       External obliques
         Ribs ( true, false and floating)                 Rectus abdominis
         Cervical vertebrae                               Transverse abdominis
         Atlas                                            Diaphragm
         Axis                                             Trapezius
         Thoracic vertebrae                               Latissimus dorsi
         Lumbar vertebrae -                               Pectoralis major
        (spinous process)                                  Deltoid
        ( transverse process)                              Biceps brachii
        (body of vertebrae)                                Triceps brachii
         Sacrum                                           Palmaris longus
         Coccyx                                           Extensor digitorum
         Scapula                                          Gluteus maximus
         Clavicle                                         Gluteus medius
         Humerus – ( head of humerus)                     Sartorius
          (trochlea)                                       Quadriceps group
         Ulna ( olecranon process)                        Hamstring group
         Radius ( styloid process)                        Tibialis anterior
         Carpals                                          Soleus
         Metacarpals                                      Gastrocnemius
         Proximal, Middle and Distal Phalanges
                                  Biology 112 Lab Objectives

Lab Quiz # 4                                                Parietal lobe
                                                            Temporal lobe
Spelling counts on lab quizzes. You are                     Occipital lobe
responsible for all objectives listed including             Longitudinal fissure
lab exercises and lab report questions.                     Transverse fissure
                                                            Corpus callosum
Exercise #24 – Nervous tissue and nerves                    Thalamus
Fig. 24.1 p. 174                                            Hypothalamus
Fig. 24.2 p. 175                                            Pineal gland
                                                            Midbrain
Locate the following on the neuron model.                   Pons
                                                            Medulla oblongata
        Cell body                                          Cerebellum
        Dendrite
        Nissl body(substance)                      Exercise 29 - The Ear
        Axonal hillock                             Fig. 29.1 p. 206 (know for test)
        Axon                                       Fig. 29.2 p. 207
        Myelin sheath                              Fig. 29.3 p. 208
        Node of Ranvier
                                                    Locate the following on ear models.
Exercise 26 - The meninges and spinal cord
Fig. 26.1 p. 188                                            Pinna(auricle)
Fig. 26.2 p. 188                                            External auditory meatus
Lab report # 26 part A p. 189 (study for test)              Tympanic membrane
                                                            Malleus
Locate the following on the spinal cord model               Incus
and on Fig. 26.2 p. 188.                                    Stapes
                                                            Auditory tube
        Central canal                                      Oval window
        Gray commissure                                    Semicircular canals
        Anterior horn of gray matter                       Vestibule
        Posterior horn of gray matter                      Cochlea
        White matter                                       Vestibulocochlear nerve
        Ventral root
        Dorsal root                                Exercise 30 – The eye
        Dorsal root ganglion
        Spinal nerve                               Follow directions for eye dissection on pp. 217-
                                                    218. Fig. 30.8 p. 217 is helpful for learning the
Exercise 27 and Exercise 28– Brain and              structures of dissected eye.
Cranial Nerves
Fig. 27.1 p. 192                                    Locate the following on eye models, dissected
Fig. 27.2 p. 193                                    eye and from Fig. 30.3 p. 215

Follow directions for dissection on p. 197-201.             Extrinsic eye muscles
Fig. 28.6 p. 199 is helpful for locating parts of           Cornea
the sheep brain.                                            Sclera
                                                            Optic nerve
Locate the following on brain models, dissected
                                                            Iris
sheep brain and on Fig. 27.1.
                                                            Pupil
                                                            Lens
        Dura mater
                                                            Ciliary body
        Pituitary gland
                                                            Vitreous humor
        Olfactory bulbs
                                                            Choroid coat
        Optic chiasma
                                                            Retina
        Cerebrum
        Gyrus
        Sulcus
        Frontal lobe
                                     Biology 112 Lab Objectives

Lab Quiz #5                                         Diagrams above are helpful for learning the
                                                    heart structures. Test questions on the heart
Spelling counts on lab quizzes. You are             will be on models and dissected sheep hearts.
responsible for all objectives listed including
lab exercises and lab report questions.             Follow directions for heart dissection,
                                                    procedure B pp. 265-267.
Exercise 32- Endocrine System
Fig. 32.1 p. 230                                    Locate the following on heart models and a
Fig. 32.8 p. 235 ( study for test)                  dissected heart.
Fig. 32.9 p. 235 (study for test)
Fig. 32.10 p. 236 (study for test)                         Right atrium
                                                           Left atrium
Be able to recognize the following endocrine               Right ventricle
glands using photographs and slides.                       Left ventricle
                                                           Superior vena cava
        Thyroid gland                                     Inferior vena cava
        Adrenal gland                                     Pulmonary trunk
        Pancreas                                          Aorta
                                                           Pulmonary veins
Recognize the following endocrine organs on                Tricuspid valve
models and be able to give the hormones each               Bicuspid valve
secretes.                                                  Papillary muscle
                                                           Chordae tendineae
        Pituitary gland                                   Aortic valve (model only)
        Pineal gland                                      Pulmonary valve (model only)
        Thyroid gland
        Parathyroid gland                          Exercise 38 – Blood vessels
        Thymus gland                               Fig. 38.1 p. 282
        Pancreas                                   Fig. 38.3 p. 283 ( study for test)
        Adrenal gland                               Be able to recognize an artery and a vein under
        Testes                                     the microscope.
        Ovaries
                                                    Locate the following vessels on models. You are
Exercise 33 – Blood cells                           not responsible for any diagrams in exercise 40,
                                                    but they are helpful for learning the vessels of
Using photographs and slides recognize the          the body .
following blood elements. Pictures on p. 242
are helpful.                                        Arteries:
                                                         Coronary artery
        Erythrocytes                                    Brachiocephalic
        Platelets                                       Common carotid
        Neutrophils                                     Left subclavian
        Eosinophils                                     Axillary
        Basophils                                       Brachial
        Monocytes                                       Radial
        Lymphocytes                                     Ulnar
                                                         Abdominal
Exercise 36 – The heart                                  Common iliac
Fig. 36.1 p. 264                                         Renal artery
Fig. 36.2 p. 264                                         Femoral
Fig. 36.3 p. 265                                         Anterior tibial
Fig. 36.6 p. 270
                                Biology 112 Lab Objectives

Veins:

        Cardiac veins
        Superior vena cava
        Inferior vena cava
        Brachiocephalic
        Jugular
        Subclavian
        Median cubital
        Renal
        Femoral
        Great saphenous

Exercise 39 –Blood pressure

If time permits this may be done as a
demonstration.

Perform procedure B p.288

Observe what happens to BP when sitting,
standing up and after exercising. Blood
pressure can be done as a demo if time is
limited.
                                     Biology 112 Lab Objectives

Lab Quiz # 6                                        Fig. 42.10 p. 317
                                                          Pancreas
Spelling counts on lab quizzes. You are                   Pancreatic duct
responsible for all objectives listed including           Gallbladder
lab exercises and lab report questions.                   Cystic duct
                                                          Liver
Exercise 42 – Digestive system                            Hepatic duct
Fig. 42.2 p. 312
Fig. 42.5 p. 314                                    Exercise 44- Respiratory system
Fig. 42.7 p. 315                                    Fig. 44.1 p. 328
Fig. 42.10 p. 317 (study for test)                  Fig. 44.2 p. 329
Fig. 42.11 p. 318                                   Fig. 44.6 p. 330 ( study for test)
Fig. 42.12 p. 319 (study for test)
                                                    Be able to recognize alveoli from a photograph
Be able to recognize intestinal villi on a          or slide. See Fig. 44.6 p. 331
photograph or slide.
                                                    Locate the following respiratory structures on
Identify the following digestive system             models.
structures on models.
                                                           Conchae ( nasal cavity)
Fig. 42.2 p. 312                                           Hard palate
      Tongue                                              Soft palate
      Parotid gland                                       Uvula
      Submandibular gland                                 Pharynx ( 3 divisions)
      Sublingual gland                                    Epiglottis
                                                           Larynx
Fig. 42.5 p.314                                            Trachea
      Nasopharynx                                         Bronchi ( primary and secondary)
      Oropharynx                                          Bronchioles
      Laryngopharynx                                      Alveoli
      Esophagus                                           Diaphragm

Fig. 42. 7 p. 315                                   The following exercise is optional. Instructors
      Lower esophageal sphincter                   may include this exercise is time permits.
      Cardiac region of stomach
      Fundus of stomach
      Body of stomach                              Exercise 45 – respiratory volumes
      Pyloric region of stomach                    Fig. 45.4 (Spirogram)
      Pyloric sphincter
                                                    Perform procedure B p. 334
Fig. 42.11 p. 318                                   Handout can also be used for experiment. Turn
      Duodenum                                     in results to your instructor when finished.
      Jejunum
      Ileum                                        Exercise 46 – Kidney
      Appendix                                     Fig. 46.1 p. 342
                                                    Fig. 46.2 p. 343
      Ileocecal sphincter
                                                    Fig. 46.4 p. 344
      Cecum
      Ascending colon                              Procedure A pp. 341-343 (kidney dissection).
      Transverse colon                             Fig. 46.3 p. 343 is helpful
      Descending colon                             learning the structures of a sheep kidney.
      Sigmoid colon
      Rectum                                       Locate the following kidney structures on
                                                    models and a dissected kidney.
                                 Biology 112 Lab Objectives

        Renal pelvis(region)                     Locate the following female reproductive organ
        Renal medulla(region                     on models.
        Renal cortex(region)
        Renal pyramid                                       Ovary
        Major calyx                                         Fimbriae
        Minor calyx                                         Uterine tube
        Ureter                                              Uterus
                                                             Cervix
Locate the following structures on models only.              Vagina
                                                             Labia minorum
        Glomerulus                                          Labia majorum
        Afferent arterioles                                 Clitoris
        Efferent arterioles                                 Bladder
        Proximal convoluted tubules                         Urethra
        Nephron loop
        Distal convoluted tubule                 Genetics Oral Report:
        Collecting duct
        Renal artery                             This oral report is to be presented after Lab Test
        Renal vein                               Six. Report should last from 3- 5 minutes,
        Bladder
                                                  Criteria:
        Urethra
        Interlobar artery/vein
                                                  1. Name of genetic disorder.
        Interlobular artery/vein
        Arcuate artery/vein                      2. What is the pattern of inheritance?
Exercise 48 – Male reproductive system            3. Is it a dominant or a recessive trait?
Fig. 48.1 p. 356
Fig. 48.4 p. 357 (study for test)                 4. What are symptoms of disorder?
Be able to recognize seminiferous tubules from
a photograph or slide. See Fig. 48.4 p. 357

Locate the following male reproductive organs
on models.                                                                OR
        Testes                                   Choose a disease or disorder named in the
        Scrotum                                  textbook. Check with me if you are unsure.
        Epididymis                               Present a brief oral report on the disorder/disease
        Ductus deferens ( vas deferens)          on the night of the last lab quiz.
        Seminal vesicle
        Prostate gland                           The report needs to include the following:
        Bulbourethral gland                           Name of disease/disorder
        Bladder                                       System(s) and organ(s) involved
        Urethra                                       How do individuals get it? (i.e.:
        Penis                                            parasite, genetic, bacterial, etc.)
        Glans penis                                   Symptoms
                                                       Treatment or cure
Exercise 49 – Female Reproductive System
Fig. 49.1 p. 362                                  You also need to include a visual (picture, etc.)
Fig. 49.4 p. 364 ( study for test)
                                                  You will need to turn in some type of written
Be able to recognize an ovary from a              documentation used for the report (notecards,
photograph or slide. See fig. 49.4 p. 364         informal paper, etc)
                                 Biology 112 Lab Objectives

You may do a powerpoint presentation. In that
case, no other written documentation is needed.

Upon successful completion of the oral report, 7
points will be added to the last lab quiz.

				
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