Johan doc

Document Sample
Johan doc Powered By Docstoc
					(Johan) August Strindberg (1849-1912)

Swedish playwright, novelist, and short-story writer, who combined in his
works psychology, naturalism, and later elements of new literary forms.
Strindberg was married three times – several of his plays drew on the
problems of his marriages and reflected his constant interest in self-
analysis. A sensitive and controversial writer, who suffered from hostile
reviews, Strindberg represented the 19th-century ideal of artist as a free
personality, unrestrained by convention.

"My souls (characters) are conglomerations of past and present stages of
civilization, bits from books and newspapers, scraps of humanity, rags and tatters of
fine clothing, patched together as is the human soul. And I have added a little
evolutionary history by making the weaker steal and repeat the words of the
stronger, and by making the characters borrow ideas or "suggestions" from one
another." (author's foreword to Miss Julie, in Six Plays of Strindberg, 1955)

August Strindberg was born in Stockholm. His father, Carl Oscar
Strindberg, proud of a trace of aristocratic blood, was a shipping agent,
but his business success was relatively modest. Strindberg's mother,
Ulrika Eleanora Norling, had a proletarian background. She was a tailor's
daughter, who had been a domestic servant and become Carl Oscar's
mistress. August was their third son; the couple had nine more children.
Strindberg's childhood was poor and miserable – he was shy and family
tensions depressed him. Ulrika Eleanora died when he was 13 years old.
After his father remarried, Strindberg came to hate his stepmother. To
underline his sympathies with the lower-classes, Strindberg entitled his
autobiography The Son of a Servant (1886).

In 1867 Strindberg entered the University of Uppsala, where he failed to
pass the preliminary examination in chemistry. He worked for a short time
at the Royal Dramatic Theatre, and wrote for the stage three plays that
were rejected. Strindberg returned to his studies in Uppsala and completed
in 1872 a senior candidacy. Back in Stockholm, Strindberg worked as a
journalist and wrote the historical drama MÄSTER OLOF, about the
introspective Swedish Protestant reformer Olaus Petri. It was written in
the spirit of Shakespeare but Strindberg also adopted influences from

Strindberg became in 1874 an assistant librarian at the Royal Library,
serving until his resignation in 1882. He married in 1877 Baroness Siri
von Essen, who had been wife of Baron Carl Gustaf Wrangel, and was a
member of the Swedish aristocracy in Finland. By the time of the
marriage Siri was seven months pregnant; the child died and they had later
three more children, one of whom, Kristin, wrote an account of her
parents' stormy life together. In EN DÅRES FÖRSVALTAL (1887, A
Madman's Defense) Strindberg returned to his first marriage in a story in
which the narrator is torn between adoration and revulsion. However, first
the marriage brought some balance into Strindberg's life.

Strinberg´s first published novel, RÖDA RUMMET (1879, The Red
Room), a satirical story about early capitalism and corruption in
Stockholm, made him nationally famous. Arvid Falk, the central
character, is an aspiring writer who loses all his illusions, and finally
accepts bourgeois family life. With this book Strindberg started his career
as one of the most prominent figures in Nordic literature and
culture. Master Olof, which first had been rejected, was produced in 1881
and received with enthusiasm.

SVENSKA FOLKET (1880-82) was an excursion into the history of
Sweden. Far from trying to establish himself as Sweden's national writer,
Strindberg attacked the nation's central values, official history writing, and
made himself unpopular among academic historians. Strindberg's revenge
on his critics was DET NYA RIKET (1882), a dissection of Oscarian
Sweden. In Denmark he was accused of antisemitism.

To escape the uproar which he had stirred up, and partly to follow the
example of many other Scandinavian writers, Strinberg decided to travel
abroad. He first moved in 1883 to France with his family and between the
years 1884 and 1887 he lived with short interruptions in Switzerland.
During this time he corresponded with Friedrich Nietzsche, and became
interested of the works of Edgar Allan Poe. Under financial and marital
difficulties, Strindberg started to show symptoms of emotional crisis.
Feelings of persecution were suppressed by heavy drinking of absinthe.
Eventually he started to believe his wife wanted to have him locked away
in a mental institution.

The publication of the first part of his scenes of marital life GIFTAS
(1884, Getting Married), outraged the Swedish establishment, especially
the short story 'Reward of virtue', in which Strindberg mocked the Holy
Communion. The book was confiscated, Strindberg was prosecuted for
blasphemy but acquitted. In Sweden the younger generation hailed him as
a hero. Getting Married was inspired by Ibsen's playA Doll's
House (1883), but Strindberg was more on the side of Nora's husband.
However, Strindberg's egalitarian vision of gender roles was radical for its
day and age, although at the same time he accepted the idea that celibacy
could lead to physical debility.

FRÖKEN JULIE (1888, Miss Julie), Stridberg's next major drama after
FADREN (1887, The Father), coupled one of his favorite themes, the
Darwinian battle between the sexes, with a social struggle and love-hate
bond. Strindberg wrote it durring his stay in Denmark. The protagonist,
Julie, a daughter of a count, allows herself to be seduced by her father's
servant Jean. She must then confront the situation, in which Jean, a man
on the rise, turns out to be the stronger person. Julie causes her own tragic
fate. Unable to arrive at any reasonable plan, she orders Jean to hypnotize
her into committing suicide. Miss Julie had its premiere at Strindberg's
Experimental Theater in Copenhagen in 1889.

"The Thèâtre Libre did not start its activity by proclaiming any program; it has
never developed an aesthetic, never wanted to for a school... All prohibitive laws
have been canceled, and only the demands of taste and of the modern spirit are
allowed to determine the artistic form." (from 'On Modern Drama and Modern
Theatre', 1889, in Samlade Skrifter, XVII, 1913)

After completing Miss Julie, Strindberg wrote in 1889 with Antoine's
Théâtre Libre a group of one act plays, PARIA, DEN STARKARE, and
SAMUM, and returned to Sweden. He divorced from Siri von Essen and
moved to Berlin, where he met an Austrian journalist Maria Uhl, known
as Frida Uhl, his second wife, whom he married in 1893. Their
honeymoon the couple spent in London, but after disagreements
Strindberg escaped to the island of Rügen. The marriage became the
subject of his autobiographical sketch, KLOSTRET (1966, The Cloister),
but he also dealt with marital problems in some minor works, as in the
short story 'An Attenmpt at Reform'. In the ironic picture of "a model
marriage" a young couple try to live together but maintain at the same
their independence. They have separate rooms, share expenses and
household work equally, and throw away the double bed, "that
abomination which has no counterpart in nature and is responsible for a
great deal of dissipation and immorality." After the birth of their baby, the
husband asks himself: "Didn't she do her full share of of the work by
mothering the baby? Wasn't that as good as money?" And the wife soon
gets over the fact that he had to keep her.

Haunted by guilt about deserting his children and attacked by his critics,
Strindberg became possessed of a persecution mania. He also suffered
from insomnia and psoriasis, and spent some weeks in the St. Louis
Hospital in Paris. Between the years 1892 and 1897 Strindberg
experienced several psychotic episodes, and recorded his tormented
thoughts later in Inferno. Turning to painting, Strindberg created in the
1890s seascapes, which have been compared to the works of Turner. His
favorite motifs included a vision from a cave toward the outside world and
a wave breaking in open sea. With the help of Swedenborgian studies, and
adopting the idea that certain people are destined to suffer, he emerged
from the crisis.

While spending the summer of 1892 on Dalarö, he produced about thirty
paintings. His first exhibition Strindberg held in the same year. It was not
a success; only two canvases were bought. Alone in Paris in the mid-
1890s, Strindberg becomes interested in alchemy and tries to prove that it
is possible to make gold. For his neighbor, Paul Gauguin he writes a an
insightful letter which the artist uses as a preface to his catalogue. "I
cannot grasp your art and I cannot like it," Strindberg said. "But I know
that this confession will neither surprise nor injure you, for you seem to
me to be thoroughly fortified by the hatred of others; in its desire to be left
alone, your character takes pleasure in the antipathy that it provokes."
After stopping painting in 1905, Strindberg built with the photographer
Herman Andersson the "Wunderkamera", with which he made
photographic portraits.

In the novel I HAVSBANDET (1890, By the Open Sea) Strindberg
expressed his fascination with the sea and Swedish archipelago, which he
had depicted in HEMSÖBORNA (1887, The Natives of Hemsö), a return
to his favorite place of his youth, the island of Kymmendö, where he had
began to write Mäster Olaf. "A dark cliff came into view on the headland
of the last island. It was coal-black, made of the volcanic rock diorite, and
as he drew near it he became depressed. The black chrystallised mass
seemed to have been spewed up from the bottom of the sea and then, as it
had begun to petrify, had been involved in a fearful struggle with the
water or some thunder-cloud." (from By the Open Sea)

Strindberg moved to Stockholm and wrote during the following
productive years from 1898 to 1909 thirty-six plays. In the Damascus
trilogy 1898-1901, PÅSK (1901, Easter), and ETT DRÖMSPEL (1901, A
Dream Play) Strindberg made use of details of his second marriage. The
protagonist of the trilogy is called the 'Stranger' or 'The Unknown One', a
man on a journey to discover his fate. He has left his wife and children
and goes through a series of trials. In PÅSK (Easter) Strindberg deals with
the theme of death and resurrection. The play tells a story of a woman,
who lives with her children in fear of the coming of the creditor, who, in
fact, brings reconciliation and the remission of debt.

"In old Greek the word drama seems to have meant event, not action or what we
call conscious intrigue. For life does not move as regularly as a constructed drama,
and conscious spinners of intrigue very seldom get a chance to carry out their plans
in detail. Thus we no longer believe in these cunning plotters who, unhindered, are
permitted to control people's destinies, so that the villain in his conscious falseness
merely arouses our ridicule as not being true to life." (from 'On Modern Drama and
Modern Theatre', 1889, in Samlade Skrifter, XVII, 1913)

In A Dream Play Strindberg attempted to imitate the logical form of a
dream. Time and space are not important in the dramaturgy, the characters
split, all thoughts and perceptions emanate from a single individual's
unconscious, the dreamer's. Behind the character of the luminous
protagonist, Daughter of Indra, who descends to earth, was the young
actress Harriet Bosse, who became the author's third wife. The emphasis
on subjectivity in the play foreshadowed Freud's theories about the gap
between the conscious and unconscious.

Strindberg's series of historical plays from this period included GUSTAV
VASA, (1899), ERIK XIV (1899), a portrait of a man who was half-
genius, half-psychopath, and GUSTAF ADOLF (1900), said to be
unplayable, in which the king is an instument of the ideal of religious
freedom. In the novel SVARTA FANOR (1904, Black Banners)
Strindberg took his revenge after decades of negative critic and
condemned with a Biblical fury his colleagues, wrong prophets, and
parasites of culture. Strindberg continied his religious and natural
philosophical speculations in Zones of the Spirit (1907-1912) and its
sequels. GÖTISKA RUMMEN (1904) was written as a companion piece
to Röda rummet from 1879, but Strindberg's youthful vigour had gone,
and had been replaced by bitterness and misantrophy.

During 1907-08 Strindberg undertook a series of experiments in order to
establish an intimate theater, based on his innovations on the form of
chamber music. He discharged the single protagonist in favor of a small
group of equally important characters, creating a drama that would
impress by its mood and atmosphere. In contrast to the ill and corrupt
characters who people the dramas, Strindberg created an individual, who
is capable of perceiving supernatural phenomena, and of stripping away
the facades of lies and deceits. Among Strindberg's works from 1907 were
such chamber plays as OVÄDER (1906, The Thunderstorm), BRÄNDA
TOMTEN (1907, After the Fire), in which everything is worse that the
protagonist expects, SPÖKSONATEN (1907, The Ghost Sonata), an
unmasking of a middle-class pretensions, and PELIKANEN (1908, The
Pelican), in which the final purgation happens through fire. Strindberg
called his plays "kammerspiel" after Max Reinhardt's "Kammerspiel-
Haus" in Berlin. STORA LANDSVÄGEN (1909, The Great Highway)
was Strindberg's final allegorical self-portrayal. Ofter characterized as the
author's literary testament, Strindberg himself appeared in the figure of the
hunter who climbs down from the mountain – like Zarathustra.

In 1908 Strindberg settled into a house he called "the Blue Tower" and
lived there until his death from stomach cancer on May 14, 1912.
According to his wish, Strindberg was buried beneath wooden crucifixes
with the inscription O Crux Ave Spes Unica. Faithful to his role as an
iconoclast and a disturber, Strindberg fuelled the so-called Strindberg
Feud from 1910 to his death with a series of newspaper articles on social,
literary, and political issues. Like Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910), Strindberg
never received the Nobel Prize for literature. However, he had actively
supported the Trades Union movement and was awarded its alternative
Nobel Prize.

Strindberg wrote more than 70 plays as well as novels, short-stories and
studies of Swedish history. His influnce has been wide. As a dramatist he
was a source of inspiration to the German expressionists, and to Eugene
O'Neill, Eugène Ionesco, and Tennessee Williams, and his impact is seen
among others in the works of such playwrights as Harold Pinter, Samuel
Beckett, John Osborne, and John Arden. Pär Lagerkvist wrote about
Strindberg in Modern Theatre (1966): "And it is a fact that he has meant
the renewal of the modern drama, and thereby also the gradual renewal of
the theatre. It is from him and through him that naturalism received the
critical blow, even though it is also Strindberg who gave naturalism its
most intense dramatic works."

For further reading: August Strindberg: Painter, photographer, writer by Olle Granath
(2005); The Psychology and the Grotesque in August Strindberg's The Ghost Sonata by
Terry John Converse (1999); August Strindberg by Björn Meidal (1995); Harriet Bosse:
Strindberg's Muse and Interpreterby C. Waal (1990); Strindberg as a Modern Poet by
J.E. Bellquist (1986); Strindberg and Autobiography by M. Robinson (1986); The Novels
of August Strindberg by E. Johanneson (1986); Strindberg by M. Meyer (1985); August
Strindberg by M M.Morgan (1985); August Strindberg by O.G.H. Lagerkrantz
(1984); The Greatest Fire: A Study of August Strindberg by B. Steene
(1982);Strindbergian Drama: Themes and Structures by E. Tornqvist (1982); Strindberg
and the Poetry of Myth by H. Carlson (1982); Strindberg as Dramatist by E. Sprinchorn
(1982); August Strindberg by W. Johnson (1978); Strindberg's Inferno by G. Brandell
(1974); August Strindberg by M. Lamm (1971);The Novels of August Strindberg by E.
Johasseson (1968); Strindberg: An Introduction to His Life and Work by B.W. Mortenson
and B.W. Downs (1949); The Strange Life of August Strindberg by E. Sprigg
(1949); Strindberg by G.A. Campbell (1933); Strindberg's Dramatic Expressionism by
C.E.W. Dahlstram (1930) - See: Zachris Topelius - See also: Little Blue Light -
 Suom.: Teoksen Toteutuneista unelmia suomensi Yrjö Sirola, Neuvosto-Karjalaan
vuonna 1918 paennut entinen kansanedustaja, jonka mukaan nimettiin Sirola-
opisto. Avioelämää ilmestyi kirjailija Joel Lehtosen suomentamana vuonna
1907. Vieroksuttu, 1906; Vaiheita, 1907; Keikari sekä muita kertomuksia, 1911; Satuja,
1912; suom. Larin-Kyösti. Eri asein, 1914, suom. Aarni Kouta. Yleisestä
tyytymättömyydestä, ilm. alunperin 1884, "Om det allmänna missnöjet, dess orsaker och
botemedel", julkaistiin suomeksi 1997. -

Selected works:

       FRITÄNKAREN, 1869 - The Freethinker
       EN NAMSAGSGÅVA, 1869
       I ROM, 1870
       HERMIONE, 1870
       DEN FREDSLÖSE, 1871 - The Outlaw (tr. by Edith and Wärner
       MÄSTER OLOF, 1872 - Master Olof (tr. by Edwin Björkman;
        Walter Johnson) - Mestari Olavi (suom. Yrjö Koskelainen)
       ANNO FYRTIOÅTTA, 1876
       RÖDA RUMMET, 1879 - The Red Room (tr. by Ellie
        Schleussner; Elizabeth Sprigge) - Punainen huone (suom.Viljo
       GILLETS HMLIGHET, 1880
       GAMLA STOCKHOLM, 1880
       LYCKO-PERS RESA, 1882 - Lucky Pehr / Lucky Per's Journey -
        Pietari Onnekas (suom. Tove Idström)
       NYA RIKET, 1882
       SVENSKA ÖDEN OCH ÄVENTYR, 1882-94 - Onnellisten saari
        ja muita kertomuksia (suom. Antero Tiusanen) & Menneiden
        vuosisatain vaiheita (suom. Santeri Ivalo)
       GIFTAS, 1884-85 - Getting Married (ed. and tr. by Mary
        Sandbach) - Naimakauppoja (trans. by V.V. Vankkoja) /
        Avioelämää (suom. Siimes Kanervio & Joel Lehtonen) - film 1955,
        based on the short story 'Mot betalning', dir. by Anders Henrikson, starring
        Anita Björk, Anders Henrikson, Edvin Adolphson, Elsa Carlsson; film 1956,
        based on the short story 'Ett Dockhem, dir. by Anders Henrikson, starring Mai
        Zetterling, Gunnel Broström, George Fant
   UTOPIER I VERKLIGHETEN, 1885 - Toteutuneita unelmia
    (suom. Yrjö Sirola)
   JÄSNINGS TIDE, 1886 - The Growth of a Soul
   I RÖDA RUMMET, 1886
   TJÄNSTEKVINNANS SON, 1886 - The Son of a Servant (tr. by
    Claud Field) - Palkkapiian poika 1-2 (suom. Kristiina Kivivuori)
   MARODÖER, 1887
   KAMRATERNA, 1887 - Comrades (tr. by Edith and Wärner
   FADREN, 1887 - The Father (tr. by N. Erichsen; Valborg
    Anderson; Edith and Warner Oland; Michael Robinson) - Isä
    (suom. Yrjö Koskelainen) - film 1969, dir. by Alf Sjöberg, Georg
    Rydeberg,Gunnel Lindblom, Lena Nyman, Jan-Olof Strandberg
   HEMSÖBORNA, 1887 - The People of Hemsö (tr. by Elspeth
    Harley Schubert) / The Natives of Hemsö (tr. by Arvid Paulson,
    1967) - Hemsöläiset (suom. Tauno Tainio) - films: 1944, dir. by Sigurd
    Wallén, starring Adolf Jahr, Dagmar Ebbesen, Peter Höglund, Sigurd Wallén;
    1955 dir. by Arne Mattsson, starring, Erik Strandmark, Hjördis Petterson, Nils
    Hallberg, John Norrman, Ulla Sjöblom, Birgitta Pettersson
    - A Madman’s Defence (tr. Ellie Echleussner) / A Madman’s
    Manifesto (tr. by Anthony Swerling) / The Confession of a Fool
    (tr. by Ellie Schleussner) - Hullun puolustuspuhe (suom. Kyllikki
   VIVISEKTIONER, 1887-1890
   FRÖKEN JULIE 1888 - Countess Julie (tr. by Charles Recht; (tr.
    by Edith and Wärner Oland) / Miss Julie (tr. by Edwin Björkman;
    Max Faber; Michael Robinson; E. M. Sprinchorn; Truda
    Stockenstrom; Frank McGuinness) - Neiti Julie (suom. Helena
    Anhava) - films: Fräulein Julie, 1922, dir. by Felix Basch, starring Asta
    Nielsen, William Dieterle, Lina Lossen; 1951, dir. by Alf Sjöberg, starring Anita
    Björk, Ulf Palme, Märta Dorff, Lissi Alandh; 2000, dir. by Mike Figgs, staring
    Saffron Burrows, Peter Mullan, Marie Doyle Kennedy, Tam Dean Burn; 2009,
    dir. by Michael Margotta
   SKÄRKARLSLIV, 1888 - Saaristolaiselämää (suom. Larin-
   TSCHANDALA, 1888 - Tscahndala (suom. Aarni Kouta)
   PARIA, 1889 - Pariah (tr. by Edwin Björkman; Edith and Wärner
    Oland) / Paria (tr. by Horace B. Samuel)
   SAMUM, 1889 - Simoom (tr. by Edwin Björkman) / Simoon (tr.
    by Horace B. Samuel)
   DEN STAKARE, 1889 - The Stronger (tr. by Edwin Björkman;
    Edith and Wärner Oland; Frank McGuinness) - Voimakkaampi
    (suom. Tuija Rovamo) - film 1999, dir. by Minna Göransdotter, starring
    Barbora Kodetová, Petra Lustigova, Liliya Malkina , Jan Unger
   FORDRINGSÄGARE, 1890 - The Creditors (tr. by Edwin
    Björkman; William-Alan Landes) / The Creditor (tr. by Francis J.
    Ziegler) - Velkojat (suom. Marja Rankkala) - film 1988, dir. by Stefan
    Böhm, Keve Hjelm, staring Bibi Andersson, Thomas Bolme, Keve Hjelm
   I HAVSBANDET, 1890 - On the Seaboard (tr. by Elizabeth
    Clarke Westergren) / By the Open Sea (tr. by Ellie Schleussner;
    Mary Sandbach) - Ulkosaaristossa (suom. Antero Tiusanen)
   DEBET OCH KREDIT, 1892 - Debit and Credit (tr. by Edwin
   INFÖR DÖDEN, 1892 - In the Face of Death / Facing Death (tr.
    by Edith and Wärner Oland)
   HIMMELRIKETS NYCKLAR, 1892 - The Keys of Heaven
   BANDET, 1892 - The Bond (tr. by Walter Johnson)
   FÖRSTA VARNINGEN, 1893 - The First Warning
   LEKA MED ELDEN, 1893 - Playing with Fire (tr. by Michael
   MODERSKÄRLEK, 1894 - Mother Love (tr. by Francis J.
    Ziegler) - Äidinrakkaus (suom. Taisto-Bertil Orsmaa)
   OCKULTA DAGBOKEN, 1896-1908 - From an Occult Diary (tr.
    by Mary Sandbach)
   INFERNO, 1898 - Inferno, Alone, and Other Writings (ed. by
    Evert Sprinchorn) / Inferno and From an Occult Diary (tr. by Mary
   TILL DAMASKUS 1-3, 1898-1901 - To Damascus / The Road to
    Damascus (tr. by Graham Rawson)
   LEGENDER, 1898 - Legends - Legendoja (suom. Kauko Kare;
    Irmeli Niemi)
   ADVENT, ETT MYSTERIUM, 1898 - Advent (translated by
    Claud Field)
   GUSTAV VASA, 1899 - Vasa (tr. by Walter Johnson) - Kustaa
    Vaasa (suom. J.R. Pihlaja) -TV drama 1969, prod. Yleisradio (YLE), dir.
    by Mirjam Himberg, featuring Tauno Palo, Anja Pohjola, Arto Tuominen, Vesa
   ERIK XIV, 1899 - Erik XIV (tr. by Walter Johnson) - Erik XIV
    (suom. Wilho Ilmari) - films: Karin Månsdotter, 1954, dir. by Alf Sjöberg,
    starring Ulla Jacobsson, Jarl Kulle, Ulf Palme, Olof Widgren; TV drama 1965,
    prod. Yleisradion (YLE), dir. by Mirjam Himberg, featuring Lasse Pöysti,
    Liisamaija Laaksonen, Matti Oravisto
   GUSTAF ADOLF, 1900 - Gustav Adolf (tr. by Walter Johnson) -
    Kustaa Adolf
   BROTT OCH BROTT, 1900 - There Are Crimes and Crimes (tr.
    by Edwin Björkman) - film 1928, dir. by Gustaf Molander, starring Lars
    Hanson, Elissa Landi, Ivan Hedqvist, Gina Manès
   DÖDSDANSEN 1-2, 1900 - The Dance of Death (tr. by Arvid
    Paulson; Norman Ginsbury; Michael Robinson) - Kuolemantanssi
    (suom. Lauri Sipari) - films: Danse de mort, 1948, dir. by Marcel Cravenne,
    starring Erich von Stroheim, María Denis, Jean Servais, Denise Vernac; 1969,
    dir. by David Giles, starring Laurence Olivier, Geraldine McEwan, Robert
    Lang, Janina Faye
   MIDSOMAR, 1900 - Midsummertide / In Midsummer Days, and
    Other Tales (tr. by Ellie Schleussner) - Juhannuksen aikaan (suom.
    Tove Idström)
   PÅSK, 1901 - Easter (tr. by Edith and Wärner Oland; Elizabeth
   FOLKUNGASAGAN, 1901 - The Saga of the Folkungs (tr. by
    Walter Johnson)
   KRISTINA, 1901 - Queen Christina (translated by Walter
   ENGELBREKT, 1901 - Engelbrekt (translated by Walter Johnson)
   KARL XII, 1902 - Charles XII (translated by Walter Johnson) -
    Kaarle XII (suom. Kaarle Halme)
   KRONBRUDEN, 1902 - The Bridal Crown / The Crownbride (tr.
    1981) - Kruununmorsian
   SVANEVIT, 1901 - Swanwhite (tr. by Edwin Björkman)
   GUSTAV III, 1902 - Gustav III (translated by Walter Johnson) -
    Kustaa III (suom. Tyyni Tuulio) - TV drama, prod. Yleisradio (YLE), dir.
    by Mirjam Himberg, featuring Lasse Pöysti, Asta Backman, Joel Rinne, Matti
    Oravisto, Pehr-Olof Sirén
   ETT DRÖMSPEL, 1902 - A Dream Play (tr. by Walter Johnson;
    Carl Richard Mueller; Michael Meyer, Michael Robinson) -
    Uninäytelmä (suom.Viljo Kajava; Lauri Sipari) - film 1994, dir.
    by Unni Straume, starring Ingvild Holm, Bjørn Willberg Andersen, Bjørn
    Sundquist, Liv Ullmann, Bibi Andersson,Erland Josephson
   ENSAM, 1903 - Alone / Days of Loneliness (tr. by Arvid Paulson)
    - Yksin (suom. Laura Sorma) / Kaksi miesmonologia (suom.
    suomentanut Antero Tiusanen)
   NÄKTERGALEN I WITTENBERG, 1903 - The Nightingale of
    Wittenberg (tr. by Arvid Paulson)
   VÄRLDSHISTORIENS MYSTIK, 1903 - World Historical Plays
    (tr. by Arvid Paulson)
   GÖTISKA RUMMEN, 1904 - Götalaiset huoneet (suom. Aarni
   HISTORISKA MINIATYRER, 1905 - Historical Miniatures (tr.
    by Claud Field) - Historiallisia pienoiskuvia (suom. Kauko Kare)
   TAKLAGSÖL, 1905 - The Roofing Ceremony & The Silver Lake
    (tr. by David Mel Paul and Margareta Paul) - Kaksi
    miesmonologia (suom. suomentanut Antero Tiusanen)
   OVÄDER, 1906 - The Thunderstorm (tr. by Edwin Björkman) /
    Thunder in the Air (tr. by Eivor Martinus)
   SYNDABOCKEN, 1907 - The Scapegoat (tr. by Arvid Paulson) -
    Hyvien ihmisten kaupunki (suom. Kyllikki Villa)
   SVARTA FANOR, 1907 - Black Banners - Mustat liput (suom.
    Kyllikki Villa)
   BRÄNDA TOMTEN, 1907 - The Burned House / After the Fire
    (tr. by Edwin Björkman) - Talo on palanut (suom. Tove Idström)
   SPÖKSONATEN, 1907 - The Ghost Sonata (tr. by Carl Richard
    Mueller; Michael Robinson) / The Spook Sonata - Aavesonaatti
    (suom. Jouko ja Maija-Liisa Turkka)
   TOTEN-INSEL, 1907
   BLÅ BOKEN, 1907-1912 (4 vols.) - Zones of the Spirit: A Book
    of Thoughts (tr. by Claud Field)
   SISTE RIDDAREN, 1908 - The Last of the Knights (tr. by Walter
   RIKSFÖRESTÅNDAREN, 1908 - The Regent (tr. by Walter
   ÖPPNA BREV TILL INTIMA TATERN, 1908 - Open Letters to
    the Intimate Theater (tr. by Walter Johnson) / Letters to the
    Intimate Theatre (tr. by Walter Johnson)
   BJÄLBO-JARLEN, 1908 - Earl Birger of Bjälbo (tr. by Walter
   PELIKANEN, 1908 - The Pelican - Pelikaani (suom. Tove
   STORA LANDSVÄGEN, 1909 - The Great Highway (tr. by Eivor
    Martinus) - Suuri maantie (suom. Toini Havu)
   FABLER, 1909
   SAMLADE SKRIFTER, 1912-20 (55 vols.)
   SAMLADE OTRYCKTA SKRIFTER, 1918-1 (5 vols.)
   SKRIFTER, 1946 (14 vols.)
   BREV, 1948 (15 vols.)
   The University of Washington Press Strindberg, 1955
   Six Plays of Strindberg, 1955 (translated by Elizabet Sprigge)
   Letters of Strindberg to Harriet Bosse, 1959 (edited and translated
    by Arvid Paulson)
   Seven Plays, 1960 (tr. by Arvid Paulson, introd. and prefaces by
    John Gassner)
   Twelve Plays, 1962 (tr. by Elizabeth Sprigge)
   Eight Expressionistic Plays, 1965 (tr. by Arvid Paulson)
   The Strindberg Reader, 1968 (tr. and ed. by Arvid Paulson)
   KLOSTRET, 1966 - The Cloister (tr. by Mary Sandbach) -
    Luostari (suom. Kyllikki Villa)
   Strindberg's One-Act Plays, 1969 (tr. by Arvid Paulson, introd. by
    Barry Jacobs)
   Three Experimental Plays, 1975 (tr. with an introd. by F. R.
   The Plays of Strindberg, 1976 (2 vols.)
   Plays from the Cynical Life, 1983 (translations and introduction by
    Walter Johnson)
   Strindberg's Letters, 1992 (ed. by Michael Robinson)
   Selected Essays by August Strindberg, 1996 (ed. by Michael
   STRINDBERGS BREV. XXI Supplement 1857-1893, 2001
   STRINDBERGS BREV. XXII Supplement 1893-1912, 2001
   Selected Poems of August Strindberg, 2002 (edited and translated
                   by Lotta M. LÖfgren


Shared By:
Tags: Johan
Description: Johan doc