Chapt_12__Maslow by wuyunyi

VIEWS: 5 PAGES: 54

									Abraham Maslow &
    Transpersonal
      Psychology
            Psych 7
          Chapter 12
Personal History
 Date of Birth: April 1, 1908 (Aries)
 Date of Death: June 8, 1970
 Raised in: Brooklyn, NY
 Lived in: NY, WI, MA, CA
 Religion: Jewish
 Schooling: City University of NY, University of
 Wisconsin-Madison, Columbia
 Degree: PhD
 Taught at: Brooklyn College, Brandeis




                                    @2010 MLF
PERSONAL HISTORY
   Born to Russian-Jewish immigrant parents in
    Brooklyn
   Was shy and „neurotic‟ and had low self-esteem
   Was bookish and socially awkward
   Married his first cousin at age 20; moved to
    Wisconsin to pursue studies in behaviorism
   Returned to NYC and worked with Edward
    Thorndike; then took teaching job at Brooklyn
    College
PERSONAL HISTORY
   Studied with Adler, Fromm, and Horney
   After WWII, where he saw how little
    psychology contributed to reducing
    international conflict, Maslow switched from
    behaviorism to social and personality
    psychology
   Became very involved in business and
    industrial psychology after working in family
    business due to a prolonged illness
PERSONAL HISTORY
   During his life, Maslow‟s work was
    considered well outside of mainstream
    psychology
       Studied healthy, successful people rather than
        psychologically ill people (eupsychia)
INTELLECTUAL
ANTECEDENTS
   Psychoanalysis
       Maslow believed this school provided the best
        analysis of psychopathology, but it did not
        address healthy behaviors
   Social Anthropology
       UW-Madison was a social anthropology school
        and a behaviorist school
           Influences included Margaret Mead, Ruth Benedict,
            Ralph Linton, Bronislaw Malinowsky
INTELLECTUAL
ANTECEDENTS
   Gestalt Psychology – looking at the whole
    instead of the parts
       Maslow admired Max Wertheimer
       This school of thought influenced Maslow‟s work
        on creativity and cognition
   Kurt Goldstein (neurophysiologist)
       Unity of the organism
       Self-actualization
       The organism‟s capacities determine it‟s needs
        (precursor to hierarchy of needs theory)
MAJOR CONCEPTS
   Hierarchy of Needs
       Includes full range of human motivations
       Psychological drives of neurotics do not reflect
        motivations of population at large
   Neurosis is a deficiency disease
       Caused by deprivation of certain basic needs
       Deprivation leads to illness
       Basic needs (e.g., hunger) can never be ignored
MAJOR CONCEPTS
   Hierarchy of Needs
       Physiological needs include food, drink, O2,
        sleep, sex
           Most of the time, these needs are relatively easily
            satisfied
           When not satisfied, it doesn‟t matter what else the
            individual may be desirous of, until they are met, all
            things stop
MAJOR CONCEPTS
   Hierarchy of Needs
       Psychological needs (safety, security, stability,
        love, sense of belonging, self-respect, esteem)
           Safety = stable, safe environment; structure, order,
            limits; freedom from fear, anxiety, and chaos
           Belonging & love needs = close relationships;
            belonging to groups such as family & peers
               These are at the core of psychological maladjustment
MAJOR CONCEPTS
   Hierarchy of Needs
       Esteem needs = desire for competence and
        individual achievement; respect from others
        (status, fame, appreciation, recognition)
           When unmet, the individual feels inferior, weak, or
            helpless
           Healthy self-esteem comes from personal effort
            resulting in achievement and deserved respect from
            others
           Even when esteem needs are met, individual does not
            feel satisfied unless they experience self-actualization
MAJOR CONCEPTS
   Self-Actualization
       An ongoing process in which one‟s capacities are
        fully, creatively, and joyfully utilized. Self-
        actualizing people . . .
           See life clearly
           Are less emotional and more objective
           Objectivity is not influenced by hopes, fears, or ego
            defenses
           Are committed to something greater than themselves
           Are devoted to a cause or vocation
MAJOR CONCEPTS
   Self-Actualization
       Maslow‟s research „subjects‟ were all relatively
        free of neurosis and emotional disturbance
       Characteristics of these psychologically healthy
        subjects included:
           Independence and self-acceptance
           Few self-conflicts
           Able to enjoy play and work
           Believing in a life that could be called spiritual (vs.
            religious)
MAJOR CONCEPTS
   Self-Actualization
       Characteristics continued . . .
           Take pleasure in life despite pain, sorrow, and
            disappointment
           Have more interests and less fear, anxiety, boredom,
            or sense of purposelessness
           Love life in general
Hierarchy of Needs
MAJOR CONCEPTS
   Theory of Motivation
       We are always desiring something but rarely (if
        ever) reach a state of satisfaction. Hierarchy of
        needs provides a context for understanding
        motivation.
       Metamotivation – Behavior inspired by growth
        needs and values
           Devotion to ideals or goals
           Frustration of meta needs results in metapathologies
            (lack of values, meaning, or fulfillment in life)
MAJOR CONCEPTS
   Theory of Motivation
       Grumbles and Metagrumbles
           Different levels of needs experience different levels of
            frustration
           Low level grumbles are a response to deprevation of
            basic needs for physical safety and security
           Higher level grumbles are a response to deprivations
            of inadequate acknowledgment of accomplishment,
            loss of prestige, or lack of group solidarity (belonging
            needs/esteem needs)
MAJOR CONCEPTS
   Theory of Motivation
       Metagrumbles speak to frustrations of metaneeds
           Basic needs are probably met
           Frustration of metaneeds include perfection, jutic,
            beauty, and truty
           Maslow says we always complain – but when lower
            levels are no longer problematic, we complain at
            metalevels
           This is because we continue to strive for greater
            improvement and growth
MAJOR CONCEPTS
   Theory of Motivation
       Research on Self-Actualization
           Based on lives of two influential teachers – Ruth
            Benedict and Max Wertheimer
               Wanted to find out what made them so special!
           Decided to study the best and the brightest to
            determine the further reaches of human potential
           Initial case study included nine contemporary and nine
            historical figures
MAJOR CONCEPTS
   Self-Actualization Theory
       Concentration
       Growth Choices
       Self-awareness
       Honesty
       Judgment
       Self-development
       Peak Experiences
       Lack of Ego Defenses
MAJOR CONCEPTS
   Peak Experiences- especially joyous and
    exciting moments, often inspired by intense
    feelings of love, exposure to great art or
    music, or overwhelming beauty in nature
       Feelings of ecstasy and/or deep mystical
        experiences are relatively rare – these are the
        most extreme peak experiences
       Most of us have experienced peak experiences
MAJOR CONCEPTS
   Plateau Experiences
       More stable and long-lasting kind of experience
       Represents new way of viewing and experiencing
        the world
           May arise after a health crisis or emotional crisis
MAJOR CONCEPTS
   Transcending Self-actualization
       As an indicator, peak experiences alone do not
        define self-actualization
       Some people may never have a peak experience;
        others many have them frequently
       Two kinds of self-actualizers
           Transcending – where transcendence is central or
            important to their very being
           Others – where they are psychologically healthy, but
            do not experience transcendence
MAJOR CONCEPTS
   Transcending Self-actualization
       Qualities of transcenders include:
           Peak experiences valued as most important aspects
            of their lives
           Aware of the sacredness of all things
           Think more holistically
           Perceive unity behind the apparent contradictions and
            complexity of life
           Innovators and original thinkers
           Less attached to their work
MAJOR CONCEPTS
   Eupsychia – ideal, human-oriented societies
    or communities
       All members of the community would be engaged
        in seeking personal development and fulfillment in
        work and personal lives
       In business setting, euphychian managers would
        manage by supporting growth and development
        rather than using authoritarian approaches
           Managers assume workers want to be creative and
            productive;
           Maslow did acknowledge that not all workers would
            thrive in this kind of setting
MAJOR CONCEPTS
   Synergy – term coined by Ruth Benedict
       Refers to degree of interpersonal cooperation and
        harmony within a society
       Synergistic effect refers to the combined action
        that is greater than the individual elements
           Can be within the individual or within the community
           Results in cooperation and collaboration that benefits
            the whole
DYNAMICS
   Psychological Growth
       Lower needs on hierarchy must be met before
        self-actualization can begin
       Pursuit of the higher needs is an indicator of
        psychological health
       Self-actualization represents a long-term
        commitment to growth and developing one‟s
        capabilities to the fullest
           Able to cope with uncertainty and ambiguity and prefer
            challenges to easy solutions
DYNAMICS
   Obstacles to Growth –
       Self-actualization can be limited by negative
        inflluences from the past, peer pressure, and
        inner defenses
       Most people avoid self-knowledge because of
        fears of the changes in self-esteem and self-
        image that it brings
DYNAMICS
   Obstacles to Growth –
       Ego Defenses
           Internal obstacles to growth; must recognize them,
            then minimize the distortion they create
           Maslow added two defense mechanisms to those
            identified by Freud, Horney, and Adler
DYNAMICS
   Obstacles to Growth –
       Desacralization
           Refusing to treat anything with deep seriousness and
            concern
           Symbols lose power to inspire and notivate
       The Jonah Complex
           Refusal to realize one‟s full capabilities; staying
            comfortable and/or safe
           Fear of greatness; losing control, or disintegrating
STRUCTURE
   The Body – not described in detail, but
    acknowledged in peak experiences and lower
    levels of hierarchy of needs
   Social Relationships – Love and esteem only
    fulfilled in relationship; reductionistic view of
    love when spoken of only in terms of libido
   Will –vital ingredient in process of self-
    actualization
STRUCTURE
   Emotions – positive emotions play a role in
    SA
       Maturity includes being able to give oneself over
        completely to an emotion
       Argued that “perception and detachment”
        descaralize; science dismisses rather than studies
        wonder, awe, ecstacy, and other forms of
        transcendence
STRUCTURE
   Intellect-Holistic thinking
       Peak experiences often break through
        dichotomous thinking
       Creative problem solving – problem centered
        rather than means centered
   Self – individual‟s inner core or inherent
    nature; not a separate structure within the
    personality
STRUCTURE
   Therapist
       Maslow proposed model of Taoist helper –
        assistance without interference
       He did not pursue formal therapeutic theory, but
        did undergo analysis
       Made distinction between basic needs therapy
        (helping people meet basic needs) and insight
        therapy (long-term process of growth in self-
        understanding)
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS:
MASLOW’S INFLUENCE
   Little formal research by Maslow himself, but
    followers have been looking into concepts
       Shostrom – Personal Orientation Inventory
           Measures levels of self-actualization
       Peak experiences well researched
       Study of religion, education, and business
EVALUATION
   Human functioning
   Exploratory research
   Stressing positive dimensions of human
    experience
   Original thinker in human potential
    psychology
TRANSPERSONAL
PSYCHOLOGY
   Fourth Force
       Behaviorism, psychoanalysis, humanistic
        psychology are first three
       Humanistic grew out of work of Maslow and
        Rogers
       Transpersonal contributes an acknowledgment of
        the spiritual aspects of human experience to more
        traditional concerns of discipline of psychology,
        building on all three forces
           Within each individual resides a deeper to true self
            experienced in transcendent states of consciousness
TRANSPERSONAL
PSYCHOLOGY
   Approaches to Transpersonal Psychology
       Includes psychological wisdom of other cultures
        and traditions
       Integration of Eastern wisdom, specifically
        spiritual development
       Exploration of consciousness and unitive
        experiences
TRANSPERSONAL
PSYCHOLOGY
   Perennial Model
       Huxley (Perennial Philosophy)
       Four basic premises
           A transcendent reality (unity) binds together all
            apparently separate phenomena
           Ego is a reflection of a greater, transpersonal self or
            oneness that we have become estranged from
           Individuals can directly experience this reality
           This experience involves a qualitative shift in
            experiencing oneself and the larger world; it is self-
            validating
TRANSPERSONAL
PSYCHOLOGY
   Physics is ultimate      Psychological reality is
    science                   just as real as physical
                              reality
TRANSPERSONAL
PSYCHOLOGY
   Individual exists in         All forms of life share a
    relative isolation from       deep level of
    environment                   psychological/spiritual
                                  connection
TRANSPERSONAL
PSYCHOLOGY
   Ordinary state of              Higher orders of feeling,
    consciousness is the            awareness, and
    best, most rational, most       rationality are possible
    adaptive way mind can
    be organized
TRANSPERSONAL
PSYCHOLOGY
   Seeking altered states is      Seeking to experience
    a sign of pathology or          different states of
    immaturity                      consciousness is a
                                    natural aspect of healthy
                                    human growth
TRANSPERSONAL
PSYCHOLOGY
   Basic development of            Ordinary adults exhibit
    personality is complete by       only a rudimentary level
    adulthood, except for            of maturity; the basic
    neurotics, people with           personality is a
    traumatic childhoods, etc.       foundation for spiritual
                                     work and development of
                                     a far deeper level of
                                     wisdom and maturity
TRANSPERSONAL
THEORISTS
   Work of Ken Wilber
       Integrates Eastern & Western thought into a
        single model
       Growth is the healing of a series of dichotomies
        within the individual (conscious/unconscious;
        mind/body; organism/environment;
        separation/unity)
       Growth and development have two fundamental
        processes: outward arc and inward arc
Wilber’s Four-Quadrant Model
                    Inner                Outer



Individual   Subjective Experience     Behavior




Collective          Culture          Social Systems
TRANSPERSONAL
PSYCHOLOGY
   Work of Stanislav Grof, MD
       Written extensively on psychedelic research and
        altered states of consciousness
       Major characteristics of psychedelic experience
           Transcendence of space & time
           Transcendence of distinction between matter, energy,
            and consciousness
           Transcendence of separation between the individual
            and the external world
TRANSPERSONAL
PSYCHOLOGY
   Work of Stanislav Grof, MD
       Psychedelic experiences broken down into four
        categories
           Abstract experiences
           Psychodynamic experiences
           Perinatal experiences
           Transpersonal experiences
TRANSPERSONAL
PSYCHOLOGY
   Work of Stanislav Grof, MD
       Developed technique of holotropic breathwork
        which allows individual to experience states of
        consciousness similar to LSD trips
TRANSPERSONAL
PSYCHOLOGY
   Work of Michael Washburn
       Posits a transpersonal theory of development
       Three major stages
           Pre-egoic (infancy to early childhood); ego is weak
            and undeveloped and dominated by “dynamic ground”
            – the psychological locus of the divine
           Egoic – late childhood through middle adulthood; ego
            make psychological growth possible by dissociating
            from dynamic ground through repression
           Trans-egoic – later adulthood; a developed and
            mature ego becomes integrated with dynamic ground
TRANSPERSONAL
PSYCHOLOGY
   Work of Michael Washburn
       Includes elements from both Freud and Jung
       Progress through three stages is non-linear; cycle
        continues until final integration is reached
TRANSPERSONAL
PSYCHOLOGY
   Psychosynthesis (Roberto Assagioli)
       Italian psychiatrist
       Two levels of work: Personal and Transpersonal
       Personal focuses on integration of the personality
        around the personal self
       Transpersonal focuses on alignment of the
        personal self with the transpersonal self
     The Egg Diagram

1. The Lower Unconscious
2. The Middle Unconscious
3. The Higher Unconscious or Superconscious
4. The Field of Consciousness
5. The Conscious Self or "I"
6. The Higher Self
7. The Collective Unconscious



                                      The Star Diagram
           1. Sensation
           2. Emotion-Feeling
           3. Impulse Desire
           4. Imagination
           5. Thought
           6. Intuition
           7. Will
           8. Central point: The I, or personal self
TRANSPERSONAL
PSYCHOLOGY
   Evaluation of Transpersonal Psychology
       Used to be exclusive domain of priest, shaman, or
        spiritual teacher
       When looking at values, meaning, and purpose,
        issues of spiritual nature are raised
       Transpersonal psychology is an inclusive
        approach to unitive consciousness and the full
        reaches of being human

								
To top