Happiness by 5s3hMs

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									Happiness


  CHAPTER 14
Philosophical Views on Happiness

  Aristotle
  A life of leisurely
   and intelligent
   reflection leads to
   happiness.
  The Cultivation of
   Virtues
  Happiness is the
   Ultimate Good
               John Stuart Mill
   Excitement and peaceful
    contentment are the two sides of
    happiness.
   Impediments to happiness are
    selfishness and lack of mental
    cultivation.
   Wisdom comes from the realization
    that one’s own happiness and self-
    interest are intertwined with the
    good of humanity.
   Sacrificing personal happiness for
    the happiness of others is the
    highest virtue.
Mill’s Two Sides of Happiness




             For Mill, happiness
             consists of excitement and
             contentment.
               Your Turn!

 According to Mills, does happiness come from
 having lots of fun and pleasure?
                Bertrand Russell

   Unhappiness is fostered by
    envy, misguided morals,
    bad habits, and a life out of
    balance.

   Happiness can be gained by
    cultivating a friendly
    interest in people and
    things.
   Bertrand Russell’s Perspective

Happiness is promoted by a focus on external
affairs, such as the state of the world, on
gaining knowledge, and by paying attention to
loved ones.
Happiness can be achieved by doing something
that engages the full measure of one’s abilities
and that is considered important by society as
well.
                Peter Singer
Fun vs. Happiness
 Fun is momentary and
   typically derived from
   external sources of
   amusement
 Happiness is an ongoing
   state of being that
   emerges from one’s
   internal state, attitudes
   and expectations
        Buddhism and Happiness

 In Buddhist tradition, the true causes of
 happiness and well-being are rooted in a
 wholesome way of life, through the cultivation
 wisdom and compassion.

 The acquisition of material goods, financial
 security, power, and fame may lead to happiness
 but are transient.
Psychological Perspectives on Happiness

                   Psychoanalytic
    Freud
    Healthy adults enjoy both love and work
    Sexual expression promotes happiness and mental
     health
    Sexual expression provides a safe outlet for one’s
     destructive urges that build up over time
    Adler
    Friendship- an important source of happiness.
    “What can I contribute to further human well-
     being?”
Psychological Perspectives on Happiness
                   Humanistic
  Carl Rogers
 The “good life” requires courage and the
   ability to launch oneself fully into the stream
   of life.
 • Open to experience

 • Live in the moment

 • Trust oneself
    Psychological Perspectives on Happiness

                   Humanistic
    Abraham Maslow
    Openness to peak experiences = happiness
    Viktor Frankl
    Embracing life’s challenges is the only viable route to
     happiness because it holds the possibility of
     accomplishment
     To shrink back or hideout from life’s challenges causes us
     to lose self-respect
Psychological Perspectives on Happiness

               Cognitive Behavioral
 Aaron Beck
  Expectation of gain
  Whether or not a person experiences
    happiness depends on the meaning he or she
    attaches to a particular situation or object
  Any event or idea that represents a
    meaningful addition to one’s life is sufficient
    to produce happiness
  The Scientific Study of Happiness

 Happiness defined
 A pervasive sense that life is good, meaningful,
  and satisfying
 What are the experiences and circumstances
  that enable people to be happy?
 What traits and attitudes enable some people to
  experience happiness and others not?
                 Happiness
How happy are people in
  general?
 About 80% say they are
  at least “fairly” happy
 About 35% of people say
  that they are “very”
  happy.
Do Life Circumstances Create Happy People?


 Age                  A Sound Body
 Parenthood           Money
 Gender               Intelligence
 Ethnicity            Community
                     Age

Are younger, the middle-
 aged, or the older adults
 happier?
             Happiness and Age

 There is remarkably little variation in the level of
  satisfaction with life as a function of age.
 Researchers found no correlation with age.
 Young adults, the middle aged, and the aged
  reported the same degree of life satisfaction.
 Empty Nest Syndrome
 Mid-Life Crisis
  Happiness and Parenthood




Marital happiness goes down when the first child is
born and goes up when the last child leaves home.
     Happiness and Parenthood
 Having children is
  not necessarily a
  predictor of
  happiness.
 Compared to
  childless couples,
  parents worry
  more and have
  more marital
  problems.
         Happiness and Gender


 No difference were found among men and
  women on their level of happiness.
 This is despite very substantial objective
  differences in career opportunities, personal
  income, and opportunities for self-expression
  throughout our society.
         Happiness and Ethnicity

 There were no differences in blacks or whites on level
 of happiness.
   Happiness and A Sound Body
 Are able-bodied people happier than disabled
 people?

 Disabled individuals describe themselves as no
 less happy than do able-bodied individuals.
       Happiness and Money

 There is a positive correlation between
  wealth and happiness, up to a point.
 Once the basic necessities of life are met,
  there are diminishing returns.
 Beyond poverty, increased wealth doesn't
  increase happiness.
 Happiness Equation


             Attainments
Happiness = -----------------
             Expectations
                  Happiness

 Intelligence
 While intelligence has been correlated with
  outstanding achievement, researchers have not
  found a correlation between IQ scores and
  happiness.
 Community
 There was no difference in reported happiness
  among people living in urban, suburban, or rural
  areas.
           Predictors of Well-Being
The Personality Traits
of Happy People

 Personality             Extroversion
 Health                  Social Activity/ Social
 Self-Esteem              Support
 Personal Control        Love and Marriage
 Optimism                Work
                          Faith
       Happiness and Personality


 Personality refers to enduring patterns of
 behavior, over time and across situations.

 There is a high correlation between people's
 reports of positive affect in the moment and
 their general level of happiness.
Happiness and Genetics
Happiness seems to function something like a personality trait.
      Health and Happiness

 Good physical health is moderately
  correlated with well-being.
 However, sound health alone doesn’t
  account for personal happiness because
  people tend to take good health for granted.
 Exercise
    Happiness and Self-Esteem

• Happy people like themselves
• Self-Esteem and Social Class
• Self-Esteem and Educational Attainment
• Self-Serving Bias
Happiness and Self-Esteem
Happiness, Personal Control, and Optimism

  Happy people believe they choose their own
   destiny.
  Optimists have a higher expectations
  Extroversion
  Social Support
    Close relationships are a predictor of
     happiness.
Happiness and Social Support
   Happiness, Love and Marriage


 A predictor of happiness is a close marital
 relationship.
Happiness and Work
  Happiness and Faith, Hope, Joy

 Religion or a spiritual commitment is
  correlated with happiness
 Among the elderly, religious belief and health
  are the strongest predictors of happiness
 People who are religiously inclined have more
  favorable mental health records
    Happiness and Faith, Hope, Joy
 What faith offers the
  religiously inclined:
 Social support
 Meaning and purpose
 Ultimate acceptance
 Focus beyond self
 An eternal perspective
  Happiness and Faith, Hope, Joy




Among the elderly, religious belief and health are
    the strongest predictors of happiness.

								
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