American Government and Politics Today by BwuGZ5


Government and
 Politics Today
     Chapter 12
   The Presidency
 Who Can Become President?
– Article II, Section 1, of the Constitution sets
  forth the qualifications to be president.
– The two major limitations are age, a
  minimum of 35, and being a natural-born
  citizen, thus eliminating naturalized citizens.
     The Process of Becoming
– Nomination of one of the two major parties
– Majority of the votes cast in the Electoral
   • The electors are decided in most states on a
     winner-take-all system, with the candidate who
     receives the plurality of votes winning. Thus, it is
     possible for a candidate to lose the popular vote
     but still win election as president, as was the case
     in 2000.
– If no candidate receives a majority of the
  electoral votes, the House will elect the
  president by voting state by state for a
The Many Roles of the President
 – Head of State
    • Like the roll of the Queen in Great Britain or the President of
 – Chief Executive
    • The Powers of Appointment and Removal
    • The Power to Grant Reprieves and Pardons
 – Commander-in-Chief
    • Wartime Powers-Bush’s, Clinton, Reagan, Johnson, Kennedy
    • War Powers Resolution-Requires consultation with
      Congress with approval after 60 day or withdrawn
 – Chief Diplomat
    • Diplomatic Recognition-USSR, China, Republic of Vietnam
    • Proposal and Ratification of Treaties-NAFTA, Panama Canal
    • Executive Agreements-In place while still in office.
     The Many Roles of the
       President (cont.)
– Chief Legislator
  • Getting Legislation Passed
  • Saying No to Legislation
  • The Line-Item Veto
  • Congress’ power to override Presidential vetoes
– Other Presidential Powers
  • Powers that Congress has bestowed on the
    president by statute (statutory powers) and those
    that are considered inherent powers. Inherent
    powers are those powers the head of government
    needs to fulfill his duties, as prescribed vaguely in
    the Constitution. The bureaucracy is one such
    power. Political party status is another.
The President As Party Chief and
 – The President as Chief of Party
 – Constituencies and Public Approval
    •Presidential constituencies
      – The Public, Their own Party, Opposing Party,
        Washington Community
   •Public approval-Opinion Polls
   •‚Going Public.‛ When the president
    presents an idea to Congress, he may also
    ‚go public‛ in an attempt to generate
    popular support for his proposal.
Public Popularity of Modern Presidents
           The Special Uses of
            Presidential Power
–Emergency Powers
    • Embargo, Ordering State Militias into service, Mobilizing the
      Federal Budget and economy for war
–Executive Orders
    • Executive order, a rule or regulation issued by the president that
      has the effect of law. Executive orders can implement and give
      administrative effect to provisions in the Constitution, to
      treaties, and to statutes. Demand adherence to Affirmative
      Action, Ration consumer goods, Administer wage and price
    • Require publication in the Federal Register, a publication of the
      U.S. government that prints executive orders, rules, and
–Executive Privilege
    • United States v. Nixon--limiting executive privilege
    • Clinton’s Attempted Use of Executive Privilege
    • Used during 9-11 Commission Hearings
  Abuses of Executive Power
      and Impeachment
–Article I, Section 2, gives the House the sole power of
impeachment. If a majority of the members of the
House vote to impeach an officer of the United States,
the Senate will conduct a trial. If two-thirds of the
Senators vote for conviction the officer is removed
from office.
–The concept of impeachment is important because
without this power there would be little that could be
done to control criminal behavior by a top leader. On
the other hand, this power could be abused and lead to
politically motivated impeachments.
  The Executive Organization
– The Cabinet
    • The Members of the Cabinet
        – Strong conflicts of interest due to budgets, political aspirations etc
          and the agencies customers and lobby.
    • The Kitchen Cabinet
    • Presidential Use of Cabinets
        – Lincoln ‘7 nayes and 1 aye, the ayes have it.’
– The Executive Office of the President
    • The White House Office
    • The Office of Management and Budget
        – Clearinghouse for agency legislative proposals, also represents the
          presidents party platform and continuing priorities or agenda
    • The National Security Council
        – President, Vice President, Secretary of State, Defense and others.
             The Vice President
– The Vice President’s Job
   • Traditionally used to Strengthen the Ticket
   • Recent use to shore-up the Presidents weak points. Bush to
     Reagan, Gore to Clinton, Cheney to Bush.
– Presidential Succession-Next Slide
– The Twenty-fifth Amendment
   • The Vice President and a majority of the Cabinet inform
     Congress, Vice president serves as acting president. If the
     Presidents condition is in dispute, Congress decides by 2/3
– When the Vice Presidency Becomes Vacant
   • Simple Majority required to elect vice-president. Spiro
     Agnew, VP Ford and Nixon resignation before
     impeachment, later pardoned by Gerald Ford
Line of Succession to the Presidency of the
              United States

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