Seduction Survival Home Study Guide for Women at Work Home and Bedroom PeopleNology

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by PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development Nollijy University Research Institute Arts & Sciences - Evolution
The word girl first appeared during the Middle Ages between 1250 and 1300 CE and came from the Anglo-Saxon words gerle (also spelled girle or gurle), likely cognate with the Old Low German word gör (sometimes given as kerl).[2] The Anglo-Saxon word gerela meaning dress or clothing item also seems to have been used as a metonym in some sense.[3] Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. According to Erikson, the young adult stage involves the personal need for intimacy and sex. Failure to achieve this need results in isolation, which is avoided, and as a result the young adult strives for love and compassion. The young adult learns that love and compassion may get him or her what he or she wants. In modern societies, young adults in their late teens and early 20s encounter a number of issues as they finish school and begin to hold full-time jobs and take on other responsibilities of adulthood. In the late teens and early 20s, young adults become individuals and will set themselves apart. Self becomes the main reliance. Young adults will strive to become independent from parents, take responsibility for themselves and make their own decisions. During the young adult stage, mainly the majority think in a more mature manner and take issues more seriously. They focus on the construction of a better future. Adolescents are generally regarded as naïve and inexperienced, but are

expected to grow into mature adults in their 20s. Young adults in this stage of human development learn value in both tangible and intangible objects. Their relationships with their parents and older adults change. However, in many cases, young adults and adolescents have enormous talent that can, in cases, outstrip some adults' talents. In many cases, problems such as lack of time (schooling and other commitments) and lack of money can arrest the adolescent's development in terms of intellectual and talent growth. Treat the Earth and all that dwell thereon with respect Remain close to the Great Spirit Show great respect for your fellow beings Work together for the benefit of all Mankind Give assistance and kindness wherever needed Do what you know to be right Look after the well-being of mind and body Dedicate a share of your efforts to the greater good Be truthful and honest at all times PeopleNology by Gregory Bodenhamer Nollijy University The Commandments Treat the Earth and all that dwell thereon with respect Remain close to the Great Spirit as you will become what you have focused upon. Show great respect for your fellow beings Work together for the benefit of all Mankind Give assistance and kindness wherever needed Do what you know to be right Look after the wellbeing of mind and body Dedicate a share of your efforts to the greater good Be truthful and honest at all times Listings of the sins since Gregory the Great Fear is an emotional response to tangible and realistic dangers. Fear should be distinguished from anxiety, an emotion that often arises out of proportion to the actual threat or danger involved, and can be subjectively experienced without any specific attention to the threatening object. Most fear is usually connected to pain (i.e., some fear heights because if they fall, they may suffer severe injury or even die upon landing). Behavioral theorists, like Watson and Ekman, have suggested that fear is one of several very basic emotions (e.g., joy and anger).

Fear is a survival mechanism, and usually occurs in response to a specific negative stimulus. Serious fear is a response to some formidable impending peril, while trifling fear arises from confrontation with inconsequential danger. Fear can be described by different terms in accordance with its relative degrees. Personal fear varies extremely in degree from mild caution to extreme phobia and paranoia. Fear is related to a number of emotional states including worry, anxiety, terror, fright, paranoia, horror, panic (social and personal), persecution complex and dread. Fears may be a factor within a larger social network, wherein personal fears are synergetically compounded as mass hysteria. Paranoia is a term used to describe a psychosis of fear, described as a heightened perception of being persecuted, false or otherwise. This degree of fear often indicates that one has changed their normal behavior in radical ways, and may have become extremely compulsive. Sometimes, the result of extreme paranoia is a phobia. Distrust in the context of interpersonal fear, is sometimes explained as the inward feeling of caution, usually focused towards a person, representing an unwillingness to trust in someone else. Distrust is not a lack of faith or belief in someone, but a feeling of warning towards someone or something questionable or unknown. For example, one may "distrust" a stranger who acts in a way that is perceived as "odd." Likewise one may "distrust" the safety of a rusty old bridge across a 100 ft drop. Terror refers to a pronounced state of fear - which usually occurs before the state of horror - when someone becomes overwhelmed with a sense of immediate danger. Also, it can be caused by perceiving the (possibly extreme) phobia. As a consequence, terror overwhelms the person to the point of making irrational choices and non-typical behavior. Fear can also affect the subconscious and unconscious mind, most notably through nightmares. Fear can also be imagined, and the side effects can also be imagined. Acceptance, in spirituality, mindfulness, and human psychology, usually refers to the experience of a situation without an intention to change that situation. Indeed, acceptance is often suggested when a situation is both disliked and unchangeable, or when change may be possible only at great cost or risk. Acceptance may imply only a lack of outward, behavioral attempts at possible change, but the word is also used more specifically for a felt or hypothesized cognitive or emotional state. Thus someone may decide to take no action against a situation and yet be said to have not accepted it. Acceptance is contrasted with resistance, but that term has strong political and psychoanalytic connotations not applicable in many contexts. By groups and by individuals, acceptance can be of various events and conditions in the world; individuals may also accept elements

of their own thoughts, feelings, and personal histories. For example, psychotherapeutic treatment of a person with depression or anxiety could involve fostering acceptance either for whatever personal circumstances may give rise to those feelings or for the feelings themselves. (Psychotherapy could also involve lessening an individual's acceptance of various situations.) Notions of acceptance are prominent in many faiths and meditation practices. For example, Buddhism's first noble truth, "Life is suffering", invites people to accept that suffering is a natural part of life. Minority groups in society often describe their goal as "acceptance", wherein the majority will not challenge the minority's full participation in society. A majority may be said (at best) to "tolerate" minorities when it confines their participation to certain aspects of society. PeopleNology by Gregory Bodenhamer Nollijy University "Affection" is popularly used to denote a feeling or type of love, amounting to more than goodwill or friendship. Writers on ethics generally use the word to refer to distinct states of feeling, both lasting and spasmodic. Some contrast it with passion as being free from the distinctively sensual element. More specifically the word has been restricted to emotional states the object of which is a person. In the former sense, it is the Greek "pathos" and as such it appears in the writings of French philosopher René Descartes, Dutch philosopher Baruch Spinoza, and most of the writings of early British ethicists. However, on various grounds (e.g., that it does not involve anxiety or excitement and that it is comparatively inert and compatible with the entire absence of the sensuous element), it is generally and usefully distinguished from passion. In this narrower sense the word has played a great part in ethical systems, which have spoken of the social or parental affections as in some sense a part of moral obligation. For a consideration of these and similar problems, which depend ultimately on the degree in which the affections are regarded as voluntary In psychology the terms affection and affective are of great importance. As all intellectual phenomena have by experimentalists been reduced to sensation, so all emotion has been and is regarded as reducible to simple mental affection, the element of which all emotional manifestations are ultimately composed. The nature of this element is a problem which has been provisionally, but not conclusively, solved by many psychologists; the method is necessarily experimental, and all experiments on feeling are peculiarly difficult. The solutions proposed are two. In the first, all affection phenomena are primarily divisible into those which are pleasurable and those which are the reverse. The main objections to this are that it does not explain the infinite variety of

phenomena, and that it disregards the distinction which most philosophers admit between higher and lower pleasures. The second solution is that every sensation has its specific affective quality, though by reason of the poverty of language many of these have no name. W. Wundt, Outlines of Psychology (trans. C. H. Judd, Leipzig, 1897), maintains that we may group under three main affective directions, each with its negative, all the infinite varieties in question; these are (a) pleasure, or rather pleasantness, and displeasure, (b) tension and relaxation, (c) excitement and depression. These two views are antithetic and no solution has been discovered. American psychologist Henry Murray (1893–1988) developed a theory of personality that was organized in terms of motives, presses, and needs. According to Murray, these psychogenic needs function mostly on the unconscious level, but play a major role in our personality. Murray classified five affection needs: Affiliation: Spending time with other people. Nurturance: Taking care of another person. Play: Having fun with others. Rejection: Rejecting other people. Succorance: Being helped or protected by others PeopleNology by Gregory Bodenhamer Nollijy University Anger (also called choler) is an emotional state that may range from minor irritation to intense rage. The physical effects of anger include increased heart rate, blood pressure, and levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline. [1] Some view Anger as part of the fight or flight brain response to the perceived threat of pain. [2] Anger becomes the predominant feeling behaviorally, cognitively and physiologically when a person makes the conscious choice to take action to immediately stop the threatening behavior of another outside force. [3] The external expression of anger can be found in facial expressions, body language, physiological responses, and at times in public acts of aggression.[4] Animals and humans for example make loud sounds, attempt to look physically larger, bare their teeth, and stare.[5] Anger is a behavioral pattern designed to warn aggressors to stop their threatening behavior. Rarely does a physical altercation occur without the prior expression of anger by at least one of the participants.[5] While most of those who experience anger explain its arousal as a result of "what has happened to them," psychologists point out that an angry person can be very well mistaken because anger causes a loss in self-monitoring capacity and objective observability.[6] In the world of humans, the unique use of codified symbols and sounds -written and spoken language, pain or the threat of pain can be perceived from written

and verbal sources. Humans may not perceive an immediate physical threat, but pain can be felt psychologically. Due to humans' capacity to imagine the distant future, the threat of pain can also arise purely from the imagination, and not be based on anything happening in the immediate present. In humans, anger often arises when another human being is perceived to violate expected behavioral norms related to social survival. These violations break social or interpersonal boundaries, or may be ethical or legal violations. [7] Modern psychologists view anger as a primary, natural, and mature emotion experienced by all humans at times, and as something that has functional value for survival. Anger can mobilize psychological resources for corrective action. Uncontrolled anger can however negatively affect personal or social wellbeing.[8][6] While many philosophers and writers have warned against the spontaneous and uncontrolled fits of anger, there has been disagreement over the intrinsic value of anger.[9] Dealing with anger has been addressed in the writings of earliest philosophers up to modern times. Modern psychologists, in contrast to the earlier writers, have also pointed out the possible harmful effects of suppression of anger.[9] It has been also shown that the displays of anger can be used as an effective manipulation strategy for social influence. The seven deadly sins, also known as the capital vices or cardinal sins, are a classification of vices that were originally used in early Christian teachings to educate and instruct followers concerning (immoral) fallen man's tendency to sin. The Roman Catholic Church divided sin into two principal categories: "venial", which are relatively minor, and could be forgiven through any sacramentals or sacraments of the church, and the more severe "capital" or mortal sin. Mortal sins destroyed the life of grace, and created the threat of eternal damnation unless either absolved through the sacrament of confession, or forgiven through perfect contrition on the part of the penitent. Beginning in the early 14th century, the popularity of the seven deadly sins as a theme among European artists of the time eventually helped to ingrain them in many areas of Christian culture and Christian consciousness in general throughout the world. One means of such ingraining was the creation of the mnemonic "SALIGIA" based on the first letters in Latin of the seven deadly sins: superbia, avaritia, luxuria, invidia, gula, ira, acedia There is nowhere in the Christian Bible that a list of the Seven Deadly Sins is given, although lists of virtues contrasted with lists of sins are found in certain books of the New Testament, such as "Galatians". Gerle by PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development

The modern concept of the Seven Deadly Sins is linked to the works of the 4th century monk Evagrius Ponticus, who listed eight "evil thoughts" as follows (Refoule, 1967): Gluttony; fornication; avarice; sorrow; anger; discouragement; vainglory; pride. The first three of these sins, as Refoule explains, link to lustful appetite; anger links with the irascible; and vainglory and pride link with the intellect. Some years later, Pope Gregory I (Pope Gregory the Great) would revise this list to form the more common "Seven Deadly Sins". Listings of the sins since Gregory the Great Listed in the same order used by both Pope Gregory the Great in the 6th century, and later by Dante Alighieri in his epic poem The Divine Comedy, the seven deadly sins are as follows: luxuria (extravagance, later lust), gula (gluttony), avaritia (greed), acedia (sloth), ira (wrath), invidia (envy), and superbia (pride). Each of the seven deadly sins has an opposite among the corresponding seven holy virtues (sometimes also referred to as the contrary virtues). In parallel order to the sins they oppose, the seven holy virtues are chastity, temperance, charity, diligence, patience, kindness, and humility. The identification and definition of the seven deadly sins over their history has been a fluid process and the idea of what each of the seven actually encompasses has evolved over time. This process has been aided by the fact that they are not referred to in either a cohesive or codified manner in the Bible itself, and as a result other literary and ecclesiastical works referring to the seven deadly sins were instead consulted as sources from which definitions might be drawn. Part II of Dante's Divine Comedy, "Purgatorio", has almost certainly been the best known source since the Renaissance. The sins Lust (Latin, luxuria) Lust (or lechery) is usually thought of as involving obsessive or excessive thoughts or desires of a sexual nature. Unfulfilled lusts sometimes lead to sexual or sociological compulsions and/or transgressions including (but obviously not limited to) sexual addiction, adultery, bestiality, rape, and incest[citations needed] . Dante's criterion was "excessive love of others," which therefore rendered love and devotion to God as secondary. In "Purgatorio", the penitent walks within flames to purge himself of lustful/sexual thoughts and feelings. Gluttony (Latin, gula) Derived from the Latin gluttire, meaning to gulp down or swallow, gluttony is the over-indulgence and overconsumption of anything to the point of waste. In the Christian religions, it is considered a sin because of the excessive desire for food, or its withholding from the needy.[2] Depending on the culture, it can be seen as either a vice or a sign of status. Where food is relatively scarce, being able to eat well might be something to take pride in (although this can also result in a moral backlash when confronted with the reality of those less fortunate). Where food is routinely plentiful, it may be considered a sign of self control to resist the temptation to over-indulge. Medieval church leaders (e.g., Thomas

Aquinas) took a more expansive view of gluttony,[2] arguing that it could also include an obsessive anticipation of meals, and the constant eating of delicacies and excessively costly foods.[3] He went so far as to prepare a list of six ways to commit gluttony, including: PeopleNology by Gregory Bodenhamer Nollijy University Praepropere - eating too soon Laute - eating too expensively Nimis - eating too much Ardenter - eating too eagerly Studiose - eating too daintily Forente - eating too fervently Greed (Latin, avaritia) Greed (or avarice, covetousness) is, like lust and gluttony, a sin of excess. However, greed (as seen by the church) is applied to the acquisition of wealth in particular. St. Thomas Aquinas wrote that greed was "a sin against God, just as all mortal sins, in as much as man condemns things eternal for the sake of temporal things." In Dante's Purgatory, the penitents were bound and laid face down on the ground for having concentrated too much on earthly thoughts. "Avarice" is more of a blanket term that can describe many other examples of greedy behavior.

by PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development Nollijy University Research Institute Arts & Sciences - Evolution
These include disloyalty, deliberate betrayal, or treason,[citations needed] especially for personal gain, for example through bribery . Scavenging and hoarding of materials or objects, theft and robbery, especially by means of violence, trickery, or manipulation of authority are all actions that may be inspired by greed. Such misdeeds can include simony, where one profits from soliciting goods within the actual confines of a church. PeopleNology by Gregory Bodenhamer Nollijy University Sloth (Latin, acedia) More than other sins, the definition of sloth has changed considerably since its original inclusion among the seven deadly sins. In fact it was first called the sin of sadness or despair. It had been in the early years of Christianity characterized by what modern writers would now describe as melancholy: apathy, depression, and joylessness — the

last being viewed as being a refusal to enjoy the goodness of God and the world he created. Originally, its place was fulfilled by two other aspects, acedia and sadness.

The former described a spiritual apathy that affected the faithful by discouraging them from their religious work. Sadness (tristitia in Latin) described a feeling of dissatisfaction or discontent, which caused unhappiness with one's current situation. When Thomas Aquinas selected acedia for his list, he described it as an "uneasiness of the mind", being a progenitor for lesser sins such as restlessness and instability. Dante refined this definition further, describing sloth as being the "failure to love God with all one's heart, all one's mind and all one's soul." He also described it as the middle sin, and as such was the only sin characterised by an absence or insufficiency of love. In his "Purgatorio", the slothful penitents were made to run continuously at top speed. The modern view of the vice, as highlighted by its contrary virtue of zeal or diligence, is that it represents the failure to utilize one's talents and gifts. For example, a student who does not work beyond what is required (and thus fails to achieve his or her full potential) could be labeled slothful. Current interpretations are therefore much less stringent and comprehensive than they were in medieval times, and portray sloth as being more simply a sin of laziness or indifference, of an unwillingness to act, an unwillingness to care (rather than a failure to love God and his works). For this reason sloth is now often seen as being considerably less serious than the other sins, more a sin of omission than of commission. The South American animal was named after this sin by Roman Catholic explorers. Wrath (Latin, ira) Wrath (or anger) may be described as inordinate and uncontrolled feelings of hatred and anger. These feelings can manifest as vehement denial of the truth, both to others and in the form of self-denial, impatience with the procedure of law, and the desire to seek revenge outside of the workings of the justice system (such as engaging in vigilantism) and generally wishing to do evil or harm to others. The transgressions borne of vengeance are among the most serious, including murder, assault, and in extreme cases, genocide. Wrath is the only sin not necessarily associated with selfishness or self-interest (although one can of course be wrathful for selfish reasons, such as jealousy, closely related to the sin of envy). Dante described vengeance as "love of justice perverted to revenge and spite". In its original form, the sin of wrath also encompassed anger pointed internally rather than externally. Thus suicide was deemed as the ultimate, albeit tragic, expression of wrath directed inwardly, a final rejection of God's gifts. Envy (Latin, invidia) Like greed, envy is characterized by an insatiable desire; they differ, however, for two main reasons. First, greed is largely associated with material goods, whereas envy may apply more generally. Second, those who commit the

sin of envy desire something that someone else has which they perceive themselves as lacking. Dante defined this as "love of one's own good perverted to a desire to deprive other men of theirs." In Dante's Purgatory, the punishment for the envious is to have their eyes sewn shut with wire, because they have gained sinful pleasure from seeing others brought low. Aquinas described envy as "sorrow for another's good".[1] Pride In almost every list pride ( or hubris or vanity) is considered the original and most serious of the seven deadly sins, and indeed the ultimate source from which the others arise. It is identified as a desire to be more important or attractive than others, failing to give compliments to others though they may be deserving of them,[citation needed] and excessive love of self (especially holding self out of proper position toward God). Dante's definition was "love of self perverted to hatred and contempt for one's neighbor." In Jacob Bidermann's medieval miracle play, Cenodoxus, pride is the deadliest of all the sins and leads directly to the damnation of the titulary famed Parisian doctor. In perhaps the best-known example, the story of Lucifer, pride was what caused his fall from Heaven, and his resultant transformation into Satan. Vanity and narcissism are prime examples of this sin. In Dante's Divine Comedy, the penitent were forced to walk with stone slabs bearing down on their backs in order to induce feelings of humility. PeopleNology by Gregory Bodenhamer Nollijy University Biblical references "Proverbs" 6:16–19 In "Proverbs" 6:16–19, it is stated that "(16) These six things doth the Lord hate: yea, seven are an abomination unto him:" (quotes from King James Version (KJV) translation of the Bible). These are: (17) A proud look, a lying tongue, and hands that shed innocent blood, (18) A heart that deviseth wicked imaginations, feet that be swift in running to mischief, (19) A false witness that speaketh lies, and he that soweth discord among brethren. While there are seven of them, these sins are considerably different in outward appearance from the seven deadly sins list that arose later. The only sin which is clearly on both lists is pride. "Hands that kill innocent people" could be taken to refer to wrath. However, it is possible to imagine a case where cold blooded murder of an innocent would be one of the "hated things" without necessarily being an example of wrath. Practices such as abortion, genocide, and euthanasia can be arguably covered under this umbrella of "hands that shed innocent blood". The remaining five of the "deadly sins" do

not have even this loose correspondence to the "hated things", even if it is easy to imagine how they might lead someone to acting in one of the ways described in "Proverbs". As previously stated, there is no where in the Bible where the traditional "seven deadly sins" are located or listed, although they are all condemned in various parts, along with several others. These "deadly sins" are not necessarily worse than any others that are listed. The Bible makes it clear throughout its New Testament that it only takes one sin, which is an act of disobeying God's law, to separate man from a perfect God, placing him in need of redemption and salvation. Other Biblical references The list in Proverbs is not the only list of sins in the Bible. It does list them as "seven", but it is far from being an exhaustive listing of sins. Another list of sins is given in the (New Testament) book of "Galatians" 5:19-21. That list reads: (19) Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are these; Adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness, (20) Idolatry, witchcraft, hatred, variance, emulations, wrath, strife, seditions, heresies, (21) Envyings, murders, drunkenness, revellings, and such like: of the which I tell you before, as I have also told you in time past, that they which do such things shall not inherit the kingdom of God.(KJV) Wrath is mentioned specifically, but linked with hate, includes the notions of hostility both acted upon and purely internalized. Envy/Jealousy is part of the list in "Galatians". Greed is part of "selfish ambitions" from "Galatians", but is also mirrored in "Proverbs"' "wicked plans." Gluttony is evident in "drunkenness and revellings", but also implied as the contrary of the virtue in "Galatians" 5:23: "temperance" (self-control). Sloth is not listed in "Galatians", but it can be found in verses such as "Proverbs" 6:6-10, "How long will you sleep, O sluggard?" Laziness is addressed in many other verses, though not necessarily labeled obviously as sin. In "I Corinthians" 3:8, a man is to receive "according to his labors". Similarly in "Timothy" 5:18, a laborer is worthy of his wages, with the implied converse being that the sluggard is not entitled to be fed or rewarded. He sins in living off others' labors. Pride is mentioned in Proverbs 16:18 "Pride goeth before destruction and a haughty spirit before a fall." The Virtues the seven holy virtues are: Chastity (Latin, Castitas) (purity, opposes Lust, Latin Luxuria): Embracing of moral wholesomeness and achieving purity of body and thought through education and betterment. Temperance (Latin, Temperantia) (selfcontrol, opposes Gluttony, Latin Gula): Practicing self-control, abstention, and moderation. Charity (Latin, Liberalitas) (will, generosity, opposes Greed, Latin Avaritia): Generosity. Willingness to give. A nobility of thought or actions. Diligence (Latin, Industria) (ethics, opposes Sloth, Latin Acedia): A zealous and careful nature in one's actions and work. Decisive work ethic. Budgeting one's time; monitoring one's own activities to guard against

laziness. Putting forth full concentration in one's work Kindness (Latin, Humanitas) (peace, opposes Wrath, Latin Ira): Forbearance and endurance through moderation. Resolving conflicts peacefully, as opposed to resorting to violence. The ability to forgive; to show mercy to sinners. Patience (Latin, Patientia) (satisfaction, opposes Envy, Latin Invidia): Charity, compassion, friendship, and sympathy without prejudice and for its own sake. Humility (Latin, Humilitas) (modesty, opposes Pride, Latin Superbia): Modest behavior, selflessness, and the giving of respect. Giving credit where credit is due; not unfairly glorifying one's own self Annoyance is an unpleasant mental state that is characterized by such effects as irritation and distraction from one's conscious thinking. It can lead to emotions such as frustration and anger. The property of being easily annoyed is called petulance Apathy is a common feeling of complete discontent (dissatisfaction, i.e. not satisfied) for one's emotional behavior. Apathy etymologically derives from the Greek απάθεια (apatheia), a term used by the Stoics to signify indifference for what one is not responsible for (that is, according to their philosophy, all things exterior, one being only responsible of his representations and judgments). Some people may believe that the concept was then reappropriated by Christians, who adopted the term to express a contempt of all earthly concerns, a state of mortification, as (they claim) the gospel prescribes. However there is no such text in the Christian Bible. The word has been used since then among more devout writers. Clemens Alexandrinus, in particular, brought the term exceedingly in vogue, thinking hereby to draw the philosophers to Christianity, who aspired after such a sublime pitch of virtue Anxiety is a physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components[1]. These components combine to create the feelings that we typically recognize as anger and known as fear, apprehension, or worry. Anxiety is often accompanied by physical sensations such as heart palpitations, nausea, chest pain, shortness of breath, stomach aches, or headache. The cognitive component entails expectation of a diffuse and certain danger. Somatically the body prepares the organism to deal with threat (known as an emergency reaction): blood pressure and heart rate are increased, sweating is increased, bloodflow to the major muscle groups is increased, and immune and digestive system functions are inhibited (the 'fight or flight' response). Externally, somatic signs of anxiety may include pale skin, sweating, trembling, and pupillary dilation. Emotionally, anxiety causes a sense of dread or panic and physically causes nausea, diarrhoea, and chills. Behaviorally, both voluntary and involuntary behaviors may arise directed at escaping or avoiding the source of anxiety and often maladaptive, being most extreme in anxiety disorders. However, anxiety is not always pathological or maladaptive: it is a common

emotion along with fear, anger, sadness, and happiness, and it has a very important function in relation to survival. Neural circuitry involving the amygdala and hippocampus is thought to underlie anxiety[2]. When confronted with unpleasant and potentially harmful stimuli such as foul odors or tastes, PETscans show increased bloodflow in the amygdala.[3][4] In these studies, the participants also reported moderate anxiety. This might indicate that anxiety is a protective mechanism designed to prevent the organism from engaging in potentially harmful behaviors Theologians like Paul Tillich and psychologists like Sigmund Freud have characterized anxiety as the reaction to what Tillich called, "The trauma of nonbeing." That is, the human comes to realize that there is a point at which he or she might cease to be (die), and their encounter with reality becomes characterized by anxiety. Religion, according to both Tillich and Freud, then becomes a carefully crafted coping mechanism in response to this anxiety since they redefine death as the end of only the corporal part of human personal existence, assuming an immortal soul. What then becomes of this soul and through what criteria is the cardinal difference of various religious faiths. Philosophical ruminations are a part of this condition, and this is part of obsessive-compulsive disorder. They are typically about sex and religion or death. However, truly rational philosophical thinking is usually driven by a desire for a rational understanding of reality, rather than a desire to avoid death. According to Viktor Frankl, author of Man's Search for Meaning, when faced with extreme mortal dangers the very basic of all human wishes is to find a meaning of life to combat this "trauma of nonbeing" as death is near and to succumb to it (even by suicide) seems like a way out. The "father" of existentialism, Søren Kierkegaard, regarded all humans to be born into despair by default (in The Sickness Unto Death). Such despair was created by having a false conception of the self. He regarded the mortal self which can exist relatively, and therefore be born or die, as the false self. The true self was the relationship of self to God, rather than to any relative object Anxiety when meeting or interacting with unknown people is a common stage of development in young people. So-called "stranger anxiety" in younger people is not a phobia in the classic sense; rather it is a developmentally appropriate fear by young children of those who do not share a loved-one, caretaker or parenting role. In adults, an excessive fear of other people is not a developmentally common stage; it is called social anxiety. PeopleNology by Gregory Bodenhamer Nollijy University A. A marked and persistent fear of one or more social and performance situations in which the person is exposed to unfamiliar people or to possible scrutiny by

others. The individual fears that he or she will act in a way (or show anxiety symptoms) that will be humiliating or embarrassing. Note: In children, there must be evidence of the capacity for age-appropriate social relationships with familiar people and the anxiety must occur in peer settings, not just in interactions with adults. B. Exposure to the feared social situation almost invariably provokes anxiety, which may take the form of a situationally bound or predisposed Panic Attack. Note: In children, the anxiety may be expressed by crying, tantrums, freezing, or shrinking from social situations with unfamiliar people. C. The person recognizes that the fear is excessive or unreasonable. Note: In children, this feature may be absent. D. The feared social or performance situation are avoided or else are endured with intense anxiety or distress. E. The avoidance, anxious anticipation, or distress in the feared social or performance situation(S) interferes significantly with the person's normal routine, occupational (academic) functioning, or social activities or relationships, or there is marked distress about having the phobia. F. In individuals under age 18 years, the duration is at least 6 months. G. The fear or avoidance is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or a general medical condition and is not better accounted for by another mental disorder (e.g., Panic Disorder With or Without Agoraphobia, Separation Anxiety Disorder, Body Dysmorphic Disorder, a Pervasive Developmental Disorder, or Schizoid Personality Disorder). H. If a general medical condition or another mental disorder is present, the fear in Criterion A is unrelated to it, e.g., the fear is not of Stuttering, trembling in Parkinson's disease, or exhibiting abnormal eating behavior in Anorexia Nervosa or Bulimia Nervosa. The term is also commonly used in reference to experiences such as embarrassment and shame. However some psychologists draw a line among various types of social discomfort, with the criterion for anxiety being an anticipation. For example, the anticipation of an embarrassment is a form of social anxiety, while embarrassment itself is not.[3]

Criteria that distinguish clinical versus nonclinical forms of social anxiety include intensity and levels of behavioral and psychosomatic disruption. Social anxieties may also be classified according to the broadness of triggering social situations. For example, fear of eating in public has a very narrow situational scope (eating in public), while shyness may have a wide scope (a person may be shy of doing many things in various circumstances).[4] Accordingly, the clinical forms may be distinguished into the general social phobia and specific social phobias. People vary in how often they experience anxiety in this way or in which kinds of situations. Anxiety about public speaking, performance, or interviews is common. The experience is commonly described as having physiological components (e.g., sweating, blushing), cognitive/perceptual components (e.g. belief that one may be judged negatively; looking for signs of disapproval) and behavioral components (e.g. avoiding a situation).PeopleNology by Gregory Bodenhamer Nollijy University Awe is an emotion comparable to wonder.[1] However whilst we say that we feel wonder at the rainbow we do not say we feel in awe of the rainbow. In general awe is directed at objects considered to be more powerful than the subject.[2] For example, a commonly identified object that inspires awe is the Great Pyramid of Giza. Wonder is an emotion comparable to surprise in that it is most commonly felt when perceiving something rare or unexpected. Unlike surprise however, it is more definitely positive in valence and can endure for longer periods. It has also been specifically linked with curiosity and the drive for scientific investigation.[1] Descartes described wonder as one of the primary emotions because he claimed that emotions in general are reactions to unexpected phenomena. Wonder is also compared to the emotion of awe Boredom has been defined by Fisher in terms of its central psychological processes: “an unpleasant, transient affective state in which the individual feels a pervasive lack of interest in and difficulty concentrating on the current activity.”[3] M. R. Leary and others define boredom similarly, and somewhat more succinctly, as “an affective experience associated with cognitive attentional processes.”[4] These definitions make it clear that boredom arises not from a lack of things to do but from the inability to latch onto any specific activity. Nothing engages us, despite an often profound desire for engagement. There appear to be three general types of boredom, all of which involve problems of engagement of attention. These include times when we are prevented from engaging in something, when we are forced to engage in some unwanted activity, or when we are simply unable, for no apparent reason, to maintain engagement in any activity or spectacle.[5] An important psychological construct is that of boredom proneness; a tendency to experience boredom of all types. This is typically assessed by the Boredom Proneness Scale.[6] Consistent with the definition provided above, recent research has found that boredom proneness is clearly and consistently associated with failures of attention.[7] Boredom and boredom proneness are both theoretically and empirically linked to depression and depressive symptoms.[8][9][10] Nonetheless, boredom proneness has been found to be as strongly correlated with attentional lapses as with depression.[11] Although boredom is often viewed as a trivial and mild irritant, boredom, and

especially boredom proneness has been linked to an amazingly diverse range of psychological, physical, educational, and social problems Boredom is a condition characterized by perception of one's environment as dull, tedious, and lacking in stimulation. This can result from leisure and a lack of aesthetic interests. Labor, however, and even art may be alienated and passive, or immersed in tedium (see Marx's theory of alienation). There is an inherent anxiety in boredom; people will expend considerable effort to prevent or remedy it, yet in many circumstances, it is accepted as suffering to be endured. Common passive ways to escape boredom are to sleep or to think creative thoughts (daydream). Typical active solutions consist in an intentional activity of some sort, often something new, as familiarity and repetition lead to the tedious. Boredom also plays a role in existentialist thought. In contexts where one is confined, spatially or otherwise, boredom may be met with various religious activities, not because religion would want to associate itself with tedium, but rather, partly because boredom may be taken as the essential human condition, to which God, wisdom, or morality are the ultimate answers. Boredom is in fact taken in this sense by virtually all existentialist philosophers as well as by Schopenhauer. Heidegger wrote about boredom in two texts available in English, in the 1929/30 semester lecture course The Fundamental Concepts of Metaphysics, and again in the essay What is Metaphysics? published in the same year. In the lecture, Heidegger included about 100 pages on boredom, probably the most extensive philosophical treatment ever of the subject. He focused on waiting at train stations in particular as a major context of boredom.[12] In Kierkegaard's remark in Either/Or, that "patience cannot be depicted" visually, there is a sense that any immediate moment of life may be fundamentally tedious. Without stimulus or focus, the individual is confronted with nothingness, the meaninglessness of existence, and experiences existential anxiety. Heidegger states this idea nicely: "Profound boredom, drifting here and there in the abysses of our existence like a muffling fog, removes all things and men and oneself along with it into a remarkable indifference. This boredom reveals being as a whole."[13] Arthur Schopenhauer used the existence of boredom in an attempt to prove the vanity of human existence, stating, "...for if life, in the desire for which our essence and existence consists, possessed in itself a positive value and real content, there would be no such thing as boredom: mere existence would fulfil and satisfy us."[14] Erich Fromm and other similar thinkers of critical theory speak of bourgeois society in terms similar to boredom, and Fromm mentions sex and the automobile as fundamental outlets of postmodern boredom. Above and beyond taste and character, the universal case of boredom consists in any instance of waiting, as Heidegger noted, such as in line, for someone else to arrive or finish a task, or while one is travelling. Boredom, however, may also increase as travel becomes more convenient, as the vehicle may become more like the windowless monad in Leibniz's monadology. The automobile requires fast reflexes, making its operator busy and hence, perhaps for other reasons as well, making the ride more tedious

despite being over sooner. PeopleNology by Gregory Bodenhamer Nollijy University Compassion is an understanding of the emotional state of another or oneself. Not to be confused with empathy, compassion is often combined with a desire to alleviate or reduce the suffering of another or to show special kindness to those who suffer. However, compassion may lead an individual to feel empathy with another person. Compassion is often characterized through actions, wherein a person acting with compassion will seek to aid those they feel compassionate for. Acts of compassion are generally considered those which take into account the pain of others and attempt to alleviate that pain. In this sense, the various forms of the Golden Rule are in part based on the concept of compassion, if also on the concept of empathy. Compassion differs from other forms of helpful or humane behavior in that its focus is primarily on the alleviation of pain and suffering. Acts of kindness which seek primarily to confer benefit rather than relieve existing pain and suffering are better classified as acts of altruism, although, in this sense, compassion itself can be seen as a subset of altruism, it being defined as the type of behavior which seeks to benefit others by reducing their suffering. The cultivation of compassion is considered a virtue in many philosophies and also in almost all major religions The example of Christ has also inspired Christians throughout history to fund hospitals and other such institutions. It is also Christ's example that challenges Christians to forsake their own desires and act compassionately towards others, especially, but not exclusively, towards those in some type of distress or need. This is typified in Jesus' statement from the sermon on the mount: "Blessed are the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy." Compassion can also be kindness towards a stranger that is unexpected in most situations. Compassion can be linked to generosity, empathy, sympathy, and mercy. The life of Christ reflects for Christians the very essence of the meaning of compassion. It has inspired many Christians throughout the centuries to care for the lame, deformed, brokenhearted, sick, dying and those who are in need. Christian compassion extends to all, even to placing a primacy on loving one's own enemies. In the Bible, 2 Corinthians also talks about God as "the Father of compassion and the God of all comfort" (1.3). Hebrews 4:15 also talks about Christ as One who completely understands: who is able to sympathize, and have compassion in the fullest sense of the word. It says "For we do not have a high priest who is unable to sympathize with our weaknesses, but we have one who has been tempted in every way, just as we are—yet was without sin Among Allah’s attributes are Rahman and Rahim (compassionate and Merciful). The Arabic word for compassion is Rahmah. Rahmah (compassion, mercy) and its roots abound in the Koran. A Muslim begins everything by reciting Bi Ism-i-Allah al-Rahman al-Rahim (i.e. begin in the name of Allah Who is Compassionate and Merciful). Thus a Muslim is supposed to invoke Allah the Compassionate and Merciful at every step. Muhammad is also referred to in the Koran as the Mercy of the World (21:107).

Gerle by PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development

Thus the final prophet of Islam also represents universal mercy. The Koran shows great compassion to orphans, widows, the poor and captives. It wants to liberate these poorer and oppressed sections from their situation. Zakah, a toll tax, has been made obligatory on all believing Muslims, men or women to help these sections. “(Zakat) charity is only for the poor and the needy...and (to free) the captives, and those in debt, and in the way of Allah and for the wayfarer – an ordinance from Allah. And Allah is Knowing, Wise.” (9:60) Fasting [Arabic: sawm] during the month of Ramadan helps make one sensitive to other’s pangs of hunger and develop sensitivity to others suffering and this develops compassion towards the poor and destitute PeopleNology by Gregory Bodenhamer Nollijy University Confusion, of a pathological degree, usually refers to loss of orientation (ability to place oneself correctly in the world by time, location, and personal identity) and often memory (ability to correctly recall previous events or learn new material). Confusion as such is not synonymous with inability to focus attention, although severe inability to focus attention can cause, or greatly contribute to, confusion. Together, confusion and inability to focus attention (both of which affect judgment) are the twin symptoms of a loss or lack of normal brain function (mentation).[citation needed] The milder degrees of confusion as pathological symptoms, are relative to previous function. Thus (for example) a mathematician confused about manipulation of simple fractions, may be showing pathology which would not be diagnosable in a person without training in this area. Thus, as with the case of delirium, the minor degrees of pathological confusion cannot be diagnosed without knowledge of a person's "baseline", or normal, level of mental functioning.[citation needed] Confusion may result from a relatively sudden brain dysfunction (see delirium). It may also result from chronic organic brain pathologies such as dementia. In either case, confusion is usually associated with some degree of loss of ability to focus attention, but (as noted) the association is not invariable, especially for lesser degrees of impairment.[citation needed] Many health problems may cause the syndromes of delirium or dementia. These syndromes may also occur together, and both of them usually include the symptom of confusion. Since mental function is extremely sensitive to health, the appearance of either a new confused state, or a new loss of ability to focus attention (delirium), may indicate that a new physical or mental illness has appeared, or that a chronic physical or mental illness has progressed (become more severe Confusion, like inability to focus attention, is a very general and nonspecific symptom of brain or mental dysfunction. In addition to many organic causes of confusion relating to a structural defect or a metabolic problem in the brain (analogous to hardware problems in a computer), there are also some

psychiatric causes of confusion, which may also include a component of mental or emotional stress, mental disease, or other "programming" problems (analogous to software problems in a computer).[citation needed] Another use of the term describes the experience of persons without medical or psychological pathology, who suffer from confusion on a regular basis. Evidence can readily be gathered by entering "confused" in a search engine: in Google, the word produced 280 million hits on 1/22/08. Many types of information pathology such as propaganda, lies, and disinformation contribute to the confusion of ordinary people, as described in "Lethal American Confusion." Medical and psychiatric causes of confusion are too many to list by specific pathology. However general categories of possible causes of mental confusion include:PeopleNology by Gregory Bodenhamer Nollijy University Contempt is an intense feeling or attitude of regarding someone or something as inferior, base, or worthless—it is similar to scorn. Contempt is also defined as the state of being despised or dishonored; disgrace, and an open disrespect or willful disobedience of the authority of a court of law or legislative body.[1] One example of contempt could be seen in the character Ebenezer Scrooge from the Charles Dickens book A Christmas Carol. Scrooge was cold hearted, hating everything about Christmas and looked down upon everyone around him, especially the poor. Professor Robert C. Solomon places contempt on the same line continuum as resentment and anger. According to him the differences between the three emotions are that[2]: Resentment is directed toward a higher status individual Anger is directed toward an equal status individual Contempt is directed toward a lower status individual Contempt is most often associated within the confines of the court, in law. However, there are many different forms of contempt including, but not limited to: Civil contempt Constructive contempt Criminal contempt Direct contempt Indirect contempt Contempt within fiction Contempt within marriage According to the analysis of Macalester Bell, contempt has four distinguishing features[8] : Contempt requires a judgment concerning the status or standing of the object of contempt. In particular, contempt involves the judgment that, because of some moral or personal failing or defect, the contemned person has compromised his or her standing vis-à-vis an interpersonal standard that the contemnor treats as important. This may have not been done deliberately but by a lack of status. This lack of status may cause the contemptuous to classify the object of contempt as utterly worthless, or as not fully meeting a particular interpersonal standard. Therefore, contempt is a response to a perceived failure to meet an interpersonal standard. Contempt is also a particular way of regarding or attending to the object of contempt, and this form of regard has an unpleasant effective element. However, contempt may be experienced as a highly visceral emotion similar to disgust, or as cool disregard. Contempt has a certain comparative element. David Hume in his studies of contempt suggests that contempt essentially requires apprehending the “bad qualities” of someone “as they really are” while simultaneously making a comparison between this person and ourselves. Because of this reflexive element, contempt also involves what we might term a

“positive self-feeling” of the contemptuous. A characteristic of contempt is the psychological withdrawal or distance one typically feels regarding the object of one’s contempt. This psychological distancing is an essential way of expressing one’s nonidentification with the object of one’s contempt and it precludes sympathetic identification with the object of contempt. Contempt for a person involves a way of negatively and comparatively regarding or attending to someone who has not fully lived up to an interpersonal standard that the person extending contempt thinks is important. This form of regard constitutes a psychological withdrawal from the object of contempt. Ekman and Friesen (1986) identified a specific facial expression that observers in each of 10 cultures, both Western and non-Western, agreed signaled contempt.” In this study, citizens of West Sumatra, Indonesia, were given photos of American, Japanese, and Indonesian peoples. Their ability to classify some facial expressions as contempt versus the other categorical emotions of anger, disgust, happiness, sadness, fear, or surprise (with the level of agreement equating to 75%) shows that generally, across cultures, contempt is universally understood.[13] “An expression in which the corner of the lip is tightened and raised slightly on one side of the face (or much more strongly on one side than the other) signaled contempt.” This study showed that contempt, as well as the outward expression of contempt, can be pointed out across Western and Non-Western peoples when contrasted with other primary emotions.[14] Another study by Ekman, Sorenson, and Friesen, published in 1969, studied “Pan-Cultural Elements in Facial Displays of Emotion.” Their findings suggest “that the pan-cultural element in facial displays of emotion is the association between facial muscular movements and discrete primary emotions, although cultures may still differ in what evokes an emotion, in rules for controlling the display of emotion, and in behavioral consequences.”[15] Although some cultures differ in terms of how emotions are learned, taught and controlled, Ekman, Sorenson, and Friesen have found that cross culturally, emotions can be recognized similarly Curiosity is an emotion that causes natural inquisitive behaviour such as exploration, investigation, and learning, evident by observation in many animal and human species. The term can also be used to denote the behavior itself being caused by the emotion of curiosity Although curiosity is an innate capability of many living beings, it cannot be subsumed under category of instinct because it lacks the quality of fixed action pattern; it is rather one of innate basic emotions because it can be expressed in many flexible ways while instinct is always expressed in a fixed way, and like any innate capability it confers a survival advantage to certain species, and can be found in their genomes. Curiosity is common to human beings at all ages from infancy to old age, and is easy to observe in many other animal species. These include apes, cats, fish, reptiles, and insects; as well as many others. Many aspects of exploration are shared among all beings, as all known terrestrial beings share similar aspects: limited size and a need to seek out food sources. Strong curiosity is the main motivation of many scientists. In fact, it is generally curiosity

that makes a human being want to become an expert in a field of knowledge.

Many historical figures were affected strongly by curiosity, to explore lands unknown to them, for example, Columbus, Balboa, Magellan, Coronado, Sir Francis Drake In the field of psychiatry the terms depression or depressed are used in both the ordinary, non-clinical sense and to refer specifically to pathology, especially when the mood of depression has reached a level of severity and/or duration that warrants a clinical diagnosis. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) states that a depressed mood is often reported as being: "... depressed, sad, hopeless, discouraged, or 'down in the dumps'." In traditional colloquy, "depressed" is often synonymous with "sad," but both clinical and non-clinical depression can also refer to a conglomeration of more than one feeling. Such a mixture can include (but is not limited to) anger, fear, anxiety, despair, guilt, apathy, and/or grief, in addition to what many people would describe as typical "sadness While a depressed mood is usually referred to (and perceived) as negative, it can sometimes be subtly beneficial in helping a person adapt to circumstance. For example, physical illness, such as influenza, can lead to feelings of psychological malaise and depression that seem, at first, only to compound an already unpleasant situation. However, the experience of depression, or feeling "down," often results in physical inertia, which leads to the compulsion to rest. The fleeting helplessness and immobility of the physically ill may also serve to elicit care from others. From an evolutionary standpoint, some argue that depression could be at least partially related to atavistic fears that were originally based on real dangers. Marcello Spinella, Ph.D., in his book, How Sadness Survived: The Evolutionary Basis of Depression, suggests that, because "social support and interdependence were important features of the [human] ancestral environment"[,] "the [peer] group could have offered extra help to the depressed person until the condition resolved." Further, "...a depressed person may change the attitudes of other people around him, making them more sympathetic to his needs and therefore giving him a long term [social or reproductive] advantage."[3] Temporary depression, psychologist Thomas Moore, Ph.D., suggests, can, in some cases, not only "...provide a rest from the hyperactivity of the good times...," but can also be assigned value in the overall spectrum of human experience, and might enrich the ways in which members of a community relate to, and support, one another. In some cases, Moore says, "dark times [can] leave their mark and make you a person of insight and compassion In philosophy, desire is identified as a philosophical problem in The Republic, a dialogue by Plato. Plato observes that people in the city should follow its leaders rather their their own interests and that therefore they must exhibit moderation. Personal desires must be postponed in the name of the higher ideal. In Aristotle's De

Anima the soul is seen to be involved in motion. Animals desire things and in their desire acquire locomotion. Thus, desire is implicated in animal interactions and the propensity of animals to motion. But Aristotle acknowledges that desire cannot account for all purposive movement towards a goal. He brackets the problem by positing that perhaps reason, in conjunction with desire and by way of the imagination, makes it possible for one to apprehend an object of desire, to see it as desirable. In this way reason and desire work together to determine what is a 'good' object of desire. This resonates with desire in the chariots of Plato's Phaedrus, for in the Phaedrus the soul is guided by two horses, a dark horse of passion and a white horse of reason. Here passion and reason, as in Aristotle, are also together. Socrates does not suggest the dark horse be done away with, since its passions make possible a movement towards the objects of desire, but he qualifies desire and places it in a relation to reason so that the object of desire can be discerned correctly, so that we may have the right desire. In Passions of the Soul Descartes writes of the passion of desire as an agitation of the soul that projects desire, for what it represents as agreeable, into the future. Desire in Kant can represent things that are absent and not only objects at hand. Desire is also the preservation of objects already present, as well as the desire that certain effects not appear, that what affects one adversely be curtailed and prevented in the future. Moral and temporal values attach to desire in that objects which enhance one's future are considered more desirable than those that do not, and it introduces the possibility, or even necessity, of postponing desire in anticipation of some future event, anticipating Freud's text Beyond The Pleasure Principle. See also, the pleasure principle in psychology. PeopleNology by Gregory Bodenhamer Nollijy University In A Treatise on Human Nature Hume suggests that reason is subject to passion. Motion is put into effect by desire, passions, and inclinations. It is desire, along with belief, that motivates action. Kant establishes a relation between the beautiful and pleasure in Critique of Judgment. He says "I can say of every representation that it is at least possible (as a cognition) it should be bound up with a pleasure. Of representation that I call pleasant I say that it actually excites pleasure in me. But the beautiful we think as having a necessary reference to satisfaction." Desire is found in the representation of the object. Hegel begins his exposition of desire in Phenomenology of Spirit with the assertion that "self-consciousness is desire." It is in the restless movement of the negative that desire removes the antithesis between itself and its object, "...and the object of immediate desire is a living thing...", and object that forever remains an independent existence, something other. Hegel's inflection of desire via stoicism becomes important in understanding desire as it appears in de Sade. Stoicism in this view has a negative attitude towards "...otherness, to desire, and work." Reading Blanchot in this regard, in his essay Sade's Reason, the libertine is one, of a type that sometimes intersects with a Sadean man, who finds in stoicism, solitude, and apathy the proper conditions. Blanchot writes, "...the

libertine is thoughtful, self-contained, incapable of being moved by just anything." Apathy in de Sade is opposition not to desire but to its spontaneity. Blanchot writes that in Sade, "for passion to become energy, it is necessary that it be constricted, that it be mediated by passing through a necessary moment of insensibility, then it will be the greatest passion possible." Here is stoicism, as a form of discipline, through which the passions pass. Blanchot says, "Apathy is the spirit of negation, applied to the man who has chosen to be sovereign." Dispersed, uncontrolled passion does not augment one's creative force but diminishes it. Retrieved from "" Interpersonal attraction (known as biological attraction in animals) is the attraction between people which leads to friendships and romantic relationships. The study of interpersonal attraction is a major area of study in social psychology. In a colloquial sense, interpersonal attraction is related to how much we like, love, dislike, or hate someone. Interpersonal attraction can be thought of as a force acting between two people tending to draw them together, and resisting their separation. According to a personality psychologists' view, interpersonal attraction is a person's qualities that tend to attract by appealing to another person's desires.[1] When measuring interpersonal attraction, one must refer to the qualities of the attracted as well as the qualities of the attractor to achieve predictive accuracy. It is suggested that to determine attraction, personality and situation must be taken into account. Repulsion is also a factor in the process of interpersonal attraction, one's conception of "attraction" to another can vary from extreme attraction to extreme repulsion Findings suggest that interpersonal similarity and attraction are multidimensional constructs (Lydon, Jamieson & Zanna, 1988), in which people are attracted to others who are similar to them in demographics, physical appearance, attitudes, interpersonal style, social and cultural background, personality, interests and activities preferences, and communication and social skills. A study conducted by Theodore Newcomb (1961) on college dorm roommates suggested that individuals with shared background, majors, attitudes, values, and political views became friends. Physical appearance The matching hypothesis proposed by Goffman (1952) suggests why people become attracted to their partner. It claims that people are more likely to form long standing relationships with those who are equally physically attractive as they are. The study by Walster and Walster (1969) supported the matching hypothesis by showing that partners who were similar in terms of physical attractiveness expressed the most liking for each other. Murstein (1972) also found evidence that supported the matching hypothesis: photos of dating and engaged couples were rated in terms of attractiveness. A definite tendency was found for couples of similar attractiveness to date or engage. Attitudes According to the ‘law of attraction’ by Byrne (1971), attraction towards a person is positively related to the proportion of attitudes similarity associated with

that person. Clore (1976) also raised that the one with similar attitudes as yours was more agreeable with your perception of things and more reinforcing s/he was, so the more you like him/her. Based on the cognitive consistency theories, difference in attitudes and interests can lead to dislike and avoidance (Singh & Ho, 2000; Tan & Singh, 1995) whereas similarity in attitudes promotes social attraction (Byrne, London & Reeves, 1968; Singh & Ho, 2000). Miller (1972) pointed out that attitude similarity activates the perceived attractiveness and favorability information from each other, whereas dissimilarity would reduce the impact of these cues. The studies by Jamieson, Lydon and Zanna (1987, 1988) showed that attitude similarity could predict how people evaluate their respect for each other, and social and intellectual first impressions which in terms of activity preference similarity and value-based attitude similarity respectively. In intergroup comparisons, high attitude similarity would lead to homogeneity among in-group members whereas low attitude similarity would lead to diversity among in-group members, promoting social attraction and achieving high group performance in different tasks (Hahn & Hwang, 1999). Although attitudinal similarity and attraction are linearly related, attraction may not contribute significantly to attitude change (Simons, Berkowitz & Moyer, 1970)PeopleNology by Gregory Bodenhamer Nollijy University Social and cultural background Byrne, Clore and Worchel (1966) suggested people with similar economic status are likely to be attracted to each other. Buss & Barnes (1986) also found that people prefer their romantic partners to be similar in certain demographic characteristics, including religious background, political orientation and socio-economic status. Personality Researches showed that interpersonal attraction was positively correlated to personality similarity (Goldman, Rosenzweig & Lutter, 1980). People inclined to desire romantic partners who are similar to themselves on agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, emotional stability, openness to experience (Botwin, Buss, & Shackelford, 1997), and attachment style (Klohnen & Luo, 2003). Interests and activities Activity similarity was especially predictive of liking judgments, which affects the judgments of attraction (Lydon, Jamieson & Zanna, 1988). Lydon and Zanna (1987, 1988) claimed that high self-monitoring people were influenced more by activity preference similarity than attitude similarity on initial attraction, while low self-monitoring people were influenced more on initial attraction by value-based attitude similarity than activity preference similarity. Social skills According to the post-conversation measures of social attraction, tactical similarity was positively correlated with partner satisfaction and global competence ratings, but was uncorrelated with the opinion change and perceived persuasiveness measures (Waldron & Applegate, 1998). Reasons of spouse similarity (Watson et al., 2004) Social homogamy refers to “passive, indirect effects on spousal similarity” (Watson et al., 2004, p.1034). The result showed that age and education level, are crucial in affecting the mate preference. Because people with similar age study and interact more in the same form of the school, propinquity effect (i.e., the tendency of people to meet and spend time with those who share the common characteristics) plays a significant impact in

spousal similarity. Convergence refers to an increasing similarity with time. Although the previous researches showed that there is a greater effect on attitude and value than on personality traits, however, it is found that initial assortment (i.e., similarity within couples at the beginning of marriage), rather than convergence, plays a crucial role in explaining spousal similarity. Active assortment refers to direct effects on choosing someone similar as self in mating preferences. The data showed that there is a greater effect on political and religious attitudes than on personality traits. A follow-up issue on the reason of the finding was raised. The concepts of idiosyncratic (i.e., different individuals has different mate preferences) and consensual (i.e., a consensus of preference on some prospective mates to others) in mate preference. The data showed that mate preference on political and religious tend to be idiosyncratic, for example, A Catholic prefers to choose the one who is a Catholic, rather than a Buddhist. Such idiosyncratic preference produces high level of active assortment which plays a vital role in affecting spousal similarity. In summary, active assortment is the most powerful in explaining spousal similarity, whereas convergence has little evidence on showing such effect. Effects of similarity on interpersonal attraction Similarity has effects on starting a relationship by initial attraction to know each other. It is showed that high attitude similarity resulted in a significant increase in initial attraction to the target person and high attitude dissimilarity resulted in a decrease of initial attraction (Gutkin, Gridley & Wendt, 1976; Kaplan & Olczak, 1971). Besides, similarity also promotes relationship commitment. Study on heterosexual dating couples found that similarity in intrinsic values of the couple was linked to relationship commitment and stability (Kurdek & Schnopp-Wyatt, 1997). ] Complementarity Do birds of a feather flock together, or the opposites attract? This leads our discussion to the model of complementarity. Studies show that complementary interaction between two partners increases their attractiveness to each other (Nowicki and Manheim, 1991). Complementary partners preferred closer interpersonal relationship than non-complementary ones (Nowicki & Manheim,1991). Couples who reported the highest level of loving and harmonious relationship were more dissimilar in dominance than couples who scored lower in relationship quality. (Markey & Markey (2007). Mathes and Moore (1985) found that people were more attracted to peers approximating to their ideal self than to those who did not. Specifically, low selfesteem individuals appeared more likely to desire a complementary relationship than high self-esteem people. We are attracted to people who complement to us because this allows us to maintain our preferred style of behavior (Markey & Markey (2007), and through interaction with someone who complements our own behavior, we are likely to have a sense of self-validation and security (Carson, 1969). Similarity or Complementarity? Principles of similarity and complementarity seem to be contradictory on the surface (Posavac, 1971; Klohnen & Mendelsohn, 1998). In fact, they agree on the dimension of warmth. Both principles state that friendly people would prefer friendly partners. (Dryer & Horowitz, 1997) The importance of similarity and complementarity may depend on the stage of the

relationship. Similarity seems to carry considerable weight in initial attraction, while complementarity assumes importance as the relationship develops over time (Vinacke, Shannon, Palazzo, Balsavage, et-al, 1988). Markey (2007) found that people would be more satisfied with their relationship if their partners differed from them, at least, in terms of dominance, as two dominant persons may experience conflicts while two submissive individuals may have frustration as neither member take the initiative. Perception and actual behavior might not be congruent with each other. There were cases that dominant people perceived their partners to be similarly dominant, yet in the eyes of independent observers, the actual behavior of their partner was submissive, in other words, complementary to them (Dryer1997). Why do people perceive their romantic partners to be similar to them despite evidence to the contrary? The reason remains unclear, pending further research. Social Exchange Theory People's feelings toward another is dependent on his/her perception of rewards and costs, the kind of relationships he/she deserves, and their likelihood for having a healthier relationship with someone else. Rewards are the part of a relationship that makes it worthwhile and enjoyable. Cost is something that sometimes causes irritation like when a friend overstays his/her welcome. Comparison level is also taken into account during a relationship. This suggests that people expect rewards or punishment depending on the time invested in the relationship. If the level of expected rewards is high and the level of costs is minimal, the relationship suffers and both parties may become dissatisfied and unhappy. Lastly, the comparison level of alternatives states that satisfaction is conditional on the chance that he/she could replace the relationship with a more desirable one. PeopleNology by Gregory Bodenhamer Nollijy University Attraction = Friendship Warren Kubitschek and Maureen Hallinan, University of Notre Dame, social psychologists who suggested that attraction is the result of the propinquity and similarity effects and the status of each party involved. Their study was about the tracking program that organizes students according to their level of ability to learn. This is mostly implemented in middle and almost all of high school. Their goal is to prove that students on the same track have a higher probability of becoming friends compared to those in different tracks according. Other organizational based groupings should also follow these factors. The propinquity effect creates an ideal environment where students are in close physical proximity with each other and have the chance to build familiarity that leads to friendship. Similarity in tracking students is important because they found that track students tend to become friends with others who have the same academic achievement and expectations as themselves. They also found that students on the same level of status concerning grades will likely name them than those who are on lower level than their own. They conclude that although the factors mentioned do have great influence on friendship, they are not exclusive for organized program like tracking. Attraction = Romantic Relationship The triangular theory of love by Robert Sternberg is based on intimacy, passion,

and commitment. Consummate love being the strongest type of love which consists of three aspects: intimacy+passion+commitment.

The idea of this theory is that love can consist of one component alone or any combination of the three parts: intimacy, passion, and commitment. There are many factors taken into account when a relationship turns into love. One big factor is culture. This is a common issue among two people who come from very different cultural backgrounds. In a study done by Phillip Shavers and his colleagues, they interviewed participants from different parts of the world and found that love has "similar and different meanings cross-culturally. The Chinese participants had several different love concepts such as "sorrowlove","tenderness-pity", and "sorrow-pity". This ties into another study done by Rothbaym and his partner Tsang in 1998, they researched popular love songs from American and Chinese artists. The difference was that the Chinese love songs, "had significantly more references to suffering and to negative outcomes than the American love songs." This may be due to beliefs that interpersonal relationships are predestined, and thus have no control over love lives. Evolutionary theories The evolutionary theory of human interpersonal attraction states that interpersonal attraction most often occurs when someone has physical features indicating that they are very fertile. The only purpose of relationships is reproduction, thus people invest in partners who appear very fertile to increase the chance of their genes being passed down to the next generation. This theory has been criticized because it does not explain relationships between same-sex couples or couples who do not want children. Another evolutionary explanation suggests that fertility in a mate is of greater importance to men than to women. According to this theory, a woman places significant emphasis on a man's ability to provide resources and protection. The theory suggests that these resources and protection are important in ensuring the successful raising of the woman's offspring. The ability to provide resources and protection might also be sought because the underlying traits are likely to be passed on to male offspring. Evolutionary theory also suggests that people whose physical features suggest they are healthy are seen as more attractive. The theory suggests that a healthy mate is more likely to possess genetic traits related to health that would be passed on to offspring. People's tendency to consider people with facial symmetry more attractive than those with less symmetrical faces is one example. Although a test was conducted that found that perfectly symmetrical faces were less attractive than normal faces. [3] It has also been suggested that people are attracted to faces similar to their own. Case studies have revealed that when a photograph of a woman was superimposed to include the features of a man's face, the man whose face has been superimposed almost always rated that picture the most attractive.[citation needed] This theory is based upon the notion that we want to replicate our own

features in the next generation, as we have survived thus far with such features and have instinctive survival wishes for our children. Gerle by PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development

Another (non-evolutionary) explanation given for the results of that study was that the man whose face was superimposed may have consciously or unconsciously associated the photographically altered female face with the face of his mother or other family member.[citation needed] Breaking Up This is the ending of a relationship whether its a friendship or romantic relationship. There are several reasons that a relationship may come to an end. One reason derives from the equity theory (rewards and costs are equal to both parties), if a person in the relationship feels that the costs of them being in the relationship outweigh the rewards there is a strong chance they will end the relationship, this also may go for the rewards outweighing costs in some cases Sin is a term used mainly in a religious context to describe an act that violates a moral rule, or the state of having committed such a violation. Commonly, the moral code of conduct is decreed by a divine entity (such as the god in the Abrahamic religions). Sin is often used to mean an action that is prohibited or considered wrong; in some religions (notably some sects of Christianity), sin can refer to a state of mind rather than a specific action. Colloquially, any thought, word, or act considered immoral, shameful, harmful, or alienating might be termed "sinful". Common ideas surrounding sin in various religions include: Punishment for sins, from other people, from God either in life or in afterlife, or from the Universe in general. The question of whether or not an act must be intentional to be sinful. The idea that one's conscience should produce guilt for a conscious act of sin. A scheme for determining the seriousness of the sin. Repentance from (expressing regret for and determining not to commit) sin, and atonement (repayment) for past deeds. The possibility of forgiveness of sins, often through communication with a deity or intermediary; in Christianity often referred to as salvation. Crime and justice are related secular concepts. Buddhism does not recognize the idea behind sin because in Buddhism, instead, there is a "Cause-Effect Theory", known as Karma, or action. In general, Buddhism illustrates intentions as the cause of Karma, either good or bad. Furthermore, most thoughts in any being's mind can be negative. Vipaka, the result of your Karma, may create low quality living, hardships, destruction and all means of disharmony in life and it may also create healthy living, easiness, and harmony in life. Good deeds produce good results while bad deeds produce bad results. Karma and Vipaka are your own action and result. Pañcasīla (Pāli) is the fundamental code of Buddhist ethics, willingly undertaken by lay followers of

Gautama Buddha. It is a basic understanding of the Noble Eightfold Path, which is a Buddhist teaching on ways to stop suffering. Pancasila I undertake the rule to refrain from destroying living creatures. I undertake the rule to refrain from taking that which is not given. I undertake the rule to refrain from sexual misconduct. I undertake the rule to refrain from incorrect speech. I undertake the rule to refrain from intoxicants which lead to carelessness. Noble Eightfold Path Right View Right Intention Right Speech Right Action Right Work Right Effort Right Mindfulness Right Concentration These ultimately lead to cessation of suffering and thus is a way to be free of Samsara, the cycle of death. After that, Nirvana is achieved. PeopleNology by Gregory Bodenhamer Nollijy University NirvanaNivvā a; Vietnamese: Niết bàn; Chinese: 涅槃, Mandarin: nièpán, Cantonese: nihppùhn; Japanese: nehan (涅槃, nehan?); Korean: 열반, yeolban; Thai: นิพพาน, nibpan; Tibetan: mya-ngan-las-'das-pa; Mongolian: asalang-aca nögcigsen; Burmese: nate ban edAmef); is a Sanskrit word that literally means "to cease blowing" (as when a candle flame ceases to flicker) and/or extinguishing (that is, of the passions). It is a sramana philosophical concept, used by the Jains and the Buddhists, to describe the enlightenment and liberation of their respective teachers. Nibbāna is a word used by the Buddha to describe the perfect peace of the mind that is free from craving, anger and other afflictive states (kilesa). This peace, which is in reality the fundamental nature of the mind, is revealed when the root causes of the afflictive states are dissolved. The causes themselves (see sankhara) lie deep within the mind (that part of the mind that Western psychology calls the subconscious) but their undoing is gradually achieved by living a disciplined life (see eightfold path). In Nibbana the root causes of craving and aversion have been extinguished such that one is no longer subject to human suffering (dukkha) or further states of rebirths in samsara. Buddhist scholar, Prof. Herbert Guenther, states of Nirvana: "The notion of Nirvana is a transcendental postulate, which can only be proven psychologically/subjectively, not scientifically. Yet all highest and final goals lead towards it; indeed, it appears even to constitute the very commencement of the entire spiritual life ...With the reaching of Nirvana the Path has come to its end and reached its goal. The Self-realisation which was striven after and which here becomes Reality, signifies the ideal personality, the true human being." (Guenther, The Problem of the Soul in Early Buddhism, Curt Weller Verlag, Constanz, 1949, pp. 156-157). The Buddha in the Dhammapada says of nirvana that it is "the highest happiness". This happiness is rather an enduring, transcendental happiness integral to the calmness attained through enlightenment or bodhi, than the happiness of blindful entertainment. The knowledge accompanying nirvana is expressed through the word bodhi. In Jainism, it means final release from the karmic bondage. When an enlightened human, such as, an Arhat or a Tirthankara extinguishes his remaining aghatiya karmas and thus ends his worldly existence, it is called nirvana. Technically, the death of an Arhat is called nirvana of Arhat, as he has ended his wordly existence and attained liberation. Moksa, that is to say, liberation follows nirvana. An Arhat becomes a siddha, the liberated one, after attaining nirvana. The Eight

Precepts are the precepts for Buddhist lay men and women who wish to practice a bit more strictly than the usual five precepts for Buddhists. The eight precepts focus both on avoiding morally bad behaviour, and on leading a more ascetic lifestyle. The five precepts, however, focus only on avoiding morally bad behaviour. In Theravada Buddhist countries such as Sri Lanka and Thailand, Buddhist laymen and laywomen will often spend one day a week (on the Uposatha days: the new moon, first-quarter moon, full moon and last-quarter moon days) living in the monastery, and practicing the eight precepts. The Buddha gave teachings on how the eight precepts are to be practiced,[1] and on the right and wrong ways of practicing the eight precepts.[2] I undertake to abstain from taking life (both human and nonhuman). I undertake to abstain from taking what is not given (stealing). I undertake to abstain from all sexual activity. I undertake to abstain from telling lies. I undertake to abstain from using intoxicating drinks and drugs which lead to carelessness. I undertake to abstain from eating at the wrong time (the right time is eating once, after sunrise, before noon). I undertake to abstain from singing, dancing, playing music, attending entertainment performances, wearing perfume, and using cosmetics and garlands (decorative accessories). I undertake to abstain from luxurious places for sitting or sleeping. Within Christian circles, the ethic of reciprocity is often called the "Golden Rule". Christianity adopted the ethic from two edicts, found in Leviticus 19:18 ("Do not seek revenge or bear a grudge against one of your people, but love your neighbor as yourself. I am the LORD.") and Leviticus 19:34 ("But the stranger that dwelleth with you shall be unto you as one born among you, and thou shalt love him as thyself; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt: I am the LORD your God"). Crucially, Leviticus 19:34 universalizes the edict of Leviticus 19:18 from "one of your people" to all of humankind. Several passages in the New Testament quote Jesus of Nazareth espousing the ethic of reciprocity, including the following: Matthew 7:12 "So in everything, do to others what you would have them do to you, for this sums up the Law and the Prophets." Luke 6:27-36 Love Your Enemies 27 "But I say to you who listen: Love your enemies, do good to those who hate you, 28 Bless those who curse you, pray for those who mistreat you. 29 If anyone hits you on the cheek, offer the other also. And if anyone takes away your coat, don't hold back your shirt either.

30 Give to everyone who asks from you, and from one who takes away your things, don't ask for them back. 31 Just as you want others to do for you, do the same for them. 32 If you love those who love you, what credit is that to you? Even sinners love those who love them. 33 If you do [what is] good to those who are good to you, what credit is that to you? Even sinners do that. 34 And if you lend to those from whom you expect to receive, what credit is that to you? Even sinners lend to sinners to be repaid in full. 35 But love your enemies, do [what is] good, and lend, expecting nothing in return. Then your reward will be great, and you will be sons of the Most High. For He is gracious to the ungrateful and evil. 36 Be merciful, just as your Father also is merciful." Pali literature provides the scriptures and commentary for traditional Theravadin practice. Elaboration In the Pali Canon, the following typifies elaborations that frequently accompany these identified training rules: "... There is the case where a certain person, abandoning the taking of life, abstains from the taking of life. He dwells with his rod laid down, his knife laid down, scrupulous, merciful, compassionate for the welfare of all living beings. Abandoning the taking of what is not given, he abstains from taking what is not given. He does not take, in the manner of a thief, things in a village or a wilderness that belong PeopleNology by Gregory Bodenhamer Nollijy University to others and have not been given by them. Abandoning sensual misconduct, he abstains from sensual misconduct. He does not get sexually involved with those who are protected by their mothers, their fathers, their brothers, their sisters, their relatives, or their Dhamma; those with husbands, those who entail punishments, or even those crowned with flowers by another man.... "... There is the case where a certain person, abandoning false speech, abstains from false speech. When he has been called to a town meeting, a group meeting, a gathering of his relatives, his guild, or of the royalty, if he is asked as a witness, 'Come & tell, good man, what you know': If he doesn't know, he says, 'I don't know.' If he does know, he says, 'I know.' If he hasn't seen, he says, 'I haven't seen.' If he has seen, he says, 'I have seen.' Thus he doesn't consciously tell a lie for his own sake, for the sake of another, or for the sake of any reward. Abandoning false speech, he abstains from false speech...."[5] According to the Buddha, killing, stealing, sexual misconduct and lying are never skillful.[6] Motivation In the Abhisandha Sutta (AN 8.39), the Buddha said that

undertaking the precepts is a gift to oneself and others: "... In [undertaking the five precepts], he gives freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless numbers of beings. In giving freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless numbers of beings, he gains a share in limitless freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, and freedom from oppression. This is the ... gift, the ... great gift — original, long-standing, traditional, ancient, unadulterated, unadulterated from the beginning — that is not open to suspicion, will never be open to suspicion, and is unfaulted by knowledgeable contemplatives & priests. This is the ... reward of merit, reward of skillfulness, nourishment of happiness, celestial, resulting in happiness, leading to heaven, leading to what is desirable, pleasurable, & appealing; to welfare & to happiness."[7] In the next canonical discourse, the Buddha described the minimal negative consequences of breaking the precepts 2 I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery; 3 Do not have any other gods before me. 4 You shall not make for yourself an idol, whether in the form of anything that is in heaven above, or that is on the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. 5 You shall not bow down to them or worship them; for I the Lord your God am a jealous God, punishing children for the iniquity of parents, to the third and the fourth generation of those who reject me, 6 but showing steadfast love to the thousandth generation of those who love me and keep my commandments. 7 You shall not make wrongful use of the name of the Lord your God, for the Lord will not acquit anyone who misuses his name. 8 Remember the Sabbath day and keep it holy. 9 For six days you shall labour and do all your work. 10 But the seventh day is a Sabbath to the Lord your God; you shall not do any work—you, your son or your daughter, your male or female slave, your livestock, or the alien resident in your towns. 11 For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them, but rested the seventh day; therefore the Lord blessed the Sabbath day and consecrated it. 12 Honor your father and your mother, so that your days may be long in the land that the Lord your God is giving you. 13 You shall not murder. 14 You shall not commit adultery. 15 You shall not steal. 16 You shall not bear false witness against your neighbour. 17 You shall not covet your neighbour’s house; you shall not covet your neighbour’s wife, or male or female slave, or ox, or donkey, or anything that belongs to your neighbour. 6 I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery; 7 you shall have no other gods before me. 8 You shall not make for yourself an idol, whether in the form of anything that is in heaven above, or that is on the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. 9 You shall not bow down to them or worship them; for I the Lord your God am a jealous God, punishing children for the iniquity of parents, to the third and fourth generation of those who reject me, 10 but showing steadfast love to the

thousandth generation of those who love me and keep my commandments. 11 You shall not make wrongful use of the name of the Lord your God, for the Lord will not acquit anyone who misuses his name. 12 Observe the sabbath day and keep it holy, as the Lord your God commanded you. 13 For six days you shall labour and do all your work. 14 But the seventh day is a sabbath to the Lord your God; you shall not do any work—you, or your son or your daughter, or your male or female slave, or your ox or your donkey, or any of your livestock, or the resident alien in your towns, so that your male and female slave may rest as well as you. 15 Remember that you were a slave in the land of Egypt, and the Lord your God brought you out from there with a mighty hand and an outstretched arm; therefore the Lord your God commanded you to keep the sabbath day. 16 Honor your father and your mother, as the Lord your God commanded you, so that your days may be long and that it may go well with you in the land that the Lord your God is giving you. 17 You shall not murder. 18 Neither shall you commit adultery. 19 Neither shall you steal. 20 Neither shall you bear false witness against your neighbour. 21 Neither shall you covet your neighbour’s wife. Neither shall you desire your neighbour’s house, or field, or male or female slave, or ox, or donkey, or anything that belongs to your neighbour. According to the Medieval Sefer haChinuch, the first four statements concern the relationship between God and humans, while the next six statements concern the relationships between people. Rabbinic literature holds that the Ten Statements in fact contain 14 or 15 distinct instructions. "I am the LORD your God who brought you out of the land of Egypt, from the house of slavery. You shall have no other gods before Me..." This commandment is to believe in the existence of God and His influence on events in the world, and that the goal of the redemption from Egypt was to become His servants (Rashi). It prohibits belief in or worship of any additional deities. "Do not make an image or any likeness of what is in the heavens above.. ." This prohibits the construction or fashioning of "idols" in the likeness of created things (beasts, fish, birds, people) and worshipping them. "Do not swear falsely by the name of the LORD..." This commandment is to never take the name of God in a vain, pointless or insincere oath.[25] "Remember [zachor] the Sabbath day and keep it holy" (the version in Deuteronomy reads shamor, "observe") The seventh day of the week is termed Shabbat and is holy, just as God ceased creative activity during Creation. The aspect of zachor is performed by declaring the greatness of the day (kiddush), by having three festive meals, and by engaging in Torah study and pleasurable activities. The aspect of shamor is performed by abstaining from productive activity (39 melachot) on the Shabbat. "Honor your father and your mother..." The obligation to honor one's parents is an obligation that one owes to God and fulfills this obligation through one's actions towards one's parents. "Do not murder" Murdering a human being is a capital sin.[26] "Do not commit adultery." Adultery is defined as sexual intercourse between a man and a married woman who is not his wife.[25] "Do not steal."

According to Rashi, this is not understood as stealing in the conventional sense, since theft of property is forbidden elsewhere and is not a capital offense. In this context it is to be taken as "do not kidnap."[25] "Do not bear false witness against your neighbor" One must not bear false witness in a court of law or other proceeding. "Do not covet your neighbor's wife" One is forbidden to desire and plan how one may obtain that which God has given to another. Maimonides makes a distinction in codifying the laws between the instruction given here in Exodus (You shall not covet) and that given in Deuteronomy (You shall not desire), according to which one does not violate the Exodus commandment unless there is a physical action associated with the desire, even if this is legally purchasing an envied object. The ten precepts of Buddhism are: Refrain from killing living things. Refrain from stealing. Refrain from un-chastity (sensuality, sexuality, lust). Refrain from lying. Refrain from taking intoxicants. Refrain from taking food at inappropriate times (after noon). Refrain from singing, dancing, playing music or attending entertainment programs (performances). Refrain from wearing perfume, cosmetics and garland (decorative accessories). Refrain from sitting on high chairs and sleeping on luxurious, soft beds. Refrain from accepting money. Warrior code is an ethical code followed by warriors, often those in an aristocratic society that were privileged by birth, belonging to nobility or another superior caste. Warriors' honor is dependent on following the code. Common virtues in warrior code are mercy, courage and loyalty. Warrior code exists to prevent tyranny and corruption. Some historical warrior codes are chivalry, followed by Christian knights in Europe; Dharma, followed by the Hindu Kshatriyas; bushido, followed by Japanese samurai; and xiá in China PeopleNology by Gregory Bodenhamer Nollijy University Disgust is an emotion that is typically associated with things that are perceived as unclean, inedible, or infectious. In The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, Charles Darwin wrote that disgust refers to something revolting. Primarily in relation to the sense of taste, as actually perceived or vividly imagined; and secondarily to anything which causes a similar feeling, through the sense of smell, touch, and even of eyesight. Disgust is one of the basic emotions of Robert Plutchik's theory of emotions. Disgust invokes a characteristic facial expression, one of Paul Ekman's six universal facial expressions of emotion. It is also associated with a fall in heart rate, in contrast, for example, to fear or anger.[1] Disgust may be further subdivided into physical disgust, associated with physical or metaphorical uncleanness, and moral disgust, a similar feeling related to courses of action. Disappointment is the feeling of dissatisfaction that follows the failure of expectations to manifest. Similar to regret, it differs in that the individual feeling regret focuses primarily on personal choices contributing to a poor outcome, while the individual feeling disappointment focuses on outcome.[1] It is a source of psychological stress.[2]

The study of disappointment—its causes, impact and the degree to which individual decisions are motivated by a desire to avoid it—is a focus in the field of decision analysis,[1][3] as disappointment is one of two primary emotions involved in decision-making Disappointment is a subjective response related to the anticipated rewards.[1] The psychological results of disappointment vary greatly among individuals; while some recover quickly, others mire in frustration or blame or become depressed.[2] A 2003 study of young children with parental background of childhood onset depression found that there may be a genetic predisposition to slow recovery following disappointment.[7] While not every person responds to disappointment by becoming depressed, depression can (in the self psychology school of psychoanalytic theory) almost always be seen as secondary to disappointment/frustration.[8] Disappointment, and an inability to prepare for it, has also been hypothesized as the source of occasional immune system compromise in optimists.[9] While optimists by and large exhibit better health,[10] they may alternatively exhibit less immunity when under prolonged or uncontrollable stress, a phenomenon which researchers have attributed to the "disappointment effect".[9] The "disappointment effect" posits that optimists do not utilize "emotional cushioning" to prepare for disappointment and hence are less able to deal with it when they experience it.[10][11] This disappointment effect has been challenged since the mid-1990s by researcher Suzanne C. Segerstrom, who has published, alone and in accord, several articles evaluating its plausibility. Her findings suggest that, rather than being unable to deal with disappointment, optimists are more likely to actively tackle their problems and experience some immunity compromise as a result.[12] In 1994, psychotherapist Ian Craib published the book The Importance of Disappointment, in which he drew on the works of Melanie Klein and Sigmund Freud in advancing the theory that disappointment-avoidant cultures—particularly therapy culture—provides false expectations of perfection in life and prevents people from achieving a healthy self-identity.[13] Craib offered as two examples litigious victims of medical mistakes, who once would have accepted accidents as a course of life, and people suffering grief following the death of a loved one who, he said, are provided a false stage model of recovery that is more designed to comfort bereavement therapists than the bereaved.[14] In a 2004 article, the journal Psychology Today recommended handling disappointment through concrete steps including accepting that setbacks are normal, setting realistic goals, planning subsequent moves, thinking about positive role models, seeking support and tackling tasks by stages rather than focusing on the big picture Disappointment theory, pioneered in the mid-1980s by David E. Bell with further development by Graham Loomes and Robert Sugden,[15] revolves around the notion that people contemplating risks are disappointed when the outcome of the risk is not evaluated as positively as the expected outcome.

[16] Disappointment theory has been utilized in examining such diverse decisionmaking processes as return migration, taxpayer compliance and customer willingness to pay.[17] Disappointed individuals focus on "upward counterfactuals"—alternative outcomes that would have been better than the one actually experienced—to the point that even positive outcomes may result in disappointment.[18] One example, supplied by Bell, concerns a lottery win of $10,000.00, an event which will theoretically be perceived more positively if that amount represents the highest possible win in the lottery than if it represents the lowest.[19] Decision analysts operate on the assumption that individuals will anticipate the potential for disappointment and make decisions that are less likely to lead to the experience of this feeling.[15] Disappointment aversion has been posited as one explanation for the Allais paradox, a problematic response in expected utility theory wherein people prove more likely to choose a sure reward than to risk a higher one while at the same time being willing to attempt a greater reward with lower probability when both options include some risk.[20] While earlier developers of disappointment theory focused on anticipated outcomes, more recent examinations by Philippe Delquié and Alessandra Cillo of INSEAD have focused on the impact of later disappointment resulting when an actual outcome comes to be regarded negatively based on further development; for example, if a person receives higher than expected gains in the stock market, she may be elated until she discovers a week later that she could have gained much more profit if she had waited a few more days to sell.[15] This experience of disappointment may influence subsequent behavior, and, the analysts state, an incorporation of such variables into disappointment theory may enhance the study of behavioral finance.[15] Disappointment" is, along with regret, measured by direct questioning of respondents Doubt, a status between belief and disbelief, involves uncertainty or distrust or lack of sureness of a fact, an action, a motive, or a decision. Doubt brings into question some notion of a perceived "reality", and may involve delaying relevant action out of concerns for mistakes or faults. The term "to doubt" can also mean "to question one's circumstances and lifeexperience". Doubt sometimes tends to call on reason. It may encourage people to hesitate before acting, and/or to apply more rigorous methods. Doubt may have particular importance as leading towards disbelief. Politics, ethics and law, faced with important decisions that often determine the course of individual life, place great importance on doubt, and often foster elaborate adversarial processes to carefully sort through all the evidence to come to a decision. One view regards the scientific method, and to a degree all of science, as entirely motivated by doubt: rather than accepting existing theories, scientists express systematic or habitual doubt (skepticism) and devise experiments to test (and, optimally, to disprove) any theory. Some commentators[who?] see technology as simply the expansion of the experiments to a wider user-base, which takes real risks[citation needed] with it. Users may no longer doubt the applicability of the theory in play, but there remain doubts about how it interacts with the real world.

The process of technology-transfer stages exploitation of science to ensure the minimization of doubt and danger PeopleNology by Gregory Bodenhamer Nollijy University Ecstasy is subjective experience of total involvement of the subject with an object of his or her awareness. Because total involvement with an object of our interest is not our ordinary experience since we are ordinarily aware also of other objects, the ecstasy is an example of altered state of consciousness characterized by diminished awareness of other objects or total lack of the awareness of surroundings and everything around the object. For instance, if one is concentrating on a physical task, then one might cease to be aware of any intellectual thoughts. On the other hand, making a spirit journey in an ecstatic trance involves the cessation of voluntary bodily movement. For the duration of the ecstasy the ecstatic is out of touch with ordinary life and is capable neither of communication with other people nor of undertaking normal actions. Although the experience is usually brief in physical time (from momentary to about half an hour), there are records of such experiences lasting several days or even more, and of recurring experiences of ecstasy during one's lifetime. Subjective perception of time, space and/or self may strongly change or disappear during ecstasy Ecstasy can be deliberately induced using religious or creative activities, meditation, music, dancing, breathing exercises, physical exercise, sex or consumption of psychotropic drugs, e.g. MDMA. The particular technique that an individual uses to induce ecstasy is usually also associated with that individual's particular religious and cultural traditions. Sometimes an ecstatic experience takes place due to occasional contact with something or somebody perceived as extremely beautiful or holy, or without any known reason. "In some cases, a person might obtain an ecstatic experience "by mistake". Maybe the person unintentionally triggers one of the, probably many, physiological mechanisms through which such an experience can be reached. In such cases, it is not rare to find that the person later, by reading, looks for an interpretation and maybe finds it within a tradition."[1] People interpret the experience afterwards according to their culture and beliefs (as a revelation from God, a trip to the world of spirits or a psychotic episode). "When a person is using an ecstasy technique, he usually does so within a tradition. When he reaches an experience, a traditional interpretation of it already exists."[2] The experience together with its subsequent interpretation may strongly and permanently change the value system and the worldview of the subject (e.g. to cause religious conversion Empathy is the capacity to recognise or understand another's state of mind or emotion. It is often characterized as the ability to "put oneself into another's shoes", or to in some way experience the outlook or emotions of another being within oneself. It may be described metaphorically as an emotional kind of resonance or mirroring Since empathy involves understanding the emotions of other people, the way it is characterised is

derivative of the way emotions themselves are characterised. If for example, emotions are taken to be centrally characterised by bodily feelings, then grasping the bodily feelings of another will be central to empathy. On the other hand, if emotions are more centrally characterised by combinations of beliefs and desires, then grasping these beliefs and desires will be more essential to empathy. Furthermore, a distinction should be made between deliberately imagining being another person, or being in their situation, and simply recognizing their emotion.

by PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development Nollijy University Research Institute Arts & Sciences - Evolution
The ability to imagine oneself as another person is a sophisticated imaginative process. However the basic capacity to recognize emotions is probably innate and may be achieved unconsciously. Yet it can be trained, and achieved with various degrees of intensity or accuracy. The human capacity to recognize the bodily feelings of another is related to one's imitative capacities, and seems to be grounded in the innate capacity to associate the bodily movements and facial expressions one sees in another with the proprioceptive feelings of producing those corresponding movements or expressions oneself. Humans also seem to make the same immediate connection between the tone of voice and other vocal expressions and inner feeling. See neurological basis below. There is some debate concerning how exactly the conscious experience (or phenomenology) of empathy should be characterized. The basic idea is that by looking at the facial expressions or bodily movements of another, or by hearing their tone of voice, one may get an immediate sense of how they feel (as opposed to more intellectually noting the behavioral symptoms of their emotion).[3] Though empathic recognition is likely to involve some form of arousal in the empathiser, they may not experience this feeling as belonging to their own body, but instead likely to perceptually locate the feeling 'in' the body of the other person. Alternatively the empathiser may instead get a sense of an emotional 'atmosphere' or that the emotion belongs equally to all the parties

involved. More fully developed empathy requires more than simply recognizing another's emotional state. Since emotions are typically directed towards objects or states of affairs, the empathiser may first require some idea of what that object might be (where object can include imaginary objects, concepts, other people, or even the empathiser). Alternatively the recognition of the feeling may precede the recognition of the object of that emotion, or even aid the empathiser in discovering the object of the other's emotion. The empathiser may also need to determine how the emotional state affects the way in which the other perceives the object. For example, the empathizer needs to determine which aspects of the object to focus on. Hence it is often not enough that the empathiser recognize the object toward which the other is directed, plus the bodily feeling, and then simply add these components together. Rather the empathiser needs to find the way into the loop where perception of the object affects feeling and feeling affects the perception of the object. The following sequence of examples identifies some of the major factors in empathising with another: I sense that: Frank is feeling annoyed, (via facial, vocal or postural expression). Frank is feeling annoyed due to not getting what he wants, (general object of emotion). Frank is feeling annoyed because he missed his train, (particular object of emotion) Frank is feeling annoyed because he missed his train, but only by a few seconds, (focus of particular object). Frank is feeling annoyed because he only just missed his train and he had an important meeting to get to, (background non-psychological context). Frank is feeling annoyed because he only just missed his train, and he had an important meeting and because he is generally an irritable sort of person (character traits). PeopleNology by Gregory Bodenhamer Nollijy University Envy may be defined as an emotion that "occurs when a person lacks another’s superior quality, achievement, or possession and either desires it or wishes that the other lacked it."[1] It can also derive from a sense of low self-esteem that results from an upward social comparison threatening a person's self image: another person has something that the envier considers to be important to have. If the other person is perceived to be similar to the envier, the aroused envy will be particularly intense, because it signals to the envier that it just as well could have been him or her who had the desired object.[2][3] Bertrand Russell said envy was one of the most potent causes of unhappiness.[4] It is a universal and most unfortunate aspect of human nature because not only is the envious person rendered unhappy by his envy, but also wishes to inflict misfortune on others. Although envy is generally seen as something negative, Russell(1930, p. 90-91)also believed that envy was a driving force behind the movement towards democracy and must be endured in order to achieve a more just social system. The tendency to feel envy seems to be present in all cultures Competition is the rivalry of two or more parties over something. Competition occurs naturally between living organisms which coexist in the same environment. For example, animals compete over water supplies, food, and mates. In addition, humans compete for attention, wealth, prestige, and

fame. Competition can be remote, as in a free throw contest, or antagonistic, as in a standard basketball game. These contests are similar, but in the first one players are isolated from each other, while in the second one they are able to interfere with the performance of their competitors. Competition gives incentives for self improvement. If two watchmakers are competing for business, they will lower their prices and improve their products to increase their sales. If birds compete for a limited water supply during a drought, the more suited birds will survive to reproduce and improve the population. Rivals will often refer to their competitors as "the competition". The term can also be used as to refer to the contest or tournament itself. Resentment an emotion of anger or bitterness felt repeatedly as a result of a real or imagined wrong done. Professor Robert C. Solomon places resentment on the same line continuum with contempt and anger. According to him the differences between the three emotions are that: resentment is directed toward a higher status individual, anger is directed toward equal status individual and contempt is directed toward lower status individual. [1] Often resentment will manifest itself in the following ways.[2] The harboring of animosity against a person or group of people whom the person feels has mistreated them. Unresolved anger over a negative event which occurred in the past. Seething, aching emotional turmoil felt whenever a certain person or event is discussed. The lack of forgiving, the inability to let go and forget. A root of distrust and suspicion have when dealing with people or events that brought pain in the past. Unresolved grief experienced when finding it difficult to accept a loss. A grudge held against a person or group of people whom the person feels has kept them from achieving anything. It can be an emotionally disturbing experience that is being felt again or relived in the mind. When the person feeling resentment is directing the emotion at himself it appears as remorse. Embarrassment is an emotional state experienced upon having a socially or professionally unacceptable act or condition witnessed by or revealed to others. Usually some amount of loss of honour or dignity is involved, but how much and the type depends on the embarrassing situation. It is similar to shame, except that shame (at least in the West) may be experienced for an act known only to oneself. Also, embarrassment usually carries the connotation of being caused by an act that is merely socially unacceptable, rather than morally wrong. Embarrassment can be personal, caused by unwanted attention to private matters or personal flaws or mishaps. Some causes of embarrassment stem from personal actions, such as being caught in a lie or in making a mistake, losing badly in a competition, being caught performing bodily functions such as flatulence or engaging in sex. In many cultures, being seen nude or inappropriately dressed is a particularly stressful form of embarrassment (see modesty). Personal embarrassment could also stem from the actions of others which place the embarrassed person in a socially awkward situation, such as having one's awkward baby pictures shown to friends, having someone make a derogatory comment about one's appearance or behavior, discovering one is the victim of gossip, being rejected by another person (see also humiliation), being made the focus of attention (e.g. birthday celebrants, newlyweds), or even

witnessing someone else's embarrassment. Personal embarrassment is usually accompanied by some combination of blushing, sweating, nervousness, stammering, and fidgeting. Sometimes the embarrassed person will try to mask embarrassment with smiles or nervous laughter, especially in etiquette situations; such a response is more common in certain cultures, which may lead to misunderstanding. There may even be an angry response depending on the perceived seriousness of the situation. The idea that embarrassment serves an apology or appeasement function originated with Goffman (1967) who argued the embarrassed individual “demonstrates that he/she is at least disturbed by the fact and may prove worthy at another time”. Semin & Manstead (1982) demonstrated social functions of embarrassment whereby the perpetrator of knocking over a sales display (the ‘bad act’) was deemed more likeable by others if he/she appeared embarrassed than if he/she appeared unconcerned – regardless of restitution behaviour (rebuilding the display). The capacity to experience embarrassment can also be seen to be functional for the group or culture. It has been demonstrated that those who are not prone to embarrassment are more likely to engage in antisocial behaviour – for example, adolescent boys who displayed more embarrassment were found to be less likely to engage in aggressive/delinquent behaviours. Similarly, embarrassment exhibited by boys more likely to engage in aggressive/delinquent behaviour was less than one-third of that exhibited by non-aggressive boys (Ketlner et al. 1995). Thus proneness to embarrassment (i.e. a concern for how one is evaluated by others) can act as a brake on behaviour that would be dysfunctional for group or culture PeopleNology by Gregory Bodenhamer Nollijy University Euphoria is a medically recognized emotional state related to pleasure and happiness. Technically, euphoria is an affect,[1] but colloquially the term is often used as a standard term of emotion to mean intense, transcendent happiness combined with an overwhelming sense of well being. The word derives from Greek ε φορία, "power of enduring easily, fertility"[2][3]. Euphoria is considered to be an exaggerated state, resulting from psychological or pharmacological stressors and not typically achieved during the normal course of human experience, although some natural behaviors, such as those resulting in orgasm, can consistently produce a brief state of euphoria.[1] A common theme among a subset of drugs used recreationally is their ability to induce a state of euphoria.[4] The classification of episodic mania by Emil Kraepelin recognized the degree of euphoric affect among the classifier axes. Drugs such as alcohol, opiates, marijuana, amphetamines, cocaine, MDMA, and so on can induce chemically intense euphoria Serious fear is a response to some formidable impending peril, while trifling fear arises from confrontation with inconsequential danger. Fear can be described by different terms in accordance with its relative degrees. Personal fear varies extremely in degree from mild caution to extreme phobia and paranoia. Fear is related to a number of emotional states including worry, anxiety, terror, fright, paranoia, horror, panic (social and personal), persecution complex and dread.

Gerle by PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development

Fears may be a factor within a larger social network, wherein personal fears are synergetically compounded as mass hysteria. Paranoia is a term used to describe a psychosis of fear, described as a heightened perception of being persecuted, false or otherwise. This degree of fear often indicates that one has changed their normal behavior in radical ways, and may have become extremely compulsive. Sometimes, the result of extreme paranoia is a phobia. Distrust in the context of interpersonal fear, is sometimes explained as the inward feeling of caution, usually focused towards a person, representing an unwillingness to trust in someone else. Distrust is not a lack of faith or belief in someone, but a feeling of warning towards someone or something questionable or unknown. For example, one may "distrust" a stranger who acts in a way that is perceived as "odd." Likewise one may "distrust" the safety of a rusty old bridge across a 100 ft drop. Terror refers to a pronounced state of fear - which usually occurs before the state of horror - when someone becomes overwhelmed with a sense of immediate danger. Also, it can be caused by perceiving the (possibly extreme) phobia. As a consequence, terror overwhelms the person to the point of making irrational choices and non-typical behavior. Fear can also affect the subconscious and unconscious mind, most notably through nightmares. Fear can also be imagined, and the side effects can also be imagined. Frustration is an emotion that occurs in situations where one is blocked from reaching a personal goal. The more important the goal, the greater the frustration. It is comparable to anger. Sources of frustration may be internal or external. Internal sources of frustration involve personal deficiencies such as a lack of confidence or fear of social situations that prevent one from reaching a goal. Conflict can also be an internal source of frustration when one has competing goals that interfere with one another. External causes of frustration involve conditions outside the person such as a blocked road, lack of money, or lack of sexual activity. In terms of psychology, passive-aggressive behavior is a method of dealing with frustration. Frustration can be a result of blocking motivated behavior. An individual may react in several different ways. He may respond with rational problem-solving methods to overcome the barrier. Failing in this, he may become frustrated and behave irrationally. An example of blockage of motivational energy would be the case of the worker who wants time off to go fishing but is denied permission by his supervisor. Another example would be the executive who wants a promotion but finds he lacks certain qualifications. If, in these cases, an appeal to reason does not succeed in

reducing the barrier or in developing some reasonable alternative approach, the frustrated individual may resort to less adaptive methods of trying to reach his goal. He may, for example, attack the barrier physically or verbally or both. The worker who is refused time off to go fishing may "cuss out" his supervisor to his face or behind his back. If he is sufficiently aroused, he may strike out at him with his fists or with the nearest weapon. If the supervisor is not present or the worker's fear of the consequences of direct attack is stronger than his desire to attack, he may transfer his aggression to someone or something else. Taking his frustration out on his family or on some object like his car or his equipment are typical ways of transferring aggression. Another "solution" to frustration is regressive behavior — becoming childish or reverting to earlier and more primitive ways of coping with the goal barrier. Throwing a temper tantrum, bursting into tears, or sulking are examples of regression. Wearing a long face and a worried look are other signs of this method of dealing with frustration. Stubborn refusal to respond to new conditions affecting the goal, such as removal or modification of the barrier, sometimes occurs. As pointed out by Brown, severe punishment may cause individuals to continue nonadaptive behavior blindly: “Either it may have an effect opposite to that of reward and as such, discourage the repetition of the act, or, by functioning as a frustrating agent, it may lead to fixation and the other symptoms of frustration as well. It follows that punishment is a dangerous tool, since it often has effects which are entirely the opposite of those desired” [1]. An example of nonadaptive behavior of this sort might occur in the case of the executive who feels persecuted by his failure to be promoted. Even when offered a training course to improve his chances of promotion, he turns down this opportunity and continues to sulk. Flight, or leaving the scene, is another way people have of dealing with their frustrations. In the above example of the executive, we might find him quitting his job rather than face up to the consequences of being passed over for promotion. Or, a player quits the football squad because he is not given enough playing time or fails to win the starting berth as quarterback. Managers must learn to recognize the symptoms of frustration to avoid responding in ways that intensify rather than ameliorate the problem. The main point to remember is that the affected person is often not in a rational, problem-solving frame of mind and is, therefore, not attuned to the "facts" or to logical procedures for dealing with his situation. Some frustrated people need to be guided back to "reality". They cannot be reasoned with in their present mental state. Listening with understanding to such a person is one effective way to reduce frustration. Talking to a sympathetic listener provides a way for him to vent his feelings and regain control of himself[1]. Motives provide energy and direction for behavior. Appropriate behavior, in turn, reduces the inner tensions that signal the motivated state. An understanding of the relationships among motives, behavior, and human goals provides the manager, administrator, or leader with a way of thinking about human activity and a framework within which to gather, sort, and analyze data related to behavioral problems. An increasingly common source of frustration is due strongly to the

presence of computer technology. Because modern computing is marketed as user-friendly, it can be extremely frustating when one cannot achieve a goal due in part to a technological error, and because the user-friendly aspect is removed, many people find themselves unable to come to terms with their lack of options. Gratitude, appreciation, or thankfulness is a positive emotion or attitude in acknowledgment of a benefit that one has received or will receive. In a religious context, gratitude can also refer to a feeling of indebtedness towards a deity. Most religions prescribe rituals of thanksgiving towards their higher powers; the expression of gratitude to God is a central theme of Christianity and Islam. In contrast to the positive feeling of gratitude, the feeling of indebtedness is a negative reaction to a favor (Tsang, 2006a; Watkins, Scheer, Ovnicek, & Kolts, 2006). Even though our reactions to favors might not always be positive, researchers have found that people express gratitude often. In a 1998 Gallup poll, the majority of Americans said they express gratitude to God (54%) and others (67%) "all the time." Psychological research has demonstrated that individuals are more likely to experience gratitude when they receive a favor that is perceived to be (1) valued by the recipient, (2) costly to the benefactor, (3) given by the benefactor with benevolent intentions, and (4) given gratuitously (rather than out of role-based obligations) (e.g., Bar-Tal, Bar-Zohar, Greenberg, & Hermon, 1977; Graham, 1988; Lane & Anderson, 1976; Tesser, Gatewood, & Driver, 1968). Individuals who are induced to feel grateful are more likely to behave prosocially toward their benefactor (Tsang, 2006b) or toward unrelated others (Bartlett & DeSteno, 2006). Gratitude may also serve to reinforce future prosocial behavior in benefactors. For example, Carey and colleagues (Carey, Clicque, Leighton, & Milton, 1976) found that customers of a jewelry store who were called and thanked showed a subsequent 70% increase in purchases. In comparison, customers who were thanked and told about a sale showed only a 30% increase in purchases, and customers who were not called at all did not show an increase. Rind and Bordia (1995) found that restaurant patrons gave bigger tips when their servers wrote “Thank you” on their checks. Research has also suggested that feelings of gratitude may be beneficial to subjective emotional well-being (Emmons & McCullough, 2003). For example, Watkins and colleagues (Watkins et al., 2003) had participants test a number of different gratitude exercises, such as thinking about a living person for whom they were grateful, writing about someone for whom they were grateful, and writing a letter to deliver to someone for whom they were grateful. Participants in the control condition were asked to describe their living room. Participant who engaged in a gratitude exercise showed increases in their experiences of positive emotion immediately after the exercise, and this effect was strongest for participants who were asked to think about a person for whom they were grateful. Participants who had grateful personalities to begin with showed the greatest benefit from these gratitude exercises. In people who are grateful in general, life events have little influence on experienced gratitude (McCullough, Tsang & Emmons, 2004). PeopleNology by Gregory Bodenhamer Nollijy University Although gratitude is something that anyone can experience, some people seem to feel grateful more often than others. People who tend to experience gratitude more frequently than

do others also tend to be happier, more helpful and forgiving, and less depressed than their less grateful counterparts (Kashdan, Uswatte, & Julian, 2006; McCullough, Emmons, & Tsang, 2002; Watkins, Woodward, Stone, & Kolts, 2003) From a Buddhist point of view, the Pali word which we translate in English as gratitude is katannuta. The word katannuta consists of two parts: kata which means that which has been done, especially that which has been done to one, to oneself, and annuta which means knowing or recognising. So katannuta means knowing or recognizing what has been done to one, that is to say knowing and recognising what has been done to one for one's benefit. Hence the connotation of the Pali word is rather different from its English equivalent. The connotation of the English gratitude is rather more emotional (we feel gratitude, feel grateful, etc.) but the connotation of katannuta is rather more intellectual, more cognitive. It makes it clear that what we call gratitude involves an element of knowledge knowledge of what has been done to us or for us for our benefit. If we do not know that something has benefited us, we will not feel gratitude Grief is a multifaceted response to loss. Although conventionally focused on the emotional response to loss, it also has physical, cognitive, behavioral, social, and philosophical dimensions.

Common to human experience is the death of a loved one, whether it be a friend, family, or other close companion. While the terms are often used interchangeably, bereavement often refers to the state of loss, and grief to the reaction to loss. Losses can range from loss of employment, pets, status, a sense of safety, order, or possessions, to the loss of loved ones. Our response to loss is varied and researchers have moved away from conventional views of grief (that is, that people move through an orderly and predictable series of responses to loss) to one that considers the wide variety of responses that are influenced by personality, family, culture, and spiritual and religious beliefs and practices. Bereavement, while a normal part of life for us all, carries a degree of risk when limited support is available. Severe reactions to loss may carry over into familial relations and cause trauma for children, spouses and any other family members: there is an increased risk of marital breakup following the death of a child, for example. Issues of personal faith and beliefs may also face challenge, as bereaved persons reassess personal definitions in the face of great pain. While many who grieve are able to work through their loss independently, accessing additional support from bereavement professionals may promote the process of healing. Grief counseling, professional support groups or educational classes, and peer-led support groups are primary resources available to the bereaved. In the United States, local hospice agencies may be an important first contact for those seeking bereavement support Guilt is the fact, state, or verdict (by a court

or other tribunal), of an offence, crime, violation, or wrong committed, especially against moral or penal law. Guilt is also a cognitive or an emotional experience that occurs when a person realizes or believes - whether justified or not - that he or she has violated a moral standard and is responsible for that violation.[1] It is closely related to the concept of remorse In psychology and ordinary language, guilt is an affective state in which one experiences conflict at having done something that one believes one should not have done (or conversely, having not done something one believes one should have done). It gives rise to a feeling that does not go away easily, driven by conscience. Sigmund Freud described this as the result of a struggle between the ego and the superego parental imprinting. Guilt and its causes, merits, and demerits are common themes in psychology and psychiatry. It is often associated with depression. The philosopher Martin Buber underlined the difference between the Freudian notion of guilt, based on internal conflicts, and existential guilt, based on actual harm done to others Happiness (also called felicity) is an emotion in which one experiences feelings ranging from contentment and satisfaction to bliss and intense joy. (This definition is, however, a synonymous one rather than one based on analytic evaluation, because of the varied and elusive nature of happiness.) In his book Authentic Happiness, Martin Seligman, one of the founders of Positive psychology, describes happiness as consisting of 'positive emotions' and 'positive activities'. He further categorizes emotions related to the past, present and future. Positive emotions relating to the past include satisfaction, contentment, pride and serenity. Positive emotions relating to the future include optimism, hope and trust. Positive emotions about the present are divided into two categories: pleasure and gratifications. The bodily and higher pleasures are "pleasures of the moment" and usually involve some external stimulus. Gratifications involve full engagement, flow, elimination of self-consciousness, and blocking of felt emotions. But when a gratification comes to an end then positive emotions will be felt. Gratifications can be obtained or increased by developing 'signature strengths' and virtues. Authenticity is the derivation of gratification and positive emotions from exercising signature strengths. The good life comes from using 'signature strengths' to obtain abundant gratification in, for example, enjoying work and creative "activities". The most profound sense of happiness is experienced through the 'meaningful life', achieved if one exercises one's unique strengths and virtues in a purpose greater than one's own immediate goals Hatred is a word to describe immense feelings of dislike toward a person, a group or a thing. An intense feeling towards someone or something, wanting to kill, harm or avoid a person or thing, in feelings of dislike. An all consuming emotion, a person consumed by hatred is not thinking rationally and will feel a compulsion to do terrible things. Unfortunately no one can be told what hatred is, it has to be experienced to be fully understood Hope is a belief in a positive outcome related to events and circumstances in one's life. Hope implies a certain amount of despair, wanting, wishing, suffering or perseverance — i.e., believing that a better or positive outcome is possible even when there is some

evidence to the contrary. [1] Beyond the basic definition, usage of the term hope follows some basic patterns which distinguish its usage from related terms: To wish for something with the expectation of the wish being fulfilled. [2] Hopefulness is somewhat different from optimism in that hope is an emotional state, whereas optimism is a conclusion reached through a deliberate thought pattern that leads to a positive attitude. But hope and optimism both can be based in unrealistic belief or fantasy. When used in a religious context, hope carries a connotation of being aware of spiritual truth; see Hope (virtue). In Catholic theology, hope is one of the three theological virtues (faith, hope, and charity), which are spiritual gifts of God. In contrast to the above, it is not a physical emotion but a spiritual grace. Hope is distinct from positive thinking, which refers to a therapeutic or systematic process used in psychology for reversing pessimism. The term false hope refers to a hope based entirely around a fantasy or an extremely unlikely outcome PeopleNology by Gregory Bodenhamer Nollijy University Examples of hopes include hoping to get rich, hoping for someone to be cured of a disease, hoping to be done with a term paper, or hoping that a person has reciprocal feelings of love. Hope was personified in Greek mythology as Elpis. When Pandora opened Pandora's Box, she let out all the evils except one: hope. Apparently, the Greeks considered hope to be as dangerous as all the world's evils. But without hope to accompany all their troubles, humanity was filled with despair. It was a great relief when Pandora revisited her box and let out hope as well. It may be worthy to note that in the story, hope is represented as weakly leaving the box but is in effect far more potent than any of the major evils. In some faiths and religions of the world, hope plays a very important role. Buddhists and Muslims for instance, believe strongly in the concepts of free will and hope. Hope can be passive in the sense of a wish, or active as a plan or idea, often against popular belief, with persistent, personal action to execute the plan or prove the idea. Consider a prisoner of war who never gives up hope for escape and, against the odds, plans and accomplishes this. By contrast, consider another prisoner who simply wishes or prays for freedom, or another who gives up all hope of freedom. In Human, All Too Human, existential philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche had this to say about hope: Hope. Pandora brought the jar with the evils and opened it. It was the gods' gift to man, on the outside a beautiful, enticing gift, called the "lucky jar." Then all the evils, those lively, winged beings, flew out of it. Since that time, they roam around and do harm to men by day and night. One single evil had not yet slipped out of the jar. As Zeus had wished, Pandora slammed the top down and it remained inside. So now man has the lucky jar in his house forever and thinks the world of the treasure. It is at his service; he reaches for it when he fancies it. For he does not know that that jar which Pandora brought was the jar of evils, and he takes the remaining evil for the greatest worldly good--it is hope, for Zeus did not want man to throw his life away, no matter how much the other evils might torment him, but rather to go on letting himself be tormented anew. To that end, he gives man hope. In truth, it is the most evil of evils because it prolongs man's torment. It is also important to

consider the relation between Hope and Utopia. Ernst Bloch in "Principle of Hope" (1986) traces the human search for a wide range of utopias. Bloch locates utopian projects not only in the social and political realms of the well-known utopian theorists (Marx, Hegel, Lenin) but also in a multiplicity of technical, architectural, geographical utopias, and in multiple works of art (opera, literature, music, dance, film). For Bloch hope permeates everyday life and it is present in countless aspects of popular culture phenomenon such as jokes, fairy tales, fashion or images of death. In his view Hope remains in the present as an open setting of latency and tendencies. Martin Seligman in his book Learned Optimism (1990) strongly criticizes the role of churches in the promotion of the idea that the individual has little chance or hope of affecting his or her life. He acknowledges that the social and cultural conditions, such as serfdom and the caste system weighed heavily against the freedom of individuals to change the social circumstances of their lives. Almost as if to avoid the criticism, in his book What You Can Change and What You Can't, he is careful to outline the extent that people can hold out hope for personal action to change some of the things that affect their lives. More recently, psychologist Anthony Scioli (2006) has developed an integrative theory of hope that consists of four elements: attachment, mastery, survival, and spirituality. This approach incorporates contributions from psychology, anthropology, philosophy and theology as well as classical and contemporary literature and the arts The distinction between horror and terror is a standard literary and psychological concept applied especially to Gothic literature and film (Radcliffe 1826; Varma 1966; Crawford 1986: 101-3; Bruhm 1994: 37; Wright 2007: 35-56). Horror is the feeling of revulsion that usually occurs after something frightening is seen, heard, or otherwise experienced. It is the feeling one gets after coming to an awful realization or experiencing a deeply unpleasant occurrence. By contrast, terror is usually described as the feeling of dread and anticipation that precedes the horrifying experience. In other words, horror is more related to being shocked or scared (being horrified), while terror is more related to being anxious or fearful (being terrified) (Varma 1966). Horror has also been defined as a combination of terror and revulsion. The distinction between terror and horror was first characterised by the Gothic horror writer Ann Radcliffe (1764-1823). Terror is characterised by ‘obscurity’ or indeterminacy in its treatment of potentially horrible events – it is this indeterminacy which leads to the sublime. She says in the essay that it ‘expands the soul and awakens the faculties to a high degree of life’. Horror in contrast, ‘freezes and nearly annihilates them’ with its unambiguous displays of atrocity. She goes on ‘I apprehend that neither Shakespeare nor Milton by their fictions, nor Mr Burke by his reasoning, anywhere looked to positive horror as a source of the sublime, though they all agree that terror is a very high one; and where lies the great difference between horror and terror, but in uncertainty and obscurity, that accompany the first, respecting the dreader evil’ (Radcliffe: 1826). According to Devendra Varma in The Gothic Flame (1966): The difference between Terror and Horror is the difference between awful apprehension and sickening realization: between the smell of death and stumbling against a corpse. Horror is also a genre of film and fiction that relies on horrifying images or

situations to tell stories and prompt reactions in their audiences. In these films the moment of horrifying revelation is usually preceded by a terrifying build up, often using the medium of scary music (Wisker 2005). Hostility is a form of angry internal rejection or denial in psychology. It is a part of personal construct psychology, developed by Dan Kelman. In everyday speech it is more commonly used as a synonym for anger and aggression. In psychological terms, Kelman defined hostility as the willful refusal to accept evidence that one's perceptions of the world are wrong. Instead of reconsidering, the hostile person attempts to force or coerce the world to fit their view, even if this is a forlorn hope, and however harmful the cost. Whilst testing theories against reality is a necessary part of life, and persistence in the face of failure is often a necessary part of invention or discovery, in the case of hostility there is the distinction that the evidence is not assessed and a decision made to try again. Instead the evidence is suppressed or denied, and deleted from awareness -

the unfavorable evidence which might suggest a prior belief is flawed is instead ignored and wilfully avoided. Psychologically, it can be said that reality is being held to ransom, and in this sense hostility is a form of psychological extortion - an attempt to force reality to produce the desired feedback, in order that preconceptions become validated. In this sense, hostility is a response which forms part of discounting of unwanted cognitive dissonan Hysteria, in its colloquial use, describes a state of mind, one of unmanageable fear or emotional excesses. The fear is often caused by multiple events in one's past that involved some sort of severe conflict or the fear can be centered on a body part or , most often on an imagined problem with that body part (disease is a common complaint). People who are "hysterical" often lose self-control due to the overwhelming fear. Psychiatrists and other physicians have in theory given up the use of "hysteria," replacing it with more euphemistic terms that are essentially synonyms. These include "psychosomatic," "functional," "nonorganic," "psychogenic," and "medically unexplained." In 1980 the American Psychiatric Association officially changed the diagnosis of “hysterical neurosis, conversion type” to “conversion disorder.” Hysteria also has significant overlap with the diagnostic term "somatization disorder" and with somatoform disorders in general The term originates with the Greek medical term, hysterikos. This referred to a medical condition, thought to be particular to women, caused by disturbances of the uterus, hystera in Greek. The term hysteria was coined by Hippocrates, who thought that suffocation and madness arose in women whose uteri had become too light and dry from lack of sexual intercourse and, as a result, wandered upward, compressing the heart, lungs, and diaphragm. The same general definition, or under the name female hysteria, came into widespread use in the

middle and late 19th century to describe what is today generally considered to be sexual dissatisfaction.[1] Typical treatment was massage of the patient's genitalia by the physician and later vibrators or water sprays to cause orgasm.[1] By the early 1900s, the practice and usage of the term had fallen from use until it was again popularized when the writings of Sigmund Freud became known and influential in Britain and the USA in the 1920s. The Freudian psychoanalytic school of psychology uses its own, somewhat controversial, ways to treat hysteria. The knowledge of hysterical processes was advanced by the work of Jean-Martin Charcot, a French neurologist. However, many now consider hysteria to be a legacy diagnosis (i.e., a catch-all junk diagnosis),[2] particularly due to its long list of possible manifestations: one Victorian physician cataloged 75 pages of possible symptoms of hysteria and called the list incomplete.[3]. Current psychiatric terminology distinguishes two types of hysteria: somatoform and dissociative. Dissociative hysteria includes amnestic fugue states. Somatoform disorders include conversion disorder, somatization disorder, chronic pain disorder, hypochondriasis, and body dysmorphic disorder. In somatoform disorders, the patient exhibits physical symptoms such as low back pain or limb paralysis, without apparent physical cause. Recent neuroscientific research, however, is starting to show that there are characteristic patterns of brain activity associated with these states. All these disorders are thought to be unconscious, not feigned or intentional malingering. Freudian psychoanalytic theory attributed hysterical symptoms to the subconscious mind's attempt to protect the patient from psychic stress. Subconscious motives include primary gain, in which the symptom directly relieves the stress (as when a patient coughs to release energy pent up from keeping a secret), and secondary gain, in which the symptom provides an independent advantage such as staying home from a hated job. More recent critics have noted the possibility of tertiary gain, when a patient is induced subconsciously to display a symptom because of the desires of others (as when a controlling husband enjoys the docility of his sick wife). There need be no gain at all, however, in a hysterical symptom. A child playing hockey may fall and for several hours believe he is unable to move, because he has recently heard of a famous hockey player who fell and broke his neck. PeopleNology by Gregory Bodenhamer Nollijy University Jungian psychologist Laurie Layton Schapira explored what she labels a "Cassandra Complex" suffered by those traditionally diagnosed with hysteria, denoting a tendency for those with hysteria to be disbelieved or dismissed when relating the facticity of their experiences to others.[4] Based on clinical experience, she delineates three factors which constitute the Cassandra complex in hysterics: (a). dysfunctional relationships with social manifestations of rationality, order, and reason, leading to; (b). emotional or physical suffering, particularly in the form of somatic, often gynaecological complaints, and (c). being disbelieved or dismissed when attempting to relate the

facticity of these experiences to others Female hysteria was a once-common medical diagnosis, made exclusively in women, which is no longer recognized by modern medical authorities. It was a popular diagnosis in Western nations, during the Victorian era, for women who exhibited a wide array of symptoms including faintness, nervousness, insomnia, fluid retention, heaviness in abdomen, muscle spasm, shortness of breath, irritability, loss of appetite for food or sex, and a "tendency to cause trouble".[1] Patients diagnosed with female hysteria would sometimes undergo "pelvic massage" — manual stimulation of the woman's genitals by the doctor to "hysterical paroxysm", which is now recognized as orgasm A physician in 1859 claimed that a quarter of all women suffered from hysteria, which is reasonable considering that one physician cataloged 75 pages of possible symptoms of hysteria and called the list incomplete[2]; almost any ailment could fit the diagnosis. Physicians thought that the stresses associated with modern life caused civilized women to be both more susceptible to nervous disorders and to develop faulty reproductive tracts.[3] In America, such disorders in women reaffirmed that the United States was on par with Europe; one American physician expressed pleasure that the country was ”catching up” to Europe in the prevalence of hysteria.[2] Rachael P. Maines, author of The Technology of Orgasm: "Hysteria," the Vibrator, and Women's Sexual Satisfaction, has observed that such cases were quite profitable for physicians, since the patients were at no risk of death but needed constant treatment. The only problem was that physicians did not enjoy the tedious task of vaginal massage (generally referred to as 'pelvic massage'): The technique was difficult for a physician to master and could take hours to achieve "hysterical paroxysm." Referral to midwives, which had been common practice, meant a loss of business for the physician.[1] A solution was the invention of massage devices, which shortened treatment from hours to minutes, removing the need for midwives and increasing a physician’s treatment capacity. Already at the turn of the century, hydrotherapy devices were available at Bath, and by the mid-19th century, they were popular at many high-profile bathing resorts across Europe and in America. By 1870, a clockwork-driven vibrator was available for physicians. In 1873, the first electromechanical vibrator was used at an asylum in France for the treatment of hysteria. While physicians of the period acknowledged that the disorder stemmed from sexual dissatisfaction, they seemed unaware of or unwilling to admit the sexual purposes of the devices used to treat it. In fact, the introduction of the speculum was far more controversial than that of the vibrator,[1] perhaps because of its phallic nature. A 1918 Sears, Roebuck and Co. ad with several models of vibrators. By the turn of the century, the spread of home electricity brought the vibrator to the consumer market. The appeal of cheaper treatment in the privacy of one’s own home understandably made the vibrator a popular early home appliance. In fact, the electric home vibrator was on the market before many other home appliance

’essentials’: nine years before the electric vacuum cleaner and 10 years before the electric iron.[1] A page from a Sears catalog of home electrical appliances from 1918 includes a portable vibrator with attachments, billed as ”Very useful and satisfactory for home service.” Interest (emotion) is a feeling or emotion that causes attention to focus on an object or an event or a process. In contemporary psychology of interest [1] it is used as a general concept which encompasses other more specific emotion terms, such as curiosity and to a certain degree surprise, in a similar way the general term anger encompasses other terms for the emotion such as rage (intense anger). The facial expression of emotion of interest shares most of the features with surprise: Eyebrows that are raised so they become curved and high. Stretched skin below the eyebrows. Horizontal wrinkles across the forehead. Open eyelids -- the upper lid is raised and the lower lid is drawn down, often exposing the white sclera above and below the iris. Dropped jaw so that the lips and teeth are parted, with no tension around the mouth. However, the facial expression of interest encompasses additional features which are not characteristic for surprise, such as: Dilated pupils. Widened nostriles. Visible tongue -- in slightly upward position (while, for example, in disgust the tongue is visible in more or less downward position) Jealousy typically refers to the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that occur when a person believes a valued relationship is being threatened by a rival. This rival may or may not know that he or she is perceived as a threat. Parrott makes use of the cause of jealousy to define it: “jealousy is an emotion experienced when a person is threatened by the loss of an important relation with another person” (Parrot, 2001, p. 313). He further defines it also as “a type of anxious insecurity following from the perception of threat to a relation” which sustains the jealous’ self (Parrot, 2001, p. 314). Prinz (2004, p. 93) says that jealousy is a “non basic emotion”, meaning that “it is combination of basic emotions with other mental states that are not emotions”. His statement has a foundation on the concept of basic and non basic emotions, which he takes from Plutchik. Prinz (2004, p. 93) suggests that jealousy “contains anger, sadness, disgust” (basic emotions), “all brought together by the belief that one’s lover has been unfaithful” (mental state). Further, Goldie says jealousy is a passion, focusing his definition on the effects of jealousy, which “frequently get out of control” (2000, p. 229). It is a common observation that the experience of jealousy can last much longer than the one of a basic emotion like anger, without losing its original intensity, and, in a paradox captured in Rochefoucauld's maxim, it may outlast the attachment which it fears losing: "jealousy is always born with love; it does not always die with it." PeopleNology by Gregory Bodenhamer Nollijy University The word "jealousy" is frequently used to describe what is more properly envy, fixation on what someone else has. Envy and jealousy are distinct in their object (Goldie, 2000, p. 221). Jealousy concerns something one has and is afraid of losing, while envy concerns something one does not have and either he wants to acquire (nonmalicious envy) or he wants the other(s) not to have (malicious envy) (Parrot, 2001, p. 309 Jealousy is a familiar experience in human relationships. It has been reported in every culture and in many forms where researchers have looked. [3] [4] [5] It has been observed in infants as young as 5-6 months old and

in adults over 65 years old. [6] [7] [8] [9] Jealousy has been an enduring topic of interest for scientists, artists, and theologians. Psychologists have proposed several models of the processes underlying jealousy and have identified individual differences that influence the expression of jealousy. Sociologists have demonstrated that cultural beliefs and values play an important role in determining what triggers jealousy and what constitutes socially acceptable expressions of jealousy. Biologists have identified factors that may unconsciously influence the expression of jealousy. Artists have explored the theme of jealousy in photographs, paintings, movies, songs, plays, poems, and books. Theologians have offered religious views of jealousy based on the scriptures of their respective faiths. Jealousy involves an entire “emotional episode,” including a complex “narrative,”: the circumstances that lead up to jealousy, jealousy itself as emotion, any attempt at self regulation, subsequent actions and events and the resolution of the episode (Parrott, 2001, p. 306). The narrative can originate from experienced facts, thoughts, perceptions, memories, but also imagination, guess and assumptions. The more society and culture matter in the formation of these factors, the more jealousy can have a social and cultural origin. By contrast, Goldie (2000, p. 228) shows how jealousy can be a “cognitively impenetrable state”, where education and rational belief matter very little. One explanation of the origin of jealousy, in evolutionary psychology is that the emotion evolved They say, jealousy evolved in order to maximize the success of our genes, a biologically based emotion (Prinz after Buss and Larsen, 2004, p. 120) selected to foster the certainty about the paternity of one’s own offspring. A jealous behavior, in men, is directed into avoiding sexual betrayal and a consequent waste of resources and effort in taking care of some else’s offspring.

There are, additionally, cultural or social explanations of the origin of jealousy. According to one, the narrative from which jealousy arises can be in great part made by the imagination. Imagination is strongly affected by the culture a person is inserted in. The pattern of reasoning, the way one perceives situations, depends strongly on cultural context. While mainstream psychology considers sexual arousal through jealousy a paraphilia (categorized as zelophilia), some authors on sexuality (Serge Kreutz, Instrumental Jealousy) have argued that jealousy in manageable dimensions can have a definite positive effect on sexual function and sexual satisfaction. Studies have also shown that jealousy sometimes heightens passion towards partners and increases the intensity of passionate sex. [10] [11] People who experience pathological jealousy, and people for whom jealousy triggers violence, may benefit from professional counseling. People who experience normal jealousy may avail themselves of multiple coping strategies The problem-solving strategies include: improving the primary relationship, interfering with the rival relationship, demanding commitment, and self-assessment. The emotion-focused strategies include: derogation of partner or rival, developing alternatives, denial/avoidance,

support/catharsis, and appraisal challenge. These strategies are related to emotion regulation, conflict management, cognitive change, and ground rules for managing jealous competition. The most important thing to do about any feelings of jealousy is to first admit them, and then attempt to overcome them. Polyamory groups encourage the replacement of jealousy with compersion, or empathizing with a lover's joy with another lover. Anthropologists have claimed that jealousy varies across cultures. Cultural learning can influence the situations that trigger jealousy and the manner in which jealousy is expressed. Attitudes toward jealousy can also change within a culture over time. For example, attitudes toward jealousy changed substantially during the 1960s and 1970s in the United States. People in the United States adopted much more negative views about jealousy The sociology of jealousy deals with cultural and social factors that influence what causes jealousy, how jealousy is expressed, and how attitudes toward jealousy change over time. Anthropologists such as Margaret Mead have shown that jealousy varies across cultures. Cultural learning can influence the situations that trigger jealousy and the manner in which jealousy is expressed. Attitudes toward jealousy can also change within a culture over time. For example, attitudes toward jealousy changed substantially during the 1960s and 1970s in the United States. People in the United States adopted much more negative views about jealousy. By the late 1960s and the 1970s, jealousy — particularly sexual jealousy — had come to be seen as both irrational and shameful in some quarters, particularly among advocates of free love. [5] Advocates and practitioners of non-exclusive sexual relationships, believing that they ought not to be jealous, sought to banish or deny jealous reactions to their partners' sexual involvement with others. Many found this unexpectedly difficult, though for others, conscious blocking of the jealous reaction is relatively easy from the start, and over time the reaction can be effectively extinguished. Some studies suggest that jealousy may be reduced in multilateral relationships where there is a clear hierarchy of relationships or where expectations are otherwise fixed. (See Smith and Smith, Beyond Monogamy.) Contemporary practitioners of what is now called polyamory (multiple intimate relationships) for the most part treat jealousy as an inevitable problem, best handled by accommodation and communication. In mainstream society, although jealousy still carries connotations of insecurity, there is a greater tendency to accept it as a normal and expected reaction to a relationship threat. Affinity Attachment Bonding Boyfriend Casual Cohabitation Compersion Infatuation Polyamory abuse Concubinage Intimacy Courtship Family Divorce Friendship Love Domestic partnership Girlfriend Marriage Husband Monogamy Relationship Sexual Dower, dowry, and bride price Nonmonogamy


Limerence Passion Sexuality

Office romance Separation


Platonic love



Psychology of monogamy Serial monogamy



Significant other



Wife Hatred is a word to

describe immense feelings of dislike toward a person, a group or a thing. An intense feeling towards someone or something, wanting to kill, harm or avoid a person or thing, in feelings of dislike. An all consuming emotion, a person consumed by hatred is not thinking rationally and will feel a compulsion to do terrible things. Unfortunately no one can be told what hatred is, it has to be experienced to be fully understood Love represents a range of human emotions and experiences related to the senses of affection and sexual attraction.[1] The word love can refer to a variety of different feelings, states, and attitudes, ranging from generic pleasure to intense interpersonal attraction. This diversity of meanings, combined with the complexity of the feelings involved, makes love unusually difficult to consistently define, even compared to other emotional states. As an abstract concept love usually refers to a strong, ineffable feeling towards for another person. Even this limited conception of love, however, encompasses a wealth of different feelings, from the passionate desire and intimacy of romantic love to the nonsexual. Love in its various forms acts as a major facilitator of interpersonal relationships and, owing to its central psychological importance, is one of the most common themes in the creative arts. The English word love can have a variety of related but distinct meanings in different contexts. Often, other languages use multiple words to express some of the different concepts which English relies mainly on love to encapsulate; one example is the plurality of Greek words for "love". Cultural differences in conceptualizing love thus make it doubly difficult to establish any universal definition.[2]American psychologist Zick Rubin try to define love by the psychometrics. His work states that three factors consititute love: attachment, caring and intimacy.[3][4] Although the nature or essence of love is a subject of frequent debate, different aspects of the word can be clarified by determining what isn't "love". As a general expression of positive sentiment (a stronger form of like), love is commonly contrasted with hate (or neutral apathy); as a less sexual and more emotionally intimate form of romantic attachment, love is commonly contrasted with lust; and as an interpersonal relationship with romantic overtones, love is commonly contrasted with friendship, though other definitions of the word love may be applied to close friendships in certain contexts. When discussed in the abstract, love usually refers to interpersonal love, an experience felt by a person for another person. Love often involves caring for or identifying with a person or thing, including oneself (cf. narcissism). In addition to crosscultural differences in understanding love, ideas about love have also changed greatly over time. Some historians date modern conceptions of romantic love to courtly Europe during or after the Middle Ages, though the prior existence of romantic attachments is attested by ancient love poetry.[5] Because of the complex and abstract nature of love, discourse on love is commonly reduced to a thought-terminating cliché, and there are a number of common proverbs regarding love, from Virgil's "Love conquers all" to The Beatles' "All you need is love". Bertrand Russell describes love as a condition of "absolute value", as opposed to relative value. Theologian Thomas Jay Oord said

that to love is to "act intentionally, in sympathetic response to others, to promote overall well-being".[6] In the Holy Bible1 Corinthians 13 Love is defined as: 1If I speak in the tongues of men and of angels, but have not love, I am only a resounding gong or a clanging cymbal. 2If I have the gift of prophecy and can fathom all mysteries and all knowledge, and if I have a faith that can move mountains, but have not love, I am nothing. 3If I give all I possess to the poor and surrender my body to the flames, but have not love, I gain nothing. 4Love is patient, love is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud. 5It is not rude, it is not self-seeking, it is not easily angered, it keeps no record of wrongs. 6Love does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth. PeopleNology by Gregory Bodenhamer Nollijy University 7It always protects, always trusts, always hopes, always perseveres. 8Love never fails. But where there are prophecies, they will cease; where there are tongues, they will be stilled; where there is knowledge, it will pass away. 9For we know in part and we prophesy in part, 10but when perfection comes, the imperfect disappears. 11When I was a child, I talked like a child, I thought like a child, I reasoned like a child. When I became a man, I put childish ways behind me. 12Now we see but a poor reflection as in a mirror; then we shall see face to face. Now I know in part; then I shall know fully, even as I am fully known. 13And now these three remain: faith, hope and love. But the greatest of these is love. A person can be said to love a country, principle, or goal if they value it greatly and are deeply committed to it. Similarly, compassionate outreach and volunteer workers' "love" of their cause may sometimes be borne not of interpersonal love, but impersonal love coupled with altruism and strong political convictions. People can also "love" material objects, animals, or activities if they invest themselves in bonding or otherwise identifying with that item. If sexual passion is also involved, this condition is called paraphilia Biological models of sex tend to view love as a mammalian drive, much like hunger or thirst.[8] Helen Fisher, a leading expert in the topic of love, divides the experience of love into three partly-overlapping stages: lust, attraction, and attachment. Lust exposes people to others, romantic attraction encourages people to focus their energy on mating, and attachment involves tolerating the spouse long enough to rear a child into infancy. Lust is the initial passionate sexual desire that promotes mating, and involves the increased release of chemicals such as testosterone and estrogen. These effects rarely last more than a few weeks or months. Attraction is the more individualized and romantic desire for a specific candidate for mating, which develops out of lust as commitment to an individual mate forms. Recent studies in neuroscience have indicated that as people fall in love, the brain consistently releases a certain set of chemicals, including pheromones, dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin, which act similar to amphetamines, stimulating the brain's pleasure center and leading to side-effects such as an increased heart rate, loss of appetite and sleep, and an intense feeling of excitement. Research has indicated that this stage generally lasts from one and a half to three years.[9] Since the lust and attraction stages are both considered temporary, a third stage is needed to account for long-term relationships. Attachment is the bonding which promotes relationships that last for many years, and even decades. Attachment is generally

based on commitments such as marriage and children, or on mutual friendship based on things like shared interests. It has been linked to higher levels of the chemicals oxytocin and vasopressin than short-term relationships have.[9] In 2005, Italian scientists at Pavia University found that a protein molecule known as the nerve growth factor (NGF) has high levels when people first fall in love, but these levels return to as they were after one year. Specifically, four neurotrophin levels, i.e. NGF, BDNF, NT-3, and NT-4, of 58 subjects who had recently fallen in love were compared with levels in a control group who were either single or already engaged in a long-term relationship. The results showed that NGF levels were significantly higher in the subjects in love than as compared to either of the control groups Psychology depicts love as a cognitive and social phenomenon. Psychologist Robert Sternberg formulated a triangular theory of love and argued that love has three different components: intimacy, commitment, and passion. Intimacy is a form in which two people share confidences and various details of their personal lives. Intimacy is usually shown in friendships and romantic love affairs. Commitment, on the other hand, is the expectation that the relationship is permanent. The last and most common form of love is sexual attraction and passion. Passionate love is shown in infatuation as well as romantic love. All forms of love are viewed as varying combinations of these three components. Following developments in electrical theories, such as Coulomb's law, which showed that positive and negative charges attract, analogs in human life were developed, such as "opposites attract". Over the last century, research on the nature of human mating has generally found this not to be true when it comes to character and personality; people tend to like people similar to themselves. Gerle by PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development

However, in a few unusual and specific domains, such as immune systems, it seems that humans prefer others who are unlike themselves (e.g. with an orthogonal immune system), since this will lead to a baby which has the best of both worlds.[11] In recent years, various human bonding theories have been developed described in terms of attachments, ties, bonds, and affinities. Some Western authorities disaggregate into two main components, the altruistic and the narcissistic. This view is represented in the works of Scott Peck, whose works in the field of applied psychology explored the definitions of love and evil. Peck maintains that love is a combination of the "concern for the spiritual growth of another", and simple narcissism.[12] In combination, love is an activity, not simply a feeling Pity, as in the Merriam-Webster dictionary, implies tender or sometimes slightly contemptuous sorrow for one in misery or distress. By the nineteenth century, two different kinds of pity had come to be distinguished,

which we might call "benevolent pity" and "contemptuous pity" (see Kimball). David Hume observed that pity which has in it a strong mixture of good-will, is nearly allied to contempt, which is a species of dislike, with a mixture of pride. Pity is an emotion that almost always results from an encounter with a real or perceived unfortunate, injured, or pathetic creature.[citation needed] A person experiencing pity will experience a combination of intense sorrow and mercy for the person or creature, often giving the pitied some kind of aid, physical help, and/or financial assistance.[citation needed] Although pity may be confused with compassion, empathy, commiseration, condolence or sympathy. These all mean the act or capacity for sharing the painful feelings of another, however pity is different from any of these. In regard to humans, pity may be felt towards the homeless, orphans, people with disabilities, those with terminal illness, and especially victims of rape and torture, by non-sufferers of these and similar things. Because pity will often result in the pitier aiding the pitied, some people equate pity with sympathy and assume, therefore, that pity is naturally a positive thing. However, the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche believed that pity causes an otherwise normal person to feel his or her own suffering in an inappropriately intense, alienated way. "Pity makes suffering contagious," he says in The Antichrist, meaning that it is important for the pitier not to allow him/herself to feel superior to the pitied, lest such a power imbalance result in the pitied retaliating against the help being offered. Nietzsche pointed out that since all people to some degree value self-esteem and self-worth, pity can negatively affect any situation. Additionally, pity may actually be psychologically harmful to the pitied: Self-pity and depression can sometimes be the result of the power imbalance fostered by pity, sometimes with extremely negative psychological and psychosocial consequences for the pitied party. PeopleNology by Gregory Bodenhamer Nollijy University Though in his later works he reverses his position and sees Pity as an emotion that can draw beings together, Mystic poet William Blake is known to have been ambivalent about the emotion Pity. In The Book of Urizen Pity begins when Los looks on the body of Urizen bound in chains (Urizen 13.50-51). However, Pity furthers the fall, "For pity divides the soul" (13.53), dividing Los and Enitharmon (Enitharmon is named Pity at her birth). Analyzers of this work assert that Blake shows that "Pity defuses the power of righteous indignation and proper prophetic wrath that lead to action. Pity is a distraction; the soul is divided between it and the action a 'pitiable' state demands. This is seen as Los's division into active male and tearful female, the latter deluding the former." Again railing against Pity in The Human Abstract, Blake exclaims: "Pity would be no more, / If we did not make somebody Poor" (1-2 Pride is an emotion which refers to a strong sense of self respect, a refusal to be humiliated as well as joy in the accomplishments of oneself or a person, group, nation or object that one identifies with. According to the Concise Oxford Dictionary, Proud comes from late Old English prud, probably from Old French prude "brave, valiant" (11th century), from Latin prode "advantageous, profitable", from prodesse "be useful". The sense of "having a high opinion of oneself", not in French, may reflect the Anglo-Saxons' opinion of the Norman knights who called themselves "proud", like the French knights preux. Rage, in psychiatry, is a mental state that is one

extreme of the intensity spectrum of anger. The other end of the spectrum is annoyance.[1] To psychologists, Rage is a behavior that everyone experiences in some form, some way, some how. Rage is often used to denote hostile/affective/reactive aggression (as distinct from predatory/instrumental/proactive aggression). It denotes aggression where there is anger present, that is motivated by causing harm to others, and that is characterized by impulsive thinking and a lack of planning. This is a behavioral side that many would not like others to see, but does often persist in extreme situations. Some psychologists, such as Bushman and Anderson, argue that the hostile/predatory dichotomy that is commonly employed in psychology fails to define rage fully, since it is possible for anger to motivate aggression, provoking vengeful behavior, without incorporating the impulsive thinking that is characteristic of rage. They point to people such as the perpetrators of the September 11, 2001 attacks, the perpetrators of the Columbine High School massacre, and suicide bombers, all of whom clearly experienced intense anger and hate, but whose planning (sometimes over periods of years), forethought, and lack of impulsive behavior is readily observable.[1][2] Rage is a very intense anger, often distinguished by distorted facial expressions and by threat of or, possibly, an actual attack. “Rage is a physiologically based affective reaction to experiencing high levels of pain or displeasure (Parens, 1991, p. 89).” Psychologists have seen rage as caused by being more of an attack on one’s self than of others. This leads to rage being more intense, less focused and longer lasting. This same idea suggests rage is a narcissistic response to one’s past injuries (Menninger, W. 2007). How do you tell the difference between rage and normal amounts of anger? Anger is explained by current dissatisfaction in one’s life. This amount of anger or frustration is common. Rage, however, is caused from built up anger from past traumas. These accumulated angry dispositions are locked in our mind and body’s (King, R. 2007). One can mask rage by appearing overly dominant, or by being depressed. Many people feel anger all the time, this anger often feels like one is about to erupt in a painful fit over the smallest things.

We often attribute these harbored ill feelings to stress or lack of sleep. However, some scientists have found that these ‘naturally angry tempers’ can be caused by a person’s nutritional habits. Kathleen O’Bannon explains in The Anger Cure how to tell if one’s tip toeing around rage is caused by one’s metabolism (2007). O’Bannon has suggestions for dissolving rage outbursts. These suggestions are in the form of diet changes and simple exercises one can do. Violent acts have recently become a trend in American society. There has recently been a correlation between rage and the Cultivation Theory by George Gerbner.

Cultivation Theory places blame on outside influences, such as, violent television programs and exposure to violent video games. There are specific elements that aid with rage being expressed. “This is seen when an individual perceives a narcissistic injury that is experienced as being profoundly unfair; the individual has no hope for achieving a reasonable resolution of the injury; the individual reaches the decision that the injury cannot be tolerated further and must be responded to with action;

by PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development Nollijy University Research Institute Arts & Sciences - Evolution

the individual has access to weapons to enhance the capacity and potency to respond; and the individual feels a sufficient sense of potency and/or disregard of the consequences to initiate violence (Menninger, W. 2007).” When thinking of rage, the first thing that comes to mind is road rage and the various acts that stem from road rage. Every person who has set behind a wheel has experienced some form of road rage; whether it be cursing at someone who has cut you off in traffic or giving the middle finger when someone steals your parking spot, most people have succumb to rage while in the car. Giving the finger when a driver cuts you off in traffic may be a normal reaction. However, when that normal reaction escalates, psychologists may call it intermittent explosive disorder (IED). A study has found that at least one in twenty people suffer from this disorder. IED is an aggressive overreaction to everyday stress, and may be a cause to severe road rage (Kashef, 2006). It is distinguished from normal anger by its severity, its controllability, its frequency and its triggers. These anger attacks can harm your health and social life, as well as many people around you. Recent studies done prove that there is more rage experienced than most expect. IED is more explosive than rage and even more common for people to experience than rage. There was a study done in Baltimore, MD which found that 11% of people taken for the study qualified for IED. The percentages were constant amongst men and

women, and blacks and whites. Those who were younger were more susceptible to IED. People who experienced the greatest risk for IED were those who are less educated. Studies suggest that the reason people experience these behavioral tendencies are because they suffer from abnormal activity of the neurotransmitter serotonin. Although impulsive aggression in general is associated with low serotonin activity, as well as, damage to the prefrontal cortex, which is the center of judgment and self-control. There has been extensive research done in order to change the patterns of these behavioral tendencies, which goes more in depth than people actually realize (Harvard Mental Health Center, 2006). A passenger of an SUV was hospitalized after she was shot by another driver on a busy Toronto street. The driver of the SUV, and another car had cut each other off, and when they reached a stop light the driver of the car opened fire on the lady in an SUV. In another incident of road rage, a Texas man was beaten on the side of a highway after the Texas driver clubbed a man with a baseball bat. Another example of rage and violence, while not road rage, but still a violent action is from a white collar worker in Japan. In his attempts to brown-nose to his boss, he sent him a box of jelly desserts. Upon discovering the box was left unopened in the boss’s office, the man let his anger turn to rage and smashed twenty-two of the company’s computers (Maclean. 2007). A major goal for many researches is to identify with individual differences in displaced aggression, where the anger comes from, and why it is transferred onto other individuals (Denison, Miller, and Pederson, 2006). Direct aggression is the retaliation towards the provoking agent, whereas, displaced aggression is anger not provoked by an individual, but transferred to an innocent bystander. A major goal for many researches is to identify with individual differences in displaced aggression, where the anger comes from, and why it is transferred onto other individual. Direct aggression is the retaliation towards the provoking agent, whereas, displaced aggression is anger not provoked by an individual, but transferred to an innocent bystander. When dealing with rage, we have to ask ourselves, what emotional forces cause individuals to express aggression, hostility, anger, hate or rage evolving into violence. Aggression stems from rage in which aggression focuses on action or behavior as opposed to emotion or effect (Menninger, 2007 Regret is an intelligent (and/or emotional) dislike for personal past acts and behaviors. Regret is often felt when someone feels sadness, shame, embarassment or guilt after committing an action or actions that the person later wishes that he or she had not done. Regret is distinct from guilt, which is a deeply emotional form of regret — one which may be difficult to comprehend in an objective or conceptual way. In this regard, the concept of regret is subordinate to guilt in terms of its "emotional power." By comparison, shame typically refers to the social (rather than personal) aspect of guilt or (in minor context) regret as imposed by the society or culture (enforcement of ethics, morality), which has substantial bearing in matters of (personal and social) honor. Regret can describe not only the dislike for an action that has been committed, but also, importantly, regret of inaction. Many people find themselves wishing that they had done something in a past situation. Remorse is an emotional expression of personal regret - that is, the emotion felt by the injurer after he or

she has injured. Remorse is closely allied to guilt and self directed resentment (e.g. - The boy felt much remorse after hitting the old lady. The idea of remorse is used in restorative justice). One incapable of feeling remorse is often labelled a sociopath (US) or psychopath (UK) - formerly a DSM III condition. Some researchers have lately suggested that this lack is more characteristic of the INTJ personality, a highly rational temperament that relies very little on emotion, but the scientific worth and psychological accuracy of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator test have been strongly questioned. In general, a person needs to be unable to feel fear, as well as remorse in order to develop psychopathic traits. "Buyer's remorse" is the concept of regretting a purchase after the fact of buying it. Regretting one's earlier action or failure to act may be because of remorse or to various other consequences, including being punished for it Despite the role apologies play in our lives and the almost daily news reports of the latest celebrity or political apology, there is a surprising dearth of systematic empirical research on the subject of apologies as expressions of remorse. <meta name="description" content="Creator Series PeopleNology for Business Gregory Bodenhamer Back in Control PeopleNology for Business Gregory Bodenhamer Back in Control What the twentieth century never counted on was the thousands of evolutionary drivers or evolutionary triggers that control every human being walking on earth today. Learn All The Secrets of PeopleNology Nollijy University Research Institute ,peoplenology,"gregory bodenhamer" , sex, nudity, teenager, psychology,teacher,parent,solution, "divorce teens", grief, "running away", "self injury", "sexual abuse", girl,female,school,evolution,dating,mating,oral,history, shoplifting,"teen depresion", suicide, career,boss,intercourse,baby,violence,rape, gang,"drug free", "peer pressure", "body image", "sex image", stupidity,rehab,legal,financial,dating,advise,answers,education,career,medical,cu stody,single,married,statistics,real,calculators,income,encouraging,words,driving, preteens,empty,nest,military,rules,tools,free,book,workbook,seminar,health,wealt h,happiness,prosperity,rich,emotions,god,nature,nurture,gregory,bodenhamer,pe opletopia,maturity,guide,survival,fostering,action,plan,process,teen,tips,adolesce nt,sedated,why,smarter,prettier,strangers,sex,love,anger,frustration,secrets,roots ,support,evolving,responsible,freedom,positive,limits,chemically,dependent,smart ,strong,confident,girls,boys,psychotherapy,love,letters,understanding,peoplenolo gy,peopletopia,peopltopian,peoplenologist,parenttopia,Peoplenology,Gregory Bodenhamer, emotions, anthropology,cultural,art,astronomy,astrology,geology,meterology,biology,ocean ography,chemistry,science,physics,matter,ecology,green,planet, water,air,wind,fire, ecology,mass,volume,energy,sociology,logic,information,education,technology,cu lture,philosophy,communication,book,survival,guide,psychology,peoplenology,tut orial,laws,notes,principles,formulas,secret,sheet,cheat,equations,emotional,intelli gence,phd,doctor,nollijy,university,research, rich,prosperity,abundance,happiness,wealth,health,teamwork,motivation,custom er,services,leadership, Greg Bodenhamer

Two notable exceptions are The Five Languages of Apology by Gary Chapman and Jennifer Thomas, and On Apology by Aaron Lazare. The consensus emerging from these and other studies is quite clear - effective apologies that express remorse typically include the following components: a detailed account of the offense; acknowledgment of the hurt or damage done; acceptance of the responsibility for, and ownership of, the mistake; an explanation that recognizes ones role; a statement or expression of regret, humility or remorse; a request for forgiveness; and an expression of a credible commitment to change or a promise that it won't happen again; and some form of restitution, compensation or token gesture in line with the damage that you caused. Perhaps the most active research on the relevance of apologies as an expression of remorse appears in the legal and business professions, primarily because of the potential litigation and financial implications. When an apology is delayed, for instance if a friend has been wronged and the offending party does not apologize, the perception of the offense can compound over time. This is sometimes known as compounding remorse PeopleNology by Gregory Bodenhamer Nollijy University Sadness is a mood characterized by feelings of disadvantage loss, and helplessness. When sad, people often become quiet, less energetic and withdrawn. Sadness is considered to be the opposite of happiness, and is similar to the emotions of sorrow, grief, misery and melancholy. The philosopher Baruch Spinoza defined sadness as the “transfer of a person from a large perfection to a smaller one.” Sadness is a temporary lowering of mood ('feeling blue'), whereas clinical depression is characterized by a persistent and intense lowered mood, as well as disruption to one's ability to function in day to day matters. Sadness may affect a person's social standing. Studies have found that when people recognize an expressed emotion, they tend to attribute additional characteristics to the person expressing that emotion (Halo effect). A happy person, therefore is perceived warmly whereas a sad person is perceived as weak and lacking ability[7] and an angry person is perceived as powerful and dominant.(Keltner, 1997). Tiedens's [8] study explored whether people provide power to people they like or rather to people they perceive as powerful. The study, which examined social position in political, business and job interview situations, found that people prefer to give status position and power to an angry leader rather than to a sad one. People tend to give power to those perceived as powerful instead of to those whom they like. For example, in the business world, a positive statistical correlation was found between sadness and the extent of a person's social contribution, however angry people were perceived more deserving of status and promotion. Similarly, in the job interviews, angry people were perceived as more suitable for promotion and high salary than sad people. Shame (also called ignominy) is the consciousness or awareness of dishonor, disgrace, or condemnation. Genuine shame is associated with genuine dishonor, disgrace, or condemnation.

False shame is associated with false condemnation as in the double-bind form of false shaming; "he brought what we did to him upon himself". Therapist John Bradshaw calls shame the "emotion that lets us know we are finite".[ [edit] Shame vs. guilt There is no standard distinction between shame and guilt. The cultural anthropologist Ruth Benedict describes shame as a violation of cultural or social values while feelings of guilt arise from violations of internal values. It is possible to feel ashamed of thought or behavior that no one knows about as well as feeling guilty about actions that gain the approval of others. However, in Facing Shame, therapists Fossum and Mason state "While guilt is a painful feeling of regret and responsibility for one's actions, shame is a painful feeling about oneself as a person." Shame is needed to establish limits, in childhood, since young children are unable to associate cause and effect by themselves. However, as children become better able to judge their own actions, guilt becomes the conscience former. Although, in general, guilt guides adult consciences, intrinsic shame is often present in adults too Shame vs. embarrassment Shame differs from embarrassment in that it does not necessarily involve public humiliation: one can feel shame for an act known only to oneself, but in order to be embarrassed, one's actions must be revealed to others. Also, shame carries the connotation of a response to qualities that are considered morally wrong, whereas one can be embarrassed regarding actions that are morally neutral but socially unacceptable. Another view of shame and embarrassment is that the two emotions lie on a continuum and only differ in intensity. The wish to sink into the ground and disappear from view, to hide oneself from eyes that witness one's embarrassment or humiliation is common to both Suffering, or pain in this sense,[1] is an individual's basic affective experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with harm or threat of harm. Suffering may be called physical, as in a back ache,[2] or mental, as in a grief.[3] It may come in all degrees of intensity, from mild to intolerable. Factors of duration and frequency of occurrence usually compound that of intensity. Suffering is also often characterized by how much it is considered, for instance, avoidable or unavoidable, useful or useless, deserved or undeserved. All sentient beings suffer during their lives, in diverse manners, and often dramatically. No field of human activity deals with the whole subject of suffering, but many are concerned with its nature and processes, its origin and causes, its meaning and significance, its related personal, social, and cultural behaviors, its remedies, management, and uses. The word Suffering is sometimes used in the specific narrow sense of physical pain, but more often it refers to mental pain, or more often yet to pain in the broad sense. Other terms that are more or less synonymic with suffering may include distress, sorrow, unhappiness, affliction, woe, discomfort, displeasure, disagreeableness, unpleasantness. More often than not, the word pain refers to physical pain, but it may also refer to pain in the broad sense, i.e. suffering. In the latter sense, pain includes physical and mental pain, or any unpleasant feeling, sensation, and emotion. Care should be taken to make the appropriate distinction when required between the two meanings.

For instance, philosophy of pain is essentially about physical pain, while a philosophical outlook on pain is rather about pain in the broad sense. Or, as another quite different instance, nausea or itch are not 'physical pains', but they are unpleasant sensory or bodily experience, and a person 'suffering' from severe or prolonged nausea or itch may be said 'in pain'. The terms pain and suffering are often used together, in different senses which can become confusing, for example: being used as synonyms; being used in 'contradistinction' to one another: e.g. "pain is inevitable, suffering is optional", or "pain is physical, suffering is mental"; being used to define each other: e.g. "pain is physical suffering", or "suffering is severe PeopleNology by Gregory Bodenhamer Nollijy University physical or mental pain". Qualifyers, such as mental, emotional, psychological, and spiritual, are often used for referring to more specific types of pain or suffering. In particular, 'mental pain (or suffering)' may be used in relationship with 'physical pain (or suffering)' for distinguishing between two wide categories of pain or suffering. A first caveat concerning such a distinction is that it uses 'physical pain' in a sense that normally includes not only the 'typical sensory experience' of 'physical pain' but also other unpleasant bodily experience such as itch or nausea. A second caveat is that the terms physical or mental should not be taken too literally: physical pain or suffering, as a matter of fact, happens through conscious minds and involves emotional aspects, while mental pain or suffering happens through physical brains and, being an emotion, it involves important bodily physiological aspects. The term unpleasant or unpleasantness commonly means painful or painfulness in a broad sense. They are also used in (physical) pain science for referring to the affective (i.e. 'suffering') dimension of pain, usually in contrast with the sensory dimension. For instance: “Pain-unpleasantness is often, though not always, closely linked to both the intensity and unique qualities of the painful sensation.”[4] To avoid confusion: this article is about suffering in the sense of any unpleasant feeling, emotion or sensation. This includes suffering in the specific narrow sense of physical pain, which is covered in detail by the article Pain. Philosophical, ethical perspectives Hedonism, as an ethical theory, claims that good and bad consist ultimately in pleasure and pain. Many hedonists, such as Epicurus, emphasize avoiding suffering over pursuing pleasure, because they find that the greatest happiness lies in a tranquil state (ataraxia) free from pain and from the worrisome pursuit or unwelcome consequences of pleasure. For stoicism, the greatest good lies in reason and virtue, but the soul best reaches it through a kind of indifference (apatheia) to pleasure and pain: as a consequence, this doctrine has become identified with self-control in front of even the worst sufferings. Jeremy Bentham developed hedonistic utilitarianism, a popular doctrine in ethics, politics, and economics. Bentham argued that the right act or policy was that which would cause "the greatest happiness of the greatest number". He suggested a procedure called hedonic or felicific calculus, for determining how much pleasure and pain would result from any action. John Stuart Mill improved and promoted the doctrine of hedonistic utilitarianism. Karl Popper, in The Open Society and Its Enemies, proposed a negative utilitarianism, which prioritizes the reduction of suffering over the enhancement of happiness when speaking of utility: "I believe

that there is, from the ethical point of view, no symmetry between suffering and happiness, or between pain and pleasure. (…) human suffering makes a direct moral appeal for help, while there is no similar call to increase the happiness of a man who is doing well anyway." David Pearce's utilitarianism asks straightforwardly for the abolition of suffering (see here under section called 'Biological, neurological, psychological aspects'). Many utilitarians, since Bentham, hold that the moral status of a being comes from its ability to feel pleasure and pain: moral agents should therefore consider not only the interests of human beings but also those of animals. Richard Ryder developed such a view in his concepts of 'speciesism' and 'painism'. Peter Singer's writings, especially the book Animal Liberation, represent the leading edge of this kind of utilitarianism for animals as well as for people. Another doctrine related to the relief of suffering is humanitarianism (see also humanitarian aid and humane society). "Where humanitarian efforts seek a positive addition to the happiness of sentient beings, it is to make the unhappy happy rather than the happy happier. (...) [Humanitarianism] is an ingredient in many social attitudes; in the modern world it has so penetrated into diverse movements (...) that it can hardly be said to exist in itself."[5] Pessimism, as Arthur Schopenhauer famously describes, holds this world to be the worst possible, plagued with worsening and unstoppable suffering. Schopenhauer recommends to take refuge in things like art, philosophy, loss of the will to live, and tolerance toward 'fellow-sufferers'. Friedrich Nietzsche, first influenced by Schopenhauer, developed afterward quite another attitude, exalting the will to power, despising weak compassion or pity, and recommending to embrace wilfully the 'eternal return' of the greatest sufferings. Philosophy of pain focuses on pain as a sensation, but much of its content concerns also suffering in general Suffering plays an important role in most religions, regarding matters like consolation or relief, moral conduct (do no harm, help the afflicted), spiritual advancement (mortification of the flesh, penance, ascetism), and ultimate destiny (salvation, damnation, hell). Theodicy deals with the problem of evil, which is the difficulty of reconciling an omnipotent and benevolent god with evil. People often consider that the worst form of evil consists in extreme suffering, especially in innocent children or in beings created ultimately for being tormented without end (see problem of hell). The Four Noble Truths of Buddhism are about dukkha, a term usually translated as suffering. The Four Noble Truths state (1) the nature of suffering, (2) its cause, (3) its cessation, and (4) the way leading to its cessation (which is the Noble Eightfold Path). Buddhism considers liberation from suffering as basic for leading a holy life and attaining nirvana. Gerle by PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development

Hinduism holds that suffering follows naturally from personal negative behaviors in one’s current life or in a past life (see karma). One must accept suffering as a just consequence and as an opportunity for spiritual progress. Thus the soul or true self, which is eternally free of any suffering, may come to manifest itself in the person, who then achieves liberation (moksha). Abstinence from causing pain or harm to other beings (ahimsa) is a central tenet of Hinduism. The Bible's Book of Job reflects on the nature and meaning of suffering. Pope John Paul II wrote "On the Christian Meaning of Human Suffering".[6] This meaning revolves around the notion of redemptive suffering Surprise pronunciation (help·info) is a brief emotional state that is the result of experiencing an unexpected event. Surprise can have any valence; that is, it can be neutral, pleasant, or unpleasant.[citation needed] Accordingly, some would not categorize surprise in itself as an emotion.[citation needed] Surprise is expressed in the face by the following features: Eyebrows that are raised so they become curved and high. Stretched skin below the eyebrows. Horizontal wrinkles across the forehead. Open eyelids-- the upper lid is raised and the lower lid is drawn down, often exposing the white sclera above and below the iris. Dropped jaw so that the lips and teeth are parted, with no tension around the mouth. Spontaneous, involuntary surprise is often expressed for only a fraction of a second. It may be followed immediately by the emotion of fear, joy or confusion. The intensity of the surprise is associated with how much the jaw drops, but the mouth may not open at all in some cases. The raising of the eyebrows, at least momentarily, is the most distinctive and predictable sign of surprise Wonder is an emotion comparable to surprise in that it is most commonly felt when perceiving something rare or unexpected. Unlike surprise however, it is more definitely positive in valence and can endure for longer periods. It has also been specifically linked with curiosity and the drive for scientific investigation.[1] Descartes described wonder as one of the primary emotions because he claimed that emotions in general are reactions to unexpected phenomena. Wonder is also compared to the emotion of awe A well accepted theory of anxiety originally posited by Liebert and Morris in 1967 suggests that anxiety consists of two components; worry and emotionality. Emotionality refers to physiological symptoms such as sweating, increased heart beat and raised blood pressure.[citation needed] Worry refers to negative selftalk that often distracts the mind from focusing on the problem at hand. For example, when students become anxious during a test, they may repeatedly tell themselves they are going to fail, or they can't remember the material or that their teacher will become angry with them. This thinking interferes with focusing on the test as the speech areas of the brain that are needed to complete test questions are being used for worrying.[citation needed] Worry can also refer to a feeling of concern about someone else's condition. For instance, a mother may say "I'm worried" if her child doesn't show up at home when he was supposed to be there. It can also refer to certain actions or the lack of those kind of actions.

"I'm worried because she is not eating any vegetables Emotions Acceptance Affection Anger Annoyance Apathy Anxiety Awe Boredom Compassion Confusion Contempt Curiosity Depression Desire Disgust Disappointment Doubt Ecstasy Empathy Envy Embarrassment Euphoria Fear Frustration Gratitude Grief Guilt Happiness Hatred Hope Horror Hostility Hysteria Interest Jealousy Loathing Love Pity Pride Rage Regret Remorse Sadness Shame Suffering Surprise Wonder Worry PeopleNology by Gregory Bodenhamer Nollijy University Womanhood is the period in a female's life after she has transitioned from girlhood, at least physically, having passed the age of menarche. Many cultures have rites of passage to symbolize a woman's coming of age, such as confirmation in some branches of Christianity, bat mitzvah in Judaism, or even just the custom of a special celebration for a certain birthday (generally between 12 and 21). T he word woman can be used generally, to mean any female human, or specifically, to mean an adult female human as contrasted with girl. The word girl originally meant "young person of either sex" in English; it was only around the beginning of the 16th century that it came to mean specifically a female child. Nowadays girl sometimes is used colloquially to refer to a young or unmarried woman. During the early 1970s feminists challenged such use, and use of the word to refer to a fully grown woman may cause offence. In particular previously common terms such as office girl are no longer used. Conversely, in certain cultures which link family honor with female virginity, the word girl is still used to refer to a never-married woman; in this sense it is used in a fashion roughly analogous to the obsolete English maid or maiden. Referring to an unmarried female as a woman may, in such a culture, imply that she is sexually experienced, which would be an insult to her family. In some settings, the use of girl to refer to an adult female is a vestigial practice (such as girls' night out), even among some elderly women. In this sense, girl may be considered to be the analogue to the British word bloke for a man, although it again fails to meet the parallel status as an adult. Gal aside, some feminists cite this lack of an informal yet respectful term for women as misogynistic; they regard non-parallel usages, such as men and girls, as sexist.

There are various words used to refer to the quality of being a woman. The term "womanhood" merely means the state of being a woman, having passed the menarche; "femininity" is used to refer to a set of supposedly typical female qualities associated with a certain attitude to gender roles; "womanliness" is like "femininity", but is usually associated with a different view of gender roles; "femaleness" is a general term, but is often used as shorthand for "human

femaleness"; "distaff" is an archaic adjective derived from women's conventional role as a spinner, now used only as a deliberate archaism; "muliebrity" is a "neologism" (derived from the Latin) meant to provide a female counterpart of "virility", but used very loosely, sometimes to mean merely "womanhood", sometimes "femininity", and sometimes even as a collective term for women. The term adult has three distinct meanings: Grown man or woman; mature person. Plant or animal that has reached full growth. One who is legally of age. Opposed to minor. Adulthood can be defined in terms of biology, psychological adult development, law, personal character, or social status. These different aspects of adulthood are often inconsistent and contradictory. A person may be biologically an adult, and have adult behavioral characteristics but still be treated as a child if they are under the legal age of majority. Conversely one may legally be an adult but possess none of the maturity and responsibility that define adult character. Coming of age is the event; passing a series of tests to demonstrate the child is prepared for adulthood; or reaching a specified age, sometimes in conjunction with demonstrating preparation. Most modern societies determine legal adulthood based on reaching a legally-specified age without requiring a demonstration of physical maturity or preparation for adulthood. Although adult education simply means education for adults, not particularly sex education, "adult" also means "not considered suitable for children," in particular as a euphemism for being related to sexual behaviour. Some propose that moving into adulthood involves an emotional structuring of denial. This process becomes necessary to cope with one's own behaviour, especially in uncomfortable situations, and also the behaviour of others Girl has meant any young unmarried woman since about 1530. Its first noted meaning for sweetheart is 1648. The earliest known appearance of girl-friend is in 1892 and girl next door, meant as a teenaged female or young woman with a kind of wholesome appeal, dates only to 1961Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. European fairy tales have preserved memorable stories about girls. Among these are Goldilocks and the Three Bears, Rapunzel, Hans Christian Andersen's The Little Match Girl, The Little Mermaid, The Princess and the Pea and the Brothers Grimm's Little Red Riding Hood. Children's books about girls include Little House on the Prairie, Alice in Wonderland, Pippi Longstocking, Dragonsong and A Wrinkle in Time. Books which have both boy and girl protagonists have tended to focus more on the boys but important girl characters appear in Knight's Castle, The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, The Book of Three and the Harry Potter series. There have been many American comic booksProtected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. and comic strips featuring a girl as the main character such as Little Lulu, Little Orphan Annie, Girl Genius and Amelia Rules. In superhero comic books an early girl character was Etta Candy, one of Wonder Woman's sidekicks. In the Peanuts series (by Charles Schulz) girl characters include Peppermint Patty, Lucy van

Pelt and Sally Brown. In Japanese animated cartoons and comic books girls are often protagonists. Most of Hayao Miyazaki's animated films feature a young girl heroine, as in Majo no takkyūbin (Kiki's Delivery Service). There are many other girl protagonists in the Shōjo style of manga, which is targeted to girls as an audience. Among these are The Wallflower, Ceres, Celestial Legend, Tokyo Mew Mew and Full Moon o Sagashite. Meanwhile, some genres of Japanese cartoons may feature sexualized and objectified portrayals of girls. Sexualization of young girls in art and entertainment has been a common theme across all eras and mediums. This has been more or less explicitly visible in modern cinema and television. Some famous examples include Taxi Driver, Diva, Lolita The Blue Lagoon, Léon: The Professional and Pretty Baby, all of which deal with young girls in adult situations, typically under extraordinary circumstances. Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: "wise human" or "knowing human"[2]) in the family Hominidae (the great apes).[3][4] DNA evidence indicates that modern humans originated in Africa about 200,000 years ago.[5] Compared to other species, humans have a highly developed brain, capable of abstract reasoning, language, introspection, and emotional suffering. This mental capability, combined with an erect body carriage that frees the forelimbs (arms) for manipulating objects, has allowed humans to make far greater use of tools than any other species. Humans now inhabit every continent on Earth, except Antarctica (although several governments maintain permanent research stations there, inhabited for short periods by scientists and other researchers). Humans also now have a continuous presence in low Earth orbit, occupying the International Space Station. The human population on Earth now amounts to over 6.6 billion, as of May 2008.[6] Like most primates, humans are social by nature. However, they are particularly adept at utilizing systems of communication for self-expression, exchanging of ideas, and organization. Humans create complex social structures composed of many cooperating and competing groups, from families to nations. Social interactions between humans have established an extremely wide variety of traditions, rituals, ethics, values, social norms, and laws, which together form the basis of human society. Humans have a marked appreciation for beauty and aesthetics, which, combined with the desire for self-expression, has led to cultural innovations such as art, literature and music. Humans are noted (by themselves) for their desire to understand and influence the world around them, seeking to explain and manipulate natural phenomena through science, philosophy, mythology and religion. This natural curiosity has led to the development of advanced tools and skills; humans are the only extant species known to build fires, cook their food, clothe themselves, and manipulate and develop numerous other technologies. Humans pass down their skills and knowledge to the next generations through education. The scientific study of human evolution encompasses the development of the genus Homo, but usually involves studying other hominids and hominines as well, such as Australopithecus. "Modern humans" are defined as the Homo sapiens species, of which the only extant subspecies - our own - was formerly known as Homo sapiens sapiens (now simply known as Homo sapiens). Homo sapiens idaltu

(roughly translated as "elder wise human"), the other known subspecies, is now extinct.[7] Anatomically modern humans first appear in the fossil record in Africa about 200,000 years ago.[8][9]Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. The closest living relatives of Homo sapiens are the two chimpanzee species: the Common Chimpanzee and the Bonobo. Full genome sequencing has resulted in the conclusion that "after 6.5 [million] years of separate evolution, the differences between chimpanzee and human are just 10 times greater than those between two unrelated people and 10 times less than those between rats and mice". In fact, 98.4% of the human DNA sequence is identical to that of chimpanzees.[10][11][12][13] It has been estimated that the human lineage diverged from that of chimpanzees about five million years ago, and from that of gorillas about eight million years ago. However, a hominid skull discovered in Chad in 2001, classified as Sahelanthropus tchadensis, is approximately seven million years old, which may indicate an earlier divergence.[14] The Recent African Origin (RAO), or "out-of-Africa", hypothesis proposes that modern humans evolved in Africa before later migrating outwards to replace hominids in other parts of the world. Evidence from archaeogenetics accumulating since the 1990s has lent strong support to RAO, and has marginalized the competing multiregional hypothesis, which proposed that modern humans evolved, at least in part, from independent hominid populations.[15] Geneticists Lynn Jorde and Henry Harpending of the University of Utah propose that the variation in human DNA is minute compared to that of other species. They also propose that during the Late Pleistocene, the human population was reduced to a small number of breeding pairs – no more than 10,000, and possibly as few as 1,000 – resulting in a very small residual gene pool. Various reasons for this hypothetical bottleneck have been postulated, one being the Toba catastrophe theory.Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Human evolution is characterized by a number of important morphological, developmental, physiological and behavioural changes, which have taken place since the split between the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees. The first major morphological change was the evolution of a bipedal locomotor adaptation from an arboreal or semi-arboreal one,[16] with all its attendant adaptations, such as a valgus knee, low intermembral index (long legs relative to the arms), and reduced upper-body strength. Later, ancestral humans developed a much larger brain – typically 1,400 cm³ in modern humans, over twice the size of that of a chimpanzee or gorilla. The pattern of human postnatal brain growth differs from that of other apes (heterochrony), and allows for extended periods of social learning and language acquisition in juvenile humans. Physical anthropologists argue that the differences between the structure of human brains

and those of other apes are even more significant than their differences in size. Other significant morphological changes included: the evolution of a power and precision grip;[17] a reduced masticatory system; a reduction of the canine tooth; and the descent of the larynx and hyoid bone, making speech possible. An important physiological change in humans was the evolution of hidden oestrus, or concealed ovulation, which may have coincided with the evolution of important behavioural changes, such as pair bonding. Another significant behavioural change was the development of material culture, with human-made objects becoming increasingly common and diversified over time. The relationship between all these changes is the subject of ongoing debate.Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. The most widely accepted view among current anthropologists is that Homo sapiens originated in the African savanna around 200,000 BP (Before Present), descending from Homo erectus, had inhabited Eurasia and Oceania by 40,000 BP, and finally inhabited the Americas approximately 14,500 years ago.[20] They displaced Homo neanderthalensis and other species descended from Homo erectus (which had inhabited Eurasia as early as 2 million years ago) through more successful reproduction and competition for resources. Until c. 10,000 years ago, most humans lived as hunter-gatherers. Gerle by PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development

They generally lived in small nomadic groups known as band societies. The advent of agriculture prompted the Neolithic Revolution, when access to food surplus led to the formation of permanent human settlements, the domestication of animals and the use of metal tools. Agriculture encouraged trade and cooperation, and led to complex society. Because of the significance of this date for human society, it is the epoch of the Holocene calendar or Human Era. About 6,000 years ago, the first proto-states developed in Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley. Military forces were formed for protection, and government bureaucracies for administration. States cooperated and competed for resources, in some cases waging wars. Around 2,000–3,000 years ago, some states, such as Persia, India, China and Rome, developed through conquest into the first expansive empires. Influential religions, such as Judaism, originating in the Middle East, and Hinduism, a religious tradition that originated in South Asia, also rose to prominence at this time. The late Middle Ages saw the rise of revolutionary ideas

and technologies. In China, an advanced and urbanized economy promoted innovations such as printing and the compass, while the Islamic Golden Age saw major scientific advancements in Muslim empires. In Europe, the rediscovery of classical learning and inventions such as the printing press led to the Renaissance in the 14th century. Over the next 500 years, exploration and imperialistic conquest brought much of the Americas, Asia, and Africa under European control, leading to later struggles for independence. The Scientific Revolution in the 17th century and the Industrial Revolution in the 18th – Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. 19th centuries promoted major innovations in transport, such as the railway and automobile; energy development, such as coal and electricity; and government, such as representative democracy and Communism. As a result of such changes, modern humans live in a world that has become increasingly globalized and interconnected. Although this has encouraged the growth of science, art, and technology, it has also led to culture clashes, the development and use of weapons of mass destruction, and increased environmental destruction and pollution. Early human settlements were dependent on proximity to water and, depending on the lifestyle, other natural resources, such as fertile land for growing crops and grazing livestock, or seasonally by hunting populations of prey. However, humans have a great capacity for altering their habitats by various methods, such as through irrigation, urban planning, construction, transport, and manufacturing goods. With the advent of large-scale trade and transport infrastructure, proximity to these resources has become unnecessary, and in many places these factors are no longer a driving force behind the growth and decline of a population. Nonetheless, the manner in which a habitat is altered is often a major determinant in population change. Technology has allowed humans to colonize all of the continents and adapt to all climates. Within the last few decades, humans have explored Antarctica, the ocean depths, and space, although long-term habitation of these environments is not yet possible. With a population of over six billion, humans are among the most numerous of the large mammals. Most humans (61%) live in Asia. The vast majority of the remainder live in the Americas (14%), Africa (14%) and Europe (11%), with 0.5% in Oceania.Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Human habitation within closed ecological systems in hostile environments, such as Antarctica and outer space, is expensive, typically limited in duration, and restricted to scientific, military, or industrial expeditions. Life in space has been very sporadic, with no more than thirteen humans in space at any given time. Between 1969 and 1972, two humans at a time spent brief intervals on the Moon. As of early 2008, no other celestial body has been visited by human beings, although there has been a continuous human presence in space since the launch of the initial crew to inhabit the International Space Station on October 31, 2000. Other celestial bodies have, however, been visited by human-made objects. Since 1800, the human population increased from one billion to over six billion.[21] In 2004, some 2.5 billion out of 6.3 billion people (39.7%) lived in

urban areas, and this percentage is expected to rise throughout the 21st century. Problems for humans living in cities include various forms of pollution and crime,[22] especially in inner city and suburban slums. Benefits of urban living include increased literacy, access to the global canon of human knowledge and decreased susceptibility to rural famines.Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Humans have had a dramatic effect on the environment. It has been hypothesized that human predation has contributed to the extinction of numerous species. As humans stand at the top of the food chain and are not generally preyed upon, they have been described as superpredators.[23] Currently, through land development and pollution, humans are thought to be the main contributor to global climate change.[24] This is believed to be a major contributor to the ongoing Holocene extinction event, a mass extinction which, if it continues at its current rate, is predicted to wipe out half of all species over the next century Human body types vary substantially. Although body size is largely determined by genes, it is also significantly influenced by environmental factors such as diet and exercise. The average height of an adult human is about 1.5 to 1.8 m (5 to 6 feet) tall, although this varies significantly from place to place.[27][28] Unlike most other primates, humans are capable of fully bipedal locomotion, thus leaving their arms available for manipulating objects using their hands, aided especially by opposable thumbs.Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Although humans appear relatively hairless compared to other primates, with notable hair growth occurring chiefly on the top of the head,

Gerle by PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development underarms and pubic area, the average human has more hair follicles on his or her body than the average chimpanzee. The main distinction is that human hairs are shorter, finer, and less heavily pigmented than the average chimpanzee's, thus making them harder to see.[29] The hue of human hair and skin is determined by the presence of pigments called melanins. Human skin hues can range from very dark brown to very pale pink, while human hair ranges from blond to brown to red to, most commonly, black,[30] depending on the amount of melanin (an effective sun blocking pigment) in the skin. Most researchers believe that skin darkening was an adaptation that evolved as a protection against ultraviolet solar radiation. More recently, however, it has been argued that particular skin colors are an adaptation to balance folate, which is destroyed by ultraviolet radiation, and vitamin D, which requires sunlight to form.[31] The Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy

University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. skin pigmentation of contemporary humans is geographically stratified, and in general correlates with the level of ultraviolet radiation. Human skin also has a capacity to darken (sun tanning) in response to exposure to ultraviolet radiation.[32][33] Humans tend to be physically weaker than other similairly sized primates, with young, conditioned male humans having been shown to be unable to match the strength of female orangutans which are at least three times stronger.[34] Humans have proportionately shorter palates and much smaller teeth than other primates. They are the only primates to have short 'flush' canine teeth. Humans have characteristically crowded teeth, with gaps from lost teeth usually closing up quickly in young specimens. Humans are gradually losing their wisdom teeth, with some individuals having them congenitally absent.[35] The average sleep requirement is between seven and eight hours a day for an adult and nine to ten hours for a child; elderly people usually sleep for six to seven hours. Experiencing less sleep than this is common in modern societies; this sleep deprivation can lead to negative effects. A sustained restriction of adult sleep to four hours per day has been shown to correlate with changes in physiology and mental state, including fatigue, aggression, and bodily discomfort. Humans are an eukaryotic species. Each diploid cell has two sets of 23 chromosomes, each set received from one parent. There are 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes. By present estimates, humans have approximately 20,000 – 25,000 genes. Like other mammals, humans have an XY sex-determination system, so that females have the sex chromosomes XX and males have XY. The X chromosome is larger and carries many genes not on the Y chromosome, which means that recessive diseases associated with X-linked genes, such as hemophilia, affect men more often than women The human life cycle is similar to that of other placental mammals. The fertilized egg divides inside the female's uterus to become an embryo, which over a period of thirty-eight weeks (9 months) of gestation becomes a human fetus. After this span of time, the fullygrown fetus is birthed from the woman's body and breathes independently as an infant for the first time. At this point, most modern cultures recognize the baby as a person entitled to the full protection of the law, though some jurisdictions extend personhood earlier to human fetuses while they remain in the uterus. Compared with other species, human childbirth is dangerous. Painful labors lasting twenty-four hours or more are not uncommon and often leads to the death of the mother, or the child.[36] Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. This is because of both the relatively large fetal head circumference (for housing the brain) and the mother's relatively narrow pelvis (a trait required for successful bipedalism, by way of natural selection).[37][38] The chances of a successful labor increased significantly during the 20th century in wealthier countries with the advent of new medical technologies. In contrast, pregnancy and natural childbirth remain relatively hazardous ordeals in developing regions of the world, with maternal death rates approximately 100 times more common than in developed countries.[39] Two young American girls photographed at an Inter-racial Christmas Seals Camp in August 1943[40] In developed countries,

infants are typically 3 – 4 kg (6 – 9 pounds) in weight and 50 – 60 cm (20 – 24 inches) in height at birth.[41] However, low birth weight is common in developing countries, and contributes to the high levels of infant mortality in these regions.[42] Helpless at birth, humans continue to grow for some years, typically reaching sexual maturity at 12 to 15 years of age. Females continue to develop physically until around the age of 18, whereas male development continues until around age 21. The human life span can be split into a number of stages: infancy, childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, adulthood and old age. The lengths of these stages, however, have varied across cultures and time periods. Compared to other primates, humans experience an unusually rapid growth spurt during adolescence, where the body grows 25% in size. Chimpanzees, for example, grow only 14%.[43]Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. There are significant differences in life expectancy around the world. The developed world generally aging, with the median age around 40 years (highest in Monaco at 45.1 years). In the developing world the median age is between 15 and 20 years. Life expectancy at birth in Hong Kong, China is 84.8 years for a female and 78.9 for a male, while in Swaziland, primarily because of AIDS, it is 31.3 years for both sexes.[44] While one in five Europeans is 60 years of age or older, only one in twenty Africans is 60 years of age or older.[45] The number of centenarians (humans of age 100 years or older) in the world was estimated by the United Nations at 210,000 in 2002.[46] At least one person, Jeanne Calment, is known to have reached the age of 122 years; higher ages have been claimed but they are not well substantiated. Worldwide, there are 81 men aged 60 or older for every 100 women of that age group, and among the oldest, there are 53 men for every 100 women. Humans are unique in the widespread onset of female menopause during the latter stage of life. Menopause is believed to have arisen due to the Grandmother hypothesis, in which it is in the mother's reproductive interest to forgo the risks of death from childbirth at older ages in exchange for investing in the viability of her already living offspring.[47] The philosophical questions of when human personhood begins and whether it persists after death are the subject of considerable debate. The prospect of death causes unease or fear for most humans, distinct from the immediate awareness of a threat. Burial ceremonies are characteristic of human societies, often accompanied by beliefs in an afterlife or immortality. Early Homo sapiens employed a hunter-gatherer method as their primary means of food collection, involving combining stationary plant and fungal food sources (such as fruits, grains, tubers, and mushrooms) with wild game, which must be hunted and killed in order to be consumed. It is believed that humans have used fire to prepare and cook food prior to eating since the time of their divergence from Homo erectus. Humans are omnivorous, capable of consuming both plant and animal products. A view of humans as omnivores is supported by the evidence that both a pure animal and a pure vegetable diet can lead to deficiency diseases in humans. A pure animal diet can, for instance, lead to scurvy, a vitamin C deficiency, while a pure plant diet may lead to vitamin B12 deficiency.[48]

The biggest problem posed by a vitamin B12 deficiency is that it severely limits the body's ability to synthesize folic acid, a main source of B group carriage. In order to counter the constant folic acid deficiency, one must regularly consume large amounts of folic acid, as may be found in green, leafy vegetables. Properly planned vegetarian and vegan diets, however, have been found to completely satisfy nutritional needs in every stage of life,[49]and significantly reduce risks of major diseases. The human diet is prominently reflected in human culture, and has led to the development of food science. In general, humans can survive for two to eight weeks without food, depending on stored body fat. Survival without water is usually limited to three or four days. Lack of food remains a serious problem, with about 300,000 people starving to death every year.[50] Childhood malnutrition is also common and contributes to the global burden of disease.[51] However global food distribution is not even, and obesity among some human populations has increased to almost epidemic proportions, leading to health complications and increased mortality in some developed, and a few developing countries. The United States Centers for Disease Control (CDC) state that 32% of American adults over the age of 20 are obese, while 66.5% are obese or overweight. Obesity is caused by consuming more calories than are expended, with many attributing excessive weight gain to a combination of overeating and insufficient exercise. At least ten thousand years ago, humans developed agriculture,[52] which has substantially altered the kind of food people eat. This has led to increased populations, the development of cities, and because of increased population density, the wider spread of infectious diseases. The types of food consumed, and the way in which they are prepared, has varied widely by time, location, and culture The human brain is the center of the central nervous system in humans, and acts as the primary control center for the peripheral nervous system. The brain controls "lower", or involuntary, autonomic activities such as the respiration, and Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. digestion. The brain also controls "higher" order, conscious activities, such as thought, reasoning, and abstraction.[53] These cognitive processes constitute the mind, and, along with their behavioral consequences, are studied in the field of psychology. Generally regarded as more capable of these higher order activities, the human brain is believed to be more "intelligent" in general than that of any other known species. While many animals are capable of creating structures and using simple tools — mostly through Gerle by PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development instinct and mimicry — human technology is vastly more complex, and is constantly evolving and improving through time. Even the most ancient human tools and structures are far more advanced than any structure or tool created by any other animal.[54] Modern anthropology has tended to bear out Darwin's proposition that "the difference in mind between man and the higher animals,

great as it is, certainly is one of degree and not of kindProtected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. The human ability to think abstractly may be unparalleled in the animal kingdom. Humans are one of only six species to pass the mirror test — which tests whether an animal recognizes its reflection as an image of itself — along with chimpanzees, orangutans, dolphins, and pigeons.[56] In October 2006, three elephants at the Bronx Zoo also passed this test.[57] Most human children will pass the mirror test at 18 months old.[58] However, the usefulness of this test as a true test of consciousness has been disputed (see mirror test), and this may be a matter of degree rather than a sharp divide. Monkeys have been trained to apply abstract rules in tasks.[59] The human brain perceives the external world through the senses, and each individual human is influenced greatly by his or her experiences, leading to subjective views of existence and the passage of time. Humans are variously said to possess consciousness, self-awareness, and a mind, which correspond roughly to the mental processes of thought. These are said to possess qualities such as self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and one's environment. The extent to which the mind constructs or experiences the outer world is a matter of debate, as are the definitions and validity of many of the terms used above. The philosopher of cognitive science Daniel Dennett, for example, argues that there is no such thing as a narrative centre called the "mind", but that instead there is simply a collection of sensory inputs and outputs: different kinds of "software" running in parallel.[60] Psychologist B.F. Skinner has argued that the mind is an explanatory fiction that diverts attention from environmental causes of behavior,[61] and that what are commonly seen as mental processes may be better conceived of as forms of covert verbal behavior.[62] Humans study the more physical aspects of the mind and brain, and by extension of the nervous system, in the field of neurology, the more behavioral in the field of psychology, and a sometimes loosely-defined area between in the field of psychiatry, which treats mental illness and behavioral disorders. Psychology does not necessarily refer to the brain or nervous system, and can be framed purely in terms of phenomenological or information processing theories of the mind. Increasingly, however, an understanding of brain functions is being included in psychological theory and practice, particularly in areas such as artificial intelligence, neuropsychology, and cognitive neuroscience. The nature of thought is central to psychology and related fields. Cognitive psychology studies cognition, the mental processes underlying behavior. It uses information processing as a framework for understanding the mind. Perception, learning, problem solving, memory, attention, language and emotion are all well-researched areas as well. Cognitive psychology is associated with a school of thought known as cognitivism, whose adherents argue for an information processing model of mental function, informed by positivism and experimental psychology. Techniques and models from cognitive psychology are widely applied and form the mainstay of psychological theories in many areas of both research and applied psychology. Largely focusing on the development of the human mind through the life span,

developmental psychology seeks to understand how people come to perceive, understand, and act within the world and how these processes change as they age. This may focus on intellectual, cognitive, neural, social, or moral development. Some philosophers divide consciousness into phenomenal consciousness, which is experience itself, and access consciousness, which is the processing of the things in experience.[63] Phenomenal consciousness is the state of being conscious, such as when they say "I am conscious." Access consciousness is being conscious of something in relation to abstract concepts, such as when one says "I am conscious of these words." Various forms of access consciousness include awareness, self-awareness, conscience, stream of consciousness, Husserl's phenomenology, and intentionality. The concept of phenomenal consciousness, in modern history, according to some,

by PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development Nollijy University Research Institute Arts & Sciences - Evolution
is closely related to the concept of qualia. Social psychology links sociology with psychology in their shared study of the nature and causes of human social interaction, with an emphasis on how people think towards each other and how they relate to each other. The behavior and mental processes, both human and non-human, can be described through animal cognition, ethology, evolutionary psychology, and comparative psychology as well. Human ecology is an academic discipline that investigates how humans and human societies interact with both their natural environment and the human social environment Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Motivation is the driving force of desire behind all deliberate actions of human beings. Motivation is based on emotion — specifically, on the search for satisfaction (positive emotional experiences), and the avoidance of conflict. Positive and negative is defined by the individual brain state, which may be influenced by social norms: a person may be driven to self-injury or violence because their brain is conditioned to

create a positive response to these actions. Motivation is important because it is involved in the performance of all learned responses. Within psychology, conflict avoidance and the libido are seen to be primary motivators. Within economics motivation is often seen to be based on financial incentives, moral incentives, or coercive incentives. Religions generally posit divine or demonic influences. Happiness, or the state of being happy, is a human emotional condition. The definition of happiness is a common philosophical topic. Some people might define it as the best condition which a human can have — a condition of mental and physical health. Others define it as freedom from want and distress; consciousness of the good order of things; assurance of one's place in the universe or society. Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Emotion has a significant influence on, or can even be said to control, human behavior, though historically many cultures and philosophers have for various reasons discouraged allowing this influence to go unchecked. Emotional experiences perceived as pleasant, such as love, admiration, or joy, contrast with those perceived as unpleasant, like hate, envy, or sorrow. There is often a distinction made between refined emotions which are socially learned and survival oriented emotions, which are thought to be innate. Human exploration of emotions as separate from other neurological phenomena is worthy of note, particularly in cultures where emotion is considered separate from physiological state. In some cultural medical theories emotion is considered so synonymous with certain forms of physical health that no difference is thought to exist. The Stoics believed excessive emotion was harmful, while some Sufi teachers (in particular, the poet and astronomer Omar Khayyám) felt certain extreme emotions could yield a conceptual perfection, what is often translated as ecstasy. In modern scientific thought, certain refined emotions are considered to be a complex neural trait innate in a variety of domesticated and on-domesticated mammals. These were commonly developed in reaction to superior survival mechanisms and intelligent interaction with each other and the environment; as such, refined emotion is not in all cases as discrete and separate from natural neural function as was once assumed. However, when humans function in civilized tandem, it has been noted that uninhibited acting on extreme emotion can lead to social disorder and crime. Human sexuality, besides ensuring biological reproduction, has important social functions: it creates physical intimacy, bonds, and hierarchies among individuals; may be directed to spiritual transcendence (according to some traditions); and in a hedonistic sense to the enjoyment of activity involving sexual gratification. Sexual desire, or libido, is experienced as a bodily urge, often accompanied by strong emotions such as love, ecstasy and jealousy. The extreme importance of sexuality in the human species can be seen in a number of physical features, among them hidden ovulation, strong sexual dimorphism when compared to the chimpanzees, permanent secondary sexual characteristics, the forming of pair bonds based on sexual attraction as a common social structure and sexual ability in females outside of ovulation

<meta name="description" content="Creator Series PeopleNology for Business Gregory Bodenhamer Back in Control PeopleNology for Business Gregory Bodenhamer Back in Control What the twentieth century never counted on was the thousands of evolutionary drivers or evolutionary triggers that control every human being walking on earth today. Learn All The Secrets of PeopleNology Nollijy University Research Institute ,peoplenology,"gregory bodenhamer" , sex, nudity, teenager, psychology,teacher,parent,solution, "divorce teens", grief, "running away", "self injury", "sexual abuse", girl,female,school,evolution,dating,mating,oral,history, shoplifting,"teen depresion", suicide, career,boss,intercourse,baby,violence,rape, gang,"drug free", "peer pressure", "body image", "sex image", stupidity,rehab,legal,financial,dating,advise,answers,education,career,medical,cu stody,single,married,statistics,real,calculators,income,encouraging,words,driving, preteens,empty,nest,military,rules,tools,free,book,workbook,seminar,health,wealt h,happiness,prosperity,rich,emotions,god,nature,nurture,gregory,bodenhamer,pe opletopia,maturity,guide,survival,fostering,action,plan,process,teen,tips,adolesce nt,sedated,why,smarter,prettier,strangers,sex,love,anger,frustration,secrets,roots ,support,evolving,responsible,freedom,positive,limits,chemically,dependent,smart ,strong,confident,girls,boys,psychotherapy,love,letters,understanding,peoplenolo gy,peopletopia,peopltopian,peoplenologist,parenttopia,Peoplenology,Gregory Bodenhamer, emotions, anthropology,cultural,art,astronomy,astrology,geology,meterology,biology,ocean ography,chemistry,science,physics,matter,ecology,green,planet, water,air,wind,fire, ecology,mass,volume,energy,sociology,logic,information,education,technology,cu lture,philosophy,communication,book,survival,guide,psychology,peoplenology,tut orial,laws,notes,principles,formulas,secret,sheet,cheat,equations,emotional,intelli gence,phd,doctor,nollijy,university,research, rich,prosperity,abundance,happiness,wealth,health,teamwork,motivation,custom er,services,leadership, Greg Bodenhamer Gerle by PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development Instinct is the inherent disposition of a living organism toward a particular behavior. Instincts are unlearned, inherited fixed action patterns of responses or reactions to certain kinds of stimuli. Examples of instinctual fixed action patterns can be observed in the behavior of animals, which perform various activities (sometimes complex) that are not based upon prior experience and do not depend on emotion or learning, such as reproduction, and feeding among insects. Other examples include animal fighting, animal courtship behavior, internal escape functions, and building of nests. Instinctual actions - in contrast to actions based on learning which is served by memory and which provides individually stored successful reactions built upon experience - have no learning curve, they are hard-wired and ready to use

without learning, but do depend on maturational processes to appear. Biological predispositions are innate biologically vectored behaviors that can be easily learned. For example in one hour a baby colt can learn to stand, walk, and run with the herd of horses. Learning is required to fine tune the neurological wiring reflex like behavior. True reflexes can be distinguished from instincts by their seat in the nervous system; reflexes are controlled by spinal or other peripheral ganglion, but instincts are the province of the brain.

Technically speaking, any event that initiates an instinctive behavior is termed a key stimulus (KS) or a releasing stimulus. Key stimuli in turn lead to innate releasing mechanisms (IRM), which in turn produce fixed action patterns (FAP). More than one key stimulus may be needed to trigger an FAP. Sensory receptor cells are critical in determining the type of FAP which is initiated. For instance, the reception of pheromones through nasal sensory receptor cells may trigger a sexual response, while the reception of a "frightening sound" through auditory sensory receptor cells may trigger a fight or flight response. The neural networks of these different sensory cells assist in integrating the signal from many receptors to determine the degree of the KS and therefore produce an appropriate degree of response. Several of these responses are determined by carefully regulated chemical messengers called hormones. The endocrine system, which is responsible for the production and transport of hormones throughout the body, is made up of many secretory glands that produce hormones and release them for transport to target organs. Specifically in vertebrates, neural control of this system is funneled through the hypothalamus to the anterior and posterior pituitary gland. Whether or not the behavioral response to a given key stimuli is either learned, genetic, or both is the center of study in the field of behavioural genetics. Researchers use techniques such as inbreeding and knockout studies to separate learning and environment from genetic determination of behavioral traits. The definitions of what constitutes instinct in humans beyond infancy is conjectural. It could be said that as well as obvious instincts such as breathing, sex-drive, desire to communicate, etc., humans also have an instinct toward knowledge. The will to invent solutions to requirements, to present self and possessions aesthetically and to be organised economically, culturally, religiously and politically could be described as instincts to promote survival, which are further enhanced by learning which is not instinctive. In a situation when two instincts contradict each other, an animal may resort to a displacement activity. Evolution Instinctive behavior can be demonstrated across much of the broad spectrum of animal life, down to bacteria that propel themselves toward beneficial substances, and away from repellent substances. According to Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection, a favorable trait, such as an instinct, will be

selected for through competition and improved survival rate of life forms possessing the instinct. Thus, for evolutionary biology, instincts can be explained in terms of behaviors that favor survival. A good example of an immediate instinct for certain types of bird is imprinting. This is the behaviour that causes geese to follow around the first moving object that they encounter, as it tends to be their mother. Much work was done on this concept by the psychologist Konrad Lorenz. The Baldwin Effect In 1896, James Mark Baldwin offered up "a new factor in evolution" through which acquired characteristics could be indirectly inherited. This "new factor" was termed phenotypic plasticity: the ability of an organism to adjust to its environment during the course of its lifetime. An ability to learn is the most obvious example of phenotypic plasticity, though other examples are the ability to tan with exposure to the sun, to form a callus with exposure to abrasion, or to increase muscle strength with exercise. In addition, Baldwin pointed out that, among other things, the new factor could explain punctuated equilibria. Over time, this theory became known as the Baldwin effect. The Baldwin effect functions in two steps. First, phenotypic plasticity allows an individual to adjust to a partially successful mutation, which might otherwise be utterly useless to the individual. If this mutation adds to inclusive fitness, it will succeed and proliferate in the population. Phenotypic plasticity is typically very costly for an individual; learning requires time and energy, and on occasion involves dangerous mistakes. Therefore there is a second step: provided enough time, evolution may find an inexorable mechanism to replace the plastic mechanism. Thus a behavior that was once learned (the first step) may in time become instinctive (the second step). At first glance, this looks identical to Lamarckian evolution, but there is no direct alteration of the genotype, based on the experience of the phenotype.

Scientific definition The term "instincts" has had a long and varied use in psychology. In the 1870's, Wilhelm Wundt established the first psychology laboratory. At that time, psychology was primarily a branch of philosophy, but behavior became increasingly examined within the framework of the scientific method. This method has come to dominate all branches of science. While use of the scientific method led to increasingly rigorous definition of terms, by the close of the 19th century most repeated behavior was considered instinctual. In a survey of the literature at that time, one researcher chronicled 4000 human instincts, meaning someone applied the label to any behavior that was repetitive. As research became more rigorous and terms better defined, instinct as an explanation for human behavior became less common. In a conference in 1960, chaired by Frank Beach, a pioneer in comparative psychology and attended by luminaries in the field, the term was restricted in its application. During the 60's and 70's, textbooks still

contained some discussion of instincts in reference to human behavior. By the year 2000, a survey of the 12 best selling textbooks in Introductory Psychology revealed only one reference to instincts, and that was in regard to Freud's referral to the "id" instincts. Any repeated behavior can be called "instinctual." As can any behavior for which there is a strong innate component. However, to distinguish behavior beyond the control of the organism from behavior that has a repetitive component we can turn to the book "Instinct"(1961) stemming from the 1960 conference. A number of criteria were established which distinguishes instinctual from other kinds of behavior. To be considered instinctual a behavior must a) be automatic, b) be irresistible, c) occur at some point in development, d) be triggered by some event in the environment, e) occur in every member of the species, f) be unmodifiable, and g) govern behavior for which the organism needs no training (although the organism may profit from experience and to that degree the behavior is modifiable). The absence of one or more of these criteria indicates that the behavior is not fully instinctual. Instincts do exist in insects and animals as can be seen in behaviors that can not be changed by learning. Psychologists do recognize that humans do have biological predispositions or behaviors that are easy to learn due to biological wiring, for example walking and talking. If these criteria are used in a rigorous scientific manner, application of the term "instinct" cannot be used in reference to human behavior. When terms, such as mothering, territoriality, eating, mating, and so on, are used to denote human behavior they are seen to not meet the criteria listed above. In comparison to animal behavior such as hibernation, migration, nest building, mating and so on that are clearly instinctual, no human behavior meets the necessary criteria. And even in regard to animals, in many cases if the correct learning is stopped from occurring these instinctual behaviors disappear, suggesting that they are potent, but limited, biological predispostions. In the final analysis, under this definition, there are no human instincts. In humans Some sociobiologists and ethologists have attempted to comprehend human and animal social behavior in terms of instincts. Psychoanalysts have stated that instinct refers to human motivational forces (such as sex and aggression), sometimes represented as life instinct and death instinct. This use of the term motivational forces has mainly been replaced by the term instinctual drives. Instincts in humans can also be seen in what are called instinctive reflexes. Reflexes, such as the Babinski Reflex (fanning of the toes when foot is stroked), are seen in babies and are indicative of stages of development. These reflexes can truly be considered instinctive because they are generally free of environmental influences or conditioning. Additional human traits that have been looked at as instincts are: sleeping, altruism, disgust, face perception, language acquisitions, "fight or flight" and "subjugate or be subjugated". Some experiments in human and primate societies have also come to the conclusion that a sense of fairness could be considered instinctual, with humans and apes willing to harm their own interests in protesting

unfair treatment of self or others.[1][2] Other sociologists argue that humans have no instincts, defining them as a "complex pattern of behavior present in every specimen of a particular species, that is innate, and that cannot be overridden." Said sociologists argue that drives such as sex and hunger cannot be considered instincts, as they can be overridden. This definitory argument is present in many introductory sociology and biology textbooks,[3] but is still hotly debated. For example, throwing a ball is an instance of action; it involves an intention, a goal, and a bodily movement guided by the agent. On the other hand, catching a cold is not considered an action because it is something which happens to a person, not something done by one. Generally an agent doesn't intend to catch a cold or engage in bodily movement to do so (though we might be able to conceive of such a case). Other events are less clearly defined as actions or not. For instance, distractedly drumming ones fingers on the table seems to fall somewhere in the middle. Deciding to do something might be considered a mental action by some. However, others think it is not an action unless the decision is carried out. Unsuccessfully trying to do something might also not be considered an action for similar reasons (for e.g. lack of bodily movement). It is contentions whether Believing, intending, and thinking are actions since they are mental events. Some would prefer to define actions as requiring bodily movement (see behaviorism). The side-effects of actions are considered by some to be part of the action; in an example from Anscombe's manuscript Intention, pumping water can also be an instance of poisoning the inhabitants. This introduces a moral dimension to the discussion (see also Moral agency). If the poisoned water resulted in a death, that death might be considered part of the action of the agent that pumped the water. Whether a side-effect is considered part of an action is especially unclear in cases in which the agent isn't aware of the possible side effects. For example, an agent that accidentally cures a person by administering a poison he was intending to kill him with. A primary concern of philosophy of action is to analyze the nature of actions and distinguish them from similar phenomena. Other concerns include individuating actions, explaining the relationship between actions and their effects, explaining how an action is related to the beliefs and desires which cause and/or justify it (see practical reason), as well as examining the nature of agency. A primary concern is the nature of free will and whether actions are determined by the mental states that precede them (see determinism).Some philosophers (for e.g. Donal Davidson) have argued that the mental states the agent invokes as justifying his action are physical states that cause the action. Problems have been raised for this view because the mental states seem to be reduce to mere physical causes. Their mental properties don't seem to be doing any work. If the reasons an agent cites as justifying his action, however, are not the cause of the action, they must explain the action in some other way or be causally impotent.

There are many philosophical stances on consciousness, including: behaviorism, dualism, idealism, functionalism, reflexive monism, phenomenalism, phenomenology and intentionality, physicalism, emergentism, mysticism, personal identity etc. Phenomenal and access consciousness Phenomenal consciousness (P-consciousness) is simply experience; it is moving, coloured forms, sounds, sensations, emotions and feelings with our bodies and responses at the center. These experiences, considered independently of any impact on behavior, are called qualia. The hard problem of consciousness was formulated by Chalmers in 1996, dealing with the issue of "how to explain a state of phenomenal consciousness in terms of its neurological basis" (Block 2004). Access consciousness (A-consciousness) is the phenomenon whereby information in our minds is accessible for verbal report, reasoning, and the control of behavior. So, when we perceive, information about what we perceive is often access conscious; when we introspect, information about our thoughts is access conscious; when we remember, information about the past (e.g., something that we learned) is often access conscious; and so on. Chalmers thinks that access consciousness is less mysterious than phenomenal consciousness, so that it is held to pose one of the easy problems of consciousness. Dennett denies that there is a "hard problem", asserting that the totality of consciousness can be understood in terms of impact on behavior, as studied through heterophenomenology. There have been numerous approaches to the processes that act on conscious experience from instant to instant. Philosophers who have explored this problem include Gerald Edelman, Edmund Husserl and Daniel Dennett. Daniel Dennett (1988) suggests that what people think of as phenomenal consciousness, such as qualia, are judgments and consequent behaviour. He extends this analysis (Dennett, 1996) by arguing that phenomenal consciousness can be explained in terms of access consciousness, denying the existence of qualia, hence denying the existence of a "hard problem." Chalmers, on the other hand, makes a strong case for the hard problem, and shows that all of Dennett's supposed explanatory processes merely address aspects of the easy problem, albeit disguised in obfuscating verbiage. Eccles and others have pointed out the difficulty of explaining the evolution of qualia, or of 'minds' which experience them, given that all the processes governing evolution are physical and so have no direct access to them. There is no guarantee that all people have minds, nor any way to verify whether one does or does not possess one. The possibility has indeed been proposed that those denying the existence of qualia, hence denying the existence of a "hard problem," do so since they do not possess this faculty Human behavior is the collection of behaviors exhibited by human beings and influenced by culture, attitudes, emotions, values, ethics, authority, rapport, hypnosis, persuasion, coercion and/or genetics. The behavior of people (and other organisms or even mechanisms) falls within a

range with some behavior being common, some unusual, some acceptable, and some outside acceptable limits. In sociology, behavior is considered as having no meaning, being not directed at other people and thus is the most basic human action. Behavior should not be mistaken with social behavior, which is more advanced action, as social behavior is behavior specifically directed at other people. The acceptability of behavior is evaluated relative to social norms and regulated by various means of social control. The behavior of people is studied by the academic disciplines of psychology, sociology, economics, and anthropology. In 1970, a book was published called "The Social Contract: A Personal Inquiry into the Evolutionary Sources of Order and Disorder" written by the anthropologist Robert Ardrey. The book and study investigated animal behavior (Ethology) and then compared human behavior as a similar phenomenon. Evolutionary psychology (EP) attempts to explain mental and psychological traits—such as memory, perception, or language—as adaptations, that is, as the functional products of natural selection or sexual selection. Adaptationist thinking about physiological mechanisms, such as the heart, lungs, and immune system, is common in evolutionary biology. Evolutionary psychology applies the same thinking to psychology. Evolutionary psychologists argue that much of human behavior is generated by psychological adaptations that evolved to solve recurrent problems in human ancestral environments. They hypothesize, for example, that humans have inherited special mental capacities for acquiring language, making it nearly automatic, while inheriting no capacity specifically for reading and writing. Other adaptations, according to EP, might include the abilities to infer others' emotions, to discern kin from non-kin, to identify and prefer healthier mates, to cooperate with others, and so on. Consistent with the theory of natural selection, evolutionary psychology sees organisms as often in conflict with others of their species, including mates and relatives. For example, mother mammals and their young offspring sometimes struggle over weaning, which benefits mother more than the child. Humans, however, have a marked capacity for cooperation as well. Evolutionary psychologists see those behaviors and emotions that are nearly universal, such as fear of spiders and snakes, as more likely to reflect evolved adaptations. Evolved psychological adaptations (such as the ability to learn a language) interact with cultural inputs to produce specific behaviors (e.g., the specific language learned). This view is contrary to the idea that human mental faculties are general-purpose learning mechanisms. Fields closely related to EP are animal behavioral ecology, human behavioral ecology, dual inheritance theory, and sociobiology. The term "instincts" has had a long and varied use in psychology. In the 1870's, Wilhelm Wundt established the first psychology laboratory. At that time,

psychology was primarily a branch of philosophy, but behavior became increasingly examined within the framework of the scientific method. This method has come to dominate all branches of science. While use of the scientific method led to increasingly rigorous definition of terms, by the close of the 19th century most repeated behavior was considered instinctual. In a survey of the literature at that time, one researcher chronicled 4000 human instincts, meaning someone applied the label to any behavior that was repetitive. As research became more rigorous and terms better defined, instinct as an explanation for human behavior became less common. In a conference in 1960, chaired by Frank Beach, a pioneer in comparative psychology and attended by luminaries in the field, the term was restricted in its application. During the 60's and 70's, textbooks still contained some discussion of instincts in reference to human behavior. By the year 2000, a survey of the 12 best selling textbooks in Introductory Psychology revealed only one reference to instincts, and that was in regard to Freud's referral to the "id" instincts. Any repeated behavior can be called "instinctual." As can any behavior for which there is a strong innate component. However, to distinguish behavior beyond the control of the organism from behavior that has a repetitive component we can turn to the book "Instinct"(1961) stemming from the 1960 conference. A number of criteria were established which distinguishes instinctual from other kinds of behavior. To be considered instinctual a behavior must a) be automatic, b) be irresistible, c) occur at some point in development, d) be triggered by some event in the environment, e) occur in every member of the species, f) be unmodifiable, and g) govern behavior for which the organism needs no training (although the organism may profit from experience and to that degree the behavior is modifiable). The absence of one or more of these criteria indicates that the behavior is not fully instinctual. Instincts do exist in insects and animals as can be seen in behaviors that can not be changed by learning. Psychologists do recognize that humans do have biological predispositions or behaviors that are easy to learn due to biological wiring, for example walking and talking. If these criteria are used in a rigorous scientific manner, application of the term "instinct" cannot be used in reference to human behavior. When terms, such as mothering, territoriality, eating, mating, and so on, are used to denote human behavior they are seen to not meet the criteria listed above. In comparison to animal behavior such as hibernation, migration, nest building, mating and so on that are clearly instinctual, no human behavior meets the necessary criteria. And even in regard to animals, in many cases if the correct learning is stopped from occurring these instinctual behaviors disappear, suggesting that they are potent, but limited, biological predispostions. In the final analysis, under this definition, there are no human instincts. In humans Some sociobiologists and ethologists have attempted to comprehend human and animal social behavior in terms of instincts. Psychoanalysts have stated that instinct refers to human motivational forces (such as sex and aggression), sometimes represented as life instinct and death instinct. This use of the term

motivational forces has mainly been replaced by the term instinctual drives. Instincts in humans can also be seen in what are called instinctive reflexes. Reflexes, such as the Babinski Reflex (fanning of the toes when foot is stroked), are seen in babies and are indicative of stages of development. These reflexes can truly be considered instinctive because they are generally free of environmental influences or conditioning. Additional human traits that have been looked at as instincts are: sleeping, altruism, disgust, face perception, language acquisitions, "fight or flight" and "subjugate or be subjugated". Some experiments in human and primate societies have also come to the conclusion that a sense of fairness could be considered instinctual, with humans and apes willing to harm their own interests in protesting unfair treatment of self or others.[1][2] Other sociologists argue that humans have no instincts, defining them as a "complex pattern of behavior present in every specimen of a particular species, that is innate, and that cannot be overridden." Said sociologists argue that drives such as sex and hunger cannot be considered instincts, as they can be overridden. This definitory argument is present in many introductory sociology and biology textbooks,[3] but is still hotly debated. Motivational concepts Reward and reinforcement A reward, tangible or intangible, is presented after the occurrence of an action (i.e. behavior) with the intent to cause the behavior to occur again. This is done by associating positive meaning to the behavior. Studies show that if the person receives the reward immediately, the effect would be greater, and decreases as duration lengthens. Repetitive action-reward combination can cause the action to become habit. Rewards can also be organized as extrinsic or intrinsic. Extrinsic rewards are external to the person; for example, praise or money. Intrinsic rewards are internal to the person; for example, satisfaction or a feeling of accomplishment. Some authors distinguish between two forms of intrinsic motivation: one based on enjoyment, the other on obligation. In this context, obligation refers to motivation based on what an individual thinks ought to be done. For instance, a feeling of responsibility for a mission may lead to helping others beyond what is easily observable, rewarded, or fun. A reinforcer is different from reward, in that reinforcement is intended to create a measured increase in the rate of a desirable behavior following the addition of something to the environment. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation Intrinsic motivation is when people engage in an activity, such as a hobby, without obvious external incentives. Intrinsic motivation has been studied by educational psychologists since the 1970s, and numerous studies have found it to be associated with high educational achievement and enjoyment by students. There is currently no

universal theory to explain the origin or elements of intrinsic motivation, and most explanations combine elements of Fritz Heider's attribution theory, Bandura's work on self-efficacy and other studies relating to locus of control and goal orientation. Though it is thought that students are more likely to be intrinsically motivated if they: • Attribute their educational results to internal factors that they can control (e.g. the amount of effort they put in), • Believe they can be effective agents in reaching desired goals (i.e. the results are not determined by luck), • Are interested in mastering a topic, rather than just rote-learning to achieve good grades. Note that the idea of reward for achievement is absent from this model of intrinsic motivation, since rewards are an extrinsic factor. In knowledge-sharing communities and organizations, people often cite altruistic reasons for their participation, including contributing to a common good, a moral obligation to the group, mentorship or 'giving back'. In work environments, money may provide a more powerful extrinsic factor than the intrinsic motivation provided by an enjoyable workplace. The most obvious form of motivation is coercion, where the avoidance of pain or other negative consequences has an immediate effect. Extreme use of coercion is considered slavery. While coercion is considered morally reprehensible in many philosophies, it is widely practiced on prisoners, students in mandatory schooling, within the nuclear family unit (on children), and in the form of conscription. Critics of modern capitalism charge that without social safety networks, wage slavery is inevitable[citation needed]. However, many capitalists such as Ayn Rand have been very vocal against coercion[citation needed]. Successful coercion sometimes can take priority over other types of motivation. Self-coercion is rarely substantially negative (typically only negative in the sense that it avoids a positive, such as forgoing an expensive dinner or a period of relaxation), however it is interesting in that it illustrates how lower levels of motivation may be sometimes tweaked to satisfy higher ones. In terms of GCSE PE, intrinsic motivation is the motivation that comes from inside the performer. E.g. they compete for the love of the sport. Extrinsic motivation comes from outside of the performer. E.g. The crowd cheer the performer on, this motivates them to do well, or to beat a PB (Personal Best). Another example is trophies or a reward. It makes the performer want to win and beat the other competitors, thereby motivating the performer. Self-control The self-control of motivation is increasingly understood as a subset of emotional intelligence; a person may be highly intelligent according to a more conservative definition (as measured by many intelligence tests), yet unmotivated to dedicate this intelligence to certain tasks. Yale School of Management professor Victor Vroom's "expectancy theory" provides an account of when people will decide whether to exert self control to pursue a particular goal. Drives and desires can be described as a deficiency or need that activates

behaviour that is aimed at a goal or an incentive. These are thought to originate within the individual and may not require external stimuli to encourage the behaviour. Basic drives could be sparked by deficiencies such as hunger, which motivates a person to seek food; whereas more subtle drives might be the desire for praise and approval, which motivates a person to behave in a manner pleasing to others. By contrast, the role of extrinsic rewards and stimuli can be seen in the example of training animals by giving them treats when they perform a trick correctly. The treat motivates the animals to perform the trick consistently, even later when the treat is removed from the process. Motivational Theories Drive Reduction Theories There are a number of drive theories. The Drive Reduction Theory grows out of the concept that we have certain biological needs, such as hunger. As time passes the strength of the drive increases as it is not satisfied. Then as we satisfy that drive by fulfilling its desire, such as eating, the drive's strength is reduced. It is based on the theories of Freud and the idea of feedback control systems, such as a thermostat. There are several problems, however, that leave the validity of the Drive Reduction Theory open for debate. The first problem is that it does not explain how Secondary Reinforcers reduce drive. For example, money does not satisfy any biological or psychological need but reduces drive on a regular basis through a pay check second-order conditioning. Secondly, if the drive reduction theory held true we would not be able to explain how a hungry human being can prepare a meal without eating the food before they finished cooking it. However, when comparing this to a real life situation such as preparing food, one does get hungrier as the food is being made (drive increases), and after the food has been consumed the drive decreases. The only reason the food does not get eaten before is the human element of restraint and has nothing to do with drive theory. Also, the food will either be nicer after it is cooked, or it won't be edible at all before it is cooked. Suggested by Leon Festinger, this occurs when an individual experiences some degree of discomfort resulting from an incompatibility between two cognitions. For example, a consumer may seek to reassure himself regarding a purchase, feeling, in retrospect, that another decision may have been preferable. Another example of cognitive dissonance is when a belief and a behavior are in conflict. A person may believe smoking is bad for one's health and yet continues to smoke. Affective-Arousal Theories

David McClelland’s achievement motivation theory envisions that a person has a need for three things, but differs in degrees to which the various needs influence their behavior: Need for achievement, Need for power, and Need for affiliation. Holland Codes are used in the assessment of interests as in Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI; Holland, 1985). One way to look at interests is that if a person has a strong interest in one of the 6 Holland areas, then obtaining outcomes in that area will be strongly reinforcing relative to obtaining outcomes in areas of weak interest. Need Theories Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of human needs theory is the most widely discussed theory of motivation. The theory can be summarized as thus: • Human beings have wants and desires which influence their behavior; only unsatisfied needs can influence behavior, satisfied needs cannot. • Since needs are many, they are arranged in order of importance, from the basic to the complex. • The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied. • The further the progress up the hierarchy, the more individuality, humanness and psychological health a person will show. The needs, listed from basic (lowest, earliest) to most complex (highest, latest) are as follows: • Physiological • Safety and security • Social • Esteem • Self actualization Frederick Herzberg's two-factor theory, aka intrinsic/extrinsic motivation, concludes that certain factors in the workplace result in job satisfaction, but if absent, lead to dissatisfaction. He distinguished between: • Motivators; (e.g. challenging work, recognition, responsibility) which give positive satisfaction, and • Hygiene factors; (e.g. status, job security, salary and fringe benefits) that do not motivate if present, but, if absent, result in demotivation. The name Hygiene factors is used because, like hygiene, the presence will not make you healthier, but absence can cause health deterioration. The theory is sometimes called the "Motivator-Hygiene Theory."

Clayton Alderfer, expanding on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, created the ERG theory (existence, relatedness and growth). Physiological and safety, the lower order needs, are placed in the existence category, while love and self esteem needs are placed in the relatedness category. The growth category contains our self-actualization and self-esteem needs. Self-determination theory Self-determination theory, developed by Edward Deci and Richard Ryan, focuses on the importance of intrinsic motivation in driving human behavior. Like Maslow's hierarchical theory and others that built on it, SDT posits a natural tendency toward growth and development. Unlike these other theories, however, SDT does not include any sort of "autopilot" for achievement, but instead requires active encouragement from the environment. The primary factors that encourage motivation and development are autonomy, competence feedback, and relatedness.[2] [edit] Broad Theories The latest approach in Achievement Motivation is an integrative perspective as lined out in the "Onion-Ring-Model of Achievement Motivation" by Heinz Schuler, George C. Thornton III, Andreas Frintrup and Rose Mueller-Hanson. It is based on the premise that performance motivation results from way broad components of personality are directed towards performance. As a result it includes a range of dimensions that are relevant to success at work but which are not conventionally regarded as being part of performance motivation. Especially it integrates formerly separated approaches as Need for Achievement with e.g. social motives like Dominance. The Achievement Motivation Inventory AMI (Schuler, Thornton, Frintrup & Mueller-Hanson, 2003) is based on this theory and assesses three factors (17 separated scales) relevant to vocational and professional success. Cognitive theories Goal-setting theory is based on the notion that individuals sometimes have a drive to reach a clearly defined end state. Often, this end state is a reward in itself. A goal's efficiency is affected by three features; proximity, difficulty and specificity. An ideal goal should present a situation where the time between the initiation of behavior and the end state is close. This explains why some children are more motivated to learn how to ride a bike than mastering algebra. A goal should be moderate, not too hard or too easy to complete. In both cases, most people are not optimally motivated, as many want a challenge (which assumes some kind of insecurity of success). At the same time people want to feel that there is a substantial probability that they will succeed. Specificity concerns the description of the goal in their class. The goal should be objectively defined and intelligible for the individual. A classic example of a poorly specified goal is to get the highest possible grade. Most children have no idea how much effort they need to reach that goal. For further reading, see Locke and Latham (2002).

Unconscious motivation Some psychologists believe that a significant portion of human behavior is energized and directed by unconscious motives. According to Maslow: "Psychoanalysis has often demonstrated that the relationship between a conscious desire and the ultimate unconscious aim that underlies it need not be at all direct [3]." In other words, stated motives do not always match those inferred by skilled observers. For example, it is possible that a person can be accident-prone because he has an unconscious desire to hurt himself and not because he is careless or ignorant of the safety rules. Similarly, some overweight people are not really hungry for food but for attention and love. Eating is merely a defensive reaction to lack of attention. Some workers damage more equipment than others because they harbor unconscious feelings of aggression toward authority figures. Psychotherapists point out that some behavior is so automatic that the reasons for it are not available in the individual's conscious mind. Compulsive cigarette smoking is an example. Sometimes maintaining self-esteem is so important and the motive for an activity is so threatening that it is simply not recognized and, in fact, may be disguised or repressed. Rationalization, or "explaining away", is one such disguise, or defense mechanism, as it is called. Another is projecting or attributing one's own faults to others. "I feel I am to blame", becomes "It is her fault; she is selfish". Repression of powerful but socially unacceptable motives may result in outward behavior that is the opposite of the repressed tendencies. An example of this would be the employee who hates his boss but overworks himself on the job to show that he holds him in high regard. Unconscious motives add to the hazards of interpreting human behavior and, to the extent that they are present, complicate the life of the administrator. On the other hand, knowledge that unconscious motives exist can lead to a more careful assessment of behavioral problems. Although few contemporary psychologists deny the existence of unconscious factors, many do believe that these are activated only in times of anxiety and stress, and that in the ordinary course of events, human behavior — from the subject's point of view — is rationally purposeful. Controlling motivation The control of motivation is only understood to a limited extent. There are many different approaches of motivation training, but many of these are considered pseudoscientific by critics. To understand how to control motivation it is first necessary to understand why many people lack motivation. Early programming Modern imaging has provided solid empirical support for the psychological theory that emotional programming is largely defined in childhood. Harold Chugani, Medical Director of the PET Clinic at the Children's Hospital of Michigan and professor of pediatrics, neurology and radiology at Wayne State University School of Medicine, has found that children's brains are much more capable of

consuming new information (linked to emotions) than those of adults. Brain activity in cortical regions is about twice as high in children as in adults from the third to the ninth year of life. After that period, it declines constantly to the low levels of adulthood. Brain volume, on the other hand, is already at about 95% of adult levels in the ninth year of life. Organization Besides the very direct approaches to motivation, beginning in early life, there are solutions which are more abstract but perhaps nevertheless more practical for self-motivation. Virtually every motivation guidebook includes at least one chapter about the proper organization of one's tasks and goals. It is usually suggested that it is critical to maintain a list of tasks, with a distinction between those which are completed and those which are not, thereby moving some of the required motivation for their completion from the tasks themselves into a "metatask", namely the processing of the tasks in the task list, which can become a routine. The viewing of the list of completed tasks may also be considered motivating, as it can create a satisfying sense of accomplishment. Most electronic to-do lists have this basic functionality, although the distinction between completed and non-completed tasks is not always clear (completed tasks are sometimes simply deleted, instead of kept in a separate list). Other forms of information organization may also be motivational, such as the use of mind maps to organize one's ideas, and thereby "train" the neural network that is the human brain to focus on the given task. Simpler forms of idea notation such as simple bullet-point style lists may also be sufficient, or even more useful to less visually oriented persons. Some authors, especially in the transhumanist movement, have suggested the use of "smart drugs", also known as nootropics, as "motivation-enhancers". The effects of many of these drugs on the brain are emphatically not well understood, and their legal status often makes open experimentation difficult. Converging neurobiological evidence also supports the idea that addictive drugs such as cocaine, nicotine, alcohol, and heroin act on brain systems underlying motivation for natural rewards, such as the mesolimbic dopamine system. Normally, these brain systems serve to guide us toward fitness-enhancing rewards (food, water, sex, etc.), but they can be co-opted by repeated use of drugs of abuse, causing addicts to excessively pursue drug rewards. Therefore, drugs can hijack brain systems underlying other motivations, causing the almost singular pursuit of drugs characteristic of addiction

Psychology of the stress response A typical example of the stress response is a grazing zebra, calmly maintaining homeostasis. If the zebra sees a lion closing in for the kill, the stress response is activated. The escape requires intense muscular effort, supported by all of the body’s systems. The sympathetic nervous system’s activation provides for these needs. A similar example involving fight is of a cat about to be attacked by a dog.

The cat shows accelerated heartbeat, piloerection (hair standing on end, normally for conservation of heat), and pupil dilation, all signs of sympathetic arousal (Gleitman et al, 2004). Though Cannon, who first proposed the idea of fight-or-flight, provided considerable evidence of these responses in various animals, it subsequently became apparent that his theory of response was too simplistic. Animals respond to threats in many complex ways. Rats, for instance, try to escape when threatened, but will fight when cornered. Some animals stand perfectly still so that predators will not see them. Others have more exotic self-protection methods. Some species of fish change color swiftly, to camouflage themselves. These responses are triggered by the sympathetic nervous system, but in order to fit the model of fight or flight, the idea of flight must be broadened to include escaping capture in either a physical way or in a sensory way. Thus, flight can be disappearing to another location or just disappearing in place. And often both fight and flight are combined in a given situation. The fight or flight actions also have polarity - the individual can fight or fly against or away from something that is threatening, such as a hungry lion, or fight or fly for or towards something that is needed, such as the safety of the shore of a raging river. A threat from another animal does not always result in immediate fight or flight. There may be a period of heightened awareness, during which each animal interprets behavioral signals from the other. Signs such as paling, piloerection, immobility, sounds, and body language communicate the status and intentions of each animal. There may be a sort of negotiation, after which fight or flight may ensue, but which might also result in playing, mating, or nothing at all. An example of this is kittens playing: each kitten shows the signs of sympathetic arousal, but they never inflict real damage. Behavioral manifestations of fight-or-flight In prehistoric times when the fight or flight response evolved, fight was manifested in aggressive, combative behavior and flight was manifested by fleeing potentially threatening situations, such as being confronted by a predator. In current times, these responses persist, but fight and flight responses have assumed a wider range of behaviors. For example, the fight response may be manifested in angry, argumentative behavior, and the flight response may be manifested through social withdrawal, substance abuse, and even television viewing (Friedman & Silver 2007). Behaviorally, the fight or flight response describes men’s reactions to stressful situations better than women’s [1]. That is, men are more likely to cope with stress via social withdrawal, substance abuse, and aggression. Some researchers believe that these aspects of the fight or flight response in men contribute to their earlier mortality, relative to women. Women are more likely to cope with stress through social support, that is, by turning to others to both give and receive instrumental and emotional aid. This pattern of responding has been called “tend and befriend,” and refers to the fact that during stressful times, women are especially likely to show protective responses toward their offspring

and affiliate with others for shared social responses to threat (Taylor et al, 2000). This can also be explained as being the tendency of men to direct their fight or flight actions in an "against" or "away from" manner, while women tend to direct their actions in a "for" or "towards" manner. Negative effects of the stress response in humans Although the emergency measure of the stress response is undoubtedly both vital and valuable, it can also be disruptive and damaging. In most modern situations, humans rarely encounter emergencies that require physical effort, yet our biology still provides for them. Thus we may find our stress response activated in situations where physical action is inappropriate. This activation takes a toll on both our bodies and our minds. Also, simple stresses that can be acted upon quickly are more easily overcome allowing the body to return to homeostasis, but with the more complex stresses of modern societies, with many factors and individuals involved, the danger may seem unavoidable and stress may continue indefinitely, which ends up compromising the system rather than helping the system. Disruption of the sexual response and the digestive system are common negative results. Diarrhea, constipation, and difficulty maintaining sexual arousal are typical examples. These are functions which are controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system and therefore suppressed by sympathetic arousal. Prolonged stress responses may result in chronic suppression of the immune system, leaving the sufferer vulnerable to infection by bacteria and viruses. Repeated stress responses can be caused not only by real threats, but also by mental disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder, in which the individual shows a stress response when remembering a past trauma, and panic disorder, in which the stress response is activated apparently by nothing.

Senses are the physiological methods of perception. The senses and their operation, classification, and theory are overlapping topics studied by a variety of fields, most notably neuroscience, cognitive psychology (or cognitive science), and philosophy of perception. The nervous system has a specific sensory system, or organ, dedicated to each sense.

Definition of sense There is no firm agreement among neurologists as to the number of senses because of differing definitions of what constitutes a sense. One definition states that an exteroceptive sense is a faculty by which outside stimuli are perceived.[1] The traditional five senses are sight, hearing, touch, smell, taste: a classification attributed to Aristotle.[2] Humans also have at least six additional senses (a total of eleven including interoceptive senses) that include: nociception (pain), equilibrioception (balance), proprioception & kinesthesia (joint motion and acceleration), sense of time, thermoception (temperature differences), and in

some a weak magnetoception (direction)[3]. One commonly recognized catagorisation for human senses is as follows: chemoreception; photoreception; mechanoreception; and thermoception. Indeed, all human senses fit into one of these four categories. Different senses also exist in other organisms, for example electroreception. A broadly acceptable definition of a sense would be "a system that consists of a group sensory cell types that responds to a specific physical phenomenon, and that corresponds to a particular group of regions within the brain where the signals are received and interpreted." Disputes about the number of senses arise typically regarding the classification of the various cell types and their mapping to regions of the brain. Senses Sight Sight or vision is the ability of the brain and eye to detect electromagnetic waves within the visible range (light) interpreting the image as "sight." There is disagreement as to whether this constitutes one, two or three senses. Neuroanatomists generally regard it as two senses, given that different receptors are responsible for the perception of colour (the frequency of photons of light) and brightness (amplitude/intensity - number of photons of light). Some argue[citation needed] that stereopsis, the perception of depth, also constitutes a sense, but it is generally regarded as a cognitive (that is, post-sensory) function of brain to interpret sensory input and to derive new information. The inability to see is called blindness. Hearing Hearing or audition is the sense of sound perception. Since sound is vibrations propagating through a medium such as air, the detection of these vibrations, that is the sense of the hearing, is a mechanical sense akin to a sense of touch, albeit a very specialized one. In humans, this perception is executed by tiny hair fibres in the inner ear which detect the motion of a membrane which vibrates in response to changes in the pressure exerted by atmospheric particles within a range of 20 to 22000 Hz, with substantial variation between individuals. Sound can also be detected as vibrations conducted through the body by tactition. Lower and higher frequencies than that can be heard are detected this way only. The inability to hear is called deafness. Taste Taste or gustation is one of the two main "chemical" senses. There are at least four types of tastes[1] that "buds" (receptors) on the tongue detect, and hence there are anatomists who argue[citation needed] that these constitute five or more different senses, given that each receptor conveys information to a slightly different region of the brain[citation needed]. The inability to taste is called ageusia.

The four well-known receptors detect sweet, salt, sour, and bitter, although the receptors for sweet and bitter have not been conclusively identified. A fifth receptor, for a sensation called umami, was first theorised in 1908 and its existence confirmed in 2000[4]. The umami receptor detects the amino acid glutamate, a flavor commonly found in meat and in artificial flavourings such as monosodium glutamate. Note that taste is not the same as flavor; flavor includes the smell of a food as well as its taste. Smell Smell or olfaction is the other "chemical" sense. Unlike taste, there are hundreds of olfactory receptors, each binding to a particular molecular feature. Odor molecules possess a variety of features and thus excite specific receptors more or less strongly. This combination of excitatory signals from different receptors makes up what we perceive as the molecule's smell. In the brain, olfaction is processed by the olfactory system. Olfactory receptor neurons in the nose differ from most other neurons in that they die and regenerate on a regular basis. The inability to smell is called anosmia. Touch Touch, also called tactition, mechanoreception or somatic sensation, is the sense of pressure perception, generally in the skin. There are a variety of nerve endings that respond to variations in pressure (e.g., firm, brushing, and sustained). The inability to feel anything or almost anything is called anesthesia. Paresthesia is a sensation of tingling, pricking, or numbness of a person's skin with no apparent long term physical effect. Balance and acceleration Balance, Equilibrioception, or vestibular sense, is the sense which allows an organism to sense body movement, direction, speed, and acceleration, and to attain and maintain postural equilibrium and balance. The organ of equilibrioception is the vestibular labyrinthine system found in both of the inner ears. Technically this organ is responsible for two senses, angular momentum and linear acceleration (which also senses gravity), but they are known together as equilibrioception. The vestibular nerve conducts information from the three semicircular canals, corresponding to the three spatial planes, the utricle, and the saccule. The ampulla, or base, portion of the three semicircular canals each contain a structure called a crista. These bend in response to angular momentum or spinning. The saccule and utricle, also called the "otolith organs", sense linear acceleration and thus gravity. Otoliths are small crystals of calcium carbonate that provide the inertia needed to detect changes in acceleration or gravity. Temperature Thermoception is the sense of heat and the absence of heat (cold) by the skin and including internal skin passages. The thermoceptors in the skin are quite different from the homeostatic thermoceptors in the brain (hypothalamus) which

provide feedback on internal body temperature. Kinesthetic sense Proprioception, the kinesthetic sense, provides the parietal cortex of the brain with information on the relative positions of the parts of the body. Neurologists test this sense by telling patients to close their eyes and touch the tip of a finger to their nose. Assuming proper proprioceptive function, at no time will the person lose awareness of where the hand actually is, even though it is not being detected by any of the other senses. Proprioception and touch are related in subtle ways, and their impairment results in surprising and deep deficits in perception and action. [5] Pain Nociception (physiological pain) signals near-damage or damage to tissue. The three types of pain receptors are cutaneous (skin), somatic (joints and bones) and visceral (body organs). It was believed that pain was simply the overloading of pressure receptors, but research in the first half of the 20th century indicated that pain is a distinct phenomenon that intertwines with all of the other senses, including touch. Pain was once considered an entirely subjective experience, but recent studies show that pain is registered in the anterior cingulate gyrus of the brain. Other internal senses An internal sense or interoception is "any sense that is normally stimulated from within the body."[6] These involve numerous sensory receptors in internal organs, such as stretch receptors that are neurologically linked to the brain. • Pulmonary stretch receptors are found in the lungs and control the respiratory rate. • Cutaneous receptors in the skin not only respond to touch, pressure, and temperature, but also respond to vasodilation in the skin such as blushing. • Stretch receptors in the gastrointestinal tract sense gas distension that may result in colic pain. • Stimulation of sensory receptors in the esophagus result in sensations felt in the throat when swallowing, vomiting, or during acid reflux. • Sensory receptors in pharynx mucosa, similar to touch receptors in the skin, sense foreign objects such as food that may result in a gagging reflex and corresponding gagging sensation. • Stimulation of sensory receptors in the urinary bladder and rectum may result in sensations of fullness. • Stimulation of stretch sensors that sense dilation of various blood vessels may result in pain, for example headache caused by vasodilation of brain arteries. Non-human senses Analogous to human senses

Other living organisms have receptors to sense the world around them, including many of the senses listed above for humans. However, the mechanisms and capabilities vary widely. Smell Among non-human species, dogs have a much keener sense of smell than humans, although the mechanism is similar. Insects have olfactory receptors on their antennae. Vision Cats have the ability to see in the dark due to muscles surrounding their irises to contract and expand pupils as well as the tapetum lucidum, a reflective membrane that optimizes the image. Pitvipers, pythons and some boas have organs that allow them to detect infrared light, such that these snakes are able to sense the body heat of their prey. The common vampire bat may also have an infrared sensor on its nose.[7] Infrared senses are, however, just sight in a different light frequency range. It has been found that birds and some other animals are tetrachromats and have the ability to see in the ultraviolet down to 300 nanometers. Bees are also able to see in the ultraviolet. [edit] Balance Ctenophores have a balance receptor (a statocyst) that works very differently from the mammalian's semi-circular canals. Not analogous to human senses In addition, some animals have senses that humans do not, including the following: • Electroception (or "electroreception"), the most significant of the nonhuman senses, is the ability to detect electric fields. Several species of fish, sharks and rays have the capacity to sense changes in electric fields in their immediate vicinity. Some fish passively sense changing nearby electric fields; some generate their own weak electric fields, and sense the pattern of field potentials over their body surface; and some use these electric field generating and sensing capacities for social communication. The mechanisms by which electroceptive fish construct a spatial representation from very small differences in field potentials involve comparisons of spike latencies from different parts of the fish's body. The only order of mammals that is known to demonstrate electroception is the monotreme order. Among these mammals, the platypus[8] has the most acute sense of electroception. Body modification enthusiasts have experimented with magnetic implants to attempt to replicate this sense,[9] however in general humans (and probably other mammals) can detect electric fields only indirectly by detecting the effect they have on hairs. An electrically charged balloon, for instance, will exert a force on human arm hairs, which can be felt through tactition and identified as coming from a static charge (and not from wind or the like). This

is however not electroception as it is a post-sensory cognitive action. • Echolocation is the ability to determine orientation to other objects through interpretation of reflected sound (like sonar). Bats and cetaceans are noted for this ability, though some other animals use it, as well. It is most often used to navigate through poor lighting conditions or to identify and track prey. There is currently an uncertainty whether this is simply an extremely developed post-sensory interpretation of auditory perceptions or it actually constitutes a separate sense. Resolution of the issue will require brain scans of animals while they actually perform echolocation, a task that has proven difficult in practice. Blind people report they are able to navigate by interpreting reflected sounds (esp. their own footsteps), a phenomenon which is known as Human echolocation. • Magnetoception (or "magnetoreception") is the ability to detect fluctuations in magnetic fields and is most commonly observed in birds, though it has also been observed in insects such as bees. Although there is no dispute that this sense exists in many avians (it is essential to the navigational abilities of migratory birds), it is not a well-understood phenomenon[10]. Magnetotactic bacteria build miniature magnets inside themselves and use them to determine their orientation relative to the Earth's magnetic field.[citation needed] • Pressure detection uses the lateral line, which is a pressure-sensing system of hairs found in fish and some aquatic amphibians. It is used primarily for navigation, hunting, and schooling. Humans have a basic relative-pressure detection ability when eustachian tube(s) are blocked, as demonstrated in the ear's response to changes in altitude. • Polarized light direction / detection is used by bees to orient themselves, especially on cloudy days. Cuttlefish can also perceive the polarization of light. • • • • • • • • • • • • Attention Auditory illusion, Optical illusion, Touch illusion Basic tastes Communication Empiricism Intuition Sensation Multimodal integration Sensitivity (human) Sense of time Sensorium Synesthesia

In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of attaining

awareness or understanding of sensory information. It is a task far more complex than was imagined in the 1950s and 1960s, when it was proclaimed that building perceiving machines would take about a decade, but, needless to say, that is still very far from reality. The word perception comes from the Latin perception, percepio, , meaning "receiving, collecting, action of taking possession, apprehension with the mind or senses."[1] Perception is also a form of self-expression What one perceives is a result of interplays between past experiences, one’s culture and the interpretation of the perceived. If the percept does not have support in any of these perceptual bases it is unlikely to rise above perceptual threshold. Perception gives rise to two types of consciousness; phenomenal and psychological. The difference everybody can demonstrate to himself/herself by simple opening and closing his/her eyes. Phenomenal consciousness is full of rich sensations that are hardly present when eyes are closed. Psychological consciousness is well researched and measured. It occurs half a second after a stimulus starts. If a weak stimulus lasts less, it is unlikely to be perceived. The capacity of psychological consciousness is also well measured. Depending on methods used the capacity ranges between seven and forty symbols or percepts at the time. There are two basic theories of perception: Passive Perception (PP) and Active Perception (PA). The passive perception (conceived by René Descartes) is addressed in this article and could be surmised as the following sequence of events: surrounding → input (senses) → processing (brain) → output (re-action). Although still supported by mainstream philosophers, psychologists and neurologists, this theory is nowadays losing momentum. The theory of active perception has emerged from extensive research of sensory illusions, most notably the works of Professor Emeritus Richard L. Gregory. This theory is increasingly gaining experimental support and could be surmised as dynamic relationship between “description” (in the brain) ↔ senses ↔ surrounding. Perception is one of the oldest fields in psychology. The oldest quantitative law in psychology is the Weber-Fechner law, which quantifies the relationship between the intensity of physical stimuli and their perceptual effects. It was the study of perception that gave rise to the Gestalt school of psychology, with its emphasis on holistic approach. Neuroscience is a field devoted to the scientific study of the nervous system. Such studies span the structure, function, evolutionary history, development, genetics, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, informatics, computational neuroscience and pathology of the nervous system. Traditionally it is seen as a branch of biological sciences. However, recently there has been a surge in the convergence of interest from many allied disciplines, including cognitive and neuro-psychology, computer science, statistics, physics, and medicine. The scope of neuroscience has now broadened to include any systematic scientific experimental and theoretical investigation of the central and peripheral nervous system of biological organisms. The empirical methodologies employed by

neuroscientists have been enormously expanded, from biochemical and genetic analysis of dynamics of individual nerve cells and their molecular constituents to imaging representations of perceptual and motor tasks in the brain. Many recent theoretical advances in neuroscience have been aided by the use of computational modeling. In general, biological psychologists study the same issues as academic psychologists, though limited by the need to use nonhuman species. As a result, the bulk of literature in biological psychology deals with mental processes and behaviors that are shared across mammalian species, such as: • Sensation and perception • Motivated behavior (hunger, thirst, sex) • Control of movement • Learning and memory • Sleep and biological rhythms • Emotion However, with increasing technical sophistication and with the development of more precise noninvasive methods that can be applied to human subjects, biological psychologists are beginning to contribute to other classical topic areas of psychology, such as: • Language • Reasoning and decision making • Consciousness Biological psychology has also had a strong history of contributing to the understanding of medical disorders, including those that fall under the purview of clinical psychology and psychopathology (also known as abnormal psychology). Although animal models for all mental illnesses do not exist, the field has contributed important therapeutic data on a variety of conditions, including: • Parkinson's Disease, a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that often impairs the sufferer's motor skills and speech. • Huntington's Disease, a rare inherited neurological disorder whose most obvious symptoms are abnormal body movements and a lack of coordination. It also affects a number of mental abilities and some aspects of personality. • Alzheimer's Disease, a neurodegenerative disease that, in its most common form, is found in people over the age of 65 and is characterized by progressive cognitive deterioration, together with declining activities of daily living and by neuropsychiatric symptoms or behavioral changes. • Clinical depression, a common psychiatric disorder, characterized by a persistent lowering of mood, loss of interest in usual activities and diminished ability to experience pleasure. • Schizophrenia, a psychiatric diagnosis that describes a mental illness characterized by impairments in the perception or expression of reality, most commonly manifesting as auditory hallucinations, paranoid or bizarre delusions or disorganized speech and thinking in the context of significant social or occupational dysfunction.

• •


Autism, a brain development disorder that impairs social interaction and communication, and causes restricted and repetitive behavior, all starting before a child is three years old. Anxiety, a physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components. These components combine to create the feelings that are typically recognized as fear, apprehension, or worry. Drug abuse, including alcoholism

Evolution in organisms occurs through changes in discrete traits – particular characteristics of an organism. In humans, for example, eye color is an inherited characteristic, which individuals can inherit from one of their parents.[14] Inherited traits are controlled by genes and the complete set of genes within an organism's genome is called its genotype.[15] The complete set of observable traits that make up the structure and behavior of an organism is called its phenotype. These traits come from the interaction of its genotype with the environment.[16] As a result, not every aspect of an organism's phenotype is inherited. Suntanned skin results from the interaction between a person's genotype and sunlight; thus, suntans are not passed on to people's children. However, people have different responses to sunlight, arising from differences in their genotype; a striking example is individuals with the inherited trait of albinism, who do not tan and are highly sensitive to sunburn.[17] Heritable traits are propagated between generations via DNA, a molecule which is capable of encoding genetic information.[15] DNA is a polymer composed of four types of bases. The sequence of bases along a particular DNA molecule specify the genetic information, in a manner akin to a sequence of letters specifying a text or a sequence of bits specifying a computer program. Portions of a DNA molecule that specify a single functional unit are called genes; different genes have different sequences of bases. Within cells, the long strands of DNA associate with proteins to form condensed structures called chromosomes. A specific location within a chromosome is known as a locus. If the DNA sequence at a locus varies between individuals, the different forms of this sequence are called alleles. DNA sequences can change through mutations, producing new alleles. If a mutation occurs within a gene, the new allele may affect the trait that the gene controls, altering the phenotype of the organism. However, while this simple correspondence between an allele and a trait works in some cases, most traits are more complex and are controlled by multiple interacting genes In biology, evolution is the process of change in the inherited traits of a population of organisms from one generation to the next. The genes that are passed on to an organism's offspring produce the inherited traits that are the basis of evolution. Mutations in genes can produce new or altered traits in individuals, resulting in the appearance of heritable differences between organisms, but new traits also come from the transfer of genes between

populations, as in migration, or between species, in horizontal gene transfer. In species that reproduce sexually, new combinations of genes are produced by genetic recombination, which can increase the variation in traits between organisms. Evolution occurs when these heritable differences become more common or rare in a population. There are two major mechanisms driving evolution. The first is natural selection, a process causing heritable traits that are helpful for survival and reproduction to become more common in a population, and harmful traits to become more rare. This occurs because individuals with advantageous traits are more likely to reproduce, so that more individuals in the next generation inherit these traits.[1][2] Over many generations, adaptations occur through a combination of successive, small, random changes in traits, and natural selection of those variants best-suited for their environment.[3] The second is genetic drift, an independent process that produces random changes in the frequency of traits in a population. Genetic drift results from the role probability plays in whether a given trait will be passed on as individuals survive and reproduce. Though the changes produced in any one generation by drift and selection are small, differences accumulate with each subsequent generation and can, over time, cause substantial changes in the organisms. One definition of a species is a group of organisms that can reproduce with one another and produce fertile offspring. When a species is separated into populations that are prevented from interbreeding, mutations, genetic drift, and natural selection cause the accumulation of differences over generations and the emergence of new species.[4] The similarities between organisms suggest that all known species are descended from a common ancestor (or ancestral gene pool) through this process of gradual divergence.[1] Evolutionary biology documents the fact that evolution occurs, and also develops and tests theories that explain why it occurs. Studies of the fossil record and the diversity of living organisms had convinced most scientists by the mid-nineteenth century that species changed over time.[5][6] However, the mechanism driving these changes remained unclear until the 1859 publication of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species, detailing the theory of evolution by natural selection.[7] Darwin's work soon led to overwhelming acceptance of evolution within the scientific community.[8][9][10][11] In the 1930s, Darwinian natural selection was combined with Mendelian inheritance to form the modern evolutionary synthesis,[12] in which the connection between the units of evolution (genes) and the mechanism of evolution (natural selection) was made. This powerful explanatory and predictive theory directs research by constantly raising new questions, and it has become the central organizing principle of modern biology, providing a unifying explanation for the diversity of life on Earth Natural history is the the scientific research of plants or animals, leaning more towards the observational than experimental methods of study, and encompasses more research that is published in magazines than in academic journals.[1] Grouped among the natural sciences, Natural history is the

systematic study of any category of natural objects or organisms. That is a very broad designation in a world filled with many narrowly focused disciplines, so while modern natural history dates historically from studies in the ancient GrecoRoman world and then the medieval Arabic world through to the scattered European Renaissance scientists working in near isolation, today's field is more of a cross discipline umbrella of many specialty sciences that like geobiology have a strong multi-disciplinary nature combining scientists and scientific knowledge of many specialty sciences.

Description Natural history involves the research and formation of statements that make elements of life and life styles comprehensible by describing the relevant structures, operations and circumstances of various species, such as diet, reproduction, and social grouping.[2] The term has grown to be an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. Most definitions include the study of living things (e.g. biology, including botany and zoology); other definitions extend the topic to include paleontology, ecology or biochemistry, as well as parts of geology and climatology. Today, well into the scientific revolution, natural history is sometimes considered an archaic term in the scientific community, since in its cross-discipline form usually leans toward the observational rather than the experimental, and encompasses more research that is published in general information (popular) magazines than in academic journals.[3] As an umbrella science, this is perhaps inevitable, and such cross disciplinary articles have their counterpart papers in many professional journal's as well—which are frequently cited in the popular articles. That many advances, even in specialties, could not have been made without such cross-fertilization of strong points is beyond contestation. No one thirty years ago could have foreseen how genetics, has remade and impacted other science, nor radiometrics and other analytical methods that have proved useful in many fields. In the past, during the heyday of the gentleman scientists, Natural history was strongly associated with (and hardly distinguished from) natural philosophy for many figures contributed in both areas and early papers of both fields were commonly read at early professional science societies meetings such as the Royal Society and French Academy of Sciences—both founded during the early industrial revolution in the seventeenth century. In the eighteenth century and well into the nineteenth century, natural history, as a term, was frequently used to refer to all descriptive aspects of the study of nature—what today are called natural sciences—as opposed to political, ecclesiastical or other human-related history. In that era, where knowledge was divided into two main branches, the humanities including theology— which was considered by far the most important discipline in the mindset of the age until circa the late seventeenth century— and the studies of nature, it was the counterpart to the analytical study of nature, natural philosophy, which today we

call the physical sciences. Spurred by the industrial revolution, the later became ascendant, natural history grew alongside it—mostly spurred by needs to analyze rock strata and find mineable mineral deposits, and the modern world gradually took place with a very different set of priorities and mindsets, as new sciences such as psychology emerged with expanding knowledge. Furthermore, in modern usage as a term, natural history's sense has become narrowed and more tightly focused, and more often refers to matters relating to biology (the study of living organisms such as plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, etc. and their relationships in natural systems ("ecosystems")—but such also encompasses paleobiology, paleozoology, etcetera and so weds the field strongly with many earth sciences like geology and its disciplines such as stratigraphy and petrology. In contrast, until the twentieth century, it had the designation as the study of ALL things in the natural world, such as rocks and minerals (geology), atoms and molecules (chemistry) and even the universe at large (astronomy), (physics), (astrophysics), etc.) It has historically been an often somewhat haphazard or less strictly organized study, description, and classification of natural objects, such as animals, plants, minerals, and placed an importance and significance on fieldwork as opposed to the more systematic scientific investigation such as experimental or lab work.[4] A person interested in natural history is known as a naturalist or natural historian. Natural History is not now commonly applied to the fields of astronomy, physics, or chemistry.,[4] as briefly discussed above. However, it sometimes even includes the disciplines of anthropology and archaeology. Natural history involves the research and formation of statements that make elements of life and the world of living beings comprehensible by describing the relevant structures, operations, relationships (in natural or "eco"systems, as well as the biosphere as a whole (i.e. the sum total of life on our planet))and circumstances of various species, such as diet, reproduction, and social grouping.[5] The term has grown to be an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. Most definitions include the study of living things (e.g. biology, including botany and zoology); other definitions extend the topic to include paleontology, ecology or biochemistry, as well as parts of geology and climatology.

Anthropology (/ ænθ ə'p ləd i/, from Greek:

νθρωπος, anthropos, "human

being"; and λόγος, logos, "reason" or "speech," lit. to talk about human beings) is the study of humanity. Anthropology has origins in the natural sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences.[1] Ethnography is both one of its primary methods and the text that is written as a result of the practice of anthropology and its elements. Since the work of Franz Boas and Bronisław Malinowski in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, anthropology has been distinguished from other social science

disciplines by its emphasis on in-depth examination of context, cross-cultural comparisons (socio-cultural anthropology is by nature a comparative discipline), and the importance it places on long-term, experiential immersion in the area of research, often known as participant-observation. Cultural anthropology in particular has emphasized cultural relativity and the use of findings to frame cultural critiques. This has been particularly prominent in the United States, from Boas's arguments against 19th-century racial ideology, through Margaret Mead's advocacy for gender equality and sexual liberation, to current criticisms of postcolonial oppression and promotion of multiculturalism.


Anthropology (/ ænθ ə'p ləd i/, from Greek:

νθρωπος, anthropos, "human

being"; and λόγος, logos, "reason" or "speech," lit. to talk about human beings) is the study of humanity. Anthropology has origins in the natural sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences.[1] Ethnography is both one of its primary methods and the text that is written as a result of the practice of anthropology and its elements. Since the work of Franz Boas and Bronisław Malinowski in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, anthropology has been distinguished from other social science disciplines by its emphasis on in-depth examination of context, cross-cultural comparisons (socio-cultural anthropology is by nature a comparative discipline), and the importance it places on long-term, experiential immersion in the area of research, often known as participant-observation. Cultural anthropology in particular has emphasized cultural relativity and the use of findings to frame cultural critiques. This has been particularly prominent in the United States, from Boas's arguments against 19th-century racial ideology, through Margaret Mead's advocacy for gender equality and sexual liberation, to current criticisms of postcolonial oppression and promotion of multiculturalism.

The anthropologist Eric Wolf once described anthropology as "the most scientific of the humanities, and the most humanistic of the sciences." Contemporary anthropologists claim a number of earlier thinkers as their forebears, and the discipline has several sources; Claude Lévi-Strauss, for example, claimed Montaigne and Rousseau as important influences. Ancient and medieval writers and scholars may be considered forerunners of anthropology, insofar as they conducted or wrote detailed studies of the customs of different peoples, including the Greek writer Herodotus, often called the "father of history" and the Roman historian Tacitus, who wrote many of our only surviving contemporary accounts of several ancient Celtic and Germanic peoples. A candidate for one of the first scholars to carry out comparative ethnographic-type studies in person was the medieval Persian scholar Abū

Rayhān al-Bīrūnī in the 11th century, who wrote about the peoples, customs, and religions of the Indian subcontinent,[2] and wrote detailed comparative studies on the religions and cultures in the Middle East, Mediterranean and South Asia.[3][4] None of these scholars' activities, however, led to the establishment of a sustained tradition of comparative study of customs, beliefs, and the ways that human behavior and experience are shaped by participation in a particular group of people with a shared history. Most scholars consider modern anthropology as an outgrowth of the Age of Enlightenment, a period when Europeans attempted systematically to study human behavior, the known varieties of which had been increasing since the 15th century as a result of the first European colonization wave. The traditions of jurisprudence, history, philology, and sociology then evolved into something more closely resembling the modern views of these disciplines and informed the development of the social sciences, of which anthropology was a part. Developments in systematic study of ancient civilizations through the disciplines of Classics and Egyptology informed both archaeology and eventually social anthropology, as did the study of East and South Asian languages and cultures. At the same time, the Romantic reaction to the Enlightenment produced thinkers, such as Johann Gottfried Herder and later Wilhelm Dilthey, whose work formed the basis for the "culture concept," which is central to the discipline. Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Institutionally, anthropology emerged from the development of natural history (expounded by authors such as Buffon) that occurred during the European colonization of the 17th, 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. Programs of ethnographic study originated in this era as the study of the "human primitives" overseen by colonial administrations. There was a tendency in late 18th century Enlightenment thought to understand human society as natural phenomena that behaved in accordance with certain principles and that could be observed empirically. In some ways, studying the language, culture, physiology, and artifacts of European colonies was not unlike studying the flora and fauna of those places. Early anthropology was divided between proponents of unilinealism, who argued that all societies passed through a single evolutionary process, from the most primitive to the most advanced, and various forms of non-lineal theorists, who tended to subscribe to ideas such as diffusionism.[5] Most 19th-century social theorists, including anthropologists, viewed non-European societies as windows onto the pre-industrial human past. As academic disciplines began to differentiate over the course of the 19th century, anthropology grew increasingly distinct from the biological approach of natural history, on the one hand, and from purely historical or literary fields such as Classics, on the other. A common criticism has been that many social science scholars (such as economists, sociologists, and psychologists) in Western countries focus disproportionately on Western subjects, while anthropology focuses disproportionately on the "Other"[6]; this has changed over the last part of the 20th century as anthropologists increasingly also study Western subjects, particularly variation

across class, region, or ethnicity within Western societies, and other social scientists increasingly take a global view of their fields. In the twentieth century, academic disciplines have often been institutionally divided into three broad domains. The natural and biological sciences seek to derive general laws through reproducible and verifiable experiments. The humanities generally study local traditions, through their history, literature, music, and arts, with an emphasis on understanding particular individuals, events, or eras. The social sciences have generally attempted to develop scientific methods to understand social phenomena in a generalizable way, though usually with methods distinct from those of the natural sciences. In particular, social sciences often develop statistical descriptions rather than the general laws derived in physics or chemistry, or they may explain individual cases through more general principles, as in many fields of psychology. Anthropology (like some fields of history) does not easily fit into one of these categories, and different branches of anthropology draw on one or more of these domains.[7] Anthropology as it emerged among the colonial powers (mentioned above) has generally taken a different path than that in the countries of southern and central Europe (Italy, Greece, and the successors to the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires). In the former, the encounter with multiple, distinct cultures, often very different in organization and language from those of Europe, has led to a continuing emphasis on cross-cultural comparison and a receptiveness to certain kinds of cultural relativism.[8] In the successor states of continental Europe, on the other hand, anthropologists often joined with folklorists and linguists in the nationalist/nation-building enterprise. Ethnologists in these countries tended to focus on differentiating among local ethnolinguistic groups, documenting local folk culture, and representing the prehistory of the nation through museums and other forms of public education.[9] In this scheme, Russia occupied a middle position. On the one hand, it had a large Asian region of highly distinct, preindustrial, often non-literate peoples, similar to the situation in the Americas; on the other hand, Russia also participated to some degree in the nationalist discourses of Central and Eastern Europe. After the Revolution of 1917, anthropology in the USSR and later the Soviet Bloc countries were highly shaped by the need to conform to Marxist theories of social evolution Depictions of the five senses became a popular subject for seventeenth-century artists, especially among Dutch and Flemish Baroque painters. A typical example is Gérard de Lairesse's Allegory of the Five Senses (1668; Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum), in which each of the figures in the main group allude to a sense: sight is the reclining boy with a convex mirror, hearing is the cupid-like boy with a triangle, smell is represented by the girl with flowers, taste by the woman with the fruit and touch by the woman holding the bird.

Slide 1: Slavery of Women in America Business Homes Bedrooms Boardrooms

The Naked Truth PICTURE BOOK OF WOMEN PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development Nollijy University Research Institute Arts Sciences - Evolution Slavery of White Women Slide 2: The Slavery of WOMEN in American Business Homes Bedrooms The NAKED TRUTH PICTURE BOOK Slide 3: Womanhood is the period in a female's life after she has transitioned from girlhood, at least physically, having passed the age of menarche. Many cultures have rites of passage to symbolize a woman's coming of age, such as confirmation in some branches of Christianity, bat mitzvah in Judaism, or even just the custom of a special celebration for a certain birthday (generally between 12 and 21). The word woman can be used generally, to mean any female human, or specifically, to mean an adult female human as contrasted with girl. The word girl originally meant "young person of either sex" in English; it was only around the beginning of the 16th century that it came to mean specifically a female child. Nowadays girl sometimes is used colloquially to refer to a young or unmarried woman. During the early 1970s feminists challenged such use, and use of the word to refer to a fully grown woman may cause offence. In particular previously common terms such as office girl are no longer used. Conversely, in certain cultures which link family honor with female virginity, the word girl is still used to refer to a never-married woman; in this sense it is used in a fashion roughly analogous to the obsolete English maid or maiden. Referring to an unmarried female as a woman may, in such a culture, imply that she is sexually experienced, which would be an insult to her family. In some settings, the use of girl to refer to an adult female is a vestigial practice (such as girls' night out), even among some elderly women. In this sense, girl may be considered to be the analogue to the British word bloke for a man, although it again fails to meet the parallel status as an adult. Gal aside, some feminists cite this lack of an informal yet respectful term for women as misogynistic; they regard non-parallel usages, such as men and girls, as sexist. There are various words used to refer to the quality of being a woman. The term "womanhood" merely means the state of being a woman, having passed the menarche; "femininity" is used to refer to a set of supposedly typical female qualities associated with a certain attitude to gender roles; "womanliness" is like "femininity", but is usually associated with a different view of gender roles; "femaleness" is a general term, but is often used as short- hand for "human femaleness"; "distaff" is an archaic adjec- tive derived from women's conventional role as a spinner, now used only as a deliberate archaism; "muliebrity" is a "neologism" (derived from the Latin) meant to provide a female counterpart of "virility", but used very loosely, sometimes to mean merely "womanhood", sometimes "femininity", and sometimes even as a collective term for women.

Slide 4: The English term "Man" (from Proto-Germanic mannaz "man, person") and words derived there- from can designate any or even all of the human race regardless of their gender or age. This is in- deed the oldest usage of "Man" in English. It de- rives from Proto-Indo-European *mánu- 'man, human', cognate to Sanskrit manu, Old Church Slavonic moži, 'man', 'husband'. In Old English the words wer and wyf (also wæp- man and wifman) were what was used to refer to "a man" and "a woman" respectively, and "Man" was gender neutral. In Middle English man dis- placed wer as term for "male human", whilst wif- man (which eventually evolved into woman) was retained for "female human". ("Wif" also evolved into the word "wife".) "Man" does con- tinue to carry its original sense of "Human" how- ever, resulting in an asymmetry sometimes criti- cized as sexist.[1] (See also Womyn.) A very common Indo-European root for woman, w *g en-, is the source of English queen (Old En- glish cwen primarily meant woman, highborn or not; this is still the case in Danish, with the mod- ern spelling kvinde), as well as gynaecology (from Greek gyne), banshee fairy woman (from Irish bean woman, sí fairy) and zenana (from Persian zan). The Latin femina, whence female, is likely from the root in fellare (to suck), refer- ring to breastfeeding.[2][3] The symbol for the planet Venus is the sign also used in biology for the female gender. It is a stylized representation of the goddess Venus's hand mirror or an abstract symbol for the god- dess: a circle with a small equilateral cross under- neath (Unicode: ?). The Venus symbol also represented femininity, and in ancient alchemy stood for copper. Alchemists constructed the symbol from a circle (representing spirit) above an equi- lateral cross (representing matter) Slide 5: In terms of biology, the female sex organs are involved in the reproductive system, whereas the secondary sex characteristics are involved in nurturing children or, in some cultures, at- tracting a mate. The ovaries, in addition to their regulatory function producing hormones, pro- duce female gametes called eggs which, when fertilized by male gametes (sperm), form new genetic individuals. The uterus is an organ with tissue to protect and nurture the developing fetus and muscle to expel it when giving birth. The vagina is used in copulation and birthing (although the word vagina is often colloquially and incorrectly used for the vulva or external female genitalia, which also includes the labia, the clitoris, and the female urethra). The breast evolved from the sweat gland to produce milk, a nutritious secretion that is the most distinctive characteristic of mammals, along with live birth. In mature women, the breast is generally more prominent than in most other mammals; this prominence, not necessary for milk pro- duction, is probably at least partially the result of sexual selection. (For other ways in which men commonly differ physically from women, see Man.) Slide 6: An imbalance of maternal hormonal levels and some chemicals (or drugs) may alter the secondary sexual char- acteristics of fetuses. Most women have the karyotype 46,XX, but around one in a thousand will be 47,XXX, and one in 2500 will be 45,X. This contrasts with the typical male karotype of 46,XY; thus,

the X and Y chro- mosomes are known as female and male, respectively. Unlike the Y chromosome, the X can come from either the mother or the father, thus genetic studies which focus on the female line use mitochondrial DNA. Biological factors are not sufficient determinants of whether a person considers themselves a woman or is considered a woman. Intersexed men and women, who have mixed physical and/or genetic features, may use other criteria in making a clear determination. There are also transgendered or transsexual women, who were born or physically assigned as male at birth, but identify as a woman; there are varying social, legal, and individual definitions with regard to this issue. (See transwoman.) Slide 8: Although fewer females than males are born (the ratio is around 1:1.05), due to a longer life expectancy there are only 81 men aged 60 or over for every 100 women of the same age, and among the oldest populations, there are only 53 men for every 100 women.[citation needed] Women typically have a longer life expectancy than men.[citation needed] This is due to a combination of factors: genetics (redundant and varied genes present on sex chromosomes in women); sociology (such as not being expected in most countries to perform military service); health-impacting choices (such as suicide or the use of cigarettes, and alcohol); the presence of the female hormone estrogen, which has a cardioprotective effect in premenopausal women; and the effect of high levels of androgens in men. Out of the total human population, there are 101.3 men for every 100 women (source: 2001 World Almanac). Most women go through menarche and are then able to become pregnant and bear children.[4] This generally requires internal fertilization of her eggs with the sperm of a man through sexual intercourse, though artificial insemination or the surgical implantation of an existing embryo is also possible (see reproductive technology). The study of female reproduction and reproductive or- gans is called gynaecology. Women generally reach menopause in their late 40s or early 50s, at which point their ovaries cease producing estrogen[citation needed] and they can no longer become pregnant. To a large extent, women suffer from the same illnesses as men.[citation needed] However, there are some dis- eases that primarily affect women, such as lupus. Also, there are some sex-related illnesses that are found more frequently or exclusively in women, e.g., breast cancer, cervical cancer, or ovarian cancer. Women and men may have different symptoms of an illness and may also respond differently to medical treatment. This area of medical research is studied by gender-based medicine. During early fetal development, embryos of both sexes appear gender neutral; the release of hormones is what changes physical appearance male or female. As in other cases without two sexes, such as species that reproduce asexually, the genderneutral appearance is closer to female than to male. Slide 9: In many prehistoric cultures, women assumed a particular cultural role. In hunter- gatherer societies, women were generally the gatherers of plant foods, small animal foods, fish, and learned to use dairy products, while men hunted meat from large animals Slide 10: The first recorded instance of veiling for women is recorded in an Assyrian legal text from the 13th century BCE, which restricted its use to noble

women and forbade prostitutes and common women from adopting it. Greek texts have also spoken of veiling and seclusion of women being practiced among the Persian elite. Statues from Persepolis depict women both veiled and unveiled, and it seems to be regarded as an attribute of higher status. In Islam veiling was not initially enforced, but by the 10th Century, as under the Mamluks in Egypt, laws and proclama- tions enforcing veiling were steadily applied. If worn with religious intention, it is meant to protect the woman from the environment or the public view to protect her grace and honor and thus is sometimes considered a symbol of patriarchy.[5] If not worn with religious impetus, veil and skirt have still been typical symbols of a woman.[specify] In more recent history, the gender roles of women have changed greatly. Traditionally, middle- class women were typically involved in domestic tasks emphasizing child care, and did not en- ter paid employment. For poorer women, especially working class women, this often remained an ideal,[specify] as economic necessity compelled them to seek employment outside the home. The occupations that were available to them were, however, lower in prestige and pay than those available to men. As changes in the labor market for women came about, availability of employment changed from only "dirty", long houred factory jobs to "cleaner", more respectable office jobs where a little more education was demanded, women's participation in the labor force rose from 6% in 1900 to 23% in 1923. These shifts in the labor force led to changes in the attitudes of women at work, allowing for the "quiet" revolution which resulted in women becoming more career and education oriented. This revolution of women in the labor force came about because of changes in three essential criteria Slide 11: Slavery is a social-economic system under which certain persons — known as slaves — are deprived of personal freedom and compelled to work. Slaves are held against their will from the time of their capture, purchase, or birth, and are de- prived of the right to leave, to refuse to work, or to receive compensation (such as wages) in re- turn for their labor. As such, slavery is one form of unfree labor. In its narrowest sense, the word slave refers to people who are treated as the property of another person, household, company, corporation or government. This is referred to as chattel slavery. Slide 12: Although outlawed in nearly all countries today, slavery is still practiced in some parts of the world. [1][2] According to a broad definition of slavery used by Kevin Bales of Free the Slaves (FTS), an advocacy group linked with AntiSlavery International, there are 27 million people (although some put the number as high as 200 million) in virtual slavery today, spread all over the world.[3] According to FTS, these slaves represent the largest number of people that has ever been in slavery at any point in world history and the smallest percent- age of the total human population that has ever been enslaved at once. FTS claims that present-day slaves have been sold for as little as US$40, in Mali, for young adult male laborers, or as much as US$1,000 in Thailand for HIV-free, young females, suit- able for work in brothels. The lower limit represents the low- est price that there has ever been for a slave: the price of a comparable male slave in 1850 in the United States would have been about US$38,000 in present-day terms (US$1,000 in 1850). That difference, even allowing for differences in purchasing

power, is significant. As a result of the lower price, the economic advantages of present-day slavery are clear. Although outlawed in most countries today slavery is, nonetheless, practised secretly in many parts of the world — with outright enslavement still taking place in parts of Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia.[4] In June and July 2007, 570 people who had been enslaved by brick manufacturers in Shanxi and Henan were freed by the Chinese government.[5] Of those rescued, 69 of them were children.[6] In response, the Chinese government assembled a force of 35,000 police to check northern Chinese brick kilns for slaves, sent dozens of kiln supervisors to prison, punished 95 officials in Shanxi province for dereliction of duty, and sentenced one kiln fore- man to death for killing an enslaved worker.[5] In Mauritania alone, it is estimated that up to 600,000 men, women and children, or 20% of the population, are enslaved, many of them used as bonded labour.[7][8] Slavery in Mauri- tania was criminalized in August 2007.[9] In Niger, slavery is also a current phenomenon. A Nigerian study has found that more than 800,000 people are enslaved, almost 8% of the population.[10][11] Child slavery has commonly been used in the production of cash crops and mining. According to the U.S. Department of State, more than 109,000 children were working on cocoa farms alone in Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) in 'the worst forms of child labor' in 2002.[ Slide 13: Prior to the 10th century, words other than "slave" were used for all kinds of unfree labourers. For instance, the old Latin word servus was used for both serfs and chattel slaves. The word slave, in Modern English, originates from the Middle English sclave, the Old French esclave, the Medieval Latin sclavus and ultimately from the early Greek sklabos (from sklabenoi) meaning "Slavic people".[13][14] The term originally referred to various peoples from Eastern and Central Europe, as many Slavic and other people from these areas were captured and sold as slaves by a Holy Roman Emperor, Otto I (912–973), and his successors. Slide 14: The 1926 Slavery Convention described slavery as "...the status and/or condition of a person over whom any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised..." Slaves cannot leave an owner, an employer or a territory without explicit permission (they must have a passport to leave), and they will be returned if they escape. Therefore a system of slavery — as opposed to the isolated instances found in any society — requires official, legal recognition of ownership, or widespread tacit arrangements with local authorities, by masters who have some influence because of their social and/or economic status and their lives. The International Labour Organization (ILO) defines forced labour as "all work or service which is extracted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which the said person has not offered himself voluntarily", albeit with certain exceptions of: military service, convicted criminals, emergencies and minor community services.[15] The current usage of the word serfdom is not usually synonymous with slavery, because medieval serfs were considered to have rights, as human beings, whereas slaves were considered “things” — property PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D.

Powerful Humanistic Development Nollijy University Research Institute Arts Sciences - Evolution Slavery of White Women Slide 15: The evidence for slavery predates written records. It can be found in almost all cultures and continents. Slavery can be traced to the earliest records, such as the Code of Hammurabi in Mesopotamia (~1800 BC), which refers to slavery as an already established institution. An im- portant exception occurred under the reign of the Achaemenid Empire in Persia in 500 BC. The forced labor of women in some ancient and modern cultures may also be identified as slavery. Slavery, in this case, includes sexual services. Historically, most slaves were captured in wars or kidnapped in isolated raids, but some persons were sold into slavery by their parents, or by themselves, as a means of surviving extreme con- ditions. Most slaves were born into that status, to parents who were enslaved. Ancient Warfare often resulted in slavery for prisoners and their families, who were either killed, ransomed or sold as slaves. Captives were often considered the property of those who captured them and were looked upon as a prize of war. Slavery may originally have been more humane than sim- ply executing those who would return to fight if they were freed, but the effect led to widespread enslavement of particular groups of people. Those captured sometimes differed in ethnicity, nationality, religion, or race from their enslavers, but often were the same as the cap- tors. The dominant group in an area might take captives and turn them into slaves with little fear of suffering the like fate. The possibility always existed of reversals of fortune, as when Seneca warned, at the height of the Roman Empire, when powerful nations fought among themselves, anyone might find himself enslaved. Brief sporadic raids or kidnapping could mean enslavement of persons otherwise not at war. St. Patrick recounted in his Confession having been kidnapped by pirates. Slide 16: Ancient societies characterized by poverty, rampant warfare or lawlessness, famines, population pressures, and cultural and technological lag are frequently exporters of slaves to more developed nations. Today the illegal slave trade (mostly in Africa) deals with slaves who are rural people forced to move to cities, or those purchased in rural areas and sold into slavery in cities. These moves take place due to loss of subsistence agriculture, thefts of land, and population increases. In many ancient cultures, persons (often including their family) convicted of serious crimes could be sold into slavery. The proceeds from this sale were often used to compensate the victims. The Code of Hammurabi (~1800 BC) prescribes this for failure to maintain a water dam, to compensate victims of a flood. The con- victed criminal might be sold into slavery if he lacked the property to make compensation to the victims. Other laws and other crimes might enslave the criminal regardless of his property. Some laws called for the criminal and all his property to be handed over to his victim Slide 17: People have been sold into slavery so that the money could be used to pay off their debts. This could range from a judge, king or Emperor ordering a

debtor sold with all his family, to the poor selling off their own children to prevent starvation. In times of dire need such as famine, people have offered themselves into slavery not for a purchase price, but merely so that their new master would feed and take care of them. In most institutions of slavery throughout the world, the children of slaves became the property of the master. Local laws varied as to whether the status of the mother or of the father determined the fate of the child, but it was usually determined by the status of the mother. In many cultures, slaves could earn their freedom through hard work and buying their own

by PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development Nollijy University Research Institute Arts & Sciences - Evolution
freedom. This was not possible in all cultures. Slavery in Zanzibar. 'An Arab master's punishment for a slight offence. The log weighed 32 pounds, and the boy could only move by carrying it on his head.' Unknown photographer, c. 1890.[30] According to the Anti-Slavery Society, "Although there is no longer any state which legally recognizes, or which will enforce, a claim by a person to a right of property over another, the abolition of slavery does not mean that it ceased to exist. There are millions of people throughout the world — mainly children — in conditions of virtual slavery, as well as in various forms of servitude which are in many respects similar to slavery."[4] It further notes that slavery, particularly child slavery, was on the rise in 2003. It points out that there are countless others in other forms of servitude (such as peonage, bonded labor and servile concubinage) which are not slavery in the narrow legal sense. Critics claim they are stretching the definition and practice of slavery beyond its original meaning, and are actually referring to forms of unfree labour other than slavery Slide 18: The type of work slaves did depended on the time period and location of their slavery. In general, they did the same work as everyone else in the lower echelons of the society they lived in but were not paid for it beyond room and board, clothing etc. The most common types of slave work are domestic service, agriculture, mineral extraction, army make-up, industry, and commerce.[31] Prior

to about the 18th cen- tury, domestic services were acquired in some wealthier households and may include up to four female slaves and their children on its staff. The chattels (as they are called in some countries) are expected to cook, clean, sometimes carry water from an outdoor pump into the house, and grind cereal. Most hired servants to do the same tasks. Many slaves were used in agriculture and cultivation from ancient times through the 1800s. The strong, young men and women were sometimes forced to work long days in the fields, with little or no breaks for water or food. Since slaves were usually considered valu- able property, they were usually taken care of in the sense that minimally adequate food and shelter were provided to maintain good health, and that the workload was not excessive to the point of endangering health. However, this was not always the case in many countries where they worked on land that was owned by absentee owners. The overseers in many of these areas literally worked the slaves to death. In mineral extraction, the majority of the work, when done by slaves, was done nearly always by men. In some places, they mined the salt that was used during extensive trade in the 19th century.[32] Some of the men in ancient civilizations who were bought into chattel slavery were trained to fight in their nation's army and other military services. Chattel slaves were occasionally trained in artisan work- shops for industry and commerce.[33] The men worked in metal- working, while the females normally worked in either textile trades or domestic household tasks. The majority of the time, the slave owners did not pay the chattels for their services beyond room and board, clothing etc. However, not all slaves were manual laborers or servants. In some societies slaves sometimes attained highly responsible positions. In the Bible, Joseph, for instance, was sold into slavery in Egypt by his brothers, who were jealous of his vanity (and his many-colored coat), but rose to become vizier to the Pharaoh. And the ranks of the Mamelukes, who ruled Egypt until being defeated by Napolean in 1798, were filled by slaves from the Caucasus who were allowed to rule Egypt in exchange for maintaining its military defense. Slide 19: Female slaves were long traded to the Middle Eastern countries and kingdoms by Arab traders and sold into sexual slavery to work as concubines or prostitutes. Typically, females were sold at a lower price than their male counterparts, with one exception being when (predominantly) Irish women captured in Viking raids were sold to the Middle East in the 800-1200 period.[citation needed] The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. Western slavery In the West, slavery ended during the Medieval period, only to be revived after the Renaissance and its appreciation of the organization of classical society (i.e. ancient Greece and Rome).[34] Human trafficking Main article: Trafficking in human beings Trafficking in human beings, sometimes called human trafficking, or sex trafficking (as the majority of victims are women or children forced into prostitution), is not the same as people smuggling. A smuggler will facilitate illegal entry into a country for a fee, but on arrival at their destination, the smuggled person is free; the trafficking victim is enslaved. Victims do not agree to be trafficked: they are tricked, lured by false promises, or forced into it. Traffickers use coercive tactics including deception, fraud, intimidation, isolation,

threat and use of physical force, debt bondage or even force-feeding with drugs of abuse to control their victims. Whilst the majority of victims are women, and sometimes children, forced into prostitution, other victims include men, women and children forced into manual labour. Due to the illegal nature of trafficking, the exact extent is unknown. A US Government report published in 2003, estimates that 800,000-900,000 people worldwide are trafficked across borders each year. This figure does not include those who are trafficked internally. Slide 20: Economists have attempted to model during which circum- stances slavery (and milder variants such as serfdom) appear and disappear. One observation is that slavery becomes more desirable for land owners when land is abundant but labour is not, so paid workers can demand high wages. If labour is abundant but land is scarce, then it becomes more costly for the land owners to have guards for the slaves than to employ paid workers who can only demand low wages due to the competition. Thus first slavery and then serfdom gradually decreased in Europe as the population grew. It was reintro- duced in the Americas and in Russia (serfdom) as large new land areas with few people become available. Another observation is slavery is more common when the labour done is relatively simple and thus easy to supervise, such as large scale growing of a single crop. It is much more difficult and costly to check that slaves are doing their best and with good quality when they are doing complex tasks. Thus, slavery tends to decrease with technological advancements requiring more skilled people, even as they are able to demand high wages.[35] Because of this, theoretical knowledge and learning in Greece—and later in Rome—was largely separated from physical labour and manufacturing.[36] It has also been argued that slavery tends to retard technologi- cal advancement, since the focus is on increasing the number of slaves rather than improving the efficiency of labor. Some Russian scholars have argued that the Soviet Union's techno- logical development was hindered by Stalin's use of slave labor Slide 21: Since 1945, debate about the link between economic growth and different relational forms (most notably unfree social relations of production in Third World agriculture) occupied many contributing to discussions in the development decade (the 1960s). This continued to be the case in the mode of production debate (mainly about agrarian transition in India) that spilled over into the 1970s, important aspects of which continue into the present (see the monograph by Brass, 1999, and the 600 page volume edited by Brass and van der Linden, 1997). Central to these discussions was the link between capitalist development and modern forms of unfree labour (peonage, debt bondage, indenture, chattel slavery). Within the domain of political economy it is a debate that has a very long historical lineage, and - accurately presented - never actually went away. Unlike advocacy groups, for which the number of the currently unfree is paramount, those political economists who participated in the earlier debates sought to establish who, precisely, was (or was not) to be included under the rubric of a worker whose subordination constituted a modern form of unfreedom. This element of definition was regarded as an epistemologically necessary precondition to any calculations of how many were to be categorized as relationally unfree. There are three general types of slavery today: wage slaves,

contract slaves, and slaves in the traditional sense Slide 22: Wage slavery often occurs in underdeveloped areas, where employers can afford to employ people at low wages, knowing they can't afford to risk their employment. Most child laborers for example, can be considered to be wage slaves. Marxists and anarchists, however, use the term more broadly to refer to a situation in which a person must sell his or her labor power, submitting to the authority of an employer in order to prosper or merely to subsist; creating a hierarchical social condition in which a person chooses a job but only within a coerced set of choices (e.g. work for a boss or starve) which usually excludes democratic worker's control of the workplace and the economy as a whole and unconditional access to a fair share of the basic necessities of life. Contract slaves are generally poor, often illiterate, people who have been tricked into signing contracts they do not understand. Slavery in its traditional sense is still very active; only its activities are carried out underground. Actual slavery is still carried out much the same way it has been for centuries: people, often women and children, are abducted (usually from underdeveloped countries such as those in the Middle East, South America, Asia, Africa and the former Soviet Bloc countries), loaded aboard a ship and smuggled to a foreign country (usually Asia or the Middle East) and they are sold, the men and male children sold for labor, while the women and girls for domestic slavery or to work as unwilling prostitutes primarily in Asia and the West. A combination of wage and contract slavery is found in Sarawak mining towns among Indonesian Dayak immigrants looking for work. They have to buy the tools they need to work with, but often don't have the required money, so they need to buy them on a loan. Then they discover that local food is so expensive that all their wages are spent on that, so they can't pay off the loan and are forced by law to keep working for no gain. Slide 23: Slavery has existed, in one form or another, through the whole of recorded human history — as have, in various periods, movements to free large or distinct groups of slaves. According to the Biblical Book of Exodus, Moses led Israelite slaves out of ancient Egypt — possibly the first written account of a movement to free slaves. Later Jewish laws (known as Halacha) prevented slaves from being sold out of the Land of Israel, and allowed a slave to move to Israel if he so desired. The Cyrus Cylinder, inscribed about 539 BC by the order of Cyrus the Great of Persia, abolished slavery and allowed Jews and other nationalities who had been enslaved under Baby- lonian rule to return to their native lands. Aboli- tionism should be distinguished from efforts to help a particular group of slaves, or to restrict one practice, such as the slave trade. There were celebrations in 2007 to commemorate the 200th anniversary of the Abolition of the slave trade in the United Kingdom. William Wilber- force received much of the credit although the groundwork was an anti-slavery essay by Thomas Clarkson. Wilberforce was also urged by his close friend, Prime Minister William Pitt, to make the issue his own. After the abolition act was passed these campaigners switched to encouraging other countries to follow suit, notably France. Abolitionist pressure in the United States pro- duced a series of small steps forward. After Jan- uary 1, 1808, the importation of slaves into the United

States was prohibited,[37] but not the internal slave trade, nor involvement in the inter- national slave trade externally. Legal slavery per- sisted; and those slaves already in the U.S. would not be legally emancipated for another 60 years. Slide 25: Human trafficking differs from people smuggling. In the latter, people voluntarily request smuggler's service for fees and there may be no deception involved in the (illegal) agreement. On arrival at their destination, the smuggled person is usually free. On the other hand, the trafficking victim is enslaved, or the terms of their debt bondage are fraudulent or highly exploitative. The trafficker takes away the basic human rights of the victim. [3] [4] Victims are sometimes tricked and lured by false promises or physically forced.[5] Some traffickers use coercive and manipulative tactics including deception, intimidation, feigned love, isolation, threat and use of physical force, debt bondage, other abuse, or even force-feeding with drugs to control their victims.[6] People who are seeking entry to other countries may be picked up by traffickers, and misled into thinking that they will be free after being smuggled across the border. In some cases, they are captured through slave raiding, although this is increasingly rare. Trafficking is fairly lucrative industry. In some areas, like Russia, Eastern Europe, Hong Kong, Japan, and Colombia, trafficking is controlled by large criminal organizations. [7] However, the majority of trafficking is done by networks of smaller groups that each specialize in a certain area, like recruitment, transportation, advertising, or retail. This is very profitable because little startup capital is needed, and prosecution is relatively rare.[8] Trafficked people are usually the most vulnerable and powerless minorities in a region. They often come from the poorer areas where opportunities are limited, they often are ethnic minorities, and they often are displaced persons such as runaways or refugees (though they may come from any social background, class or race). Trafficking of children often involves exploitation of the parents' extreme poverty. The latter may sell children to traffickers in order to pay off debts or gain income or they may be deceived concerning the prospects of training and a better life for their children. In West Africa, trafficked children have often lost one or both parents to the African AIDS crisis.[9] The adoption process, legal and illegal, results in cases of trafficking of babies and pregnant women between the West and the de- veloping world. In David M. Smolin’s papers on child trafficking and adoption scandals between India and the United States,[10][11] he cites there are systemic vulnerabilities in the intercountry adoption system that makes adoption scandals pre- dictable. Women, who form over 80% of trafficking victims, are particularly at risk to become involved in sex trafficking. Potential kidnap- pers exploit lack of opportunities, promise good jobs or opportunities for study, and then force the victims to become prostitutes, participate in pornography[citation needed] or escort services. Through agents and brokers who arrange the travel and job place- ments, women are escorted to their destinations and delivered to the employers. Upon reaching their destinations, some women learn that they have been deceived about the nature of the work they will do; most have been lied to about the financial arrangements and conditions of their employment; and all find themselves in coercive and abusive situations from which escape is both difficult and dangerous. The main motive of a woman (in some cases an underage girl)

to accept an offer from a trafficker is better financial opportunities for herself or her family. In many cases traffickers initially offer ‘legitimate’ work or the promise of an opportunity to study. The main types of work offered are in the catering and hotel industry, in bars and clubs, modeling contracts, or au pair work. Traffickers some- times use offers of marriage, threats, intimidation and kidnapping as means of obtaining victims. In the majority of cases, the women end up in prostitution. Also some (migrating) prostitutes become victims of human trafficking. Some women know they will be working as prostitutes, but they have an inaccurate view of the circumstances and the conditions of the work in their country of des- tination.[12] [13] Men are also at risk of being trafficked for unskilled work predominantly involving hard labor. Other forms of trafficking include bonded and sweatshop labor, forced marriage, and domestic servitude. Children are also trafficked for both labor exploitation and sexual exploitation. On a related issue, children are forced to be child soldiers. Many women are forced into the sex trade after answering false advertisements, and others are simply kidnapped. Thousands of chil- dren from Asia, Africa, and South America are sold into the global sex trade every year. Often they are kidnapped or orphaned, and sometimes they are actually sold by their own families.[14] Slide 26: Old Testament or Tanakh Leviticus draws a distinction between Hebrew debt slavery: 25:39 If your brother becomes impoverished with regard to you so that he sells himself to you, you must not subject him to slave service. 25:40 He must be with you as a hired worker, as a resident foreigner; he must serve with you until the year of jubilee, 25:41 but then he may go free, he and his children with him, and may return to his family and to the property of his ancestors. 25:42 Since they are my servants whom I brought out from the land of Egypt, they must not be sold in a slave sale. 25:43 You must not rule over 25:44 him harshly, but you must fear your God. and "bondslaves", foreigners:

As for your male and female slaves who may belong to you, you may buy male and female slaves from the nations all around you. 25:45 Also you may buy slaves from the children of the foreigners who reside with you, and from their families that are with you, whom they have fathered in your land, they may become your property. 25:46 You may give them as inheritance to your children after you to possess as property. You may enslave them perpetually. However, as for your brothers the Israelites, no man may rule over his brother harshly. As evident from the above, the Old Testament accepts the instition of slavery as such, but seeks to regulate it and ameliorate the slaves' conditions. Transmitted throughout Western culture via Christianity, this ambiguous message could (and did) inspire both advocates of slavery and abolitionists. Slide 27: For centuries, the narrative of the “curse of Ham” has been continuously cited as the justification for black slavery. The story has repeatedly been interpreted as God’s condemnation of the black race as a result of their progenitor’s crime against family and honor. The basis for Ham as the origin of

the black race depends on the assumption that many of the ancient Israelite authors made, primarily that all of humanity de- scended from Noah’s three sons (Shem, Ham, and Japheth) who were among the chosen few to have survived the Great Flood.[1] The passage (Genesis 9: 18-27) corresponds to the Jahwist’s narrative technique of cause and effect/ crime and punishment form:[2] “And he (Noah) drank of the wine, and was drunken; and he was uncovered within his tent. And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father, and told his two brethren without. And Shem and Japheth took a garment, and laid it upon their shoulders and went backwards, and covered the nakedness of their father; and their faces were backward, and they saw not their father’s nakedness. And Noah awoke from his wine, and knew what his younger son had done unto him. And he said, Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren. And he said, Blessed be the Lord God of Shem; and Canaan shall be his servant. God shall enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem; and Canaan shall be his servant.” (Genesis 9: 20-27) Even some of the earliest interpretations of the biblical passage assert that Ham was distinct from his brothers in his dark complexion. Though the true reason for such an association cannot be definitively determined, some speculate that the earliest critics drew clues or assumptions from his name. The name “Ham” bears close resemblance to the Hebrew words for “black” and “hot”, the former used to imply the man’s skin color and the latter used as an indicator of the climate of the African continent where his descendants (the Canaanites) were doomed to labor.[3] It is for this reason that Ham is often, especially in early texts, referred to as the predecessor of those inhabiting the regions Ethiopia (known also as Cush in Hebrew) and Egypt.[4] Such a theory has been accepted as fact by many contemporary figures. For example, Thomas Peterson, a prominent scholar of the antebellum period, attests that “White southern Christians overwhelmingly thought that Ham was the aboriginal black man." Indeed, the belief was widely taught as fact in many Christian churches and schools until well into the 1970s. Many people began referring to the afflicted black race, namely those descended of slaves, as “the children of Ham."[5] According to pro-slavery literature, Ham’s transgressions, particularly the shaming of his father by looking upon his nakedness, provoked “Noah’s curse”. Allegedly, Ham’s son Canaan and his descendants were thereafter doomed to serve their brothers’ lines for all of eternity. Indeed, when discussing the slaves of the pharaoh in Exodus, Origen specifically identifies them as descendants of Ham who were punished due to their ancestor’s skin color.[6] In 1823, amidst controversy concerning the justice and morality of slavery, South Carolinian Frederick Dalcho argued: “And perhaps we shall find that the negroes, the descendants of Ham, lost their freedom from the abominable wickedness of their progenitor (Ham).”[7] In addition, many proslavery apologists from the period 1830-1865 preceding the Civil War began associating Ham’s crime with sins against nature, sexual morality and family. Josiah Priest (1843) cites Leviticus 18 as evidence for such claims:“the nakedness of thy father’s wife shalt thou not uncover: it is thy father’s nakedness.”This particular passage, when viewed in juxtaposition with the Genesis passage, has been used by many as indicating that Ham went so far as to

commit incest and rape with his mother, Noah’s wife.[8] In this manner, the subjugation of the black race has been justified not only by Ham’s sin of filial disrespect for his father (Noah) but also by association with the more sensational crimes of lust, incest, and rape. Slide 29: The Hebrew Bible sets rules that allow slavery (Leviticus 25:44-46; Exodus 21:7-11), while at the same time forbidding one to return a runaway slave (Deuteronomy 25:15-16). A Jew was obligated to free a Jewish slave after six years of servitude (Exodus 21:2-6). Non-Jewish slaves could be slaves for life, though it is unclear how common this was or if it was voluntary. If a master beat his male or female slave so severely that the slave is killed immediately, the master is himself to be killed. If the master had beat the slave but the slave lives one or two days, the master can go unpunished but must release his slave under general circumstances. (Exodus 21:21). A Jew was obligated to ransom or redeem a Jewish slave from a non-Jewish owner Slide 30: Several New Testament writers admonish slaves to obey their masters (1 Peter 2:18; Ephesians 6:5-8; Titus 2:9-10; Colos- sians 3:22-25; 1 Timothy 6:1), and in another place it tells slaves "to care not" for their slavery, but seek freedom if lawfully possible (1 Corinthians 7:21-23, KJV). The prophets and apostles urged kindness to slaves, with just and equal pay and brotherly acceptance being commanded (Colossians 4:1; Philemon 1:10-16). Protestant churches have differently inter- preted these passages to be either anti- or proslavery with some regarding these passages to consist of the Bible reporting existing social customs and laws. In regards to the Catholic Church, the early Church tolerated slavery. In The City of God, Book XIX, chapter 15, St. Augustine affirmed that "for it is with justice, we believe, that the condition of slavery is the result of sin." [9] Slavery was integrated into the official Corpus Iuris Canonici, upon the Decretum Gratiani. This became official Church law since Pope Gregory IX who reigned as Pope from 1227 to 1241. In 1455, Pope Nicholas V authorized the King of Portugal with the papal bull Romanus Pontifex to enslave all the Saracen and pagan people his armies could capture. The position of the Church became more firmly anti-slavery in later years. In 1435 Pope Eugene IV promulgated the papal bull Sicut Dudum condemned the slavery of black natives in Canary Islands by Spanish. In 1462 Pope Pius II declared slavery to be "a great crime" (magnum scelus). In 1537, Pope Paul III forbade the enslavement of the Indians and other people with the papal bull Sublimus Dei, while Pope Urban VIII forbade it in 1639, and Pope Benedict XIV in 1741. Pope Pius VII in 1815 demanded that the Congress of Vienna suppress the slave trade, and Pope Gregory XVI condemned it in 1839. In the Bull of Canonization of the St. Peter Claver, Pope Pius IX branded the "supreme villainy" (summum nefas) of the slave traders. Pope Leo XIII, in 1888, addressed an encyclical to the Brazilian bishops, In Plurimism [10] (On the Abolition of Slavery), exhorting them to banish the remnants of slavery from their country. Jesus in Luke said he had come to end slavery (see also "Slavery in the Bible" above): "The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor; he hath sent me to heal the brokenhearted, to preach deliverance to the slaves, and recov- ering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty them that are

bruised."Luk 4:18 PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development Nollijy University Research Institute Arts Sciences - Evolution Slavery of White Women Slide 31: In certain circumstances, Islam allows for slavery. Such slaves may in some cases be able to purchase or acquire their freedom in various ways. The prophet Muhammad owned several slaves himself. One of them bore him a son, who died as an infant.[11] The slavery endorsed by the Qur'an limited the source of slaves to the children of two slave parents and non-Muslims captured in war. The Qur'an provides for emancipation of a slave as a means (or in one case, a requirement of) demonstrating remorse for the commission of certain sins. Proclama- tions of emancipation and repudiations of participation in slave trafficking did not occur in Muslim lands until after the Christian-European Colonial era - as late as 1962 in Saudi Arabia, 1970 in Oman and Yemen, and 1981 in Mauritania. Islamic slavery in the fashion multigenerational hereditary slavery (in Mauritania) is still evident today. In Chad, child enslavement with the aspect of forced conversion to Islam has been documented Slide 32: The Caste system in India has often been compared to slavery or slave-like practices. In ancient and medieval times, lower caste Hindus (dubbed "Untouchables" or, more recently Dalits) have had reduced social statuses similar to slaves. Lower Caste Hindus' lives incorporated rigid segregation and bonded labor practices. Justification for such acts was often provided through the use of careful selection of scripture from the vast plethora of Hindu religious literature. However, mainstream Hinduism never condoned or accepted outright slavery. The purported slavery-like status of the lower Castes, while distinct from others as in ownership - nonetheless permitted freedom for them. Hindus and scholars debate whether the caste system is an integral part of Hinduism sanctioned by the scriptures or an outdated social custom.[12][13] The most ancient scriptures place little importance on caste and indicate social mobility (Rig Veda 9.112.3), while later scriptures such as the non sacred Manusmriti state that the four varnas are created by God, implying immutability. Manusmriti, (dated between 200 BCE and 100 CE), contains laws that codified the caste system, reducing the flexibility of social mobility and excluding the untouchables from society, yet this system was origi- nally non-heritable (Manu Smriti X:65). It is uncertain when the caste system become heritable and akin to slavery. British colonialists, in the 19th century, exploited these divisions by mistranslating scriptures in Hinduism (such as the Manusmriti) and attaching undue weight to its importance over other more normative religious scripture in the religion in order to foster sectarian divisions among Hindus as part of the Divide and rule strategy employed by the crown. Nonetheless, a large number of Hindu reform movements in the 19th century metamorphosed the landscape of Hindu thought. Hindu reform- ers

aggressively campaigned against any slavery of the lower castes and rendered the idea abhorrent to most mainstream Hindus. In contemporary times, allegations of apartheid are often drawn against Hindus by partisan political activists. These charge are debunked by academics and scholars, given India's commitment to affirmative action. Substantial improvements have taken place in the rights of Dalits (former "Untouchables") enshrined in the Constitution of India (primarily written by a Dalit, Ambedkar), which is the principal object of article 17 in the Constitution as implemented by the Protection of Civil rights Act, 1955 [14] and the fact that India has had a Dalit, K.R. Narayanan, for a president, as well as the disappearance of the practice in urban public life[15].Thus, mainstream sociologists such as Kevin Reilly, Stephen Kaufman, Angela Bodino, while being critical of Casteism, conclude that modern India does not practice any "apartheid" since there is no state sanctioned discrimina- tion.[16]They write that Casteism in India is presently "not apartheid. In fact, untouchables, as well as tribal people and members of the lowest castes in India benefit from broad affirmative action programs and are enjoying greater political power Slide 33: National Association of Working Women is an organization established in 1973 and dedicated to improving the working conditions and ensuring the rights of women office workers in the United States. The group had its origins in 9to5 News, a newsletter that was first published in December 1972. About a year later, the newsletter's publishers announced the formation of Boston 9to5, a grassroots collective for women office workers that addressed issues such as low pay and lack of opportunities for advancement. One of the organization's earliest victories in- cluded a class-action suit filed against several Boston publish- ing companies that awarded the female plaintiffs $1.5 million in back pay. In 1977 Boston 9to5 joined forces with several like-minded associations to create the Working Women Orga- nizing Project, a national organization headed by Karen Nuss- baum, one of Boston 9to5's founders. Nussbaum enlisted the cooperation of the Service Employees International Union (SEIU) and formed Local 925 of the SEIU in Boston to gain for office workers the advantages of collective bargaining. After several name changes, the organization adopted its current name in 1983, and "9to5, National Association of Working Women", evolved into the largest membership orga- nization of working women in the United States. During the 1980s and '90s, 9to5 focused on issues such as the effects of automation, pay inequities, medical leave, and racial and sexual harassment and discrimination. The organization effec- tively used the media and lobbied legislators as part of a campaign to warn the public of the health dangers of video display terminals (also known as VDTs) and has also used the media to draw attention to several sexual harassment cases in the 1990s. As part of its educational efforts, 9to5 established the Job Retention Project in 1987 to assist office workers in develop- ing time-management, goal-setting, and problemsolving skills. In addition, the organization publishes fact sheets, newsletters, and books, such as The Job/Family Challenge: A 9to5 Guide (1995), by Ellen Bravo, that keep workers abreast of current issues Slide 34: Until the mid-nineteenth century, writers assumed that a patriarchal order was a natural order that had existed[3] as John Stuart Mill wrote, since "the

very earliest twilight of human society".[4] This was not seriously challenged until the eighteenth century when Jesuit mission- aries found matrilineality in native North American peoples.[5] In the Middle Ages, an early effort to improve the status of women occurred during the early reforms under Islam, when women were given greater rights in marriage, divorce and inheritance.[6] Women were not accorded with such legal status in other cultures, including the West, until centuries later.[7] The Oxford Dictionary of Islam states that the general improvement of the status of Arab women included prohibition of female infanticide and recognizing women's full personhood.[8] "The dowry, previously regarded as a bride-price paid to the father, became a nuptial gift retained by the wife as part of her personal property."[9][6] Under Islamic law, marriage was no longer viewed as a "status" but rather as a "contract", in which the woman's consent was imperative.[9][6][8] "Women were given inher- itance rights in a patriarchal society that had previously restricted inheritance to male relatives."[6] Annemarie Schimmel states that "compared to the pre-Islamic position of women, Islamic legislation meant an enormous progress; the woman has the right, at least according to the letter of the law, to administer the wealth she has brought into the family or has earned by her own work."[10] Some have claimed that women generally had more legal rights under Islamic law than they did under Western legal systems until more recent times.[11] English Common Law transferred property held by a wife at the time of a marriage to her husband, which contrasted with the Sura: "Unto men (of the family) belongs a share of that which Parents and near kindred leave, and unto women a share of that which parents and near kindred leave, whether it be a little or much - a determinate share" (Quran 4:7), albeit maintaining that husbands were solely responsible for the maintenance and leadership of his wife and family.[11] "French married women, unlike their Muslim sisters, suffered from restrictions on their legal capacity which were removed only in 1965."[12] In the 16th century, the Reformation in Europe allowed more women to add their voices, including the English writers Jane Anger, Aemilia Lanyer, and the prophetess Anna Trapnell. However, it has been claimed that the Dissolution and resulting closure of convents had deprived many such women of one path to education.[13][14][15] Giving voice in the secular context became more difficult when deprived of the rationale and protection of divine inspiration. Queen Elizabeth I demonstrated leadership amongst women, even if she was unsupportive of their causes, and subsequently became a role model for the education of women Slide 35: The Age of Enlightenment was characterized by secular intellectual reasoning, and a flowering of philo- sophical writing. The most impor- tant feminist writer of the time was Mary Wollstonecraft, often de- scribed as the first feminist philoso- pher. A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792). Wollstonecraft ar- gued that it was the education and upbringing of women that created limited expectations. Despite some inconsistencies (Brody refers to the "Two Wollestoncrafts"[17] ) reflec- tive of problems that had no easy answers, this book remains a foun- dation stone of feminist thought.[18] In other parts of Europe, Hedvig Charlotta Nordenflycht was writing in Sweden, and what is thought to be the first scientific society for women was founded in Middelburg, in

the south of Holland in 1785. This was the Natuurkundig Genootschap der Dames (Women's Society for Natural Knowl- edge).[19][20] which met regularly until 1881, finally dissolving in 1887. However Deborah Crocker and Sethanne Howard point out that women have been scientists for 4,000 years.[21] Journals for women which focused on science became popular during this period as well. Slide 36: Women's suffrage has been granted at various times in various countries throughout the world. In many countries women's suffrage was granted before universal suffrage, so women (and men) from certain races and social classes were still unable to vote. In medieval France and several other European countries, voting for city and town assemblies and meetings was open to the heads of households, regardless of sex. Women's suffrage was granted by the Corsican Republic of 1755 whose Constitution stipulated a national representative assembly elected by all inhabitants over the age of 25, both women (if unmarried or widowed) and men. Suffrage was ended when France annexed the island in 1769. In 1756, Lydia Chapin Taft, also known as Lydia Taft, became the first legal woman voter in America.[1] She voted on at least three occasions in an open New England Town Meeting, at Uxbridge, Massachusetts, with the consent of the electorate. This was between 1756 and 1768, during America's colonial period.[2] New Jersey granted women the vote (with the same property qualifications as for men, although, since married women did not own property in their own right, only unmarried women and widows qualified) under the state constitution of 1776, where the word "inhabitants" was used without qualification of sex or race. New Jersey women, along with "aliens...persons of color, or negroes," lost the vote in 1807, when the franchise was restricted to white males, partly in order, ostensibly at least, to combat electoral fraud by simplifying the conditions for eligibility. The Pitcairn Islands granted women's suffrage in 1838. Various countries, colonies and states granted restricted women's suffrage in the latter half of the nineteenth century, starting with South Australia in 1861. The 1871 Paris Commune granted voting rights to women, but they were taken away with the fall of the Commune and would only be granted again in July 1944 by Charles de Gaulle. In 1886 the small island kingdom of Tavolara became a republic and introduced women's suffrage.[3][4] However, in 1899 the monarchy was reinstated, and the kingdom was some years later on annexed by Italy. The Pacific colony of Franceville, declaring independence in 1889, became the first self-governing nation to practice universal suffrage without distinction of sex or color;[5] however, it soon came back under French and British colonial rule. The first unrestricted women's suffrage in terms of voting rights (women were not initially permitted to stand for election) in a self-governing, still-independent country was granted in New Zealand. Following a movement led by Kate Sheppard, the women's suffrage bill was adopted mere weeks before the general election of 1893. The state of South Australia granted both universal suffrage and allowed women to stand for state parliament in 1895.[6] The Commonwealth of Australia provided this for women in Federal elections from 1902 (except Aboriginal women). The first major European country to introduce women's suffrage was Russia, whose grand duchy of Finland granted women the right both to vote (universal and equal suffrage) and to stand for election in 1906. The

world's first female members of parliament were also in Finland, when on 1907, 19 women took up their places in the Parliament of Finland as a result of the 1907 parliamentary elections Slide 37: Although "nude", "naked", "bare", "stripped", and other terms have the same objective meaning (i.e., not covered by clothing), they have differing subjective connotations, which partly match their differing etymologies. "Nude" originally had a meaning of "plain, bare, unadorned" in a broader sense when introduced into English from Latin nudus, originally only as a legal term meaning "unsupported by proof", since 1531; later used an artistic euphemism for physical nakedness in 1631. Meanwhile "bare" and "naked" derive from the common Old English words, with many cognates, for "uncovered". Some consider one term more appropriate than the other. The book Nude, Naked, Stripped suggests that these three terms define a continuum ranging from artistic or tasteful absence of clothing by choice, at one end, to a forced or mandatory condition of being without clothes (e.g., a strip search), at the other. In general, a "nude" person is unclad by choice and is generally shameless; a "naked" person is involuntarily caught undressed and is generally embarrassed.[original research?] Various synonyms refer specifically — often as a negative — to the absence or rather removal of clothing, such as denuded, divested, peeled, stripped, unclad, unclothed, uncovered, un- dressed and dis- or un-robed. Another euphemism for the embarrassing state of nakedness is "exposed", to glances no less than to the elements; not only the expression "to show skin" refers to nudity in terms of the dermis, in Manx Gaelic jiarg-rooisht and Scottish Gaelic dearg rùisgte, translated as "stark naked", is literally 'red' naked, as such exposure may make one 'blush' Slide 38: The act of revealing skin or even removing clothes, even when only to show another covering layer, is often regarded at least as erotic or offensive as the actual sight of bare skin. Thus one often feels the need to use a dressing-box etc. or at least retreats into a lockerroom with restricted access in order to change, even if one is already wearing underneath one's clothes the swimwear that will be shown without jeans after emerging, so not an inch of embarrassing exposure was involved in the disrobing. This very suggestive power of divesting is the basis of striptease, the very word rather referring to such a 'tease' by partial stripping off, rather than the 'full monty'. Such phobias are far more common in North America than in Europe or much of the rest of the world (e.g. Japan). In many European nations such fear of undressing would be classed as a form of mental illness. Similarly attitudes quite like those concerning nudity are often displayed towards clothing which covers the skin, but suggestively follows the contours of a sensitive body part, such as the male genitals in tights. Wet clothing which sticks to the skin, e.g. the buttocks or a female breast (as in a wet t-shirt contest), can thus also be regarded as if it had become truly transparent. The taboo by association can go even further: garments which prevent any exposure of strategic skin zones can themselves be given a subjective status rather fitting a revealing one, especially underwear - thus a man whose open trousers fly reveals nothing more than the color of the underwear, no skin, is nevertheless considered embarrass- ingly exposed. Thus euphemisms are used for undergarments, notably those in touch with the intimate parts, or even, as in

the case of the word unmentionables, the trousers worn above these. The word dishabille (from the French déshabillé 'undressed', which still refers to a negligee) uses a common euphemism for nudity to refer to being partially or very casually dressed, a matter of comparison with the fashion-sensitive 'proper' dress, not to an actual revealing characteris- tic of the 'lesser' garments worn. In certain erotic fetishisms, a second skin — which in fact covers up the real skin — is called this because it is perceived as providing a more intense stimulus than the normal response associated with real naked hide. Finally the 'image' of nudity and the notion of vulnerability are used for various absences of clothing and other symbolical objects where no body visibility is required — thus people say they 'feel naked without...' about uniform, a badge of office, even a weapon. Slide 40: Flirting is a form of human interaction between two people, usually expressing a sexual or romantic interest. It can consist of conversation, body language, or brief physical contact. It may be one-sided or reciprocated. The origin of the word flirt is obscure. The Oxford English Dictionary (first edition) associates it with such onomatopoeic words as flit and flick, emphasizing a lack of seriousness; on the other hand, it has been attributed to the old French "Conter fleurette", which means "to (try to) seduce" by the dropping of flower leaves, that is, "to speak sweet nothings". This expression is no longer used in French, but the English gallicism to flirt has made its way and has now become an anglicism. Slide 41: Flirting is often used as a means of expressing interest and gauging the other person's interest in courtship, which can continue into long-term relationships. Alternatively, it may simply be a prelude to casual sex with no continuing relationship. In other situations, it may be done simply for immediate entertainment, with no intention of developing any further relationship. This type of flirting sometimes faces disapproval from others, either because it can be misinterpreted as more serious, or it may be viewed as "cheating" if the person is already in a romantic relationship with someone else. People who flirt may speak and act in a way that suggests greater intimacy than is generally considered appropriate to the relationship (or to the amount of time the two people have known each other), without actually saying or doing anything that breaches any serious social norms. One way they accomplish this is to communicate a sense of playfulness or irony. Double entendres, with one meaning more formally appropriate and another more suggestive, may be used. Flirting may consist of stylized gestures, language, body language, postures, and physiologic signs. Among these, at least in Western society, are: Eye contact, batting eyelashes, etc. "Protean" signals, such as touching one's hair Sending notes, poems, or small gifts Casual touches; such as a Smiling suggestively Online chat is a woman gently touching a man's arm during conversation Winking Flattery

common modern tactic, as well as other one-on-one and direct messaging services Footsie, the "feet under the table" practice Teasing Consistent meeting Slide 42: Sexual intercourse, in its biological sense, is the act in which the male

reproductive organ (in humans and other higher animals) enters the female reproductive tract, called copulation or coitus in other reference.[1] The two entities may be of opposite sexes, or they may be hermaphroditic, as is the case with snails. Traditionally, intercourse has been viewed as the natural endpoint of all sexual contact between a man and a woman,[2] and is commonly confined to this definition today. The meaning of the term, however, has been broadened in recent years, and now labels at least three different sex acts. These three types of intercourse are: vaginal intercourse, involving vaginal penetration by the penis; oral intercourse, involving oral caress of the sex organs (male or female); and anal intercourse, involving insertion of the male's penis into his partner's anus.[2] Sex acts that involve digital (use of fingers or hands) intercourse or mutual masturbation are more often referred to as outercourse (with oral sex at times listed as an aspect),[3][4][5][6] while the term sex, in the context of sexual intimacy, is often understood more widely to include any mutual genital stimulation.[7] For most non-human animals, sexual intercourse is used only for reproduction[citation needed], through insemination and subsequent internal fertilization. However, bonobos,[8] dolphins,[9] and chimpanzees are known to engage in sexual intercourse even when the female is not in estrus, the most fertile period of time in the female's reproductive cycle, and to engage in sex acts with same-sex partners. In most instances, humans have sex primarily for pleasure.[10] This behavior in the above mentioned animals is also presumed to be for pleasure,[11] which in turn strengthens social bonds Slide 45: Vaginal sexual intercourse, also called coitus, is the human form of copulation. While its primary purpose is reproduction, it is often performed exclusively for pleasure and/or as an expression of love and emotional intimacy. Sexual intercourse typically plays a powerful bonding role; in many societies it is normal for couples to have frequent intercourse while using birth control, sharing pleasure and strengthening their emotional bond through sex even though they are deliberately avoiding pregnancy. Sexual intercourse may also be defined as referring to other forms of insertive sexual behavior, such as oral sex and anal intercourse. The phrase to have sex can mean any or all of these behaviors, as well as other non-penetrative sex acts not considered here. Coitus may be preceded by foreplay, which leads to sexual arousal of the partners, resulting in the erection of the penis and natural lubrication of the vagina. To engage in coitus, the erect penis is inserted into the vagina and one or both of the partners move their hips to move the penis backward and forward inside the vagina to cause friction, typically without fully removing the penis. In this way, they stimulate themselves and each other, often continuing until highly pleasurable orgasm in either or both partners is achieved. Penetration by the hardened erect penis is also known as intromission, or by the Latin name immissio penis (Latin for "insertion of the penis"). The reverse missionary position is frequently combined with kissing, caressing and em- bracing. Coitus is the basic reproductive method of humans. During ejaculation, which usually accompa- nies male orgasm, a series of muscular contractions delivers semen containing male gametes known as sperm cells or spermatozoa from the penis into the vagina. (While this is the norm, if one is wearing a condom, the sperm will almost never

reach the egg.) The subsequent route of the sperm from the vault of the vagina is through the cervix and into the uterus, and then into the fallopian tubes. Millions of sperm are present in each ejaculation, to increase the chances of one fertilizing an egg or ovum. If the woman orgasms during or after male ejaculation, the corresponding temporary reduction in the size of the vagina and the contractions of the uterus that occur can help the sperm to reach the fallopian tubes[citation needed], though female orgasm is not necessary to achieve pregnancy. When a fertile ovum from the female is present in the fallopian tubes, the male gamete joins with the ovum resulting in fertilization and the formation of a new embryo. When a fertilized ovum reaches the uterus, it becomes implanted in the lining of the uterus, known as endometrium and a pregnancy begins. Slide 46: Over the past two decades, the use of increasingly explicit sexual appeals in consumer-oriented print advertising has become almost commonplace. Sexuality is considered one of the most powerful tools of marketing and particularly advertising[citation needed]. Post-advertising sales response studies have shown it can be very effective for attracting immediate interest, holding that interest, and, in the context of that interest, introducing a product that somehow correlates with that interest. Further evidence comes from Gallup & Robinson, an advertising and marketing research firm which reports that in more than 50 years of testing advertising effectiveness, it has found the use of the erotic to be a significantly above-average technique in communicating with the marketplace, "...although one of the more dangerous for the advertiser. Weighted down with taboos and volatile attitudes, sex is a Code Red advertising technique ... handle with care ... seller beware; all of which makes it even more intriguing." This research has led to the popular idea that "sex sells". The use of sex in advertising can be highly overt or extremely subtle: from relatively explicit displays of sexual acts, down to the use of basic cosmetics to enhance attractive features. Slide 47: Use of sexual imagery in advertising has been criticized on different grounds. Con- servatives, especially religious ones, of- ten consider it obscene. Some feminists feel it objectifies women (as women are more often portrayed in a sexual manner than men). Some claim it reinforces sex- ism. Increasingly, this argument has been complicated by growing awareness of an- drogynous and homoerotic themes used in marketing. Calvin Klein has been at the forefront of this movement, having him- self declared, "Jeans are about sex. The abundance of bare flesh is the last gasp of advertisers trying to give redundant prod- ucts a new identity." In recent years ads for jeans, perfumes and many other products have featured provocative images that were designed to elicit sexual responses from as large a cross section of the population as possi- ble, to shock by their ambivalence, or to appeal to repressed sexual desires, which are thought to carry a stronger emotional load. Increased tolerance, more tempered censorship, emancipatory developments and increasing buying power of previously neglected appreciative target groups in rich markets (mainly in the west) have led to a marked increase in the share of at- tractive male flesh 'on display' PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D.

Powerful Humanistic Development Nollijy University Research Institute Arts Sciences - Evolution Slavery of White Women Slide 48: Human sexual behavior, like many other kinds of activity engaged in by human beings, is generally governed by social rules that are culturally specific and vary widely. These social rules are referred to as sexual morality (what can and can not be done by society's rules) and sexual norms (what is and is not expected). Sexual ethics, morals, and norms relate to issues including deception/honesty, legality, fidelity and consent. Some activities, known as sex crimes, are illegal in some jurisdictions, including those conducted between (or among) consenting and competent adults (examples include sodomy law and adult-adult incest). Scientific studies suggest sexual fantasy, even of unusual interests, is usually a healthy activity.[citation needed] Some people engage in various sexual activities as a business transaction. When this involves having sex with, or performing certain actual sexual acts for another person, it is called prostitution. Other aspects of the adult industry include (for example) telephone sex operators, strip clubs, pornography and the like. Nearly all developed societies consider it a serious crime to force someone to engage in sexual behavior or to engage in sexual behavior with someone who does not consent. This is called sexual assault, and if sexual penetration occurs it is called rape, the most serious kind of sexual assault. The details of this distinction may vary among different legal jurisdictions. Also, precisely what constitutes effective consent to have sex varies from culture to culture and is frequently debated. Laws regulating the minimum age at which a person can consent to have sex (age of consent) are frequently the subject of political and moral debate[citation needed], as is adolescent sexual behavior in general. It is possible to engage in sexual activity without a partner, primarily through masturbation and/or sexual fantasy. Slide 49: Nollijy University Research Project Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. PeopleNology PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development Nollijy University Research Institute Arts Sciences - Evolution Slavery of White Women

PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development World History in

One Nut Shell, Almost Slide 1: Aachen Formerly known as Aix-la-Chapelle. An historic spa, later industrialized, located in Germany. In the Roman period, it was a watering place and was named Aquae Grani. By 470 the Franks had driven the Romans out and established themselves there. Under Frankish emperor Charlemagne, it became the capital of the Frankish Empire. Charlemagne built his palace here and most of his successors were crowned here until 1531. In the 1600s Aachen declined in importance. PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development World History in One Nut Shell, Almost Nollijy University Research Institute Arts Sciences Technology Evolution Abbadides (Abbadids) Arab Muslim dynasty that briefly ruled Seville, Spain (1023-1091). They were in power from the collapse of the caliphate of Cordoba to the occupation of Seville by the Almoravides. Abbasids Dynasty of Muslim caliphs who ruled the Empire of the Caliphate (750 1258). The Abbasids were the second great dynasty of the Islamic Empire who based their claim to rule on descent from Abbas, uncle of Mohammed. In 750, the Abbasids led by Abu Al-Abbas overthrew the Umayyads, the first Islamic ruling dynasty and transferred the capital of the empire from Damascus to Baghdad. The dynasty reached its peak during the reign of Harun Al-Rashid (786-809) and Mamun (813-833) when the Islamic empire experienced a golden age of culture. In later years, corruption and stagnation resulted in the decay of the empire and after 1000, it became fragmented. Abd-al-Hamid II (1842-1918) Ottoman sultan. He replaced his liberal brother, Murad V, on the Ottoman throne in 1876, declared him insane, and abolished his Slide 2: constitution. He attempted to block Western ideas, to control the nation with an iron hand, and to turn back the clock. This finally led to a coup in 1908 by young army officers demanding a constitution and a homogeneous nation. Hamid was deposed in 1909 and his brother Muhammed V (r.1909-1918), was placed on the throne -- in name only, for the government was actually controlled by an organization known as the Young Turks. Abdullah, king of Jordan (Abdullah ibn Hussein) (1882-1951) First king (1946 -1951) of newly independent Jordan. During the Arab-lsraeli War (1948 and 1949), he took the West Bank of the Jordan River and subsequently annexed the territory. He was assassinated in 1951. Abelard, Peter (1079-1142) An important scholastic philosopher who became a brilliant and highly influential teacher at the University of Paris in the 1100s. After a tragic love affair with Heloise, he entered a monastery. His theological writings met with ecclesiastical condemnation in 1122 and 1141 and he was excommunicated by the pope. Abelard's book Sic it Non (Yes and No) raised many questions about church doctrine. He sought to foster thought and inquiry for he believed that "By doubting we come to inquiry and by inquiry we perceive the truth." Aberhard, William (1878-1943) Canadian politician who advocated social credit, or cash payments to citizens by the government. He helped to organize the Social Credit party in Alberta and served as Alberta's premier (1935-1943), but was unable to implement his programs. Abraham In the

Old Testament, the first Hebrew patriarch. According to the biblical account, in about 1800 B.C. he led the Hebrews who were originally herders from Ur into Canaan. Absolutism Government under which the ruler has unlimited power. The development of absolutism is closely associated with the emergence of modern nation states in the late 1400s and replaced feudalism as the form of government. However, it dates back to ancient times where it was practiced by the tyrants in Greek city-states and in the neighboring Oriental empires. Abu-alAbbas (as-Saffah) (722-754) Muslim caliph (750-754), founder and first caliph of the Abbasid dynasty who overthrew the Umayyad caliph. Abu Bakr The father-inlaw of Mohammed who became the first caliph or successor to Mohammed. He was an early follower of Mohammed and accompanied him on the flight from Mecca in 622. Selected by Mohammed as his successor, Abu Bakr continued the Prophet's work and was responsible for conquering Arabia and beginning the compilation of the Koran. Acadia Former French colony in North America. It included what are now the PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development World History in One Nut Shell, Almost Slide 3: coastal Canadian provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island, as well as parts of Maine. Achaeans Indo-European people who invaded the Greek peninsula from the north around 2000 B.C. They intermixed with the local population as they conquered new territory and eventually extended their conquests over the Peloponnesus, or southern half of Greece. Warrior kings ruled walled cities that were built at Mycenae, Thebes, and other locations in southern Greece. The civilization of the Achaeans is called Mycenaean and it was built on the achievements of the earlier Minoan civilization. According to the Iliad and the Odyssey, two famed epic poems by Homer, around 1250 B.C. under the leadership of the king of Mycenae, the Achaeans attacked Troy and destroyed it in the ensuing Trojan War. Frequent warfare among the rival Mycenaean kingdoms caused the civilization's decline and it was destroyed by Dorian invadors, illiterate Greek-speaking people. The collapse of this civilization in about 1100 B.C. ushered in a period called the Dark Ages which lasted until about 800 B.C. See Iliad Index Achaemenids Ancient Persian dynasty founded in the 7th century B.C. that included the founder of the Persian Empire, Cyrus the Great and provided kings of the empire from 550-330 B.C. Achilles Legendary Greek hero of Homer's Iliad and prominent Greek warrior in the Trojan War. After hearing a prophecy of his death at Troy, his mother dipped him in the river Styx to make him immortal, but the heel by which she held him was not touched by the water. Odysseus persuaded him to go to the Trojan War. The Iliad recounts his quarrel with Agamemnon, his withdrawal from the fighting, his grief over the slaying of his friend Patroclus by Hector, and how he avenged the death of Patroclus by slaying Hector. Achilles was himself killed by Paris who wounded him in the heel with a poisoned arrow. See Iliad Index Acropolis The fortified, elevated citadel, or hilltop fortress around which life

revolved in the Greek city-states. The famed Athenian Acropolis, a hill about 260 feet high, was covered during the time of Cemon and Pericles with the Parthenon and other buildings that are considered great architectural works. Actium, battle of Here the forces of Octavian who later became Augustus defeated the forces of Antony and Cleopatra in 31 B.C. By his victory, Octavian became the sole ruler of the Roman Empire. Act of Settlement Passed by Parliament in 1701, it provided that if Queen Anne (the Protestant daughter of James II who was overthrown in the Glorious Revolution and succeeded by William and Mary) who came to the throne after the deaths of William and Queen Mary, died without an heir, the throne was passed to the House of Hanover upon the succession of King George I. Slide 4: Act of Supremacy Two acts of Parliament that gave the English king supreme authority over the Church of England and thus broke ties with Rome. The first, in 1534, made Henry VIII head of the church in England, and the second, in 1559, vested this authority in Elizabeth I. Act of Union In 1707, it merged the separate governments of England and Scotland into one kingdom known as Great Britain. The Scottish Parliament was abolished and Scots were given seats in the House of Lords and the House of Commons. Addis Ababa The capital city of Ethiopia. It was founded by Menelik II in 1889. It was the capital of Italian East Africa (1936-1941). Addison, Joseph (1672-1719) Well-known English essayist, poet, and dramatist. Addison is best remembered for his essays on manners and morals and literary critiques. His style combined wit, elegance, and clarity. Addison's essays appeared in three literary journals, The Tatler, The Spectator, and The Guardian. Addison was also a Whig politician who served as a member of Parliament and held various government posts. Adelard of Bath A 12th-century English scholastic philosopher famed for his scientific studies. He introduced Arabic works in science, mathematics, and philosophy that influenced medieval thought, especially that of medieval scholastic scholars who sought to synthesize traditional Christian thought with the new secular learning. Adenauer, Konrad (1876-1967) In 1949, when Great Britain, the United States, and France combined their three occupied German zones into the German Federal Republic of West Germany, Konrad Adenauer the leader of the Christian Democrats was elected as chancellor. He had been mayor of Cologne from 1917, a member of the legislature of the Rhine province, had ordered Nazi flags removed from Cologne when Hitler visited it in 1933, was removed as mayor by Goering, and was twice jailed by the Nazis. At the age of 73 "der Alte," the Old One, was elected chancellor in 1949, and the Western allies replaced military governors with civilians. Adowa, battle of In March of 1896 Italian invading forces fought the Ethiopian forces of Emperor Menelik II at Adowa in Ethiopia. Menelik's army defeated the Italians who were greatly outnumbered thereby insuring the independence of Ethiopia and allowing Menelik to go forward with his program to modernize and strengthen his nation. Adrianople, battle of In 378 A.D., scene of the Visigoth victory over the Romans led by Emperor Valens. Two years earlier in 376 A.D. the Visigoths, driven by their fear of the invading Huns, had crossed the Danube River and Slide 5: received permission to settle within the borders of the Roman Empire.

Abuse at the hands of Roman officials caused the Visigoths to revolt and they marched against Constantinople. At Adrianople, the Emperor Valens sought to stop the advancing Visigoths but he was killed and his army was defeated. Adrianople, Treaty of Ended the Russo-Turkish War of 1828 and 1829. Under the terms of the treaty Russia secured the mouth of the Danube and the eastern coast of the Black Sea from Turkey. Autonomy was given to Serbia and promised to Greece. Aegean Civilization Term used for the cultures of pre-Hellenic Greece. Minoan civilization was the rich culture of Crete. Mycenaean civilization was the culture of mainland Greece. Aeneid A famous epic written by Virgil between 30 and 19 B.C. describing the mythical origin of Rome and glorifying Rome's greatness. The poem tells of the wanderings of Aeneas and the Trojans, their arrival in Italy, and their victory over the Latins and Rutulians. Aeschylus (524456 B.C.) Greek poet of Athens who wrote tragedies, one on the great victory at Salamis in 480 B.C., where he fought, and another the story of Agamemnon, a Greek leader of the Trojan War, the Persians, and Oresteia. Aetolian League A military federation created in western Greece in the 4th century B.C. to oppose the Achaean League and the Macedonians. In 200 B.C., it fought with the Romans and defeated Philip V of Macedon. Afterwards, the Aetolians tired of Roman interference in their affairs and they joined the Seleucid king, Antiochus III against the Romans. Their defeat in the ensuing conflict caused the League to lose power and pass into oblivion. African National Congress Major political force in the Union of South Africa. Led by Nelson Mandela, it is moving the current white-dominated government toward the elimination of all vestiges of apartheid and toward black majority rule. See Apartheid; Mandela, Nelson. Afrikaners Term used to refer to the white descendants of the Dutch farmers who settled in South Africa in the late 17th century. The Afrikaner language, a dialect of Dutch is called Afrikaans. Agamemnon In Greek legend the king of Mycenae, brother of Menelaus, and leader of the Greeks in the Trojan War. The Iliad recounts the quarrel between Agamemnon and Achilles. See Iliad Index Age of Pericles Period in Athenian history (461-429 B.C.). When Pericles ruled Athens and the city-state reached the height of its power and prosperity. Slide 6: Age of Reason See Enlightenment. Agincourt Famous battle of the Hundred Years' War in which the army of King Henry V of England routed the French forces in October of 1415. Although the French knights outnumbered the English by three or four to one, the English employed foot soldiers with longbows who were able to cut down the charging French knights. The battle demonstrated once again that the new method of fighting had outdated the feudal method of mounted, heavily armored knights on horseback. Agra City in India which is famed as the site of the Taj Mahal. Akbar the Great made Agra the capital of the Mogul Empire in the 1560s. Shah Jahan, a descendant of Akbar the Great had the Taj Mahal built as a tomb for his beloved wife in the 1600s. Aguinaldo, Emilio (1869-1964) Filipino revolutionary. He led the Philippine revolt against the Spanish during the Spanish-American War. Aguinaldo helped American troops drive the Spanish out of Luzon and then immediately declared the Philippines to be a republic. When the United States would not grant independence, Aguinaldo led military action against American troops throughout 1899. In 1900 the United

States declared local self-government for the Philippines, and the last of Aguinaldo's followers surrendered in 1902. Ahriman The evil spirit, representing darkness in the ancient Zoroastrian religion of the Persian Empire. Ahura Mazda The Wise Lord, or supreme god, who stood for truth, goodness, and light in the ancient Zoroastrian religion of the Persian Empire. Ahura Mazda was believed to be the creator of the world and as the lord of good and light was constantly at war against Ahriman and the gods of evil. Zoroaster believed that at the end of the world Ahura Mazda and the forces of good would triumph. Aix-la-Chapelle, Treaty of The scene of three congresses held in the years 1668, 1748, and 1818. The first congress of 1668 drew up the treaty that ended the War of Devolution between France and Spain. Under its terms, France kept its conquest in Flanders but restored Franche Comte to Spain. The second congress held in 1748 ended the War of Austrian Succession between the forces of France, Prussia, and Spain on the one side and England, Austria, and the Netherlands on the other side. The terms of this treaty generally restored the prewar boundaries but gave Silesia to Prussia and awarded Parma, Piacenza, and Guastalla to Philip V of Spain. The congress of 1818 was a meeting of the Quadruple Alliance of Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia and an attempt by the Alliance to govern Europe. Ajanta Site of caves in the Ajanta Hills in India carved by Buddhist monks Slide 7: between 200 B.C. and 700 A.D. and used as temples and living quarters for a Buddhist order. During the Gupta Empire, artists decorated the cave walls with brilliant colored paintings illustrating episodes in Buddha's life. These Ajanta cave paintings are the best preserved examples of Gupta art in existence. Akbar (1542-1605) Great mogul emperor (1556-1605). The reign of Akbar, the grandson of Babur, founder of the Mogul Empire, is considered the golden age of the Mogul Empire. An outstanding administrator, scholar, and artist, Akbar was the equal of contemporary monarchs such as Elizabeth I of England and Suleiman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire. The central purpose of Akbar's administration was to unite the Hindus and Moslems. Thirty percent of the officials of the government were Hindu, and he even attempted to found a new religion known as the Divine Faith that would combine both faiths. Despite his tolerance and wisdom, another of Akbar's main objectives was the expansion of the empire, and it was during his era that the empire reached its greatest size, extending from central Asia to southern India, and from Persia to the Ganges. Akhenaton (Ikhnaton) (Amenhotep IV) (d. 1362 B.C.) Egyptian pharaoh who ruled from about 1379-1362 B.C., famed for attempting to change Egypt's polytheistic religion to monotheism. His new religion was centered on a single supreme sun god, Aton. Akhenaton's religious reforms roused strong opposition from the Egyptian priests who favored the worship of the chief Egyptian god, Amon and it received few followers. Religious conflict caused serious divisions within Egypt during Akhenaton's reign and after his death the new religion died out. Akkadians A group of people who originally lived as nomads on the Arabian peninsula and then settled in the Tigris-Euphrates valley in Akkad. In about 2350 B.C. under the ruler Sargon, they conquered Sumer, the first civilization to arise in Mesopotamia. A less advanced people, the Akkadians adopted the more

advanced Sumerian civilization and expanded Sumerian trade, thereby spreading Sumerian civilization throughout Mesopotamia. Akkadian rule was brief and following the death of Sargon, civil war broke out and eventually led to the rise of a new ruling group, the Amorites. Alaric (370-410) King of the Visigoths (395410), a Germanic tribe, which was an ally of Roman Emperor Theodosius. After the death of Theodosius, Alaric led his troops in rebellion against the empire and his attempted invasions of Italy were halted by Stilicho in 402 and 403. In 403, Alaric invaded Italy again and in 410 he captured and plundered the city of Rome. Afterwards, the Visigoths moved into what is today Spain and established a kingdom there. Albertus Magnus (1200-1280) A 13th-century scholastic philosopher, scientist, and theologian who taught at universities in Germany and in Paris. He is probably best known as the teacher of Thomas Aquinas. Albert who was known as a Slide 8: great naturalist wrote on botany, zoology, and chemistry. In the Summa Theologiae he tried to reconcile the thought of Aristotle with that of Christianity maintaining that it was possible to gain knowledge both through faith and reason. Albigenses A religious group centered in southern France in the 12th and 13th centuries considered to be heretical by the Christian Church. They denied the truth of the birth, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ and believed in the existence of two creators, one of good and one of evil. In 1208, Pope Innocent III called for a crusade against the group and a merciless war to hunt them down was waged for the next 20 years until the sect finally disappeared. Albuquerque, Alfonso (1453-1515) The second governor of the Portuguese colonies in India (1506-1515), who was the founder of the Portuguese trading empire in the East in the early 1500s. He occupied Goa in 1510 and from here proceeded to seize important points along the trade routes. He captured the Strait of Malacca, the gateway to the Moluccas and the spice trade. Albuquerque also took Ormuz at the entrance to the Persian Gulf, which gave Portugal control of the Indian Ocean. Alchemy An ancient body of learning that sought to find out how matter was constituted and attempted to change base metals into gold. Alchemists searched for a miraculous philosopher's stone that had the power to change lead into gold, cure disease, restore youth, and prolong life. Alchemy is thought to have originated in ancient China or Egypt and was later influenced by the Greeks and Arabs. It reached Europe in the 12th century through the Muslims and in time gave rise to modern chemistry. Alcibiades (450-404 B.C.) Athenian statesman and military leader. Regarded as both brilliant and unscrupulous, he rose to prominence during the Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.), when Athenian power was declining. He rallied the Athenians to an alliance against Sparta and a disastrous campaign in Sicily in 415 B.C. Falsely charged with defacing sacred statues, he fled to Sparta. He aided the Spartans until forced to flee to Persia in 411 B.C. Recalled to Athens in 411 B.C., he led the Athenian fleet to victories against the Spartans and recovered Byzantium in 408 B.C. But when the Athenian fleet was defeated by Lysander in 406 B.C., he was exiled. Alcuin (735?-804) An 8th-century Anglo-Saxon (English) scholar and monk who was considered the intellectual leader of northern Europe in the late 8th century. Charlemagne asked him to come to the Frankish court to establish schools and

oversee the revival of learning. Alcuin was the central force in the cultural and intellectual reform known as the Carolingian renaissance. Aldrin, Edwin (b. 1930) American astronaut who, along with Neil Armstrong, became the first person to land on the moon on July 20, 1969. PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development World History in One Nut Shell, Almost Slide 9: Alembert, Jean (1717-1783) An 18th-century French mathematician, physicist, and philosopher who edited the scientific articles in Diderot's famed Encyclopedia. Alexander I (1777-1825) Russian czar (1801-1825). After defeats at Austerlitz and Friedland, he submitted to Napoleon's Continental System, under the Treaty of Tilst in 1807. He later repulsed Napoleon's invasion of Russia in 1812, marched into Paris in 1814, and, by his defeat of Napoleon, became one of the most important rulers in Europe. In his early years, he instituted many liberal reforms. After 1814, however, he formed the Holy Alliance and support for conservative and reactionary policies, especially those of Metternich. Alexander II (1818-1881) Russian czar (1855-1881). Shortly after his accession, he negotiated an end to the Crimean War (1835-1856) and instituted many liberal reforms, including the Edict of Emancipation of 1861 which abolished serfdom and the limited local government of the Zemstvo. His reforms, however, failed to prevent the rise of revolutionary and terrorist movements in the 1860s, and his attempts to suppress them led to his assassination. During his reign he brutally suppressed a Polish rebellion in 1863, formed the Three Emperors' League, extended Russian territories in central Asia, and engaged in the Russo-Turkish Wars (1877 and 1878). Alexander III (Orlando Bandinelli) (d. 1181) Italian-born pope (1159-1181). With help from the Lombard League, he managed to assert papal authority over Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I and forced him to sign the Treaty of Vienna in 1177. He also opposed Henry II of England, canonized Thomas a Becket, and received Henry's penance for Becket's murder. Alexander III (1845-1894) Russian czar (1881-1894). He became czar after his father's assassination and instituted reactionary policies and censorship. The power of the Zemstvos was sharply curtailed, national minorities were forced to undergo Russification, and religious minorities were persecuted. Alexander Nevsky (12201263) Russian prince and military hero. He defeated the Swedes at the Battle of the Neva in 1240 and the Teutonic Knights. Alexander the Great (Alexander III) (356-323 B.C.) Macedonian king (336-323 B.C.), successor to his father Philip II. One of the world's greatest conquerors, he created a vast empire extending from Greece to northern India, and, by his conquests, helped spread Greek civilization throughout the ancient world. Soon after becoming king, Alexander crushed revolts in Thrace, Illyria, and Thebes. His rule in Greece thus established, he began his epic military expedition (334-324 B.C.) with some 37,000 soldiers and the initial objective of conquering Persia. He met and defeated the Persians at the battles of Granicus in 334 and Issus (in Syria, 333), laid siege to and finally took Tyre

Slide 10: in 332 to complete conquest of Phoenicia, marched unopposed into Egypt (332 and 331), and there founded the great city of Alexandria in 332. He again defeated the Persians at the Battle of Gaugamela in 331, sent Persian king Darius II into flight, and sacked the Persian capital of Persepolis in 331. He continued eastward to Media in 330 and central Asia, where he conquered the Scythians in 329. Despite open discontent in his army (over his acceptance of Persian manners), Alexander invaded India in 327. After the Battle of Hydaspes in 326, he took control of Punjab and, his men, unwilling to go farther, returned to Persia in 324. He subsequently consolidated Macedonian control of his conquests and attempted to integrate Greeks and Persians by, among other things, ordering his soldiers to marry Persian women. He died shortly after a prolonged banquet in 323. Alexandra (1884-1925) Queen consort of English king Edward VII (m. 1863) and mother of King George V. PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development World History in One Nut Shell, Almost Alexandra Feodorovna (18271918) Last czarina of Russia, consort of Nicholas II (1894-1918). Her unfailing loyalty to the hated Rasputin and her disastrous meddlings in politics helped bring about the Russian Revolution. A Hessian princess, she came under Rasputin's sway when he seemed able to control her son's hemophilia. While Nicholas was at the front in World War I, she took control of the government in 1915 and began replacing government ministers with favorites of Rasputin. This discredited the government and opened the way for the October Revolution in 1917. She was shot, with Nicholas and her children, by revolutionaries. Alexandria Egypt's second largest city. Founded in 332 B.C. by Alexander the Great, it became one of the largest and greatest cities of antiquity. The Ptolemies ruled their Egyptian-based empire from there (323-330 B.C.), and it became a principal center of both Hellenistic and Jewish culture. Alexius I Comnenus (1048-1118) Byzantine emperor (1081-1118). Alexius restored the crumbling Byzantine Empire that, when he took power, was threatened by invasions and internal dissent. He defended against Norman invasions (1081 -1085), contained the Seljuk Turks, repulsed invasions by a tribe of nomadic Turks in 1091, and put down rebellions in Crete and Cyprus. His request for aid from the West against the Turks resulted in proclamation of the First Crusade in 1096. Slide 11: Alfonso I (Henriques) (1111?-1185) First king of Portugal (1139-1185). He engaged in wars (1128-1139) against the Moors and rulers of Leon and Castile to establish an independent kingdom. He was crowned after his victory over the Moors at Ourique on July 25, 1139. He continued fighting and captured Lisbon in 1147. Alfonso II (the Fat) (1185-1223) King of Portugal (1211-1223). He helped defeat the Moors at Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212. He quarreled with the church and was excommunicated by Honorius III. Alfonso III (1210-1279) Portuguese king (1248-1279). He completed the unification of Portugal by driving the Moors from Algarve in 1249. He instituted political, financial, and commercial reforms. Alfonso IV (1291-1357) King of Portugal (1325-1357). He aided Alfonso XI of Castile in his victory over the Moors at Tarifa in 1340. His approval of the murder of his daughter-in-law, Ines de Castro, led to a revolt by his son (later Pedro I). Alfonso V (the African) (1432-1481) Portuguese king (1438-1481). He

won major victories against the Moors in North Africa but failed to advance his wife's claim to Castile. He was decisively defeated by rival claimants, Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand, at the Battle of Toro in 1476. Alfonso VI (10301109) Christian king of Leon (1065-1109) and Castile (1072 -1109). His advances into Muslim territories brought about the takeover of Muslim Spain by the Almoravids. El Cid was active during Alfonso's reign. Alfonso VI (1643-1683) Portuguese king (1656-1683). Mentally impaired, he let Count Castelho Melhor rule. He was ousted by his wife and his brother, later Peter (Pedro) II. During Alfonso's reign, Spain recognized Portugal's independence in 1668. Alfonso VII (1104-1157) King of Leon and Castile (1126-1157). He warred frequently against the Muslims but was unable to prevent Alfonso I from establishing an independent Portugal in 1139. Alfonso VIII (the Noble) (1155-1214) Spanish king of Castile (1158-1214). He was defeated by Muslim Almohades, and Castile was invaded by Leon and Navarre. He recovered and later led allied Spanish forces to a major victory over the Moors at Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212. Alfonso X (the Wise) (1221-1284) Spanish king of Castile and Leon (1252-1284). He conquered Cadiz and Cartagena from the Moors, sought unsuccessfully to become Holy Roman Emperor (1257-1275), and encouraged culture and learning. Slide 12: Alfonso XI (the Avenger) (1311-1350) Spanish king of Castile and Leon (1312 -1350). He led the Spanish to victory over the Moors at the Battle of Algeciras, now in Morocco in 1344. Alfonso XII (1857-1941) King of Spain (18741885), son of Isabella II. Forced into exile in 1868, by a revolution, he was proclaimed king in 1874. He returned to Spain in 1875, restored order, and consolidated the power of the monarchy. Alfonso XIII (1886-1941) King of Spain (1886-1931). His reign was marked by political and social instability. He supported the military coup of Primo de Rivera in 1923 and went into exile in 1931 with the establishment of the Second Republic. Alfred the Great (849-899) Ruler of the kingdom of Wessex, his forces defeated the Danes in 886 and they withdrew to the eastern third of England which was called the Danelaw. All of England then accepted Alfred's rule and he was king from 871-889. Alfred was a cultured leader as well as a wise ruler. Allende, Salvador (1908-1973) Chilean politician. In 1970 Salvador Allende became the Western Hemisphere's first constitutionally elected Marxist president. Allende advocated state ownership of resources, abolition of minority class privileges, and a "republic of the working class." He promised to govern with traditional Chilean "democratic decency." By September 1973 Allende was dead, thousands were arrested, and constitutional Marxism and 45 years of democratic government in Chile had ended. Alliance for Progress Inter-American economic assistance program. The United States established this aid program in 1961 to bolster South American countries against communism and to effect social and economic reforms. Funding was sharply reduced after 1971. Allies, World War I One of the opposing sides in World War I that reflected the Alliance system consisting of the Triple Entente nations of France, Britain, and Russia. Allies, World War II One of the opposing sides in World War II that came to include Britain, France, the United States, the Soviet Union, China, and 43 other nations. Almohades (Almohads) Muslim sect and dynasty of Berber Muslims that ruled Morocco and Muslim Spain in the 12th and

13th centuries. Almoravides (Almoravids) Berber Muslim dynasty, rulers of an empire in North Africa and Muslim Spain in the 11th and 12th centuries. PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development World History in One Nut Shell, Almost Slide 13: Amenhotep IV See Akhenaton. Amnesty International An international organization that monitors human rights violations. It received the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1977. With headquarters in London, there are 700,000 members in more than 150 countries. Amon The most important of the Egyptian gods who was frequently represented as a ram or a human with a ram's head. Amorites A group of people who attacked the river valley cities of Mesopotamia in about 2000 B.C. They built the village of Babylon on the Euphrates River which grew into a great city-state. Their greatest king, Hammurabi, established an empire in Mesopotamia by 1700 B.C. Amritsar Massacre In 1919 at Amritsar, India, troops under British command fired on unarmed Indian nationalist protesters, killing some 400 and wounding about 1200. The massacre strengthened the anti-British movement in India. Anabaptists Christian sects that arose in Europe during the 16th-century's Protestant Reformation. Anabaptists generally rejected infant baptism in favor of adult baptism, favored separation of the church and state, and opposed the use of force. Anarchism Theory that advocates complete individual freedom, especially from control by government or other outside authority. Based on the belief that such restrictions corrupt humans. Anaxagoras (500-428 B.C.) Greek philosopher who taught in Athens. Among his students were Pericles and, it is believed, Socrates. He was banished for his teachings on the physical nature of the universe. Anaximander (611-547 B.C.) Greek philosopher whose teachings are said to prefigure the development of astronomy and the theory of evolution. One of the earliest Western philosophers, he attempted to provide a systematic explanation of the nature of the universe and all things in it. Anaximenes (6th century B.C.) Greek philosopher. He held that air was the primary substance of the universe and that all matter was composed of air but different in density. Ancien Regime Term for the political and social order in France up to the outbreak of the French Revolution, in 1789. Andropov, Yuri (1914-1984) Successor to Brezhnev who continued to work to strengthen the Soviet economy and defenses. After his death in 1984, Chernenko Slide 14: came to be the leader of the Soviet Union. Angevin Another name for the Plantagenet kings of England (1154-1399), the first three of whom were also counts of Anjou (thus Angevin). Angkor Wat Ruins of a great temple of the ancient Khmer Empire of Cambodia. Anglo-Saxons Name given to Germanicspeaking peoples made up of three different Germanic tribes, the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes who settled in England at the end of Roman rule and formed several small kingdoms there. Anne (1665-1714) Last Stuart ruler who was queen of England, Scotland and Ireland (1702-1707), and later first queen of Great Britain (1707-1714). Her reign, one of transition to parliamentary government, was dominated by the War of Spanish Succession (1702-1713).

None of Anne's children survived her and, by the Act of Settlement in 1701, George I of the House of Hanover, succeeded to the throne. Her reign was marked by intellectual awakening, popularization of Palladian architecture, and by growth of empire, constitution, and of the political power of the press. Annexation Act by which a nation or a state declares sovereignty over territory formerly outside its borders. Anschluss Term applied to the project of union between Austria and Germany. Forbidden by the peace treaties of 1919, it became a reality when Hitler annexed Austria to Germany in 1938. Antony (Antonius, Marcus) (Marc Antony) (83-30 B.C.) Roman soldier, political leader, and ally of Julius Caesar. A courageous soldier, he served with Caesar in Gaul in 54 B.C., became a tribune in 49 B.C., and joined Caesar in the civil war against Pompey in 48 B.C., in which Pompey was defeated. He became consul with Caesar in 44 B.C. and, after Caesar's assassination, forced the conspirators to flee Rome. Antony for a time opposed both the Senate and Caesar's heir, Octavian (later Augustus Caesar). But after gaining the support of Lepidus, Antony came to terms with Octavian, and the three (Octavian, Antony, and Lepidus) formed the Second Triumvirate, with Antony ruling Asia. His alliance with Cleopatra, and, his dissolute life-style, alienated both Octavian and the Senate. Octavian attacked and defeated Antony at Actium in 31 B.C. and, when Octavian pursued him to Alexandria, both Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide. Apartheid Policy followed in South Africa that involves separation of the races politically and economically. South Africa is in effect a compartmentalized society in which each racial group, white and native, lives separately, has separate kinds of work, separate levels of wages, and separate standards of education. The policy of apartheid or separation is not a new one. Slide 15: The Dutch settlers of the 18th and 19th centuries believed in "baasskap" or boss-hood, simply white domination. The modern form of apartheid is the result of conditions that developed in the 1920s and 1930s. Appeasement The making of concessions to an aggressive potential enemy in the hopes of avoiding trouble and usually made from weakness rather than from strength. This policy was followed by the Western democracies in the 1930s in response to the aggressive acts of Hitler and Mussolini in order to maintain peace. Aquinas, Thomas (1225-1274) Italian theologian and philosopher. Dominican friar and one of the great medieval scholars, determined to reconcile Aristotle's reasoning with church faith. Aquinas maintained that faith and reason were not in conflict with one another but led to a greater understanding of God. By "reason" he meant Aristotelian logic and precise definitions of words and concepts. In his 22-volume Summa Theologica, a sort of encyclopedia of all theology, he set out to prove that all scientific knowledge agreed with church beliefs, taking up each point in church doctrine and proving it. Aquino, Corazon (b. 1933) President of the Philippines (1987-1992). Mrs. Aquino (widow of Benigno Aquino, an opponent of Ferdinand Marcos) was chosen by the United Nationalist Democratic Organization to oppose Marcos in the 1986 election. She had the support of the Roman Catholic church and a large part of the population. She became president after a disputed election and as a result of a nonviolent popular revolution. See Marcos, Ferdinand Edralin. Arafat, Yasir (b. 1929)

Leader of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) who has called for the establishment of a Palestinian state on the West Bank. Archimedes (287-212 B.C.) The foremost Greek mathematician and physicist of the age. He showed the ratio of pi, 3.1416, of the diameter of a circle to its circumference, invented pulleys, the lever, the law of specific gravity, and the spiral screw inside a cylinder to raise water. Aristarchus (310-230 B.C.) Greek scientist who determined that the earth and planets revolving around the sun, measured almost exactly the solar year and lunar month. Mistakenly he believed that the earth was the center of the universe, an error accepted until Copernicus (14731543) proved the contrary. Aristophanes (444-380 B.C.) The most famous Greek comic writer, he made fun of many aspects of Athenian life, its leaders, and its assemblies in The Clouds and The Frogs. Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) Macedonian Greek philosopher and scientist, one of the great thinkers of all time. His works in philosophy, science, ethics, and Slide 16: esthetics had a major influence on the development of civilization in the West. Aristotle studied under Plato at the Academy in Athens and later tutored Alexander the Great. Returning to Athens in 335, he opened a school (the Lyceum) and taught there until just before his death. His works, lost in the West after the fall of Rome, were reintroduced by Arab scholars in the 9th century and formed the basis of Scholasticism. In his time, Aristotle stressed the importance of observation, the necessary correlation of theory to fact, and the value of logic. See also Philosophy Index. Arkwright, Richard (1732-1792) English inventor whose construction of a spinning machine known as the water frame in 1769, which used water power to run it, was an early step in the Industrial Revolution. Armada, Spanish A great fleet of 130 ships launched by Philip II of Spain against England in 1588 to stop English attacks by the so-called sea dogs against Spanish ships and to wipe out the Protestant "heresy" in England. The Armada was defeated by a combination of smaller, quicker, English ships and a storm that destroyed many Spanish ships. Only half of the Spanish ships returned to Spain and its defeat marked the beginning of the decline of Spanish sea power. Armstrong, Neil (b. 1930) American astronaut who in the Apollo 11 mission became the first person to walk on the moon in July, 1969. Arthur A legendary, early British king around whom a great body of medieval stories known as Arthurian legend developed. The first references to him appear about 600 A.D. and place him as a British leader of the Celts who fought against the AngloSaxon invaders. According to Historia (1137) by Geoffrey of Monmouth he was a conquerer of Western Europe who headed a magnificent court. Aryans IndoEuropean people who originally came from the region between the Black and Caspian seas, north of the Caucasus and invaded India in about 1500 B.C., destroying the ancient Indus Valley civilization that flourished in Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. Between 1500 and 1000 B.C., they conquered the Indus Valley and then spread eastward until they controlled northern India. What is known about the Aryans comes from Vedas, or religious books. Eventually they settled down and became the ruling class turning the conquered Indian people into a subjected laboring class. Ashanti, empire of (Asante) African kingdom in what is now central Ghana. The Ashanti people occupied the region by the 13th century

and, in the second half of the 1600s, King Osei Tutu created the empire, with his capital at Kumasi. The Ashanti continued to expand their empire, supplying the British and Dutch with slaves from conquered peoples in the 1700s. Wars with the British in the 1820s, 1860s, and 1870, led first to a British takeover in 1896, then annexation to the British Gold Coast colony in 1901. Slide 17: Ashikaga The second of three shogunates to rule Japan between 1185 and 1868. After the end of the Kamakura shogunate in 1333, one noble, Ashikaga Tokauji won power and had himself made shogun in 1338, establishing his family as Japan's second line of military rulers. The Ashikaga family ruled Japan until 1568 but they were never able to control the powerful nobles and warfare was almost continuous. During this period of rule, feudalism continued to be the system of government in Japan. Asoka (273-232 B.C.) Indian emperor who was the grandson of Chandragupta, founder of the Maurya dynasty and brought the Maurya Empire to the height of its power. One of the greatest rulers of ancient India, he brought nearly all India under one empire for the first time in history. However, after his bloody conquests, Asoka, remorseful for the suffering he had inflicted, converted from Hinduism to Buddhism and abandoned wars of conquest. Though tolerant of all faiths, he made Buddhism the state religion of India and built numerous monasteries. He sent Buddhist missionaries throughout India and its adjacent lands and as far as Syria, Egypt, and Greece. India prospered and art flourished under the reign of Asoka but after his death the Mauryan Empire swiftly declined. Assad, Hafez-al (b. 1928) A military officer who became president of Syria and encouraged Syrian economic and military development. Assurbanipal (d. 626 B.C.) King of the Assyrians under whom the Assyrian Empire reached its height in about 6600 B.C. In his capital of Nineveh, he built a library containing 22,000 cuneiform tablets written in Babylonian, Assyrian, and Sumerian. Assyrians One of the many groups of people who conquered the land of Mesopotamia in ancient times. They are known for the introduction of cruelty as a political policy, the use of iron for warfare, and the deliberate preservation of the achievements of the past. From the highland region north of Nineveh, the Assyrians, who had for 1,000 years maintained predominance in their region, moved southwards. In 910 B.C., they captured Babylon, moved into the Mediterranean land of Syria, and by 700 B.C. under Sargon II (who took the name of the conqueror of the Tigris-Euphrates area nearly 2000 years earlier) were in possession of the entire Fertile Crescent, including Syria, Egypt, Phoenicia, and Israel, making Nineveh their capital. The Assyrians were unskilled in administration, and after only 150 years of rule, were conquered by the Chaldeans. Atahualpa (d. 1533) The last ruler of the great Inca Empire who was taken prisoner by the Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro in 1532 and put to death. Slide 18: Ataturk, Kemal (1881-1938) Mustafa Kemal or Kemal Pasha was a Turkish soldier, statesman, and president (1923-1938), considered the founder of modern Turkey. He was a leading figure in the Young Turks and other nationalist groups from 1908. By 1921 he headed a nationalist army, which repulsed a Greek invasion between 1919 and 1922 and subsequently overthrew the sultan in 1922. He abolished the sultanate and during his long term as president of the

republic, he instituted many reforms aimed at westernizing Turkey. Athens Historic city capital of Greece. Athens was a focal point of ancient Greek culture, noted as a center of the arts and learning. Many of the temples and other buildings of the ancient city remain as classic works of architecture. The democratic form of government developed in the city-state of Athens is considered the forerunner of modern democracy. Athens rose as the dominant city-state in ancient Greece during the 5th century B.C. Its power was broken by its archrival, Sparta, during the Peloponnesian War at the end of the 5th century. Athens continued for a time as a cultural center, but it never again attained its former greatness. Atlantic Charter Document signed in August, 1941 in which the United States and Great Britain announced their basic aims for a peace settlement. President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill met on shipboard off the Newfoundland shore in order to set down clearly their objectives for future peace. In it, they pledged their countries to the spread of democratic principles; it established 18 points similar to Wilson's Fourteen Points of World War I and also stipulated that a "permanent system of general security" should be established at the end of the war (the origins of the United Nations). Attila (406?-453 A.D.) King of the Huns from about 433-453 and known as the Scourge of God. In 451, he led his forces into Gaul but he was defeated by the combined forces of Germanic tribes and a Roman army. In 452, he invaded northern Italy but abandoned his plan to take Rome according to some because of the plea of Pope Leo I but more likely because of hunger and disease. His death in 453 ended the Hun threat to the empire but the Germanic invasions continued. Attlee, Clement (1883-1967) The leader of the British Labour party whose victory in the general election of 1945 against Churchill and his coalition government made him the prime minister. This gave the party the opportunity to implement its policy of nationalization, the state ownership of the means of production and distribution, under his leadership. The government nationalized the Bank of England, coal mines, railroads, trucking industry, and docks in 1947. People who held shares in these enterprises exchanged them for government bonds. These businesses were then operated by government boards, for the nation and not for private profit. Augsburg, peace of (1555) A temporary settlement of conflicts caused by the Reformation within the Holy Roman Empire, on the German states. According to Slide 19: this settlement, the prince of each German state within the empire was to decide which religion -- Lutheranism or Catholicism -- would be followed in his lands. Most southern German rulers remained Catholic while most in the north chose Lutheranism. See Martin Luther Index Augustine, Saint (354-430 A.D.) One of the earliest and greatest Christian thinkers who is considered a church father. Born in North Africa, he converted to Christianity and became a bishop in Roman Africa. Augustine's most famous works are The City of God and Confessions. Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.) The first Roman emperor originally known as Octavian, he was a grandnephew of Julius Caesar who adopted him and made him his heir. After Caesar was assassinated he gained power in Rome and formed the Second Triumvirate in 43 B.C. with Marc Antony and Lepidus. Lepidus was forced to retire, and the Roman world was divided between

Octavian ruling in the West and Antony in the East. After differences with Antony, he persuaded the Senate to declare war against him and Cleopatra at Actium in 31 B.C. The republic came to an end and Octavian made himself the ruler of the Roman world. Octavian was given the title Augustus by the Senate and he began the period known as the Pax Romana, or Roman Peace. Aurangzeb (1618-1707)

by PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development Nollijy University Research Institute Arts & Sciences - Evolution
Mogul emperor of India (1658-1707). The last Mogul emperor to control all of India, Aurangzeb was a man of great courage and talent. However, he was also a fanatical Moslem, determined to conquer the entire peninsula and to convert all his subjects to Islam. The Hindus naturally objected, and Hindu princes organized the Mahratha Confederacy, with its power centered around the city of Poona. In his attempt to conquer the south of India, Aurangzeb over-extended his resources and ultimately the viceroys of the empire broke away, establishing independent principalities in Hyderabad, Mysore, Bengal, and Oudh. Auschwitz Located in Poland, one of the most infamous concentration camps of World War II (with Dachau, Buchenwald, Treblinka, and others). Three million Jews, other minorities, and political opponents to the Third Reich were murdered here or died of disease and starvation. Austerlitz, battle of Here, in 1805, Napoleon won a great victory over the Russian army under Emperor Alexander I and the Austrian army under Francis I, thereby forcing Austria out of the war. Russia continued the war but was forced to withdraw its troops from Austria. Austrian Succession, War of the (1740-1748) This complex war involved the major European powers in a general and largely indecisive conflict. The war broke out after the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles in 1740, a member of the powerful Hapsburg family. It was fought over succession to the vast Slide 20: Hapsburg family domains (centered in Austria), although other political rivalries were involved (notably between France and Britain). Long before his death, Charles had issued the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713, naming his daughter, Maria Theresa, as heir to the Hapsburg lands (but not the imperial title). During

his lifetime, Charles labored tirelessly to win general support in Europe for her succession. But on Charles's death, Maria was seen as too weak to retain control of the domains, and rival claimants disputed her succession. When war broke out, France, Prussia, Spain, Bavaria, and Saxony took up arms against Austria, ruled by Maria. Britain under George II sided with Austria. An ongoing war between Britain and Spain (War of Jenkins' Ear) spread to French and British colonies (King George's War in North America) and later to Britain (second revolt of the Jacobites). Exhaustion, not decisive victory, eventually ended the war. Maria was recognized as heir to Hapsburg domains and her husband, Francis I, was elected Holy Roman Emperor. Prussia (the real winner) won Silesia from Austria and emerged as a major power. Austro-Hungarian monarchy See Dual monarchy. Austro-Prussian War (Seven Weeks' War) War (June 15-August 23, 1866) between Prussia (with Italy) and Austria (with Hanover, Bavaria, and most other German states). The war resulted in Austria's exclusion from the German Confederation (reorganized as the North German Confederation) and thus opened the way to the eventual unification of Germany under Prussian domination. The war was precipitated by Prussian Chancellor Bismarck to gain those ends for Prussia. Austro-Turkish War A war (1682-1699) between Austria (and her allies) and the Ottoman Empire. The Turks sued for peace and agreed to the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699. Authoritarianism Political system based on blind submission of individuals to a central authority, either a single leader or a small group of them. Autocracy System of government in which a single ruler has absolute power over the entire government. Averroes (1126-1198) Important Spanish-Muslim philosopher of the 12th century also known as ibn-Rushd. From a family of religious scholars and judges, he became chief judge of Cordova. His commentaries on Aristotle's writings were important to medieval Christian philosophers and his attempts to reconcile Greek methods of logic with Islamic doctrine greatly replaced medieval scholastic philosophers. Avicenna (980-1037) Preeminent Muslim scholar known in Arabic as ibn-Sina who was a poet, doctor, scientist, and philosopher. He wrote about every field of knowledge relying on the work of Aristotle. His Canon of Medicine, based on Greek knowledge, was used by physicians in Muslim and Christian lands. Slide 21: Avignon City in France that became the residence of the popes, beginning with Pope Clement V, during the period known as the Babylonian Captivity (1309 -1377). It was also used by several antipopes during the Great Schism which lasted from 1378-1408. It remained the property of the papacy until 1791 when it was annexed by France. Axis powers One of the opposing sides in World War II, consisting of a coalition of nations headed by Germany, Italy, and Japan. The Axis was first formed in 1936 with an Italo-German accord and became a full alliance in 1939. In 1940 Japan joined with the Berlin Pact to which several Eastern European nations also acceded. Axum A trading empire in subSaharan Africa that began its rise in the 1st century A.D. Located in the north corner of the Ethiopian highlands, Axum or the Kush Empire, was the great ivory market of northern Africa. During the 2nd and 3rd centuries A.D. its power rose, and by the 4th century it had conquered Meroe, a rival trading empire, and burned the city to the ground. During the 4th century Axum became Christian

(the Coptic church) with strong political and religious links with Byzantine Egypt. Ayacucho Located in South Peru the defeat of the Spanish by Bolivar's forces under the leadership of Sucre here in 1824 won the independence of Peru and marked the triumph of the independence movement in South America. Ayub Khan, Mohammed (1909-1974) Pakistani politician and president (1958 -1969), General Ayub Khan seized power in Pakistan in 1958, imposed martial law, and ruled as a dictator. Under his rule, Pakistan made progress in land redistribution and industrial development. However, in 1969, riots and protests caused him to resign and the government was turned over to army leaders. Azikiwe, Nnamdi (b. 1904) Nigerian statesman. A nationalist leader in Africa in the 1930s. From Nigeria, he was educated in America and returned to Africa in 1934, where he edited a newspaper in the Gold Coast. In 1937 he went back to Nigeria to publish the West African Pilot which spread ideas of self -determination and independence. He was elected to the premiership of East Nigeria (1954-1959). In 1960 he was appointed to the largely honorary office of governor-general. Aztecs An Indian nation of warriors, merchants, and organizers, who were probably the first Americans to use swords. Their religion was bloody and warlike with human sacrifice being the basis for the faith. Trade was a prestige profession, and the civilization flourished. Tenochtitlan, their capital, was a remarkable city with a population of around 300,000 and a system of canals. Wandering Aztecs reached Ananhuac about 1200 A.D. and learned a great deal from their predecessors, the Toltecs. In 1325 the Aztecs founded Slide 22: Tenochtitlan and gained a foothold in central Mexico. In 100 years they were the strongest tribe in the valley, and by 1440, under Montezuma I, they had moved east and south and controlled most of central Mexico in a confederation of tribes. Between 1519 and 1521 Hernando Cortes and 400 Spanish troops defeated them. Babur (Babar, Baber) (1483-1530) The founder of the Mogul Empire, Babur was a Turk from what is today Russian Turkestan, who claimed descent from both Genghis Khan and Tamerlane. In 1504 he established a small kingdom in Afghanistan. From here, at the head of the 12,000 Moslems he swept down on India, conquered Delhi in 1526, and made it his capital. He then proceeded to conquer most of northern India and these conquests formed the Mogul Empire. Babylon City in ancient Mesopotamia located on the Euphrates River that was the center of Babylonia. Under Hammurabi it reached greatness, but was later destroyed by Sennacherib. Once again under Nebuchadnezzar, in about 562 B.C. it reached a height of luxury and was famed for its Hanging Gardens, considered one of the wonders of the world. After its capture by the Persians in 538 B.C., the city declined. Babylonian Captivity Period when the papacy was moved from Rome to Avignon and the French king controlled the papacy. In the late 13th century, French king Philip IV, objected to the pope's contention that Philip could not tax the French clergy. The pope finally gave in, but the conflict resulted in Philip's securing the election of a French clergyman as pope and the moving of the papal court from Rome to Avignon in France. For nearly 70 years (1309-1377) the popes lived in Avignon in what was called the Babylonian Captivity, in reference to the time when King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon took the people of Judah as captives to Babylon. In 1378 an Italian

clergyman was elected pope by the College of Cardinals while the French cardinals elected their man at Avignon. A third pope was finally elected in 1409 A.D. at the Council of Pisa where 500 prelates and delegates from the states of Europe attempted to resolve the problem. Finally in 1417 A.D. the Council of Constance was able to secure the election of a pope, which ended the Great Schism in the church. Bacon, Francis (1561-1626) Famous 17th-century scientist and philosopher from England who formalized the inductive method of acquiring knowledge and emphasized the usefulness of knowledge. See also Philosophy Index. Bactria A kingdom established in northwestern India by the Bactrian Greeks descendants of Greek soldiers who came with Alexander the Great when he invaded the Persian Empire and India. In the 2nd century B.C., Bactrian king Demetrius established this kingdom and encouraged the blending of Greek and Indian civilization. Around 30 B.C., the Bactrians were defeated by a new wave of invaders. PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development World History in One Nut Shell, Almost Slide 23: Balboa, Vasco Nunez de (1475-1519?) Spanish conquistador who discovered the Pacific Ocean in 1513. Baldwin, Stanley (1867-1947) British statesman. As prime minister (1923 and 1924, 1924-1929, and 1935-1937) he obtained passage of the Trade Disputes Act in 1927, which limited the power of unions, and played a role in the abdication of Edward VIII in 1936. He opposed British rearmament in the face of the increasing German military threat. Balfour Declaration Issued in 1917 by Arthur Balfour, the British foreign secretary, after the British captured Palestine from Turkey. It announced that it was England's intention to establish a national home for the Jews in Palestine "without prejudicing the rights of non-Jews." At this time the Arabs in Palestine numbered about 700,000, whereas the Jews were a minority of about 70,000. Baltic states Name for former countries of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia, which were located east of the Baltic Sea. The territory was under Russian rule from the 1700s. After World War I and the Baltic War of Liberation, the three independent countries were formed in 1918 but were retaken by Russia in 1940 and incorporated into the U.S.S.R. They have become independent since 1991, with the collapse of communism in the Soviet Union. Bandaronaike, Mrs. Sirimavo (b. 1916) Elected in 1960 in Sri Lanka, she became the world's first woman prime minister (19601965). During her first administration the country suffered from inflation and rising unemployment. She was ousted in 1965, but was returned to power in 1970. In 1972 Ceylon became a "socialist democracy" as the Republic of Sri Lanka. She was voted out of office in 1977 and the next year Sri Lanka adopted a presidential form of government. Bantu A diverse people of Africa, related primarily by similarities in their languages. Bantus occupy almost all of southern Africa below the Congo River. lt is believed that Bantus originally occupied homelands in east-central Africa and spread (lst century B.C.?) south from there. Bao Dai (b. 1913) Last Vietnamese emperor (1925-1945). Emperor of Annan

who was proclaimed the ruler of all Indochina by the Japanese on the eve of their defeat in 1945. His puppet government could not retain its position against a nationalist government proclaimed by Ho Chi Minh, an old revolutionary leader with Communist ties, who proclaimed the independence of Indochina as the Republic of Vietnam in 1949. Barbarian invasions Name given to the conquest of portions of the western Roman Empire by tribes from the north. By the 4th century A.D. Rome's power had declined, allowing Germanic tribes to seize and settle in northern Roman provinces. The Visigoths crossed the Danube in 376 and, led by Alaric, sacked Slide 24: Rome in 410. His successor, Ataulf, sought to fuse Roman elements into a Visigothic kingdom. Rome was nearly sacked in 451 by the Huns under Attila, and was sacked in 455 by the Vandals under Gaiseric. The Germanic tribes under Odoacer deposed in 476 Romulus Augustulus, last Roman emperor of the West, and the Western empire ceased to exist. Other groups to seize Roman territory included the Ostrogoths, Burgundians, and the Franks. Bastille Famous French prison in Paris that was stormed on July 14, 1789 by a Parisian mob marking the outbreak of the French Revolution. Batista, Fulgencio (19011973) An army sergeant who in 1934 led a revolt in Cuba and set up puppet presidents. Batista set up a new constitution in 1940 and easily won the presidential election for a four-year term. Batista was sent into exile in 1944 but returned and in 1952 organized his army followers, seized power, and established a brutal dictatorship. Opposition to him grew, and he was overthrown by Fidel Castro. Battle of Britain Took place during World War II and was the greatest air attack in history up to that time. On June 19, 1940 Hitler commenced air attacks that increased in intensity until 1,000-plane raids were mounted daily. German strategic error and British radar, plus the incredible work of an overworked air force, finally forced Germany to substitute submarine warfare. Battle of the Bulge The last desperate German counterattack of World War II to stop the Allied advance into Germany that began on December 16, 1944 in northern France. The battle lasted a month and the Allies launched a counteroffensive that wiped out German gains and were able to advance into Germany. Becket, Thomas a (1117-1170) English martyr and archbishop of Canterbury, he first served as the chancellor of Henry II. Against his wishes, Henry II made him archbishop and the two men soon opposed one another over the issue of royal authority over the church, especially Henry's plan to transfer the trials of clergy accused of crimes from church to royal courts. In 1170, Thomas was murdered in the cathedral by supporters of the king. Bedouin Nomadic peoples of Arabia who spoke the Semitic language of Arabic and became converts to Islam. Begin, Menachem (1913-1992) Leader of Israel's Likud Party, he was prime minister from 1977-1983. In 1978 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace for concluding a peace treaty with Egyptian president Anwar Sadat. Behistun inscription A large cliff rock that contained writing in three languages -- Persian, Susian (a Persian dialect), and cuneiform Babylonian and enabled scholars to decipher the cuneiform writing of Mesopotamia. From a list Slide 25: of known Persian cuneiform signs, it was possible to read the Persian and thus in turn, the Babylonian. Benedict, Saint (d. 547) Italian monk of the 6th

century who founded the Benedictine Order. He established the first Benedictine monastery at Monte Cassino in 529 and created the Rule of St. Benedict, a set of rules to govern monastic life that served as a guide for other religious orders. Benes, Eduard (1886-1948) Czech statesman who served as president of Czechoslovakia (1935-1938) and after the Munich pact headed the Czech provisional government in London. After the war, he was once again elected president of Czechoslovakia in 1946 but resigned after the Communist coup d'etat of 1948. Ben-Gurion, David (1886-1973) First prime minister of Israel when the nation came into being in 1948. He founded a Zionist movement in Russia, emigrated to Palestine in 1905, and was exiled from Palestine in 1914 because of his views. He spent several years in the United States, returned to Palestine, and served as secretary of the General Federation of Labor until 1935. From then on he was the leader of the MAPAI, the Israeli Labor party. Benin, kingdom of Former West African kingdom located in what is now Nigeria. A powerful kingdom even before the advent of Portuguese exploration of Africa in the 1200s, it began trade with Portugal in the late 15th century and remained a power in the region until the 18th century when it began its decline. The kingdom fell to British control in the late 19th century. Bentham, Jeremy (1748-1832) English philosopher who was the founder of utilitarianism, a theory that holds that the good of society and its laws is to ensure the greatest good for the greatest number of people. He believed that monarchy should be abolished, and that literate adults should have the right to vote. Since each individual is concerned with his own welfare and happiness, the best interests of the community are served by individualism or complete laissez-faire, in which every person is left free to satisfy his self-interest. See also Philosophy Index. Berlin Blockade In the spring of 1948 Stalin decided to drive the West out of Berlin, and he closed all rail, land, and water routes to the city. The Russians expected that the Allies would be unable to supply the 2.5 million inhabitants of West Berlin but a massive airlift was the West's answer to this threat. For nearly 11 months, from June 1948 to May 1949, planes flew night and day, saving Berlin by bringing in over 2.5 million tons of food and coal. Stalin finally surrendered and lifted the blockade. Berlin Conference A conference held in Berlin in 1884 and 1885 to settle the conflicting claims of the European powers over the lands of Africa. The main Slide 26: problem discussed was the Belgian claim to the Congo that conflicted with that of several other nations. Agreements here, along with those made over the following years, divided Africa among the European nations. Berlin Wall Barrier erected by the Communist government of East Germany in 1961 to stop the escape of their citizens to the West. In November 1989, as part of a democratization movement throughout Eastern Europe, openings were made in the Wall and it ceased to be a symbol of political separation and repression. See East European Revolution. Bernard of Clairvaux, Saint (1090-1153) French cleric, a mystic, and in his day one of the most prominent figures in the Roman Catholic church. A Cistercian monk, he founded the monastery at Clairvaux in 1115 and spent the rest of his life as its abbot. Nevertheless, he gained great influence in the church by his eloquence, his widespread reputation as a pious

and devoted churchman, and his influence with the popes of the day. Bessemer, Henry (1813-1898) An English engineer who discovered a process for making steel by removing carbon from molten iron, resulting in the reduction of the cost of steel by nearly 85 percent. Bethmann-Hollweg, Theobald von (1856-1921) German statesman. As chancellor of Germany (1909-1917), he did not want war, but his policies contributed to the outbreak of World War I. His attempts to bring about a mediated end to the war led to his forced resignation. Bhagavad-Gita Sanskrit poem that forms the last 18 chapters of The Mahabharata, the longest epic poem in world literature. The theme is religious and the Gita stresses that doing one's moral duty or dharma, is the highest fulfillment in life. Krishna, the human incarnation of the god Vishnu tells of the alternate paths of salvation, which include salvation through the performance of action appropriate to one's station in life, salvation through the attainment of knowledge of the Supreme Being, and salvation through faith and devotion to a personal god, especially Krishna. Bhutto, Benezir (b. 1953) Prime Minister of Pakistan (1988-1990). The first female leader of a Muslim nation in modern times, she was dismissed in 1990. Bhutto, Zulfikar Ali (1928-1979) Pakistani political leader. His policies helped to cause the secession of East Pakistan and the ensuing war in 1971. As president (1971-1973) and prime minister (1973-1977), he opposed secession and the formation of Bangladesh but was forced to recognize its independence in 1974. He was overthrown by General Zia in 1977. Charged with plotting the assassination of a political foe, he was imprisoned and executed in 1979. Bill of Rights, English Famous document of the English constitution adopted in Slide 27: 1689, it recognized the results of 17th-century struggle between Parliament and the Stuart monarchy. Its principles were accepted by King William and Queen Mary in the Declaration of Rights as a condition for ascending to the throne after the overthrow of James II in the bloodless Glorious Revolution of 1688. Among the principles established by the Bill of Rights was that the monarch was subject to the laws of Parliament and that all English subjects had certain civil and political rights. PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development World History in One Nut Shell, Almost Bismarck, Otto von (1815-1898) German statesman who served as chancellor of Germany (1871-1890) and was responsible for the unification of Germany. In 1862, King William I of Prussia appointed Otto von Bismarck as chief minister of state, a man whose policy was to influence European affairs for the next 25 years. Bismarck's first problem was to persuade the independent states of Germany to unite, give up their sovereignty, and accept the leadership of Prussia. He was also convinced that Austria was Prussia's rival for control of Germany, and knew that sooner or later a showdown would take place between the two. The great questions of the day, he said, are not to be decided by speeches but by "blood and iron." Between 1862 and 1866, despite opposition from German liberals, he built up the strength of the Prussian army and his blood and iron policy resulted in three wars, against Denmark, Austria, and France, each success contributing to final unification of Germany under Prussian leadership. With unification completed in 1871, the king of Prussia was crowned Kaiser William I, Emperor of the Germans, and Bismarck

became chancellor of the German Empire. His policies included the prevention of a European coalition against Germany that was carried out through the creation of the Dual Alliance in 1879 between Germany and Austria and the Triple Alliance of 1882 that included Italy. Bismarck instituted social security reforms providing workers with protection against sickness, accidents, and old age and waged a battle known as "Kulturkampf" to subordinate the Catholic church to the state. He was dismissed by Kaiser William II who wanted to carry out his own policies. Black Death An infectious epidemic disease caused by a bacterium that is transmitted to humans by fleas from infected rats. Bubonic plague, the most common form, is characterized by very high fever, chills, delirium, and enlarged painful lymph nodes (buboes) but there are also pneumonic that affects the lungs and septicemic that infects the blood. In the black form of plague, hemorrhages turn black, giving the term "Black Death" to the disease. The earliest known visitation of the plague to Europe occurred in Athens in 430 Slide 28: B.C. A disastrous epidemic occurred in Rome in the 3rd century in which 5,000 persons are reported to have succumbed daily. However, the most widespread epidemic began in Constantinople in 1334 and rapidly spread throughout Europe. In less than 20 years the Black Death killed as much as three quarters of the population of Europe and Asia. The great plague of London in 1665 is recorded in many works of literature. Quarantine measures helped to contain the disease somewhat but serious epidemics continued to occur even in the 19th century. The disease is still prevalent in many parts of Asia. Blanc, Louis (1811-1882) French Socialist who outlined his ideal of a new social order on the principle "From each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs." He advocated the establishment of a system of social workshops controlled by the workers as the first stage in achieving this goal. He organized the first Socialist party in France in the 1840s and was a leader in the revolution of 1848. As a member of the provisional government he established social workshops but the plan was sabotaged. Afterwards his role in an insurrection of the workers caused him to flee to England where he remained until 1871. He returned to France where he became a member of the National Assembly and later a leader of the left in the Chamber of Deputies. Blitzkrieg German term, meaning "lightning war" used to describe the German battle tactic in World War II of using massive numbers of airplanes and mechanized forces in sudden assaults on opposing forces. Bloody Sunday The spark that set off the Revolution of 1905 in Russia. On January 9, 1905, a priest, Father Gapon, led 200,000 unarmed workers to the palace gates in St. Petersburg in order to demand an eight-hour day, a minimum wage of a ruble a day, and a constituent assembly. The workers were fired upon by the guards, and over 500 were killed and thousands wounded. Bloody Sunday united the dissatisfied bourgeois, proletariat, and peasants. By the end of 1905, 1,500 governmental officials had been assassinated, peasants had seized estates, a strike committee had been set up by Leon Trotsky, and one of the most complete general strikes in history followed. The life of the country came to a standstill. Soviets (councils) of workers were established all over Russia and pressed the demand for a representative assembly. The czar finally gave in and by the October Manifesto granted a

legislative duma, but Nicholas maintained control of foreign policy. Blum, Leon (1872-1950) French Socialist who headed the first Popular Front Government that was elected in 1936 and consisted of a coalition of Socialists, Radical Socialists, and Communists. This Popular Front government passed many labor reforms but conservative opposition to Blum's fiscal policies forced him to resign in 1937. Blum served as premier once again for two months in 1946 and 1947. Boer War (1899-1902) The culmination of friction between the Dutch settlers Slide 29: and the British in South Africa. In 1834 Britain had abolished slavery throughout the empire, including Cape Colony at the southern tip of Africa, acquired from the Netherlands in 1815, but inhabited by Dutch settlers called Boers or farmers since 1660. The Boers resented interference with their slave system of native Africans, and moved out from British jurisdiction in a vast trek across the Vaal and the Orange rivers to form two independent Boer republics, the Orange Free State and the Transvaal (South African) Republic. Between 1852 and 1887 British policy fluctuated between recognition of the two republics and acquisition of them. In 1891 the Transvaal Republic was regarded, contradictorily, as being independent and under the sovereignty of Great Britain. The discovery of gold and diamonds in the republics, essentially "farmer" republics uninterested in mineral wealth, led to a great influx of adventurers who expected Great Britain to protect and extend their rights and interests. Cecil Rhodes, the imperialist and diamond-mine owner, who became prime minister of Cape Colony, decided to use the discontent as a means to take over the Boer republics for Great Britain. His attempt to take over the Transvaal Republic led to the Boer War, in which the Boers were finally defeated, and agreed to accept British control for the time being in return for eventual self-government. Boleyn, Anne (1507-1536) Queen consort of King Henry VIII of England and the mother of Queen Elizabeth I. She became Henry's second wife when he divorced Katharine of Aragon to marry her but the marriage was generally unpopular in England. Henry soon tired of Anne and after she failed to produce a male heir to the throne he decided to marry Jane Seymour. Anne was brought to trial in 1536 for adultery and condemned to death. Bolivar, Simon (1783-1830) Leader of the South American Revolution of the 1800s who was known as the "Liberator." Beginning in 1810, Bolivar resisted the Spanish, and finally freed Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador by 1822 and made them the new nation of El Gran Colombia which in a few years broke up into the three separate countries. While Bolivar was freeing the northern part of the continent, Jose de San Martin of Argentina, tried to free the Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata, and succeeded in winning its independence in 1816. Bolivar crossed the mountains and took Quito in northern Peru and met San Martin in 1822 to discuss joint operations. San Martin turned over his command to Bolivar and in 1824 Bolivar freed Peru. Bolsheviks One of the two main branches of Marxist Socialism in Russia from 1903-1918, the other being the Mensheviks. In 1903, when the Russian Social Democratic party split into two factions, the Bolsheviks led by Lenin advocated immediate revolution and the establishment of a dictatorship of the proletariat. In the Russian Revolution of 1917 the Mensheviks cooperated with the government established under the leadership of Kerensky but this regime was overthrown by

the Bolsheviks in 1917. After the outbreak of warfare, the Bolsheviks won control and Lenin became the leader of the Soviet Union. The Slide 30: Bolsheviks became the Russian Communist party in 1918. Bonaparte, Joseph (1768-1844) Brother of Napoleon who made him king of Naples in 1806 and king of Spain in 1808. Unsuccessful in defending his throne in the Peninsular War, he was forced to abdicate in 1813. Bonaparte, Louis Napoleon See Napoleon III. Bonaparte, Napoleon See Napoleon I. Boniface, Saint (675-754?) An 8th-century English monk, his missionary work brought him the name "Apostle of Germany." He is known for converting pagan Germany to Christianity under the protection of Charles Martel of the Franks. He founded many bishoprics and monasteries and he was made archbishop of Mainz in 745. Boniface, VIII (1235-1303) Thirteenth-century pope whose conflict with King Philip IV of France was the principle feature of his papacy. When Philip IV demanded that the clergy pay taxes he issued a papal bull in 1296 that said that the clergy could not be taxed without the consent of the pope. Philip struck back by cutting off the contributions of the French church to the pope. In a papal bull issued in 1302, Boniface advanced the principle that the pope was supreme in both spiritual and temporal matters and that princes were subject to the pope's authority in both. In response, Philip IV sent an envoy to Italy who held the pope prisoner. He was soon released but died a month later. Book of the Dead Egyptian religious text probably from the 6th and 7th centuries B.C. that contained charms, prayers, and formulas. Bourbons Royal family of France originally of France. Its branches also ruled in Spain, the two Sicilies, and Parma. The first of the Bourbon family to become king of France was Henry IV (15891610), who was succeeded by his son Louis XIII, and his grandson Louis XIV. Louis XIV's descendants ruled France, except during the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Era (1792-1814), until Charles X was deposed in 1830. The line of Bourbon-Spain came to rule Spain with the accession of Philip V, a grandson of Louis XIV, to the Spanish throne in 1700. The last Bourbon king on the Spanish throne was Alfonso XIII who was deposed in 1931. Bourgeoisie Originally, French merchants and craftsmen in medieval times, who, as a class, occupied the economic and social middle ground between landowners and peasants. With the breakup of feudal society, the rise of capitalism, and the advent of the Industrial Revolution, the bourgeoisie came to include a wide range of groups of entrepreneurs, such as bankers, factory owners, merchants, and professionals. Slide 31: Boxer Rebellion Another phase in the revolutionary process in China, it was symptomatic of the growing unrest and the increasing antiforeignism and was the last desperate effort to drive out the foreigners. Led by a group that called itself the Fists of Righteous Harmony, the rebellion that broke out in 1900 was supported quietly by the throne. It was directed against all foreigners and any Chinese who had come under the influence of the West (particularly Christians). The foreign legations in Peking were attacked, and 242 Westerners were killed as well as several thousand Chinese converts. The Western governments immediately sent an allied army (the greatest number of men to relieve the legations was sent by Japan -- 80,000). With this, the movement

collapsed. The effects of the Boxer Rebellion included the demand of indemnity of $333,000,000, the foreign occupation of 13 places around Peking, and the punishment of many officials. The rebellion convinced many of the most conservative bureaucrats that change had to come about in China and reforms by the Manchus (1901-1910) were instigated. Schools were established, the examination system was abolished, and students were sent abroad to study. A new army was created, a constitution was drafted in 1908, provincial assemblies were put into operation in 1909, and a national assembly in 1910. Earlier reforms in China had been within the Confucian system but these reforms were not, and the Manchus soon found that drastic change was undermining the very foundations of their government. Braganza Braganza ruling house of Portugal (1640-1910) and Brazil (1822-1889). The family was founded by Alfonso (d. 1451), the illegitimate son of Portuguese King John I. The first member of the royal line was John IV, who ruled the newly independent Portugal (1640-1656). The line of rulers lasted until the ouster of Manuel II in 1910 and formation of the republic. The Braganza family also provided rulers of Brazil for a time in the 19th century. Brahma Supreme god. See Hinduism. Brandt, Willy (1913-1992) German statesman. Former mayor of West Berlin and foreign minister he became chancellor of West Germany in 1969. He continued the policy he had initiated as foreign minister, that of Ostpolitik, or the "Eastern Policy" of seeking normal relations with Eastern Europe, particularly with the Soviet Union. In Moscow he and Premier Kosygin signed an agreement. Although he received the Nobel Peace Prize for his Ostpolitik, Brandt met stiff opposition at home and in May 1974, Brandt abruptly announced his resignation, ostensibly because a close personal aide was arrested and confessed that he was an East German spy on Brandt's staff. Brest-Litovsk, treaty of Separate peace treaty in World War I signed by Soviet Russia and the Central Powers on March 3, 1918. Under the harsh treaty, Russia agreed to the evacuation of the Ukraine, Finland, the Baltic states, Poland, and the Transcaucasus. It lost three-quarters of its iron and coal, one-quarter Slide 32: of its arable land, one-quarter of its population, and one-third of its manufacturing and also had to pay a large war indemnity. Since Russia concluded a separate peace, almost all the countries of the world broke diplomatic relations, but Lenin adhered to it in order to save the Russian Revolution. Brezhnev, Leonid (1906-1982) Russian Communist leader. In 1964, he replaced Khrushchev as first secretary of the Communist party, while Aleksei Kosygin became premier. Brezhnev rose to power first as a Red Army political commissar and briefly as a member of the Communist party Central Committee. Under Khrushchev, Brezhnev was put in charge of the virgin lands program, in 1956 he was reinstated in the Central Committee, and in 1957 he was made a full member of the Presidium. In 1960 he was given the honorary title of Soviet president, but he resigned in 1963 to give full attention to the secretariat. By this time he was slated as Khrushchev's successor. Although Brezhnev and Kosygin shared power, by the 1970s, Brezhnev had emerged as the undisputed head of the Soviet Union. His policies included encouragement of Soviet economic growth, maintaining Soviet security, and detente with the West. At his death in

1982, he was succeeded by Yuri Andropov. Briand, Aristide (1862-1932) French statesman who served as premier of France ten times between 1909 and 1921. As French foreign minister in the years between 1925 and 1932 he was the chief architect of the Locarno Pact of 1925 which improved relations between Germany and the former Allies in World War I and the Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928 in which 62 nations agreed to renounce war as an instrument of foreign policy. In 1926, Briand shared the Nobel Peace Prize with Gustav Stresemann of Germany. British East India Company British trading company that controlled commercial and political affairs in India in the 18th and 19th centuries. Chartered in 1600 by Queen Elizabeth I to gain a share of the Asian spice trade, the company focused on India after 1623. In India, the company defeated the Portuguese in 1612 and was granted political powers in India in 1668 by Charles II. The French were finally expelled from India between 1751 and 1760 by Robert Clive and the company took control of Bengal in 1765, making it the dominant power in India. British government intervention in India was affected by the Regulating Act of 1773 and the East India Act of 1784. The government took over all administrative functions after the Indian Mutiny or Sepoy Mutiny of 1857. British North America Act Legislation (March 29, 1867) by which the British Parliament united Upper and Lower Canada (Ontario and Quebec), Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick to form the Dominion of Canada. The act also provided a constitutional framework for governing the dominion until 1982, when constitutional power was formally transferred to Canada. Bronze Age Period in the late Neolithic Age that marked the beginning of what historians called civilization. In this period, bronze replaced copper and Slide 33: stone as the main material used in tools and weapons. The first knowledge of bronze-working was discovered in southwestern Asia about 5,000 years ago, at about the same time the world's first civilization arose here. Brutus, Marcus (85-42 B.C.) Known as the principal assassin of Julius Caesar. Originally he sided with Pompey in the power struggle with Caesar, but Caesar later pardoned him and gave him an administrative office. He joined Cassius in the plot against Caesar in 44 B.C. and supported the Republican cause. After his forces were defeated by those of Marc Antony and Octavian he committed suicide. Bubonic plague See Black Death. Buddhism One of the great religions of the world, it is based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha. According to legend, Gautama was born in 563 B.C. into the second caste of India, the warrior, and brought up in the luxury of warrior aristocrats. At the age of 29, while on a journey, Gautama is reported to have seen an old man, a sick man, a dead man, and an ascetic. This worried him, for he could not understand why there should be so much misery in the world. For six years he sought a solution, trying all the Hindu methods, such as asceticism and mortification of the flesh, in order to understand God. Finally, he seated himself under the sacred Bodhi tree and meditated for 49 days, until he achieved enlightenment and became known as Buddha, the enlightened one. For the next 45 years of his life he traveled, preached, and spread his religion. Buddhism maintained many Hindu doctrines such as reincarnation, the doctrine of karma, and renunciation of the world, but Buddha disagreed with the methods of achieving these objectives. He did not

believe in mortification of the flesh or in caste distinctions, since all people were to him equal in spiritual potential. The core of Buddha's teachings were the Four Noble Truths: suffering is universal, the cause of all suffering is selfish desire and cravings, the cure to the problem of suffering therefore is to eliminate all selfish desire, and the way to do this is to follow the Noble Eightfold Path. The Noble Eightfold Path for eliminating selfish desire consists of right views or knowledge, the right ambition, right speech, right conduct, right means of livelihood, right effort or self-discipline, right thoughts, right meditation or concentration. The achievement of enlightenment is the fundamental aim for the Buddhist as it is for the Hindu. Once one achieves enlightenment, he is said to have reached Nirvana and is finally released from the wheel of death and rebirth. In time, Buddhism divided into two sects. Hinayana, the Lesser Vehicle, is the original faith, relying solely on one's own introspection and faith to achieve enlightenment. It became the dominant form of Buddhism in Ceylon, Burma, Thailand, and Cambodia. Mahayana, the Greater Vehicle, is the Chinese adaptation of Buddhism, and the primary difference is that it relies on other Buddhas and gods to achieve enlightenment or Nirvana. It incorporates the use of saints called bodhisattvas praying to them for aid. Gradually more emphasis was put on good works than on contemplation. Mahayana Buddhism became Slide 34: the dominant form in China, Japan, Vietnam, and Korea. Buddhism in 272 B.C. was the state religion of India; by 65 A.D. it had spread to China and by 600 A.D. it was introduced into Japan and became the state religion during the 700s. By 800 A.D. the faith had spread all over the Far East, but 100 years before that date it had died out in India. The main reason for its demise in India was its renunciation of the caste system, which challenged the existing social structure. See also Religion Index. Bulow, Bernhard Heinrich Martin, Furst von (1849-1929) German statesman. As chancellor of Germany (1900-1909) he attempted to strengthen Germany's position as a world power, but instead his policies strengthened the Triple Entente of Britain, France, and Russia. Burke, Edmund (1729-1797) A British statesman and political writer. A member of the Whig party, Burke was sympathetic to the American colonies in 1774 and 1775. Though he championed many liberal and reform causes, Burke believed that political, social, and religious institutions reflected the wisdom of the ages. His opposition to the French Revolution, based on the fear that violent change would cause disorder and bring about tyranny, made him the spokesman of European conservatives. Burke's writings had important influence on conservatives in England, the United States, and France. Bushido Term meaning "way of the warrior" and a code of conduct in Japan identified with Samurai warriors. The code developed from feudal times and stressed personal honor and, above all, loyalty to the feudal lord. Formulated during the Kamakura shogunate during the 12th-14th centuries, it became the code of the Daimyo and Samurai in the 17th century. In the 19th century the code was made the basis for fierce loyalty to the emperor and governed Japanese life until the end of World War II. Buxar, battle of This battle in 1764 brought the rich province of Bengal completely under control of the East India Company, giving it a strong base from which to conquer the rest of India. In 1765 Robert Clive obtained from the Newab of Bengal the

right to administer the revenues (known as dewani) of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa, and this meant that the East India Company had in effect become a sovereign power on the mainland of India. Byzantine Empire The eastern half of the Roman Empire that survived after the decline and collapse of the Roman Empire in the West. The emperor Diocletian divided the Roman Empire into East and West and moved his court to Asia Minor making it the center of the Roman Empire instead of Rome. In 330 A.D. Roman emperor Constantine founded a new capital city for the empire called Constantinople, which became the center of the new Byzantine Empire that developed out of the eastern Roman Empire and outlived the western Roman Empire by 1,000 years. Byzantium became enormously rich as the great center of trade from every quarter of the compass. Envied for its great wealth, Byzantium Slide 35: maintained a carefully recruited and well-trained army with its own medical ambulance corps, highly skillful intelligence service, and skilled diplomats to negotiate. The empire was Roman in its law and centralized organization, but Greek in culture, language, and emperors. The government was authoritarian and highly centralized. The church was headed by a Patriarch who was simply one of a number of bishops singled out and appointed by the emperor, and therefore always dismissable by the emperor. The cultural contribution of Byzantium was that of preserving, during the several centuries in which knowledge of Greek disappeared from Europe, Greek masterpieces and making copies of them, printing of books, building of great libraries and a university, and the preservation of the works of Plato, Aristotle, Homer, and Sophocles. Despite attack by the Persians, the Seljuk Turks in the 11th century, and the Crusaders in 1204, the empire survived until 1453 when it was overwhelmed by the Ottoman Turks -- the so-called fall of Constantinople. Cabot, John (1450-1498) Italian navigator who explored for England. His voyage to North America in 1497 gave England its claims in the "New World." Cabral, Pedro (1460-1526) Portuguese navigator who accidentally reached the coast of Brazil that he claimed for Portugal in 1500. When destined for India he was blown off course and forced westward. Caesar, Augustus See Augustus. Caesar, Julius (102-44 B.C.) Great Roman statesman and general. Caesar strengthened Rome's control over the empire by replacing the Roman oligarchy with a dictatorship and by pacifying Italy and the provinces. He extended the empire throughout Gaul and devised the Julian calendar, the basis of the modern calendar. Caesar aligned himself with the popular party during his early career and, in 60 B.C., sought the consulate of Rome. Frustrated by Senate opposition, he formed the first Triumvirate with Crassus and Pompey and thus became consul in 59 B.C. He was then named proconsul of Gaul and Illyricum in 58 B.C. and became a military hero as commander of Roman armies in the Gallic Wars (58-51 B.C.) Crassus' death ended the triumvirate in 53 B.C. and set Pompey, now sole consul, against Caesar. In 49 B.C. Caesar led his armies from Gaul against Pompey. Crossing the Rubicon, he marched unopposed to Rome, and was made dictator. Caesar emerged victorious from the ensuing military exploits between 49 and 45 B.C. in the provinces against Pompey's army and in 44 B.C. was named dictator for life. But his dictatorial powers had aroused bitter

resentment in Rome. On the Ides of March (March 15) of 44 B.C. Caesar was assassinated by a band of conspirators that included Brutus, Cassius, and Casca. Caligula (12-41 A.D.) The third of the Claudian emperors of the Roman Empire, the line beginning with Caesar Augustus (Octavian), considered the first emperor of Rome. He succeeded Tiberius as emperor but suffered from insanity and his rule was marked by senseless cruelty and despotism. His rule (37-41 Slide 36: A.D.) ended with his assassination and he was succeeded by Emperor Claudius. Caliph The successor to Mohammed, the founder of Islam, who was the religious and political head of the state. The first caliph was Abu Bakr (632634) father -in-law of Mohammed who conquered Arabia. He was followed by Umar, Uthman, and Ali who were descendants of Mohammed and are called the Orthodox Caliphs. Their reign was broken in 661 when Muawiya took the caliphate by force and established the Umayyad dynasty. The Abbasid line later replaced the Umayyads. Later rival caliphates were set up in Baghdad, Cordova, Spain, and Cairo, Egypt. In 1258 invading Mongols, under a nephew of Genghis Khan, captured and destroyed Baghdad. These Ottoman Turks seized control of the eastern Moslem world, became themselves fierce converts to Mohammedanism, captured Constantinople in 1453, and threatened all Europe. The Turkish sultans in Constantinople retained their supremacy as caliphs until 1908 A.D. Since then there has been no recognized official head of the Moslem world. The caliphate was officially dissolved in Turkey by the National Assembly in 1924. Calvin, John (1509-1564) Famous French Protestant leader of the Reformation who preached the doctrine of predestination; that God, who knows the past, the present, and the future, must always know which people will be saved and which shall be eternally damned. Calvin became the virtual dictator of the city of Geneva, which became a theocracy, a state ruled by a church, since only those whom Calvin regarded as the faithful could vote and hold office in Geneva. Being a dictator, Calvin suffered no opinion but his own, with a consequence that during five years "heretics" were executed and over 70 were banished. Nevertheless, for both religious and political reasons Calvinism flourished and spread into England and France where Calvin's followers were known as Huguenots. The present-day Presbyterian, Congregational, and other religious denominations contain the basic features of Calvinism laid down by Calvin in his Institutes of Religion: simple worship, bible readings, sermon, prayers, and hymns. Camp David Accord See U.S. History Index Canaan Name by which the land west of the Jordan River, including Syria and the mountainous districts (inhabited by the Amarites in ancient times) was known. According to biblical tradition, Abraham was bidden by God to leave Chaldea and lead the Hebrews into Canaan, which became their land, known as Palestine. Canossa Located in north-central Italy. It was the scene in 1077 of penance by Henry IV, the Holy Roman Emperor, who supposedly waited barefoot for 3 days outside the castle walls before Pope Gregory VII lifted his ban of excommunication against him. Canterbury Tales Collection of stories written in the English vernacular by Slide 37: Geoffrey Chaucer (1340-1400 A.D.), one of the great medieval writers, portraying the people of the countryside of England and describing a cross section of lower and middle class people. Canute (999-1035) Danish king who

invaded England in 1015 and ruled it as part of a larger kingdom that included Denmark and Norway. Canute lived in England most of the time, ruling the kingdom well, but his successors did not share his talents and the kingdom did not last. Capet, Hugh (938-996) A French noble who was chosen to be king by an assembly of nobles after the death in 987 of the last Carolingian king of France. As king he ruled only a small region around the city of Paris but he founded a line of kings called the Capetians who ruled France for over 300 years. Capetians French royal house named for Hugh Capet who ruled France from 987 until 1328 when the throne passed to the house of Valois. When the Capetians succeeded to the throne of France, the royal possessions were modest in comparison with those of the Dukes of Normandy, Brittany, Aquitaine, Guienne, Champagne, and Gascony. Feudal obligations of these vassals to their king were little more than a gesture. The Capetian monarchs strengthened their possessions and power whenever the opportunity was favorable. They established primogeniture, the succession of estates to the eldest son, in place of election of a successor by the nobles. Through the efforts of the Capetian kings, France developed a strong central government under a powerful monarch by the early 1300s and the land owned by the English king in France was diminished to parts of the provinces of Aquitaine and Gascony. Carbonari Italian secret society that was active in the Italian nationalist movement of the 1800s and involved in revolts. One of its members was Mazzini who created Young Italy, a society dedicated to uniting their country into a democratic republic. Carlsbad decrees Resolutions adopted at a conference of ministers of the German states called by Metternich in response to a flurry of discontent among university students in 1819. These measures provided for press censorship, supervision of the universities, and suppression of liberal agitation. Carolingian dynasty Dynasty of Frankish rulers, established in the 7th century by Pepin. They ruled as mayors of the palace under the Merovingian kings until Pepin the Short made himself king in 751 A.D. His son, Charlemagne who was crowned emperor in 800, brought the dynasty to its height. The Carolingian Empire was divided up by the Treaty of Verdun of 843 and members of the dynasty continued as kings in Germany until 911 and in France until 987. Carranza, Venustiano (1859-1920) Mexican revolutionary and political leader. Carranza joined Madero in his revolt in 1910 against Diaz, and then fought PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development World History in One Nut Shell, Almost Slide 38: Huerta when he overthrew Madero in 1913. Carranza headed the provisional government between 1914-1917 and during this time successfully countered uprisings by Villa and Zapata. He accepted the constitution of 1917 and served as president (1917-1920). PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development World History in One Nut Shell, Almost Carthage Former Phoenician colony founded in Tunisia in 800 B.C. By 264 B.C. when it first came into conflict with Rome, it was

governed along much the same lines, but with the advantage of permanent military leaders instead of elected consuls. Its power was based on trade and commerce in the Mediterranean and it founded colonies in North Africa, Spain, and western Sicily. Carthage posed a threat to expanding Rome, particularly when during a civil war in Messina (the northeastern tip of Sicily) the Carthaginians responded to an appeal by Messina for assistance. This incident was the beginning of the Punic Wars, so named from the Roman term for the Phoenician people of Carthage. Carthage was eventually defeated in the Punic Wars (264-241 B.C., 218-201 B.C., and 149-146 B.C.) and the city itself was destroyed in 146 B.C. Cartier, Sir Georges Etienne (1814-1873) Canadian statesman. A leading French -Canadian advocate of federation, he became joint prime minister of Canada (1858-1862) with Sir John Macdonald and later served in the government of unified Canada. Cartier, Jacques (1491-1557) French navigator who first explored the Gulf of St. Lawrence and discovered the St. Lawrence River, starting France on its control of Canada. Cartwright, Edmund (1743-1823) Inventor of the power loom during the period of the Industrial Revolution in England. Cassius, Gaius (d. 42 B.C.) A Roman noble who supported Pompey in his power struggle with Julius Caesar, by whom he was later pardoned. He joined the plot to assassinate Caesar and was defeated with Brutus by Marc Antony's forces at the Battle of Philippi. Caste system Hereditary social class system established under Hinduism probably by the Aryans who invaded and came to dominate India by 1500 B.C. Caste is similar to strict class distinction but is more restricted, for people marry only within their caste, associate only with people of their caste, and live according to the rules, ceremonies, and rituals of their particular caste. Slide 39: There were four major castes in India -- the Brahmin or priestly caste, the Kshatriuas or warrior, the Vasiya or merchant, and the Sudra or laboring caste. There were, however, thousands (perhaps 7,000) of subcastes, and the division was made on professional or occupational lines. The castes were not socially or religiously equal. The Brahmin was the elite. All caste was a matter of birth. The untouchable was below and outside of caste and could not be associated with. The only jobs they were allowed were those the Hindu would consider unclean, such as tanning, latrine duty, and street cleaning. Today caste and untouchability are officially abolished. Castlereagh, Lord (1769-1822) British foreign minister who helped to organize the "concert of Europe" against Napoleon and represented Great Britain at the Congress of Vienna in 1814 which met to redraw the map of Europe after Napoleon's defeat. He advocated moderate terms for France and favored a policy of balance of power with a return of conservative governments in Europe. Castro, Fidel (b. 1926) Leader of the 1959 revolution in Cuba that overthrew Fulgencio Batista, the dictator who came to power in 1934. The new revolutionary government headed by Castro became an openly Communist regime after he declared he was a Marxist. Catherine I (1684-1727) Ruled as empress of Russia (1725-1727). A Livonian servant girl she became Peter the Great's second wife. After his death Peter's palace guards chose her as his successor and she ruled ably. Catherine II (the Great) (17291796) Ruled as empress of Russia (1762-1796). Formerly Princess Sophie, a

minor German princess, she married Peter III in 1744. After a palace revolt that deposed Peter in 1762 she was proclaimed empress. With no legitimate title to the throne, she won over the nobility by exempting them from taxation and military service. Her foreign policy was predatory, expansionist, and politically unsound. By this time Poland was no longer the power it had once been. Enfeebled by political anarchy, and open to attack from all sides because it was a plain without defensive frontiers, it presented its neighbors with the opportunity to dismember it. In three grabs between 1772 and 1795 Russia, Austria, and Prussia dismembered it completely. While Russia added some 180,000 square miles to its own territory, it also brought 6 million discontented Poles into the Russian Empire, and at the same time obliterated the buffer state between Prussia and Russia. Land had been acquired at the expense of political safety. Catherine de Medici (1519-1589) A member of the Italian Medici family who became queen of France when she married King Henry II and was regent for her son Charles IX. She was involved in the plot against Protestants that became the massacre of Saint Bartholomew's Day in 1572. Catherine of Aragon (Katherine) (1485-1536) Daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella Slide 40: of Spain, she was the first wife of Henry VIII and queen of England. Unable to produce a male heir, Henry's interest waned and he divorced her to marry Anne Boleyn. Catherine of Valois (1401-1437) The daughter of King Charles VI she married King Henry V of England and became queen. She later married Owen Tudor and it is from their union that the line of Tudor kings descended. Caudillo Term for a leader who is a political boss with a strong military following. It is used especially in reference to South American leaders who came to power after the revolution for independence. Cavour, Camillo Benso (1810-1861) Chief architect of Italian unification in the 1800s under Victor Emanuel II. As prime minister of the Kingdom of Sardinia, he drove the Austrians out of Lombardy in 1859. In 1860 other areas in central Italy joined Sardinia by plebiscite. In 1861 the Kingdom of Italy was proclaimed under the ruler of Sardinia, Victor II. Cellini, Benvenuto (1500-1572) Great Renaissance artist from Florence known especially for his work in silver and gold. Central Powers Name applied to Germany and its allies during World War I. In addition to Germany, the Central Powers included Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire. Chaeronea, battle of Famous battle of 338 B.C. in which Philip of Macedon defeated the Athenians and became the master of Greece. Chaldeans A Semitic group of people who overthrew the Assyrians in Mesopotomia in 612 B.C. and took over most of their empire under Nebuchadnezzar who ruled from the city of Babylon between 605 and 562 B.C., the Chaldeans conquered most of the lands of the Fertile Crescent. They made important advances in science and astronomy and were famed for their magnificent city of Babylon which was the site of the famous Hanging Gardens. Their empire fell to the Persians in 539 B.C. Chamberlain, Neville (1869-1940) British prime minister in 1937 who became the symbol of the policy of appeasement toward Germany and Italy. He signed the Munich Pact of 1938 which gave up the Sudetenland (of Czechoslovakia) to Hitler saying that he had achieved "peace in our time." Champlain, Samuel de (1567-1635) French explorer and the founder of New France. He established a

colony in Quebec, discovered Lake Champlain, and extended French claims from Canada, west to Wisconsin. Champollion, Jean-Francois (1790-1832) French Egyptologist who deciphered Slide 41: Egyptian hieroglyphics by using the Rosetta Stone. Chandragupta I (d. 330 A.D.) Indian king and the founder of the Gupta dynasty. Chandragupta II (d. 415 A.D.) The most famous of the Gupta rulers of India. The Gupta Empire reunited most of northern India from about 320-535 A.D. and under Chandragupta II the empire reached its greatest height. The period of the Gupta dynasty is known as the high point of India's classical period. Medicine, literature, and the arts (particularly sculpture) flourished. Great universities were established, and mathematicians and astronomers were as accurate and advanced as their contemporaries in the rest of the world. The decimal, the zero, and Arabic numerals all originated in India. Chandragupta Maurya (d. 286? B.C.) Indian emperor and founder of the Maurya dynasty. After the death of Alexander the Great, the first in Indian history to unite all northern India under one effective imperial authority. The Mauryan Empire was a police state with an efficient revenue system, taxing trade and land and controlling all mines. Charlemagne (771-814 A.D.) King of the Franks who was crowned emperor of the Romans in 800 A.D. by Pope Leo III, thereby beginning the so-called Holy Roman Empire. He expanded his empire until it included what is modern France, Holland, Belgium, Switzerland, Austria, West Germany, North Spain, and some land farther eastwards. Charlemagne aspired to exert the authority of the former Roman emperors, and tried to maintain personal control throughout his empire by missi dominici, men sent by the king (a layman and a clergyman who traveled in pairs as royal inspectors). These men also exercised judicial powers, instituted the "sworn inquest," forerunner of the grand jury that gave information under oath to traveling judges, later to become the basis of the English jury system. Charlemagne was a patron of learning and brought the famous English scholar and churchman Alcuin to conduct his school at Aachen. After Charlemagne's death his empire broke up, and with it the revived Roman Empire. Charles I (1600-1649) English king (1625-1649). His firm belief in the divine right of kings and consequent struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War between 1642 and 1649. Charles's marriage to the unpopular French Catholic Henrietta Maria and his wars against Spain and France only added to his differences with Parliament. The struggle began soon after his accession and was characterized by bold maneuvers on both sides: Parliament refused Charles money grants until he agreed to end arbitrary practices; Charles briefly relented, agreeing to the Petition of Right in 1628, then dissolved Parliament in 1629 and ruled without it, raising money by a variety of means. Charles's need for money prompted the calling of the Short and Long Parliaments in 1640, which in turn resulted in the English Civil War. Defeated, Charles was tried and executed in 1649. Slide 42: Charles I (1863-1908) Portuguese king (1889-1908). Charles vied with Britain and Japan for African colonial territories and contended with unrest at home. A revolt in 1906 prompted him to grant Prime Minister Joao Franco dictatorial powers. This resulted in a revolt in 1908 and in his assassination.

Charles I (1887-1922) Last ruler of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (1916-1918), successor to Emperor Francis Joseph. He acceded during World War I and tried to open negotiations for peace in 1916. He likewise failed in a plan to keep the dual monarchy united, and in 1918 Hungary and Czechoslovakia declared independence. Charles II (Charles the Bald) (823-877) King of the West Franks (France) (843 -877) and emperor of the West (875-877). He agreed to the redivision of the empire by the Treaty of Verdun of 843 and the Treaty of Mersen of 870. He then succeeded to the imperial crown in 875. Charles II (1630-1685) English king (1660-1685), successor (after the English Restoration) to his father, Charles I. His restoration in 1660 brought a period of relative stability after the fall of the Protectorate. Following the English Civil War, he invaded England but was defeated by Cromwell in 1651 and fled to the Continent where he remained until his restoration. Though he favored Catholicism and religious toleration, he was forced by public sentiment and acts of the Cavalier Parliament to accept strict laws of uniformity. His reign was marked by a gradual increase in the power of Parliament, the rise of political parties, advances in colonization and trade, and the brilliant restoration period of culture. Charles II (1661-1700) Last Spanish Hapsburg king (1665-1700). His reign was marked by the continued decline in Spain's power, the War of Devotion, and the War of the Grand Alliance. His choice of Philip of Anjou (Philip V) as successor led to the War of Spanish Succession (1701-1714). Charles III (Charles the Fat) (839-888) Frankish emperor of the West (881-887) and king of the East (882-887). He briefly reunited Charlemagne's empire (885 -887) but proved a weak ruler. Charles III (Charles the Simple) (879-929) French king (893-923). He ended Norse raids by ceding territory to them (now part of Normandy), and added Lorraine to the French kingdom in 911. Charles III (1716-1788) Spanish king (1759-1788). An "enlightened despot," he instituted many beneficial administrative reforms. His reign was marked by defeat in the Seven Years' War (1756-1763) and Spain's participation in the American Revolution. Slide 43: Charles IV (Charles the Fair) (1294-1328) French king (1322-1328). The last of the Capetian kings, won a part of Aquitaine from the English in 1327 who then controlled the territory. Charles IV (1316-1378) German king (13461378). Elected Holy Roman emperor in opposition to Louis IV in 1346, he succeeded him in 1347, but was not crowned until 1355. Charles IV (1748-1819) Spanish king (1788-1808). A weak ruler, he relied on de Godoy to run the government. His reign was marked by two invasions by the French (1794-1807) and domination by Napoleon. He was forced to abdicate in 1808. Charles V (Charles the Wise) (1337-1380) French king from (1364-1380). As regent for his father (1356-1360), he put down the Jacquerie revolt. As king, he ruled France during its recovery from the early phase of the Hundred Years' War (1337-1453). He consolidated the power of the monarchy, strengthened the military, instituted reforms, and regained almost all the territories lost to the English. Charles V (1500-1558) Spanish king (1516-1556), as Charles I, and Holy Roman emperor (1519-1556), as Charles V. A Hapsburg, he was one of the most powerful European kings, ruling over a vast inherited empire that included much of Europe and all of Spain's New World possessions. Charles's reign was marked by

involvement in the Italian Wars (1494-1559) against France and by attempts to stop Luther and the Protestant Reformation. Charles abdicated in 1556 in Spain to his son Philip II and in the Holy Roman Empire to Ferdinand I. See Martin Luther Index Charles VI (Charles the Well-Beloved) (Charles the Mad) (13681422) French king (1380-1422). He suffered fits of insanity and could not rule by himself. His reign was marked by war between the Armagnacs and Burgundians, the English invasion of France in 1420, and the Treaty of Troyes in 1420. Charles VI (1685-1740) Austrian Holy Roman emperor (1711-1740), and last of the direct Hapsburg line. A pretender to the Spanish throne, he precipitated the War of Spanish Succession (1700-1714). His accession as emperor in 1711 soon ended this conflict, though he again warred against Spain as a member of the Quadruple Alliance (1718-1720). In wars with the Ottoman Empire (1716-1718, 1736-1739), he won and then lost territory in Hungary and Serbia. He lost the War of Polish Succession (1733-1735). His attempt to ensure succession of his daughter Maria Theresa to Hapsburg domains (by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713) led to the War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748). Charles VII (Charles the Well-Served) (1403-1461) French king (1422-1461). From the time of the Siege of Orleans in 1429 to the Battle of Castillon in Slide 44: 1453, he gradually forced the English out of France and thus finally ended the Hundred Years' War (1337-1453). He also issued the Pragmatic Sanction in 1438. Charles VII (Charles Albert) (1697-1745) Holy Roman emperor (1742-1745). On the death of Charles VI, he became embroiled in the War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748) and died before peace was restored. Charles VIII (1470-1498) French king (1483-1498). He initiated the Italian Wars (14941559) with an abortive invasion of Italy, in which he hoped to conquer the kingdom of Naples. Charles IX (1550-1574) French king (1560-1574). The Wars of Religion began during his reign. Under pressure from his mother, Catherine de Medici, he ordered the massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day in 1572, in which thousands of Huguenots were killed. Charles X (1757-1836) French king (18241830). He took part in the counterrevolutionary Wars of the Vendee. As king he vainly tried to reestablish the ancien regime. His last prime minister, de Polignac, provoked the July Revolution of 1830. Charles Martel (680?-741) Frankish mayor of the palace who united all of the Merovingian kingdoms under his rule. He halted the Muslim advance in Europe at the famed battle of Tours in 732. Chartists British reform movement in the period 1838-1858, which took its name from the People's Charter. The Chartists, regarded as radical agitators because of their dangerous program, were comprised of workers and some members of the middle-class who demanded six major reforms, universal suffrage, secret ballot, equal voting districts, elimination of property qualifications for members of Parliament, payment of members, and annual elections. Chaucer, Geoffrey (1340-1400 A.D.) Great medieval writer who is known for the Canterbury Tales. Chernenko, Konstanten Ustinovich (1911-1985) Soviet leader who came to power after the death of Yuri Andropov in 1984. He was considered the last of the "old guard" Soviet rulers and, after his death, was followed by Mikhail Gorbachev. Chernobyl accident Worst nuclear accident in history, it occurred about 60 miles from Kiev (Ukraine) in April 1986. Explosions at a nuclear power

plant released a huge cloud of radioactive dust and gas. An undetermined number of people died and hundreds of thousands were exposed to varying degrees of radiation as winds spread the dust over Ukraine and Belarus. Traces went as far north as Scandinavia and as far west as France. Slide 45: Chiang Kai-shek (1887-1975) Chinese general and leader of the nationalists (1928-1948). The chief aide of Sun Yat-Sen in the Revolution of 1911 he became prominent in the Kuomintang party in 1923. After Sun Yat-Sen's death in 1925, Chiang, as head of the military forces, rivaled for power with Wang Ghing-Wei, a leftist who was the new chairman of the government. In March of 1926 Chiang carried through a coup d'etat for leadership of the party. In the summer of 1926 the campaign against the warlords for the reunification of China under Chiang's direction was begun. His quest for power turned out to be a three-way struggle -- Chiang versus the Communists and Chiang versus the warlords. By the end of 1928 Chiang had taken the role of leadership, Nanking was declared the new capital of the new China, and most of China had been unified. Chiang continued as the leader of China through World War II during which he fought both the Japanese and the Chinese Communists. After the war, a civil war erupted which saw the victory of the Communists forcing Chiang to flee to Taiwan where he established the Nationalist government. Ch'in dynasty (221-206 B.C.) The Ch'in is famous for its contribution to China's political unity. The ruler called himself Chin Shih (first) Huang (emperor) Ti (deity of the Shang dynasty), and it was he who was solely responsible for the determined effort to unify and establish a central government over all China. He standardized weights, measures, and the writing system and laid out a network of roads. It is from the word "Ch'in" that China is named. The price paid for unification was heavy. No freedom of thought was allowed, all books were burned except those on agriculture, medicine, and divination, and those who disagreed with the state were killed either by being buried alive or by forced labor on the Great Wall (completed in 204 B.C.). Chinese civil war War (1945-1949) that culminated a long struggle between Kuomintang (nationalist) Chinese and the Communist Chinese for control of China. The civil war is generally considered to have begun in 1945, soon after the end of World War II. But Communist and Nationalist forces had been fighting in China intermittently since 1927. Mao Tse-tung Photo Chinese examination system A system of civil service examinations long in use in the Chinese Empire. Candidates were tested in their knowledge of the Confucian classics. The system began around 124 B.C. under Han Emperor Wu Ti (156-87 B.C.), and was expanded in the T'ang and Sung dynasties. The system helped maintain the stability of China for over 2,000 years, and was not abolished until 1905 amid a movement to modernize China. Chinese Revolution of 1911 Uprising that succeeded in overthrowing the last (Ch'ing, or Manchu) dynasty of Chinese emperors and establishing a Chinese Republic. Slide 46: Ch'ing dynasty (Manchu) Last dynasty of China, that ruled from 16441912. The dynasty was established by the Manchus, a people from Manchuria North of China, under Emperor Ch'ien Lung (1736-1796). The Manchus invaded and conquered China, but did not change its ways. China's imperial government remained essentially the same, although the Manchus set up a dyarchy in which

there was one Manchu and one Chinese for every post. They attempted to maintain their dynastic identity and not be absorbed as the Mongols had been by Chinese culture. They forbade intermarriage between Manchu and Chinese, retained Manchuria, as an exclusive preserve for themselves, limited the army to Manchurians, and increased further the absolutism of the emperor. The ChienLung period (1736 -1795) was the height of Manchu power. China stood in marked contrast to Europe at the time and was certainly its equal if not its superior. It was also a period of great physical extension -- the Tarim Basin area, Manchuria Mongolia, Tibet, all were under China's control, and even raids into Nepal were conducted. The Ch'ing strongly opposed foreign trade but were forced in a series of wars in the 19th century to open China and the European powers soon carved China into spheres of influence. Efforts to reform and strengthen China under the Manchus failed and they were overthrown by a rebellion in 1911. Chivalry Code of moral and ethical conduct that developed during feudal times in Europe in the Middle Ages. Central to the code was the feudal knight, who exhibited the ideal qualities of piety, loyalty to his feudal lord, courtesy and courtly affection for ladies of the court, and valor on the field of battle. Chivalry flourished in the 12th and 13th centuries, especially during the Crusades. It declined as an ideal of conduct by the 15th century when military campaigns were more openly waged for gain than for reasons of honor or religious duty. Chou dynasty (1125-255 B.C.) This was the longest dynasty in China, and it controlled the area from north of the Yellow River to south of the Yangtze River. It was noted for its political organization, essentially feudalistic, in which local lords and princes received land holdings in return for homage and service to their overlord. In time the local rulers became virtually independent, China experienced political chaos and decentralization resembling European feudalism. By 720 B.C. the reign of the Chou was weak, and power was distributed among principalities similar to feudal states. But there was more uniformity of culture than there was in Europe. This was also the outstanding creative period of Chinese thought, as it was in many areas of the world; it corresponds in time with the height of Greek culture, the Hebrew prophets, and the flowering of Buddhism in India. Chou En-lai (1898-1976) Chinese Communist leader, premier (1949-1976) and foreign minister (1949-1976). A founder of the Chinese Communist party, he served (1924-1927) with other Communists in the Kuomintang's nationalist revolution. During the subsequent civil war between 1927 and 1949 in which the Kuomintang turned against the Communists, he participated in the Long March. A Slide 47: leading Communist official thereafter, he helped bring the Communists to power in 1949. Later, as foreign minister, he headed delegations to the Geneva and Bandung conferences. He is said to have exercised a moderating influence during the Cultural Revolution and to have been responsible for the Sino-American rapprochement in the 1970s. Christianity General term used to describe the religion that arose in Palestine in the 1st century A.D. from the life and teachings of Jesus Christ and that has spread to nearly every part of the world. Historically, it has been the predominant religion in the West for many centuries and had an enormous influence on the development of Western

civilization, especially in literature, art, architecture, and music. Christianity is based on the New Testament, which records the acts and teachings of Jesus, and the Old Testament is regarded as sacred and authoritative Scripture.

by PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development Nollijy University Research Institute Arts & Sciences - Evolution
Christian doctrine was further refined by a series of "creeds" promulgated in the course of early church history. Together these beliefs attempted to reflect Jesus Christ's own revelations about God and the salvation of humankind. Apostles chosen by Jesus constituted the early leadership of the church, or "assembly" of his followers. The church perpetuated the teachings of Jesus, claimed the authority to interpret them authentically, and administered the sacraments, believed to have been established by Jesus for the spiritual benefit of the faithful. However, disagreements among Christians about Jesus' teachings occurred as early as New Testament times. Major doctrinal crises usually resulted in "little churches" that split off from the main church and maintained "heresies," such as arianism, monophysitism, nestorianism, donatism, and so on. These were condemned by the main tradition, and most of the dissident Eastern and African churches had split from the church by the end of the Council of Chalcedon in 451 A.D. Bitter disputes over such issues as Iconoclasm caused the final split in 1054 between the Roman Catholic and eastern Orthodox churches. Some centuries later, Christianity was again divided by the Protestant Reformation, which followed Luther's rebellion in 1517 against the authority of the church. Protestantism arose from this split and became, with the Roman Catholic church, one of the three main branches of Christianity. See Martin Luther Index Churchill, Sir Winston Leonard Spencer (1874-1965) British statesman, author, and prime minister (1940-1945, 1951-1955). He is regarded as one of the outstanding figures of the 20th century for his brilliant leadership of Britain during World War II. A soldier and well-known journalist by the time he was elected to Parliament in 1900, he was a Conservative party member throughout most of his career. He served in a variety of government posts, including first lord of the admiralty

(1911-1915), colonial secretary (1921-1922), and chancellor of the exchequer (1924-1929). Churchill recognized and spoke out against the threat of Nazi Germany and was next appointed to the admiralty in 1939. He became prime minister in 1940 when Chamberlain's government was ousted for its handling of the war with Germany. During the war years, he rallied the Slide 48: British to the war effort, lobbied for help from the United States, and helped write the famous Atlantic Charter of 1941. Churchill was out of power (1945 -1951), though he spoke vigorously against the menace of the U.S.S.R. (coining the phrase "iron curtain"). Prime minister again in 1951, he retired in 1955 but continued as a member of Parliament until 1964. Cicero (106-43 B.C.) Roman orator, politician, and philosopher who gave his name to the first great period of Latin literature. His Orations reveal the cross-currents of Roman politics and are a useful source of material for historians. See also Philosophy Index Cistercians Order of Roman Catholic monks founded in 1098 in France by Saint Robert. An outgrowth of the Benedictine order, the Cistercians were reformers. They rebelled against the laxity that had overtaken the Benedictine order by returning to the strict, ascetic life of the first Benedictines. Saint Bernard of Clairvaux influenced the development of the order, being largely responsible for its rapid spread during the 12th century. By the 14th century, however, it weakened and declined. City-state (Greek polis) A city and surrounding lands governed as an autonomous state by its citizens. Though city-states appeared in other civilizations, they were especially important in the history of ancient Greece. Such city-states as Athens, Sparta, and Thebes came to dominate whole regions of Greece. Clairvaux, Saint Bernard of (1090-1153) French cleric, and one of the most prominent figures in the Roman Catholic church in his day. A Cistercian monk, he founded the monastery at Clairvaux in 1115 and spent the rest of his life as its abbot. He gained great influence in the church and advised popes and kings. Claudius (10 B.C.-54 A.D.) Roman emperor who as the nephew of Emperor Tiberius was placed on the throne by soldiers after the murder of Emperor Caligula. During his reign, the empire was consolidated and renewed. He added Britain to the empire and is said to have been poisoned by his fourth wife, Agrippina. Cleisthenes (ca. 510 B.C.) An Athenian ruler and political reformer who made a significant contribution to democracy by replacing family tribal political divisions with 10 new electoral districts from each of which 50 members were chosen by lot annually to constitute the Council of 500, or Boule, which handled the long-range problems of foreign policy, finance, and war. A Board of Strategoi, or Generals, was elected annually, one by each of the 10 tribes. This system assured the political equality of all citizens. Clemenceau, Georges (1841-1929) French premier (1906-1909) who was important in helping to win the Allied victory in World War I. He opposed President Wilson at the Versailles Peace Conference after the war believing that the Slide 49: treaty was too lenient toward Germany. Clement V (1264-1314) French archbishop whose election as pope was arranged by the French king Philip IV. He established the papal residence at Avignon in France beginning the so-called Babylonian Captivity. He was dominated by Philip IV and did his bidding. Clement VII (1478-1534) A member of the Medici family, he was pope from 1523

-1534. He ignored the problems the Reformation posed for the church and struggled with Henry VIII of England refusing to grant him a divorce from his first wife Catherine of Aragon. Cleopatra (69 B.C.) Queen of Egypt who led a revolt against her younger brother that was supported by Julius Caesar and won her the kingdom. After Caesar's death she married Marc Antony and their forces threatened the Roman Empire. Octavian who later became Augustus defeated their forces at Actium in 31 B.C., after which she and Antony committed suicide. Clermont, council of Church council held in 1095 at Clermont, France in which Pope Urban II preached the First Crusade. The Byzantine Empire was at that time being reduced by Muslim conquests and Emperor Alexis I requested aid from the pope. At the council, Urban II urged French knights to take up the cause, citing Muslim persecutions, the Muslim capture of the Holy Land, and the possible material gain of such a venture. Clive, Robert (1725-1774) British soldier and statesman who was the military leader of the East India Company in India. His victories against the French opened India to the influence and later the control of Great Britain. He gained control of Bengal where he served as governor and from this power base began to extend British control over other parts of India including Behar, Orissa, and Calcutta. Clovis (466-511) Frankish king and founder of the Merovingian dynasty he conquered most of Gaul (France) and southwestern Germany. It was during his reign (481-511 A.D.) that unification of the Frankish kingdom was achieved partly through military and political skill but also because his conversion to Christianity won him the support of the Roman Catholic church. Under succeeding Carolingian kings, who followed the Merovingians, the kingdom was expanded into an empire that by 800 A.D. included many former Roman territories. Code of Hammurabi A collection of 282 laws during the reign of Hammurabi, king of Babylonia. The code controlled aspects of life in Babylon such as dealing with agriculture, commerce, wages, hours, working conditions, property rights, marriage, and so forth. The laws regarding justice involved "an eye for an eye" concept of punishment. Slide 50: Colbert, Jean Baptiste (1619-1683) French financial minister under Louis XIV and his chief adviser after 1661. He favored the policy of mercantilism, protected industries with subsidies and tariffs, regulated prices, built a modern road and canal network, developed the navy, and encouraged colonization. Cold War State of tension between two nations that does not involve actual warfare. It came to be used to describe the tension that developed after World War II between the world powers -- the United States and the former Soviet Union. It led to the formation of opposing alliance systems. The Cold War ended in 1989, as the U.S.S.R. lost control of Eastern Europe (See East European Revolution) and the Communist party lost control of the former Soviet Union in December 1991. Columbus, Christopher (1451-1506) A Genovese who is famed as the discoverer of America. His studies of geography led him to believe that the East could be reached by sailing westward. Rebuffed by Genoa and Venice, he finally gained royal support from the Spanish rulers in 1492 and sailed from Spain in three ships, Santa Maria, Pinta, and Nina. He landed on San Salvador in 1492. His reception in Spain was enthusiastic. On a second expedition in 1493 his

discoveries included Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Jamaica. During a third voyage in 1498, he discovered the mouth of the Orinoco in Venezuela. His administration of a colony in Haiti resulted in his return to Spain in chains. A fourth expedition in 1502 reached the coast of Honduras but was forced back by hardships. Comecon Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, an organization established by the Soviet Union in 1949 to improve trade between the U.S.S.R. and its European satellite states. Cominform Communist Information Bureau established in 1947 to coordinate Communist party activities throughout Europe. It was a Europe-wide espionage, foreign policy, and economic coordination center until it was dissolved in 1956. Comintern The Communist International established by Lenin in 1919 to promote revolutionary Marxism. Although its aim was world revolution it was the means by which the U.S.S.R. maintained control over the international Communist movement. Commercial Revolution Term used to refer to the changes in European economic life in the period between 1500 and 1750. During the 16th and 17th centuries European nations reaped the rewards of the age of exploration. Trading and colonization increased, and capitalism expanded until it encompassed all economic life. This period, which was little more than the extension of earlier developments but on a vaster scale, is usually referred to as the Commercial Revolution. Trade and commerce increased as new sources of raw materials and Slide 51: new markets opened. The growth of capitalism, the accumulation of funds to invest in large trading enterprises, brought a demand for money to keep up with growing business. Gold and silver poured into Europe from the New World, encouraged business and increased prices. Committee of Public Safety The revolutionary or emergency government of France established by Robespierre after he suspended the Constitution during the French Revolution. It was set up by the Jacobins who were radicals. Composed of about 12 members, this group had almost unlimited powers. Common law Developed in England and unlike Roman law, it is a body of law that is not codified, or explicitly written down. Decisions of royal justices were collected in Year Books as the basis or precedents for future decisions on similar issues, and thus became "common" to all parts of England, based not upon statutes but upon custom. Common Market: European Economic Community See European Economic Community. Communard Term used to refer to members of the short-lived Paris commune established in March of 1871. It was formed after an uprising by socialists and radical republicans opposed to peace with Germany and the conservative new Third Republic. In May government troops suppressed the commune killing 25,000 communards in the fighting. Communism Political philosophy based upon the principle of collective ownership of both property and means of production. Communists view history from the perspective of class struggle and seek to establish a classless society, in its most ideal form a "dictatorship of the proletariat." The idea of a communal society, a fundamental element of Communist thought, dates back to the ancient Greeks and was advanced by Plato in his philosophical work The Republic. Thomas More in his famous work Utopia (1516) promoted the idea of a communal society. The Industrial Revolution and the severe economic hardships suffered by workers gave rise to

socialism in the late 18th and early 19th century. Modern communism then emerged from the Socialist movement (See Socialism), first as a radical wing of socialism and finally in the early 1900s as a separate and distinct ideology of revolution and collective ownership. Modern communism is based on the writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in the Communist Manifesto. The fundamental rivalry between Communist and capitalist societies has been a factor in world history since the creation of the first Communist state in the U.S.S.R., in 1917. Communism collapsed as the political ideology of most Eastern European nations (See East European Revolution) in 1989 and was abandoned even by the former Soviet Union in 1991. Most party remnants became part of a regular multiparty system. The former Soviet Union became known as the Commonwealth of Independent States in 1991. Concert of Europe Agreement that grew out of the Quadruple Alliance in which Slide 52: Russia, Austria, Prussia, Great Britain, and France agreed to act together to preserve peace in Europe and to maintain the territorial settlement of the Congress of Vienna. It was a form of international government by concert, or agreement, and crises were to be settled by conferences. Concordat of Worms Agreement concluded in 1122 between Henry V, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and the pope by which the problem of lay investiture was resolved. The emperor agreed to permit the church to elect church officials and to invest them with the spiritual church robes and emblems; the emperor must be present at the ceremonies, and he had the right to give to the new church officials their secular powers and fiefs, and to receive their homage as their temporal overlord. This division of authority was clearly not the final answer to the problem, which was not to be resolved so simply. Confucianism Chinese philosophy based on the teachings of Confucius (King Fu -tzu 551-479 B.C.). The main purpose of Confucius' philosophy and teachings was to bring social order into an era of political chaos and confusion and to return to the days of the founders of the Chou dynasty. The code became the most successful of all systems of conservatism, lasting 2,000 years as the chief ideology of the world's largest country. Confucius believed that only through harmonious relations among individuals could true harmony between humans and nature be reached. His teaching is less a religion and more a code of behavior or morals, based essentially upon the relationships of individuals. Confucius did not formulate theories about the nature of the universe, the after-life, or immortality. He was concerned with the codes of behavior by which people could live together in peace. The universe was governed by laws that regulated the stars and the seasons and thus maintained a balance. It was the duty of individuals to act similarly, because order would prevail if all people, rulers and ruled, respected the laws, set good examples for each other, and tried to live together in harmony. Each person was to assume a specific place in society, with specific duties and modes of conduct. This was accomplished by a system of superiors and inferiors. The Five Relationships of superiors over inferiors were prince over subject, father over son, husband over wife, elder brother over younger brother, and friend over friend. The classes in society were ordered on the Confucian idea of a hierarchy of worth: first, scholars; second, farmers; third, artisans; fourth, merchants; fifth,

slaves. Confucianism placed great emphasis on an intellectual and landed elite, and depreciated the value of anyone in commerce or manufacturing. Congress of Berlin Meeting of European powers called in 1878 to renegotiate the Treaty of San Stefano and deal with British and Austro-Hungarian dissatisfaction with terms forced on the Ottoman Empire by Russia after the Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878). Headed by Otto von Bismarck, the meeting resulted in the Treaty of Berlin which cost Russia much of what it had gained in the earlier treaty. AustriaHungary was to occupy Bosnia and Herzegovina; Britain was to occupy Cyprus; and Montenegro, Serbia, and Romania were Slide 53: recognized as independent. An autonomous Bulgaria (much smaller than that sought by Russia) was created under Ottoman sovereignty. Russia gained control over Ottoman territories in Asia and the Balkans. PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development World History in One Nut Shell, Almost Congress of Vienna Meeting held in 1815 after the defeat of Napoleon redrew the map of Europe and attempted to return Europe to the period before the French Revolution by restoring conservative governments, establishing a balance of power, and a concert of Europe. The leaders of the Congress were Prince Metternich, chancellor of Austria, Lord Castlereagh, foreign secretary of Great Britain, Czar Alexander I of Russia, King Frederick William III of Prussia, and Talleyrand, the representative of the losing side, France. The doctrine of legitimacy (or that monarchs who were legitimately entitled to their thrones be restored) advanced by Talleyrand was followed. France was restricted to its boundaries of 1792 and the Bourbons were restored in the person of Louis XVIII. France was now accepted as a member in good standing of the European nations but with barriers against possible future expansion: the kingdom of the Netherlands (Belgium and Holland), the kingdom of Prussia in the Rhineland, the kingdom of Sardinia in the South, and the North Italian States under the jurisdiction of Austria. Austria was restored, with the exception of its former possession of the Austrian Netherlands (Belgium), but was compensated with several Italian states and duchies -- the Tyrol, the Illyrian provinces, Milan, Parma, Modena, Tuscany. The Germanic states were reduced to a loose confederation of 38 states under the presidency of Austria. Russia received much of Poland as an integral part of its territory, so that Poland, which had disappeared by 1795 under the successive seizures by Austria, Prussia, and Russia, now reappeared, even if only as a province of Russia. Great Britain retained the useful colonial outposts it had won during the war: Malta, Tobago in the West Indies, Cape Colony in Africa, Honduras in Central America, and Guiana in South America. As a further guarantee for future peace, the four nations of Great Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia formed the Quadruple Alliance, a political alliance designed to prevent another major war. In 1818 France was also admitted. On the surface, the peace of Europe was restored and the map of Europe remained unchanged for 35 years, and no major war occurred. But underneath this apparent calm the growing demand of the people of Europe for their own national states and for liberal governments caused several revolutions. Congress party See Indian National Congress.

Slide 54: Concentration camps See Auschwitz. Conservatism Belief in preserving the stability of the existing order. Conservatives oppose broad reforms (though not necessarily all reform) that may cause upheavals of the social or political system and thus often oppose liberalism. Conservatism of the 19th century, a reaction against the French Revolution (1789-1799), was articulated in the works of Edmund Burke and others. It was characterized by support for rule by the king and the propertied class and opposed liberal republicanism of the rising bourgeoisie. In modern times, conservatism has come to favor such things as freedom from the regulation of business and opposes extension of the welfare state. Conservative party Major British political party formed in 1832, a coalition of middle-class interests. Though it represents a conservative viewpoint, the party has traditionally favored moderate social and political reforms. The successor to the Tory party, it was formed after passage of the Reform Bill of 1832. Constantine Roman emperor who ruled the western half of the empire starting in 312 and became sole emperor of a united empire in 324 A.D. He named the capital of the empire Byzantium, which was later renamed Constantinople, and issued the Edict of Milan in 313 A.D., which granted toleration for Christians in the empire. Consulate French government (17991804) established after the overthrow of the Directory in the coup d'etat of 18 Brumaire. Under the Consulate, three consuls -- one of whom was Napoleon -ruled France, until Napoleon's assumption of the title "emperor" in 1804. Containment Policy adopted by the United States in 1947 in response to Russian expansionism in the period after World War II. The aim of this policy was to confine, or contain, Communist influence to its existing territorial limits. Continental system Attempt by Napoleon Bonaparte to exclude British trade from Europe between 1806 and 1813 in the hope of undermining British trade and its economy and thereby weakening Britain. British naval superiority enabled it to break the system and it eventually collapsed. Copernicus, Nicolaus (1473-1543) Polish astronomer, considered the founder of modern astronomy. His Copernican theory of a heliocentric universe in which the earth turns on its own axis and revolves around the sun met with opposition because it contradicted the longaccepted Ptolemaic theory that the earth was the center of the universe. Cordeliers Political club formed in 1790 during the French Revolution. Slide 55: Officially known as the Society of the Friends of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, it was founded to denounce abuses of power. It soon became a formidable political power under the leadership of Danton and others. The Cordeliers were involved in the deposing of King Louis XVI, and later, under the more radical influence of Hebert and Marat, brought down (1792 and 1793) the moderate Girondists. Coronado, Francisco Vasquez de (1510-1544) Spanish explorer who sought to find the fabled Seven Cities of Gold in America. His expedition opened up the southwest. Cortes, Hernando (1485-1547) Spanish conquistador who with an expedition of 400 men between 1519 and 1521 defeated the Aztecs and brought Mexico into the Spanish empire. Council of Constance Council of the Catholic church held between 1414 and 1418 to end the Great Schism that had produced three rival popes. Counter-Reformation Catholic response in the 1500s to the Protestant Reformation. With much of

northern Europe becoming Protestant, the Catholic church set out to reform its own internal abuses and to wage an active fight on behalf of its basic faith. The Catholics refer to this as the Catholic Reformation; the Protestants call it the Counter-Reformation. From Spain came the essential and necessary missionary spirit. Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) a soldier, became a militant crusader for the Catholic church and founded the Society of Jesus, a new monastic order that participated actively in the world. They were the active missionaries of the Counter-Reformation, prepared to intrigue and to use force whenever necessary. The Holy Office, or Inquisition, was the chief agent of the church for the repression of heresy. Holding secret trials and turning condemned heretics over to the secular government to be burned, it maintained a brutal reign of terror and successfully stamped out all heresy in Italy and Spain. It had little success north of the Alps, and by the end of the 16th century both it and the CounterReformation had spent their force. See Inquisition Index Coup d'etat A sudden change of government, usually started by a group within the existing government. Not a revolution, in which a great part of a nation may be engaged. Examples: Suharto in Indonesia, restricting Sukarno's power; the ousting of Nkrumah from Ghana. Crassus, Marcus Licinius (d. 53 B.C.) Roman who served as consul with Pompey in 70 B.C. later he joined the First Triumvirate with Julius Caesar and Pompey. He ruled the province of Syria for the empire and undertook a campaign against the Carthians in which he was defeated at Carrbae in 53 B.C. Slide 56: Crecy, battle of At this site in 1346, Edward III of England defeated Philip VI of France in an important battle of the Hundred Years' War. It was the first time that English footsoldiers using longbows were employed in warfare and they decimated the French knights on horseback. Crimean War In 1853 Nicholas I sent the Russian army to invade the Turkish provinces of Moldavia and Wallachia. War between Russia and Turkey ensued, and in 1854 France and Britain entered on Turkey's side. The Crimean War was disastrous for all concerned, and incompetence, intrigue, lack of supplies, and inferior equipment led to a Russian defeat. In 1856 Alexander II asked for peace. Cro-Magnon people So named after the caves in France where their remains were first discovered. They either replaced or dominated and absorbed the earlier Neanderthal people. They were clearly of the Homo sapiens type, the first of modern humans, the inventor of more tools, flintheaded weapons such as the harpoon and spear, and probably the bow and arrow. Cro-Magnon people discovered how to make fire and, in addition, showed considerable skill in portraying animals on cave walls. They used bones, antlers, and ivory for specialized tools, invented the use of the awl and thread, and apparently gave some attention to burial ceremonies. They grew no food, domesticated no animals, and lived as nomadic food gatherers. Cromwell, Oliver (1599-1658) Leader of the Puritans in Parliament who opposed King Charles I and his supporters known as Royalists or Cavaliers. They wanted the powers of the king to be curbed and their action led to civil war and revolution in England. Cromwell organized his forces into an army that the Cavaliers could not match and after two defeats in battle, Charles I surrendered in 1646. Cromwell's army controlled Parliament, which became known as the Rump Parliament. The Rump

Parliament abolished both the monarchy and the House of Lords, proclaimed England a Commonwealth, and appointed a special court to try Charles I for treason. He was condemned and beheaded early in 1649. Cromwell took over the reins of power and became essentially a military dictator. He was given the title of Lord Protector, which he held from 1653 until 1658. This period of the Commonwealth is often called the Protectorate and there was almost as much friction between him and Parliament as there had been between the Stuart kings and Parliament. The old resentment of central power reappeared and Cromwell was forced to dissolve Parliament. He ruled alone during most of the Commonwealth period. See English Civil War; Protectorate. Cromwell, Richard (1626-1712) Son of Oliver Cromwell, he succeeded him as Lord Protector after his death in 1658. Unable to win the support of the army and Parliament, the Commonwealth came to an end in 1660 when Parliament invited Charles II, the son of Charles I, to rule. Crusades The military campaigns of feudal Christendom against the Islamic Slide 57: peoples who held the Holy Land of Palestine between 1096 and 1254. With the rise of Islam came the occupation of the Holy Land by the Arabs. Generally, they did not interfere with pilgrimages to the Holy Land, but in the 11th century the Seljuk Turks occupied Asia Minor and seriously threatened the Byzantine Empire. Called upon by the Byzantine emperor to give assistance, Pope Urban II in 1095 called for a holy crusade against the infidel, and in 1096 the First Crusade of the total eight was launched. Religious enthusiasm, the blessing of the church, opportunity for obtaining landed estates, and the desire of the church to reduce local fighting between groups of barons, all stimulated the crusading movement. The first expedition of enthusiastic but ill -trained and poorly led people was a failure. But the official First Crusade in 1096 under trained leaders resulted in the capture of Jerusalem and Asia Minor, and the establishment of the Christian kingdom of Jerusalem, a strip of land roughly 500 miles long and 50 miles wide, from the borders of Egypt to the Euphrates River. This kingdom of Jerusalem, which was divided into the kingdom itself and three great fiefs called Antioch, Tripoli, and Edessa, lasted for nearly 100 years. Two centuries of Crusades did not achieve the basic purpose of retrieving the Holy Land from the infidels, although secondary influences were significant. Spain finally drove the Muslims out of the peninsula, and Christians in Eastern Europe were able to hold back subsequent attempted Muslim invasions. The Crusades had many lasting effects on Europe, chief of which was broadening people's outlook, as they came into contact with other lands and other customs and also the weakening of feudalism. The Crusades also accelerated trade and brought the Europeans into contact with the philosophy, science, and culture of the Islamic world. Cultural Revolution Name given to the period between 1965 and 1968 when Mao Tse-tung sought to reassert Maoist doctrine, renew the revolutionary spirit, and purge China of "The Four Olds"-old thought, old culture, old customs, and old habits. Led by the Red Guard, millions of young followers of Mao organized in military-style units, the Cultural Revolution caused great upheaval and chaos in China. Because of its severe disruption to the Chinese economy and life it was halted in 1968. Cuneiform Wedge-shaped writing

developed in the lower Tigris-Euphrates Valley probably by the Sumerians. It was written with a stylus on a piece of clay that was later baked to make a permanent record. It was used by the people of all the Sumerian empires until the Persians conquered the region. Curie, Pierre (1859-1906) and Curie, Marie Sklodowska (1867-1934) French scientists and codiscoverers of radium and polonium. After A. Becquerel discovered radioactivity, Marie began her own investigations. She was joined by Pierre in 1898, and in that year they jointly isolated radium and polonium. With Becquerel they were awarded the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics. Following Pierre's death, Marie continued work on radium and received the 1911 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Slide 58: Curzon, Lord (1859-1925) British statesman who as governor-general of India (1899-1905) put through many useful reforms. Establishing rural banks, reorganizing agriculture, strictly enforcing measures against British soldiers who abused Indians, and encouraging the study of Indian history were all to his credit. However, his lack of understanding of Indian attitudes caused many of his reforms to be resented. Later, he served as Britain's foreign secretary, presiding at the Lausanne Conference (1922 and 1923) and paving the way for the Dawes Plan. Cyril (d. 869) Greek Christian missionary from the Byzantine Empire who with his brother Methodius, also a missionary, sought to convert the Slavs to Christianity in the 800s. Since the Slavs had no written language, Cyril created a modified Greek alphabet that became known as the Cyrillic alphabet. Cyrus the Great (d. 529 B.C.) Persian king (550-529 B.C.) who began the Persian conquests in Mesopotamia, or the Middle East, and created the first modern empire in history. He conquered the Medes, Lydians, and Chaldeans. This empire extended from the Indus to the Mediterranean and from the Caucasus to the Indian Ocean. © 1996, 1995 Zane Publishing, Inc., GARETH STEVENS, Inc., and CLEARVUE/eav, Art (A-Z) American Concise Encyclopedia Abstract Art Art in which elements of form have been stressed in handling the subject matter -which may or may not be recognizable. Wassily Kandinsky is generally credited with having created the first purely abstract artwork in 1910. Abstract Expressionism This school of art amounts to little more than automatic painting -i.e., allowing the subconscious to express itself by creating involuntary shapes and dribbles of paint. Supposedly it derives from the intricate mesh of paint that forms the surface of Monet's last pictures, as, half-blind, he struggled to find pictorial equivalents of his optical sensations. This school of art is believed by many to be the first wholly American art movement. Abstract Impressionism has been defined by de Kooning as "retaining the quiet uniform pattern of strokes that spread over the canvas without climax or emphasis . . . the Impressionist manner of looking at a scene but leaving out the scene." Academy Originally, the garden near Athens where Plato taught. Art academies developed in reaction to medieval guilds and became schools for the practical and theoretical training of artists. Rigorous study of the human form and Slide 59: highly structured teaching based on classical standards characterized most academy instruction. Action Painting Splashing and dribbling paint on canvas without involving thought or planning. The basic assumption is that the unconscious will take over and produce a work of art. The technique is claimed to

go back to Leonardo da Vinci, who suggested using stains on walls as a starting point for designing. The essential difference is that Leonardo used the method solely as a means of stimulating the creative imagination, not as an end in itself. Action painting should not be confused with the intellectual type of Abstract Art in which thought is necessary, but its advocates claim that the beauty of the movements of the artist's wrist constitute its justification. The term was invented in this country to describe the forceful, unpremeditated work of Jackson Pollock. Afro-American Art (Black Art) The commonality of this artistic movement lies not with any one particular style or technique, but rather with its themes of protest and search for the historic roots of African-Americans. Air Brush An atomizer of compressed air used to apply a fine spray of paint or liquid. This technique can make paintings resemble photographs and is also used as a touch-up for photographic work. American Scene Painting This term describes art movements popular between 1850 and 1950 when painters depicted typical and distinctly American landscape scenes and aspects of the daily life of their subject matter. The style of these paintings was realistic and literal. Angelico, Fra (1400?-1455) Fra Giovanni da Fiesole, known as the Blessed Angelico, was a Dominican friar. He used his art for didactic rather than mystic purposes, and the style he evolved was correspondingly simple and direct; conservative, and yet based on a largeness of form. The convent of St. Marco was taken over by his religious order in 1436, and he decorated it with a series of about fifty frescoes, most of them in the cells of the friars and intended to aid contemplation. He was called to Rome to decorate a chapel in the Vatican. He died in Rome in 1455. The biggest collection of his works is in the Museo di St. Marco, Florence, his own monastery. Armature A metal or wire framework constructed by the sculptor as a skeleton for clay or wax in the making of a piece of sculpture. Art Deco A style of the 1920s and 1930s seen in architecture, applied arts, interior design, and graphic design, which combines some highly decorative elements of late Art Nouveau with streamlined geometric forms inspired by current industrial design. Slide 60: Art Nouveau "New Art" that spread across Europe and America in the 1890s. This highly stylized type of decoration, found mainly in architecture and interior decoration, flourished in Belgium and Britain. Art Nouveau utilized flat patterns of writhing vegetable forms based on a naturalistic conception of plants rather than a formalized type of decoration. The influence of this art form is still with us, as is evidenced by cast-iron lilies and copper tendrils as well as furniture with heart-shaped holes in it. Art Nouveau reached its height of popularity between 1895 and 1905. Art Therapy The practice of free-expression painting, modeling, etc., as a curative activity by individuals with mental disorders or by others for psychomedical reasons. Ashcan School A group of 19th-and 20thcentury American realist painters and illustrators whose interest in the sordid side of city life (especially in New York City) justifies the nickname. Assemblage A modern, abstract movement in which sculpture and paintings are assembled using ready-made objects, fragments, bits of paper, etc. See Collage. Atelier (Fr. studio) The atelier is a common feature of the Continental art world. It is a free studio that provides a nude model for fixed sessions, but without benefit of an instructor. The most famous atelier was opened around 1825 in Paris by a model

called Suisse and was used by Delacroix, Courbet, Manet, Monet, Pissarro, Cezanne, and other Impressionists. Attribution When a picture is signed or recorded in a document, there can be little doubt that it is by the painter to whom it is attributed. "Attribution," however, usually means assigning a picture to its painter on the basis of its likeness to works known to be the artist's. Such grounds can range from certainty to mere guesswork, depending on the number of certain works known to the person making the attribution, as well as the degree of his intimacy with them. Audubon, John James (1785-1851) An American artist and naturalist who became deeply involved in the study of birds. His over 400 color engravings of different species (with accompanying text) comprise the four volumes of Birds in America, for which he is most famous. Although his illustrations have been criticized for being tightly and precisely rendered, he created an interesting double vision, combining the use of large form and minute detail. His sensitive approach tended to be one more of devotion to his subject than of a strict objectivity. Automatism Doodling. Shut your eyes and draw -- the subconscious will do the rest; hence it was a favorite Surrealist technique. PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development World History in One Nut Shell, Almost Slide 61: Avant-garde A term coined around 1910 to mean new and experimental concepts in the arts. It is used most frequently to describe works that are innovative and often highly unconventional. Bacon, Francis (1910-1992) Bacon was a self-taught painter who destroyed a large part of his output, so much so that virtually nothing of his early work has survived. Through his highly personal subject matter, which concentrates chiefly on dogs, carcasses, and evocations of men, including elderly tycoons, and Velazquez's Innocent X, caged in plate glass and screaming in a silent world of horror, dissolution, and fear, he expressed with energy and singleness of aim all the gradations of emotion from pity and disgust to horror, traumatic revulsion, and the unbalance of panic. His work, which can be interpreted as an attempt to evoke catharsis in the spectator, raises in its most acute form the problem of the relationship between art and pleasure. Barbizon School A mid-19th-century group of landscape painters, centered on the village of Barbizon in the Forest of Fountainbleau. Their aims were an exact and unprettified rendering of peasant life and scenery, painted on the spot; this last point identifying them as the precursors of Impressionism. Baroque The style is seen at its purest in the so-called High Baroque, which is virtually confined to Italy and to the period covered by the years around 16301680. The High Baroque, at its best and fullest, is a union of the arts of architecture, painting, and sculpture, acting on the emotions of the spectator; inviting him, for example, to participate in the agonies and ecstasies of the Saints. Its blend of illusionism, theatrics, light and color, and powerful movement is calculated to overwhelm the spectator by a direct emotional appeal. At the end of the century, some Roman artists developed the classical and intellectual aspects of the Baroque style, almost to the exclusion of its emotional side.

Outside Italy, astute politicians were quick to see that the religious style could easily be made to serve the glorification of the monarch, but in this process a good deal of pomposity was superimposed on the original religious fervor. The style lasted longest in Catholic Germany and Austria, and had the least influence in Protestant countries. Bas-relief A sculpture existing in a shallow relief, so that it does not project too far out from the surface from which it rises. Bauhaus This is the most famous school of architecture, design, and craftsmanship of modern times and has had an inestimable influence on art school training all over the world. It was founded in 1919 at Weimar, in Germany, by Walter Gropius, the architect. It moved eventually to Berlin, where, in 1933, it was closed by the Nazis. Its great importance lay in the fact that its teachers included Klee and Kandinsky, and that it attempted to face the problem of machine production by advocating an integration between art and technology. Slide 62: Beardsley, Aubrey (1872-1898) Beardsley was an illustrator whose highly wrought, stylized black-and-white drawings express perfectly the Art Nouveau of which they were an ingredient. Beaux Arts An architectural style of the late 19th and early 20th centuries that supported neoclassical themes through symmetry and plentiful sculptured ornamentation. Black Art See AfroAmerican Art. Blake, William (1757-1827) An artist and poet who earned a meager living by working for publishers as an engraver, usually of other men's designs. However, between his bread-and-butter work he produced his own poems in books that he made and published himself, engraving the text and surrounding it with an illustration that he colored by hand. In this manner he issued the Songs of Innocence (1789) and Songs of Experience (1794). His greatest works are his twenty-one large watercolors illustrating the Book of Job and his illustrations to Dante. His early work was neoclassical, but as his verse and philosophy acquired a more visionary and truly mystic quality, he turned to forms and ideas evolved from medieval examples. He then abandoned logical arrangement in space, and developed a purely subjective use of color, light, and form to give substance to his visions. Whatever his sources, he always transmuted everything by the power of his imagination. Blaue Reiter, Der (Ger. The Blue Rider) Members of this Munich group of artists, formed in 1911, included Kandinsky and Klee. Their work is considered the most important modern art in Germany pre-World War I, stressing anti -naturalism, magic, and primitivism. Bonnard, Pierre (1867-1947) A French painter, influenced by Gauguin and by Japanese art, Bonnard eventually gave up his work in graphics because of his desire to work more fully with color. In his paintings of nudes, landscapes, and still lifes he displayed great softness and gentleness while using tones of deep intensity. Bosch, Hieronymus (1450-1516?) Perhaps the greatest master of fantasy who ever lived. His obsessive and haunted world is that of Gothic twilight fraught with deep levels of symbolism. Bosch's work is the best surviving expression of some aspects of the waning of the Middle Ages, although it is now largely incomprehensible. The Surrealists have claimed him as a sort of Freudian, but it is certain that his pictures had a very definite significance and were not free expressions of the unconscious mind. In recent years there has been an elaborate attempt to "explain" many of the pictures as altarpieces

painted for a heretical cult that was addicted to orgiastic rites. Not only is there no evidence for this, but it also fails to explain why so many of Bosch's pictures Slide 63: belonged to people of unimpeachable orthodoxy. Botticelli, Sandro (1445-1510) The most individual if not the most influential painter in Florence at the end of the 15th century. The chronology of his work ranges between vigorous realism and languorous and antinaturalistic ecstasy. We know that he was neurotic, and that he was accused of pederasty (though this charge was made freely in 15th-century Florence; and usually without much evidence). His most celebrated mythological pictures have very involved allegorical and Christianizing meanings and were probably painted for a member of the Medici family, then still ruling Florence. During the last twenty years of the 15th century he ran a large shop for the production of Madonnas of a gently devout kind, well suited to the piety of the age: these made him prosperous, although many of them were copied by other artists. By about 1500 his style was so obviously opposed to the new ideas of Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo that he suffered a decline in popularity and the last ten years of his life are a mystery. Brancusi, Constantin (1876-1957) A Rumanian sculptor whose most successful works are often simple, highly polished shapes. He settled in Paris in 1904 and was influenced by Rodin, but by 1907 was more concerned with abstract shape: He was the friend of Modigliani and induced him to turn to sculpture. Brancusi exhibited in New York (1913) and was involved in a notorious case in 1926-1928, when the U.S. Customs refused to admit a work of his as sculpture, claiming that it was turned metal and thus dutiable. Braque, Georges (1882-1963) Braque began as an apprentice in a decorator's business, and hence his superb technique. He was at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, but preferred to work on his own. By 1906 he was in the Fauve circle, but by 1909 he knew Picasso well, and with him had started to work out the basis of a new approach to painting that developed into Cubism. By the outbreak of war in 1914 this close collaboration was at an end and his acknowledgment of realism led to his vigorous and splendid still life and figure compositions, with a perfection of balance and harmony between color and design, which he continued to develop for the rest of his life. Brueghel (Breughel), Peter I (1525 or 1530-1569) Sometimes also called "Peasant Brueghel," he was the most important satirist in The Netherlands after Bosch, and one of the greatest landscape painters. The Alps, and to a lesser extent the scenery of Italy, made a tremendous impact on him, as may be seen from the development of his landscape style. However, the art of Italy seems to have made almost no impression on him. His drawings for engravers were very much in the manner of Bosch and dealt with the same subjects. In the last ten or twelve years of his life he produced genre scenes and religious subjects set in vast landscapes that are his finest works. The old nickname "Peasant Brueghel" is misleading if it is held to mean that he was himself a peasant: On the contrary, he was highly cultivated. His attitude is hard to define since it Slide 64: is not merely condescending but seems to show a real interest in village customs coupled with a satirical approach to drunkenness, gluttony, and other sins. His paintings are among the great landscape paintings of the age, both in their feeling for nature and the unity of man and his surroundings. Brush

Drawing Drawing executed entirely with brush and usually in a wash. The favored technique of Oriental painting. Brushwork With the development of the technique of oil painting, it soon became clear that the use of stiff bristle brushes charged with oil paint and applied to a grainy surface (i.e., canvas) could give a special texture. This quality was aesthetically pleasing in itself, independent of its function in representing form. A painter's brushwork is as personal as handwriting (and is occasionally referred to as such) and it is even harder to imitate. The encrustations of Rembrandt, the frenzied drama of van Gogh's brush, the thin film of Gainsborough, the gemlike luminosity of Vermeer's small dabs of paint - all these are possible in one and the same medium, so that brushwork is one of the painter's most powerful tools. In some cases it becomes the end rather than the means: In certain forms of Abstract Expressionism the word can perhaps hardly be legitimately applied to paint trickled rather than brushed onto the surface. Buonarroti, Michelangelo See Michelangelo Buonarroti. Byzantine Art Art of the Eastern (Greek) Empire called Byzantium. First seen in the 5th century, it lasted until the mid-15th century and the destruction of the Empire by the Turks. At times it exhibits strongly stylized or hieratic qualities owing to important oriental components. At other times classical realism from Greek art appeared in the style. Cadmus, Paul (b. 1904) An American painter with a highly detailed, frequently photographic style whose graphic depiction of sex and horror often caused a reaction of shock. His re-creation of daily life is negative and perverse, executed in a precise and highly technical style. Caillebotte, Gustave (18481894) Born in Paris, he earned a law degree and inherited a large fortune from his father that enabled him to pursue the study of art at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in 1876. Caillebotte began as a solid realist artist but was captivated by the impressionists. He adapted the high keyed broken color technique of the impressionists, participated in several of their exhibitions and, by helping his artist friends financially, became known as the "patron of the impressionists." Caldecott, Randolph (1846-1886) An English graphic artist whose abiding interest was in illustration. Caldecott's work appeared frequently in Punch, and he was the illustrator of many classic children's books. Today "Caldecott" Slide 65: is best known as the coveted award given annually for expertise in the world of children's book illustrations. Calder, Alexander (1898-1976) An American sculptor, abstract painter, and illustrator of children's books. Calder was originally an engineer whose main invention, mobiles, can be regarded as a marriage between engineering and sculpture. His paintings were influenced by Miro. Calligraphy Fine or elegant handwriting. When a drawing is described as calligraphic, it is linear, with flowing, rhythmic strokes and a distinctively personal quality. Canaletto, (Giovanni) Antonio (1697-1768) A Venetian artist who went to Rome and acquired a special talent by teaching himself to paint city views. This skill became a lucrative occupation because of the popularity of travel in Europe; tourists wished to take home mementos of the cities they visited on the Grand Tour. When he returned to Venice his works were characterized by strong contrasts of light and shade that eventually served to make him famous. He had a strong sense of harmony, and his depiction of architecture is scrupulous, as if his buildings were painted with the use of a ruler and other geometric

instruments. Caravaggio, Michelangelo Merisi da (1573-1610) His earliest works were still life subjects and small dramatized self-portraits of a distinctly Northern and vaguely Venetian character, utilizing strong chiaroscuro and detailed execution. He then turned to religious subject matter, frequently creating controversial altar pieces. Basically, the objections to these works were on the grounds of indecorum -- the dirty feet of the pilgrims, the peasant air of the Virgin, and the coarse types used to depict the Apostles. In one, the bloated figure of the dead Virgin was reputed to have been painted from a drowned prostitute fished out of the Tiber. These accusations were founded on Caravaggio's vivid realism, his use of contemporary costumes and settings, his rejection of idealization, and the simplicity of his approach. But all his rejected works found ready buyers among cardinals and noblemen, against whom no accusations of insincerity and sensationalism could be made. His reputation as a stormy petrel was probably added to by the numerous fracases with the police caused by his violent temper. His last works, painted in Malta and Sicily, are very dark and somewhat damaged, but their direct iconography, their inspired simplicity and poignancy embody a new intensity of dramatic feeling. His technical methods were revolutionary and brought him into endless controversy: He is recorded as painting directly onto the canvas from a model, instead of working from sketches. However, his methods and ideas were both admired and emulated by Rubens and Rembrandt. Caricature First used in England in 1748, this word describes an ancient portrait technique that exaggerates characteristic physical features in order Slide 66: to stress traits of the subject's personality, for the sake of humor or satire. Cartoon Nowadays this normally means a drawing with a humorous or satirical intention, but the original meaning is quite different. A cartoon was a full size drawing for a painting, usually worked out in complete detail, ready for transfer to wall, canvas, or panel. The cartoon was rubbed on the back with chalk and the main lines were then gone over with a stylus, thus transferring them to the canvas or panel. Cassatt, Mary (1845-1926) An American painter, printmaker, and pastelist, Cassatt was born in Pittsburgh, the daughter of a banker who offered her little encouragement with her painting. In 1868, after traveling widely in Europe, she settled in Paris to study and became interested in Courbet, Manet, and the Impressionists. In 1877 she met Degas, who invited her to exhibit with the Impressionists, which she did. Cassatt's paintings are frequently of mothers and children, but despite their subject matter, they are known to lack sentimentality. The color prints which she did in the 1890s are memorable for their discipline of line and subtlety of color. Casting In sculpture, the process of duplicating the original wax or clay model in metal, plaster of Paris, or other material by means of a mold. Cellini, Benvenuto (1500-1571) Florentine sculptor, goldsmith, and amorist, Cellini is best known for his Autobiography, which gives a glimpse of the processes of artistic creation as well as insight into the troubled Italy of the years following 1527. Cellini's love life is also featured here in considerable detail, although not all of it is credible. As an artist, Cellini was first influenced by Raphael but later came very much under the shadow of Michelangelo. He was also a designer of coins and medals. Cezanne,

Paul (1839-1906) Probably the greatest painter of the last 100 years, Cezanne was born in Aix-en-Provence, the son of a wealthy banker and tradesman. In 1861, after abandoning the study of law, he went to Paris, where he met Pissarro, and from 1862 Cezanne devoted himself to painting. In the 1860s his ardent Southern temperament expressed itself in a series of more or less erotic and melodramatic pictures, which were not received with enthusiasm. While closely associated with Pissarro, Cezanne began to paint landscapes in an Impressionist technique. One of his pictures incurred the greatest public displeasure. It was the most extraordinary of all the erotic fantasies, the Modern Olympia. This painting represents a fat squatting female being disrobed by a black woman while a man (probably Cezanne himself) watches with interest. In the midst of the chaste Impressionist landscapes the effect must have been startling, particularly as these early pictures are painted with a palette knife. During the 1870s Cezanne digested the theories of color and light that the Impressionists were then developing. He gradually calmed his exuberant romantic temperament, and from about 1900 his genius was widely recognized. In Slide 67: the last years of his life he returned to some of his favorite early themes in which his lyricism and use of space and color became evident. Cezanne is thought to be the innovating source of the movements in 20thcentury art. PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development World History in One Nut Shell, Almost Chagall, Marc (1887-1985) A Russian-Jewish painter who moved to Paris in 1910, Chagall had a highly imaginative style and painted more or less recognizable objects either in unusual juxtapositions or floating in space. His color was rich, and his subject matter often combined mystical elements with poetic evocations of Russian village life; although in later years he came increasingly to paint religious pictures. His fantasies greatly influenced the Surrealists. Charcoal This medium is made from twigs of willow or vine, and used for drawing on paper and making preliminary drawings on walls or canvases as the first stage in a painting. In charcoal mistakes can easily be rubbed off and new renditions made. Chardin, Jean-Baptiste-Simeon (16991779) The finest 18th-century French painter of still life, Chardin's works are modest in size and are restricted in their range of subjects. They are composed of the simplest elements -- kitchen utensils, vegetables, game, baskets of fruit, fish, and similar materials -- and are exceptional in their solid color and depth of tone. Chasing A method of ornamenting metal surfaces by embossing, hollowing, or engraving with steel tools. Also, the finishing of bronze casts by removing small imperfections and smoothing rough spots. Chiaroscuro (Ital. light-dark) As generally used, chiaroscuro means the balance of light and shadow in a picture, and the skill shown by the painter in the management of shadows. The word tends to be used mainly to describe painters like Rembrandt or Caravaggio, whose works are predominantly dark in tone. In contemporary life, the term is often used to describe efforts in interior design and trends in women's clothing. Chirico, Giorgio de' (1888-1978) An Italian painter, founder of the quasi Surrealist movement, who was preoccupied with mystery and the unknown as

exemplified through dreams and the unconscious. His work, suffused with stark geometric forms and rigid architecture, is executed in solid blocks of color, Slide 68: with little attention to detail. Classicism In the broadest artistic sense, art based on the study of classical models; art that emphasizes qualities considered to be characteristically Greek and Roman in style and spirit, i.e., reason, objectivity, discipline, restraint, order, harmony. Cloisonne Enamel A technique of enameling in which the design is laid down in thin metal strips on a metal or porcelain ground, forming chambers (cloisons) to receive the vitreous enamel pastes. Cole, Thomas (1801-1848) This first great American landscape painter, a member of the Hudson River School of painting, was born in England and worked as an engraver before emigrating to the United States in 1818. His initial efforts in landscape met with little success, but when he settled in New York in 1825, he began to be recognized. His works are often described as dramatically romantic -- he could render a view accurately, yet still make that same view seem alive and spiritual as it acted out nature's drama. Collage (from Fr. coller, to stick) A picture built up wholly or partly from pieces of paper, cloth, or any other material stuck onto canvas or other surface. This device was much used by the early Cubists, who would stick pieces of newspaper onto pictures painted in an otherwise normal way, and by the Dadaists. In his last years, Matisse used pieces of colored paper as a complete substitute for painting. See Montage for comparison. Complementary Color A term meaning that each primary color -- red, blue, yellow -- has a complementary, formed by a mixture of the other two (thus green, mixing blue and yellow, is the complementary of red). It is part of Impressionist theory that every primary color has its complementary color in the shadow it casts. Thus, a yellow object will have violet in its shadow. Composition The art of combining the elements of a picture or other work of art into a satisfactory visual whole: In art, the whole is very much more than the sum of its parts. A picture is well composed if its constituents -- whether figures, objects, or shapes -- form a harmony that pleases the eye. This is the sole aim of most abstract painting; however, in more traditional art, the task is made much more difficult by the need to piece forms in an ordered sequence without losing their effectiveness as a pattern. Constable, John (1776-1837) With Turner, the major English landscape painter of the 19th century, Constable is highly recognized for his skill in composition and his brilliant use of chiaroscuro as a unifying factor. His work is characterized by the vivid, dewy greens of water meadows and mills under fresh, windy skies. His art lay in the representation of nature modified by the tradition inherited from the Dutch landscape painters of the 17th century, and Slide 69: he was the last great painter in this tradition. Constructivism Principally a Russian movement that utilized hanging and relief constructions, abstract in concept, and made of a variety of materials, including wire, glass, and sheet metal. The idea behind the movement was to "construct" in art. Constructivist ideas have had considerable influence on architecture and decoration, and their manifestations include abstract sculpture, employing nontraditional materials, or industrial methods in which welding is used. Continuous Representation In many medieval pictures continuous representation conotes several successive

incidents in the story shown as taking place in different parts of the same picture. For example, a picture of the martyrdom of a saint may show all his miracles dotted about in the background. Copley, John Singleton (1738-1815) A Boston painter, almost completely self -taught, Copley evolved a distinguished and direct portrait style for his New England clientele. In 1774 he left America to visit Italy and much of Europe before settling in London. Although he profoundly altered his style to compete with other English painters, his portraits of children still retained their engaging vivacity. Corot, Jean-Baptiste-Camille (1796-1875) Born in Paris, Corot's early training was with classical landscape painters. In 1825 he went to Italy, where he developed his sensitive treatment of light, form, and distance in terms of tone rather than by color and drawing. His muzzy treatment of landscape and trees in soft, gray-green tones became immensely popular. However, his very late portraits and figure studies are entirely free from this blurred and formless approach. He was a prolific painter, and examples of his work hang in almost every sizable museum in the world. Correggio, Antonio (1489-1534) An Italian painter greatly influenced by Leonardo da Vinci, from whom he developed the very soft, voluptuous style characteristic of all his oil paintings. Correggio's art represented a great range of emotion -- from the commonplace to the sublime. Though he worked during the High Renaissance, many characteristics of his work mark him as a forerunner of the Baroque art of the 17th and 18th centuries. Coulisse (Fr., wing, as in a theater) Compositional elements -- clumps of trees, groups of figures, buildings, etc. -- arranged in tiers at the sides of a picture to direct the eye into the center picture space. Common in Baroque painting. Courbet, Gustave (1819-1877) Teaching himself partly by copying in the Louvre, Courbet evolved a vigorous naturalism that he used in scenes from everyday life, portraits, nudes, still lifes, and landscapes. He was rabidly Slide 70: anticlerical, depicting drunken priests, and he further injured himself by meddling in politics and involving himself in the aftermath of the 1848 Revolution. Strongly anti-intellectual, Courbet rejected all idealization in art and rebelled against both classicism and romanticism for their literary and exotic subjects. He proclaimed that only realism was truly democratic and that the noblest subject for the artist was the worker and the peasant. His eventual flight from France in 1873 prevented him from knowing much of the work of the Impressionists. Courbet was a convivial Bohemian of inordinate vanity and one with an unendearingly caustic tongue. His technique was imperfect; his brushwork often as insensitive as his color, although in his best works this same brushwork can be extraordinarily rich. He is recognized for his use of chiaroscuro and his vivid unconventional approach, which is dramatically exciting. Many of his nudes range from the mildly to the highly erotic. Crackle A network of fine cracks on the glaze of oriental and modern porcelain, produced by intentional crazing. Also, the surface of an oil painting when broken by a network of small cracks (craquelure). Cubism A form of Modern Art, and the parent of all Abstract Art forms, Cubism grew out of the efforts of Picasso and Braque to replace the purely visual effects of the Impressionists with objects that had a more intellectual conception in form and color. Cubists deliberately gave up the representation of things as they

appear in order to give several views of an object, expressing an idea rather than any one view of the subject. The first exhibition of Cubistic works was in 1907 in Paris. Currier, Nathaniel (1813-1888) and Ives, James Merritt (1824-1895) American lithographers and printing partners who employed handcoloring on a mass -production system in which one person worked with each color. For some fifty years they published three new prints each week on every aspect of American life -- the Wild West; Indian, sporting, and pioneering scenes; fires and other disasters; the Civil War, and temperance and political tracts -- all of which reached into the farthest corners of the land and also had a considerable following abroad. Dada (Fr. hobby-horse) An art form that began in 1915 (also an international movement in literature and drama) and flourished between Cubism and Surrealism; its purpose was to produce in its audience both hysteria and shock. Dada was deliberately antiart and antisense, intended to outrage and scandalize, and its most characteristic piece was the reproduction of the Mona Lisa, decorated with a mustache and bearing the obscene caption Elle a chaud au cul. Other manifestations included colored paper cut out at random and shuffled; ready -made objects, such as the "signed" bicycle wheel; bits of machinery with incongruous titles; and a lecture given by 38 lecturers in unison. Supposedly the name Dada was picked by sticking a pin down onto the page of an open dictionary. Slide 71: Dali, Salvador (1904-1989) A Spanish painter, Dali was originally a Cubist but became one of the leading Surrealists until he abandoned Marxism and returned to the Catholic Church. Dali frequently used nightmares, visionary experiences, and mental aberrations for subject matter, all related with photographic exactness and great attention paid to every detail. He is also famous for paintings of great spiritual beauty. Dali the man was flamboyant, and not many claim to have really known this master of pose and disguise. Daumier, Honore (1808-1879) A cartoonist and bitter political and social satirist, Daumier's watercolors and wash drawings of scenes from everyday life are untouched by any romantic feeling for picturesque poverty. His large oil paintings are loosely handled, with calligraphic brushwork and intense light and shadow. He delighted in painting the sordid side of great cities by exposing evil characters and carefully hidden secrets. In old age Daumier became blind and was eventually rescued from desperate poverty by Jean-Baptiste -Camille Corot. David, Jacques-Louis (1748-1825) During the French Revolution, David became dictator of the arts and designed huge propaganda pieces. He also painted memorial portraits of the martyrs of the Revolution. Later he met Napoleon and became an ardent Bonapartist, painting several laudatory works to aid Napoleon's public relations. After Waterloo, David fled to Switzerland and eventually retired to Brussels, where he died. Several contradictory strains combine in David's art -- from the stern neoclassicism of his youth he moved, in the Napoleonic pictures, toward a Venetian use of color and light. Yet contemporary and later pictures of Classical subjects show a concentration on drawing and a rigid antiquarianism at variance with all that Venetian influence implies. His portraits are always supremely well designed and full of realism; however, his later Classical subjects betray a progressive sweetening of style, perhaps due to the stultifying influence of his

self-imposed exile, cut off from the stimulating conflict of ideas resulting from the rise of Romanticism. Davies, Arthur Brown (1862-1928) An American artist, he studied in Europe where he was influenced by the dreamlike paintings of Giorgione. His paintings are distinguished by a poetic, fanciful symbolism based on figures moving gracefully within mysterious landscapes and wooden glens. He also executed mural decorations as well as tapestry designs for the Gobelin Factory. As a member of the Society of Independent Artists, Davies arranged the Armory Show of 1913. Davis, Stuart (1894-1964) An American abstract artist influenced by Leger, Davis frequently painted recognizable objects in "foreign," abstract settings. For one year his only subject matter was an egg beater, an electric fan, and a rubber glove. Slide 72: Degas, Edgar (1834-1917) Born in Paris of a wealthy family, Degas' early works -- family portraits and some history pictures -- suggest that he was to develop into an academic painter. However, his first pictures of dancers were painted about 1873, and from then on ballet girls, working girls, models dressing and bathing, and cabaret artists became his principal subject matter. He recorded the manners and movements of a society he observed almost as if it were another world. Technically, he was one of the greatest experimenters and innovators. In later life, he used pastel more than any other medium, and as his eyesight weakened his handling became broader and freer. There are also seventy-four pieces of sculpture -- late works -- including ballet dancers and figures in movement, originally executed in wax, but now generally cast in bronze. de Kooning, Willem (b.1904) A Dutch-born artist, de Kooning was a leader in the Abstract-Expressionist movement. In 1926, he settled in the United States permanently, and here his work took on the new dimensions of Symbolism and Surrealism. He was famous for his depictions of the female form in primitive and strident colors, distorted shapes, and tragic expressions. Delacroix, Eugene (1798-1863) The major painter of the Romantic movement in France, Delacroix had a great interest in English art and in animal painting. In 1832 he visited North Africa, and this opened to him a whole new field of subjects: scenes from Arab and Jewish life, animal subjects, and innumerable illustrations of Byron abound in his gigantic output after this. But the works he is happiest with are small, freely handled, colorful subjects -- battles, hunts, animals in combat, and portraits of intimate friends, such as Chopin. He left no artistic succession, for the essence of Romanticism is its personal quality. He contributed greatly to the struggle of the nonconforming artist against entrenched classicism. Donatello (1386?-1466) Not only the greatest Florentine sculptor before Michelangelo, Donatello was the most influential individual artist of the l5th century. Practically every later sculptor, including Michelangelo, was deeply indebted to him, and the heroic types he invented have colored our whole conception of 15th-century Florence. He created a new kind of humanity, slightly larger than life and exemplifying qualities that were highly prized in the early Renaissance. His later work is saturated in the spirit of antiquity which he understood more fully than any other 15th-century artist. Dore, Gustave (18321883) A French painter and lithographer, Dore's powerful imagination made him recognized as a master of mystery, drama, and satire. His most famous

illustrations appear in editions of Dante's Inferno and Cervantes' Don Quixote -works that provide a wealth of material for an artist who shaped visions and dreams. Dragging The technique of applying paint over a previous, tacky layer in order to create the effect of broken color. Slide 73: Drybrush A technique of drawing, watercolor, and also oil painting in which little color is put onto a brush and then skimmed over a surface. Color is left only on the raised points of that surface, which gives a soft, sketchy tone and effect. Dubuffet, Jean (1901-1985) He was inspired by graffiti on walls ("the art of the ordinary man") and produced works that are made of junk -- tar, sand, glass, and so on -- which were scratched, colored, and manipulated into shapes resembling human beings, e.g., aggressively female women. He preferred amateur spontaneity to professional skill, and had a large collection of what he called art brut (raw art), much of it produced by psychotics. Dufy, Raoul (18771953) Dufy worked in a sub-Impressionist manner until 1905, when he adopted simplified form and bright color. He designed textiles and ceramics and developed a gay, light-hearted, decorative style, eminently suited to his range of subjects -- esplanades, racecourses, regattas, etc. Durer, Albrecht (1471-1528) The son of a goldsmith, Durer began in the art world by producing woodcut book illustrations for a painter. Later he studied mathematics, geometry, Latin, and humanist literature and sought the company of scholars rather than that of fellow artisans. This departure in mode of life and thought was common enough in Italy, but it was unprecedented in Germany. Durer's enormous work consists of woodcuts and engravings and paintings. He was the main channel through which Italian Renaissance forms and ideas were introduced into the North. His greatest influence was through his graphic work. He is one of the supreme masters of woodcut and copper engraving, and carried his technique and style all over Europe. All his works combine vivid imagery, technical refinement, expressiveness, and masterly draftsmanship. Eakins, Thomas (1844-1916) An American painter, principally of portraits, Eakins went from Philadelphia to Paris in 1866, where he came under the influence of Manet's realism. He eventually became a successful teacher in Philadelphia where his quest for realism led him to attend medical classes to improve his knowledge of anatomy. However, in his later period of portrait painting, Eakins' scientific bent gave way to intense psychological study. Early Christian Art Term referring to the early centuries of Christian art (3rd to 6th) when Christian subject matter was rendered in the prevailing styles of late Roman art. Earth Art An umbrella term for related movements originating in the mid-1960s in which substances like dirt, rocks, snow, and grass are embraced as the artist's media. Easel Picture Small-or moderate-size painting executed at an easel. Slide 74: Renaissance artists began painting easel pictures to meet the demand of collectors, and they were often displayed on easels. Also called cabinet picture. Egg-and-Dart Classical decorative motif consisting of an alternation of oval forms with pointed, dart-like shapes. Enamel Colorless, white, or colored glass fused by heat to a metal or porcelain base. Also, an object produced by the technique. Engraving A generic title often used to cover all the methods of multiplying prints. The three main types of engraving may be classified as (1)

Relief or cameo, (2) Intaglio, and (3) Lithography. (1) Relief. The main techniques are woodcut and wood-engraving. A plain block of wood, if covered with printing ink and pressed on a sheet of paper, would print as a black rectangle, but if channels were cut into the surface with a gouge these would not catch the ink and would print as white patches. The principle of a woodcut is, therefore, to leave the black lines or patches untouched. A single black line has to have the wood on each side of it cut away, and this is done with special knives and gouges. Woodcuts are done on blocks of soft wood and give hundreds, or even thousands, of impressions before wearing out. Color prints are produced by cutting a special block for each color as well as a key-block, usually printed black, which carries the linear structure. (2) Intaglio. The intaglio techniques include all forms of engraving on metal, usually copper, and they are distinguished from other techniques by the method of printing. When the plate has been engraved, it is dabbed all over with a thin printing ink, which is then rubbed off, leaving the ink in the engraved furrows. A piece of paper is then dampened and laid on the plate, and both are rolled through a heavy press not unlike a mangle. The damp paper is forced into the engraved lines and so picks up the ink: when dry the engraved lines stand up in relief. (3) Lithography. The one major process that involves no cutting into the block or plate, and therefore no engraving in the proper sense, is lithography, usually executed on a thick slab of stone or zinc. The whole technique is based on the fact that water runs off a greasy surface. The design is drawn or painted on the stone with a greasy chalk, and then the stone is wetted. When the greasy ink is rolled on the stone it will not take on the wet parts, but it sticks on the parts that are already greasy, from which the water runs off. This process is used very widely for posters and other forms of commercial art. Its great advantage is that there is almost no limit to the number of prints it is possible to produce. Environment Art Not to be confused with earth art, in its broadest sense environment art refers to the work of artists who manipulate the man-made environment. Controlled spaces -- whether sculpted or constructed of building materials or light beams or sound -- are intended to be experienced with all the senses. Environment art has appeared sporadically in several 20th-century Slide 75: movements, including Dada, Surrealism, and Pop Art. Epstein, Sir Jacob (1880-1959) Born in New York, Epstein spent his life in England. In 1907 he was commissioned to carve 18 statues for the British Medical Association building. They were erected in 1908 and caused great scandal because people thought them indecent. After that, it became customary for any new imaginative work of his to be greeted with an uproar. His portraits in bronze have an over-lifesize quality partly due to the handling. Reminiscent of Rodin, Epstein's works are generally admired by the public and receive great critical acclaim. Ernst, Max (1891-1976) Of German origin, a naturalized French artist, Ernst was a leading Surrealist and one of the founders of Dada. His works, sometimes referred to as "reveries," often had a mysterious quality and were sometimes peopled by strange animals moving through unusual and disturbing landscapes. Ernst was thought to be the most effective and moving when he endeavored to re -create the ideas and things with which he was obsessed. Etching A process in which an

etching needle is used to draw the design into a wax ground applied over a metal plate. The plate is then subjected to a series of acid bitings, is inked, wiped, and then printed. Also, a print made by this process. Expressionism The contemporary search for expressiveness of style by means of exaggerations and distortions of line and color. Expressionism is a simplified style that carries great emotional impact, an art movement in which the artist's emotions become more important than a faithful rendering of the subject matter. For instance, van Gogh's use of a drastically simplified outline and very strong color, and Munch's hysterical art, which is one of the foundations of the movement. The tendency to sentimental hysteria and the clear derivation from African art are two of the factors that explain Hitler's denunciation of "Degenerate Art" (Expressionism) and also the esteem it now enjoys. Expressionism in Modern Art means the display of distortion and exaggeration. "The Scream" by Edvard Munch Fauvism In the post-lmpressionist Paris of 1905, the works of a number of painters (Matisse, Roualt, Dufy, etc.) were hung together in one room and a critic dubbed them Les Fauves (the wild beasts) because their pictures were full of distortions and flat patterns, and painted in violent colors that created a furor. They were not, until then -- or even afterward -- a particularly coherent group, but they stayed together temporarily mostly out of rebellion and because their brightly colored works could be hung in no other company. By 1908, the Fauves had fallen apart as a group and a number of members had seceded to Cubism. Fauvism is known as the first artistic revolution of the 20th century. Slide 76: Fayum Portrait Realistic portrait of a deceased person painted on a mummy case or on the linen shroud itself, in Fayum, a province of Egypt. Federal Style An American architectural style of about 1780 to 1820, which reflected English Georgian models, especially the influence of Robert Adam. Symmetrically designed facades, smooth surfaces, and restrained classical ornament typify buildings in that style. Flying Buttress A bridge of masonry that transmits the thrust of a vault or roof to an outer support. Folk Art The arts of peasant societies, both past and present. Characterized by naive subject matter and a vivacious style, folk art both perpetuates very ancient decorative traditions and draws selectively from art forms of sophisticated cultural traditions, e.g., the adaptation of 18th-century rococo motifs in European folk art. Paintings, sculpture, ceramics, metalwork, costume, needlework, implements, and tools all may be folk art. Foreshortening Perspective is used to create a threedimensional effect. An arm pointing directly at the spectator so that little more than the hand can be seen is said to be strongly foreshortened. Found Object (Objet trouve) In Surrealist theory, an object of any kind that is regarded by the artist as aesthetically significant -- a shell found on a walk can be a work of art. If a little judicious touching up has been indulged in, the object is known technically as a "Found Object Composed." Fouquet, Jehan (ca. 1420-1481) The major French painter of the 15th century, Fouquet brought back from Italy theories of perspective then unknown to the French. He was famous for miniatures, court and religious paintings, and was a renowned illuminator of manuscripts. His eclecticism also earned him plaudits as a sculptor of tombs and the designer of stained-glass windows. Foxing A discoloration of paper in books, on prints, etc.,

due to dampness. Seen as brown spots. Fragonard, Jean-Honore (1732-1806) The typical painter of gallant and sentimental subjects in the reign of Louis XV during the ascendancy of Mme. du Barry. Fragonard worked in a lighthearted and sometimes frankly erotic vein with great success. The French Revolution put an end to his patrons and to the demand for his kind of art; he died in Paris, almost totally forgotten. Francesca, Piero della (de' Franceschi) (1410-1492) Long neglected, della Francesca is now probably the most popular painter of the 1400s. This is due to the mathematical perfection of his forms, which gives a timeless and serene air Slide 77: to his works, increased by his pale and soft colors. His meditative mind gave a calm dignity to his work, enhanced by his masterful sense of order. His style has been described as both heroic and earthy at the same time. Francis, Sam (b.1923) A San Francisco artist, he received an M.A. degree from the University of California at Berkeley and settled in Paris. His work has been exhibited in the major galleries and museums in New York since the 1950s. Influenced by Gorky and Rothko, his paintings are marked by cellular-like shapes and glowing colors. He utilizes spatter technique and runs of pigment and also renders expressive gestural forms against vast white space. Fresco (Ital. fresh) Wall painting, in a medium like watercolor on plaster. Practiced in Italy from the 14th century and perfected in the 16th century, it is one of the most permanent forms of wall decoration known. The wall is first rough plastered and then the cartoon is traced. The cartoon is then painted with pigments mixed with plain water or lime water. Because the plaster is still damp, a chemical reaction takes place and the colors become integrated with the wall itself. The use of a detailed, full-size cartoon means that several assistants can work simultaneously on different parts of the wall, provided that all work is done from the top downward so that the splashes fall on the unpainted parts. Frieze The middle section of the entablature . . . where relief sculpture was sometimes applied. Also, in interiors, the broad band between wall paneling and ceiling. Fugitive Pigment Pigment that either fades with prolonged exposure to light, is susceptible to atmospheric pollution, or tends to darken when mixed with other substances. Fuller, Richard Buckminster (1895-1983) American avant-garde architect, Fuller became famous for his geodesic domes (structures made from connected elements that are light and straight) -- frameworks of steel ribs, covered in plastic, cardboard, metal, etc. Funk Art A term coined in the 1960s to describe a class of art that emerged in the San Francisco Bay area. It was often witty, sometimes deliberately distasteful, with a diversity of styles ranging from comic-strip derivations to William Wiley's use of found objects. Funk artists looked to popular culture rather than traditional canons of fine art. Futurism This word was used to mean any art more recent than 1900; the only important modern movement to be largely independent of Paris (for which reason it is not popular in France) dated from Italy in 1909 to its virtual demise in World War I. Futurists wished to represent machines or figures actually in motion, and their exhibitions caused scandal and riots all over Europe. Slide 78: Futurism was a reaction against static art, which was considered unsuited to the dynamism of the modern world. In Futurist language, it is not good enough to portray the picture of a man eating a sandwich -- the artist must

also express the feelings, ideas, and thoughts associated with the action. PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development World History in One Nut Shell, Almost Gainsborough, Thomas (1727-1788) An English landscape painter, Gainsborough turned for a period of time to portraiture, executing full-length lifesize figures, such as The Blue Boy. An artist who, in his scene paintings, depended more on composition than observation and was much in rivalry with Reynolds. Gainsborough is known as the most poetic illustrator of the English personality and was the official court painter of the 1780s. Gargoyle A familiar grotesquerie in Gothic architecture: a bizarrely weird creature whose open mouth was functional in that it helped to serve as a gutter to direct and carry water from the walls. Gaudi, Antonio (1852-1956) A Spanish architect, Gaudi was one of the major figures in the representation of Art Nouveau, although that was only one of his many styles. He explored both the Gothic and Avant-garde, and many of his works seem to be representations of the 1950s in style. Gaudi worked for forty years on the Church of the Sagrada Familia in Barcelona. This masterpiece of blended architecture was treated by him as a piece of sculpture. PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development World History in One Nut Shell, Almost The porches contain their own worlds of animals and plants in a Baroque fantasy; the gables and pitched roofs of carved stone are created as imitation snow from which emerge shapes that represent events in the life of Christ. He also designed apartment buildings in Barcelona without straight surfaces, so that they appear to move like waves in constant undulation. Gauguin, Paul (18481903) A Parisian stockbroker, Gauguin was a Sunday painter who collected the works of the Impressionists and joined in their exhibitions. He eventually gave up his job, separated from his family, and went to live in Brittanny before leaving for Tahiti in 1891. The rest of his life was spent painting and living in the South Sea islands. His last years were spent in poverty, illness, and the continual struggle with authorities to champion native causes. His early works may be ranged with those of the Impressionists, but his rejection of Western civilization led to his departure for Tahiti, and to Naturalistic tradition -- he depicted the simplicity of life among primitive and unspoiled peoples. Gauguin's influence has been enormous, because he is one Slide 79: of the main sources from which non-Naturalistic 20th-century art has emanated. Genre This style of painting depicts scenes from everyday life without trying to idealize the subject matter. Giacometti, Alberto (1901-1966) A Swiss artist who created imaginary, symbolic structures from rough blocks. In 1930, Giacometti joined the Surrealist movement and began to mold smaller and smaller pieces, until one bust of his was no bigger than a book of matches. Later he returned to more realistic figures (emaciated in form), built by working with plaster of Paris on an armature. Gibson, Charles Dana (1867-1944) An American

painter and illustrator, Gibson became involved in depicting and ridiculing New York society and turn-of-the -century social practices. He was most famous for the popular illustrations of his wife, who became the American symbol of manners and fashion (high neck, full sleeves, wasp waist), known still as the "Gibson girl." Gilding The practice of applying a thin layer of gold leaf to the surface of an object, then burnishing it. Giotto (1266-1337) A Florentine, Giotto is generally regarded as the founder of modern painting, since he broke away from the stereotyped forms of Byzantine art and tried to give his figures solidity and naturalism while imbuing passion and imagination into his scenes. His dramatic power can be felt in his frescoes, filled with the humanity St. Francis brought to the religious life of the 13th century that had a potent influence on the arts. In Giotto's art, people are revealed for the first time as human beings whose feelings express the deep emotions of Christianity. Gisant A sculptured figure, memorializing the deceased, that lies on the lid of the deceased's tomb. Glazing The process of applying a transparent layer of oil paint over a solid one so that the color of the first is profoundly modified. Thus, a transparent glaze of crimson over a solid blue will give effects of purple to mulberry color, depending on the thickness of the glaze or the intensity of pigment used. The use of glazes is now very rare, as it implies a deliberation and a craftsmanly approach to painting that is often thought inconsistent with inspiration. See Scumbling. Gogh, Vincent van (1853-1890) The son of a Dutch pastor, van Gogh became a missionary in a coal-mining district in Belgium, where he shared the poverty and hardships of the miners. He did not begin to become an artist until he was living in great poverty after his dismissal from the mission in 1880. Then he joined his brother Theo in Paris and came immediately into contact with the Slide 80: works of the Impressionists, which Theo endeavored to sell in the gallery devoted to Modern Art that he directed. He met Toulouse-Lautrec, Pissarro, Degas, Seurat, and Gauguin, and in 1888 went to Arles, where he was later joined by Gauguin. In December 1888 he became mentally imbalanced, and from then until his death suffered intermittent attacks of manic depression. During the intervals he painted with a frenzy and passion in asylums or wherever he found himself living. In July 1890 he shot himself. His brother Theo, to whom most of his long and revealing letters were addressed, and who was his constant support, moral and financial, died six months later. Van Gogh's Dutch period is characterized by his use of dark color, heavy forms, and subject matter chiefly drawn from peasants and their work. He ignored Theo's advice to lighten his palette as the Impressionists were doing. Later he adopted the Impressionist technique and turned to flowers, views of Paris, and portraits and self -portraits that enabled him to experiment with new ideas. He painted many landscapes and portraits in heightened color and with a vivid expression of light and feeling. His paintings are vivid in color and with writhing, flamelike forms in the drawing, completely expressive of his tormented sensibility. Gothic A term used to describe the medieval architectural style of Northern Europe from the early 12th century until the 16th. It is also used to describe the other arts of the same period, particularly when emphasizing their transcendental qualities distinct from Renaissance art. The cathedral was Gothic art's greatest contribution, with its

elaborate architecture and grand stained-glass panels. Gouache Opaque watercolor paint (known to many people as poster paint). With gouache, effects very similar to those in oil painting may be achieved with less trouble, so that it is a useful means of making studies for a large picture in oils, although it has the defect of drying much lighter in tone than it seems when wet. Goya (y Lucientes), Francisco de (1746-1828) The official Spanish portrait painter, Goya also produced works that, he said, were "to make observations for which commissioned works generally have no room, and in which fantasy and invention have no limit." This fantasy was typified in a series of etchings that are savagely satirical attacks on manners and customs and on abuses in the Church. Goya was a rebel and a revolutionary, and what seems difficult to understand is how the Bourbons could continue to employ him, for his portraits of Charles IV and his family have been described as making them look like prosperous grocers, to appear brutish, moronic, and arrogant. In later years Goya began to practice the new art of Lithography and produced some bullfighting scenes as well as prints and etchings. Graffiti Drawing and writing (sometimes just scratching with haste) on particularly nonaesthetic surfaces, such as trains, cars, school desks, and Slide 81: bathroom walls. Occasionally quite pleasing and colorful, graffiti is infrequently raised to the level of an art form. Graphic Arts The phrase refers to those arts involving writing, drawing, engraving, or any representation or decoration onto a flat surface. Greco, El (Domenikos Theotocopoulos) (15411614) Known as "The Greek," his early works show his wide range of sources -Titian, Michelangelo, Raphael, Durer -- and, underlying all these, Goya's Byzantine heritage. It is not known why he went to Spain, but he is recorded in Toledo from 1577 until his death, where his ecstatic and passionate style became heightened with time, often increasing with successive repetitions of a subject, and so personal that his pupils and assistants did not even attempt to follow his example. Greco's use of color often eerie and strident, with sharp contrasts of blue, yellow, shrill green, and a livid mulberry pink, the elongated limbs and nervous tension of his fingers, the feeling that the draperies swathing them have a life of their own -- all these suggest the intensity of the painter's mystical experience and the catharsis he found in his art. Guild In the Middle Ages tradesmen formed themselves into Guilds for economic, religious, and social purposes, and often several different trades would unite in a single Guild; at Florence, for example, painters belonged to the doctors' and apothecaries' Guild. Much of our knowledge of early painting comes from Guild records, since all painters had to join unless they were in the personal service of the ruling prince. Only a master could set up in business and take pupils. To become a master it was necessary to submit a masterpiece to the Guild as evidence of competence. The Guild officers also supervised the conditions of work and also the working materials. The tendency to uniformity of style and mentality led to painters like Leonardo and Michelangelo insisting on the freedom and originality of the artist and his status as a professional man. This new conception of the inspired being, instead of the honest tradesman, led to the decline of the Guilds and the rise of the Academies. Halftone In photoengraving, a process in which gradations of light are obtained by manipulating the density of minute dots on the

printing surface. Hals, Frans (1580-1666) An artist who spent most of his life in The Netherlands, Hals had a great gift for portraiture, especially for catching the fleeting expression. He is best known for his portraits of the huge but lively groups of the companies of archers and musketeers raised during the wars against Spain. These groups solve the very difficult problem of composing a picture out of a number of figures, all of whom demanded the same prominence (since all the sitters subscribed to and bought the paintings), thus precluding the classical solution of subordinating the minor figures. The whole is perhaps a little like a school photograph, but the very informality caused his work to be a great influence on Manet and the Impressionists. In his single figures his

by PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development Nollijy University Research Institute Arts & Sciences - Evolution
Slide 82: dazzling skill sometimes runs away with him, and he never quite achieved the sympathy and insight of his greater contemporary Rembrandt. After the peace of 1648 the military companies were disbanded, but their place was taken, for artists, by the great group portraits commissioned by regents. Hals painted several of these, particularly in his last years when he was destitute and dependent on charity for himself and his wife. These paintings have greater feeling for character and greater humanity than many of his earlier groups, and they are also closer to Rembrandt in handling. Happening Happenings developed from a combination of assemblage and environment art, as artists sought to free art further from the constraints of the wall and the frame. Resembling performance, these events often involved sculpture, sound, time, motion, and living persons. While participants began with a plan, there was no rehearsal and no repeat performance. Hard-edge Painting A term used by critic Jules Langsner in 1959 in speaking of paintings executed in broad, flat areas of color delineated by precise, sharp edges. Hartung, Hans (b.1904) One of the leading representatives of Abstract Art whose works are a mesh of calligraphic brushstrokes, usually dark on a light ground. His paintings have no titles, but are

distinguished by a style in which a sweep of paint or an ink stain is imposed on a highly colored surface. Hartung's later technique, dominated by a display of dark lines, gave his drawings the appearance of finely wrought engravings. Hassam, Childe (1859-1935) Born and trained in New England, Hassam was the foremost American impressionist painter. He first worked as an illustrator and watercolor artist. In Paris he adapted the impressionist principles of color division, spontaneity of brushstroke and atmospheric effects that distinguished his style. In New York he helped found the group called "The Ten" -- made up of leading impressionist landscape painters such as Twachtman, Weir, and Metcalf. He exhibited at the Armory Show and was a member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters. Hatching Shading executed by closely spaced parallel lines; crosshatching is shading when another group of lines crosses the first at an angle. Hepworth, Barbara (1903-1975) A British abstract sculptor, Hepworth is a direct carver in wood and stone. In 1931, with Henry Moore, she began piercing holes in her sculpture and creating hollowed-out forms. In 1938, she began carving abstract forms in which large masses are set off by string or wire, giving the effect of a musical instrument. History Painting Dating from the Renaissance to the l9th century in fully developed academic theory, it was the noblest form of art, consisting of Slide 83: generalized representations of the passions and intellect as symbolized in Classical history or mythology or in themes taken from Christian subject matter. Hockney, David (b.1937) British painter and etcher, he studied at the Royal College of Art and became known for pictures in the Pop style idiom. His work conveys a strong sense of design, pattern, visual rhythm, and a light illusive imagery. In the 1960s he concentrated on such visual phenomena as moving water and reflective glass. His realistic portraits and domestic scenes reveal high -keyed color, flat acrylic textures, and an almost surrealistic aura. Hogarth, William (1697-1764) Beginning as a draftsman, Hogarth then began painting small groups and conversation pieces, and by 1729 he had begun to make a name. He said of himself, "I have endeavored to treat my subjects as a dramatic writer; my picture is my stage, and men and women my players, who by means of certain actions and gestures, are to exhibit a [pantomine]." The first of his moral subjects was the Harlot's Progress, showing the downfall of a country girl at the hands of the wicked Londoners (several of whom were recognizable). His fame is most firmly based on these "moral" engravings, which have to be read, detail by telling detail, rather than contemplated as works of art; nevertheless, all through his life he was capable of pieces of superb painting. Holbein, Hans, the Younger (1497?-1543) Probably the most accomplished and penetratingly Realist portrait painter the North has produced. His early portraits show his gift for characterization, and his religious works show him as either grimly realist or decorative rather than devotional. His international reputation as a portraitist was established by 1532, and eventually he painted for Henry VIII, who also employed Holbein as a goldsmith's designer and sent him abroad to paint prospective brides. His later practice of painting from drawings, instead of from the sitter, was strengthened by the requirements of extensive court portraiture. His portraits -- life-sized and in miniature -- became more linear in style and more

formal in treatment than his early works, partly through their emphasis on detail, partly because working only from drawings led him to be less sensitive in handling and perception. Holograph Term used to describe a three-dimensional image created by a beam of laser light passing through a hologram wave interference photograph. Homer, Winslow (1836-1910) With Eakins, one of the most influential of the late 19th-century American painters, he earned his living first as an illustrator -- recording the Civil War -- and this sense of actuality remained in all his works even after 1875, when he devoted himself to painting. In the 1880s and 1890s he revolutionized American painting by his Impressionistlike style in studies of the sea and shooting and fishing subjects appealing to the Slide 84: American male. He was also affected by the Japanese craze, which arrived in Europe in the 1860s and is visible in his work in the 1870s. Homer achieved fame in many different areas: as a naturalist, lithographer, and watercolorist. See Civil War Index Hopper, Edward (1882-1967) An American artist, he beautifully evoked the lonely moods of city life by depicting deserted buildings in glaring light, the lonely atmosphere of a predawn diner, and the daily worker captured in a state of ennui. His scenes are both bleak and surreal, and not infrequently he infuses his audience with a sense of despair. Hudson River School A school of mid-19th-century American landscape painting, highly Romantic in feeling and glorifying the wonders of nature as visible in the American landscape. The Hudson River artists were highly realistic, and their work was encouraged by the vogue of having landscape paintings as parlor decorations. Icon (Ikon, Gk. image) Originally meant a picture of Christ or a saint on a panel, as distinct from a wall painting. These icons were extremely limited in subject matter, and the actual forms and shapes were prescribed and maintained unchanged for centuries in the Greek Orthodox world: Thus, the earliest surviving examples may date from the 6th and 7th centuries but are virtually indistinguishable from those painted as late as the 17th century or even later. Iconology is the knowledge of the meanings to be attached to pictorial representations. Ideal Art "Any work of Art that represents not a material object, but the mental conception of a material object, is in the primary sense of the word ideal; that is to say, it represents an idea, and not a thing" (Ruskin). According to Plato the only realities are ideas, and everything perceptible to the senses is merely an imperfect realization of the primary idea: Thus, the idea of a dog is the true dog, and all dogs in the visible gutter merely approximate to the idea of dogness. From this arises a perennial theory that the true function of art is to mirror those ideal forms that are the sole realities, approaching them by way of the physical phenomena that are their distorted images. Illumination Describes an illustration, ornamental initial, or pattern painted on the vellum or parchment leaves of a manuscript as an adornment of the text. Illusionism The use of techniques, such as perspective and foreshortening, to deceive the eye into taking that which is painted for that which is real. When such technical skill is lavished on things like a fly painted on a frame or a view through a nonexistent window, the French term trompe-l'oeil ("deceive the eye") is often used. Slide 85: Imari A type of Japanese export porcelain made at Arita. Imari-ware combines red and gold over blue underglaze decoration. Impasto An Italian word

used to describe the thickness of the paint applied to a canvas. When the paint is so heavily applied that it stands up in lumps, the tracks of the brush, palette knife, or other tool become clearly evident. Impressionism The derisive name given to the most important artistic phenomenon of the 19th century and the first of the modern movements. The name was derived from a picture by Monet, Impression, Sunrise, which represents the play of light on water, with the spectator looking straight into the rising sun. The true aim of Impressionism was to achieve ever greater naturalism, by exact analysis of tone and color and by trying to render the play of light on the surface of objects. This is a form of sensualism in which traditional ideas of composition and drawing were bound to suffer. The flickering touch, with the paint applied in small, brightly colored dabs, the lack of firm outline, and the generally high key undoubtedly alienated the public. The great decade of Impressionism was 1870-1880, but most of the major figures, such as Monet and Pissarro, continued to produce masterpieces in a more or less Impressionist style for many more years. Degas, Renoir, and Cezanne are only dubiously Impressionists and they very soon moved away from it. The main weakness of the movement was its lack of intellectual rigor; nevertheless, most painting of the last 90 years has been profoundly affected by it. The very nature of the movement was its emphasis on painting landscapes outdoors and catching the fleeting impression. Industrial Design The application of aesthetic principles to the design of machine-made articles, with a canon of standards quite independent of those for hand-made objects. Chiefly a phenomenon of the last hundred years, it was first espoused by members of the arts and crafts movement. Also called industrial art. Ingres, Jean-AugusteDominique (1780-1867) Ingres became the main prop of a rigid classicism in opposition to the Romantic movement. His main works were portraits -- which he professed to dislike, and in which he was influenced by early photographs -- but he also painted subject pictures and poeticized Oriental scenes providing an excuse for voluptuous nudes. His style changed almost not at all, and to the end he pursued his piercingly exact vision, his sinuous line, and his supreme draftsmanship. Inness, George (1825-1894) A leading American landscape painter, Inness was influenced by Hudson River artists such as Cole and Durand. He portrayed vast panoramic scenes in sharp, clear detail. During the 1870s he was impressed by the Barbizon School and his canvases became more limited in scale with suggestive forms rendered in fluid brushstrokes reminiscent of Corot. Slide 86: Isocephaly A method of composing groups of figures in such a way that all are shown at the same height, regardless of posture or purpose. Characteristic of classical Greek art. Itten, Johannes (1888-1967) He founded an art school in Vienna before joining the faculty of the Bauhaus at Wiemar, Germany. A Swiss painter, he developed an accepted method of teaching art and when he left the Bauhaus in 1923, founded his own school in Berlin. Later he was director of an art school in Zurich, where he died. Influenced by the Cubists and the Blaue Reiter, he rendered recognizable and geometric forms within a compressed abstract design with bright colors and a surrealistic quality. Ives, James Merritt See Currier, Nathaniel. Johns, Jasper (b.1930) A major Pop artist, Johns's paintings of cool blown-up images, such as Flags and Targets, adhere to

the picture surface and are made like "art." A highly regarded and influential contemporary artist, he created an ambiguity between abstraction and representation as he explored the tension between a painting as a painted surface and as an object. Jones, Inigo (1573-1652) He introduced classical forms into England that provided the basis of the late Renaissance and Georgian styles of architecture. Born in England, he traveled across Europe but was impressed by Roman monuments and the buildings of Palladio in Venice. At the courts of James I and Charles I, he designed stage sets, became the king's surveyor, and designed buildings that embodied Palladian principles such as the Queen's House in Greenwich and the Royal Banqueting Hall in Whitehall, London. He also made designs for St. Paul's Church and Covent Garden. Jugendstijl The German term for the style known elsewhere as Art Nouveau. Named after the unofficial organ of the movement in Germany, the magazine Jugend, founded in 1896. Kandinsky, Wassily (1866-1944) Born in Moscow but trained in Munich, after abandoning a legal career, Kandinsky painted his first purely Abstract (non realistic) work in 1910 and was therefore one of the founders of that genre. His work is characterized by a fury of lines and passionate color. Eventually he began to translate the intellectual aspects of his art into geometric form, heavily relying on shape, flat color, and rhythm to express his themes and subject matter. Both romantic and lyric, he produced some of the most original paintings in the Abstract movement. Kent, Rockwell (1882-1971) American painter and illustrator whose works sometimes resemble the style of Homer, although Kent's brushwork tends to be more lyric and flowing. Kent greatly admired the art of Blake, but his own tones and forms tend to be both darker and stronger and his forms more Slide 87: geometric. He frequently employed woodcuts in his illustrative work. Kinetic Art Art that moves, driven by atmospheric forces (e.g., Alexander Calder's mobiles) or by motors, magnets, etc. This sculpture in motion includes some of the most Avant-garde art since the 1960s. Kirchner, Ernest Ludwig (1880-1928) German expressionist painter and graphic artist, he was one of the founders of Die Brucke in 1905. Influenced by German Medieval art, Durer, van Gogh, Japanese prints, and tribal art, he painted brutalized forms within a distorted perspective with thickly applied brilliant colors. Some scenes attacked the depravity of life in Germany after World War I. He sought a subjective and symbolic value in art. He committed suicide one year after the Nazi purge of Modern Art. Klee, Paul (1879-1940) A Swiss painter and etcher, whose art of free fantasy is perhaps the most poetic of modern times, defined in his own words as "taking a line for a walk." Klee seemed to "see" through his use of line -- bold or delicate, curving under itself or waving -- and color, usually in soft, pure tones. All of his works can be seen as a signature, bearing the mark of genius. There is a joy, an innocent and lighthearted spirit about Klee that is not often duplicated. Kokoschka, Oskar (1886-1980) An Austrian painter who developed a highly imaginative Expressionist style. In his portraits he explored the multifaceted nature of his subjects, minutely examining the hands as well as the eyes and exploring the depths of emotion with a bold yet precise brush. His portraits, landscapes, and views, often seen almost in bird's-eye view, are vivid in color,

and possess a restless energy of drawing; he also painted many allegories, inspired by legends or, more commonly, by ideological themes. Kollwitz, Kathe (1867-1945) One of the most powerfully emotional German artists of this century, she married a doctor in 1891 and settled in Berlin, where she soon began to make etchings, woodcuts, and lithographs mainly of the mother and child theme and often with left-wing intentions. Most of her best works are tragic, and many of them are specifically pacifist -- her son was killed in 1914 and her grandson in 1942. Her works are bold and forthright, displaying a combination of compassion and romanticism. Kore In archaic Greek art, a statue of a standing, draped maiden; counterpart to the male kouros. Lane, Fitz Hugh (1804-1861) An American landscape artist, Lane re-created scenes of his native Gloucester, Massachusetts (oldest fishing port in the country), primarily in lithographs that he sold to the townspeople. He had a very precise and balanced style, and his signature can be seen in a very low and sweeping horizon above which clouds bank in a luminous sky. Slide 88: Lay Figure A lifelike, jointed wooden figure, which can be used either to arrange drapery on or as a guide to a complicated pose. Leger, Fernand (18811955) Leger's art quickly evolved from his early block -like figures into a form of Cubism, dependent on the shapes of machinery and their geometrical bases: cones, cylinders, cogged wheels, etc. These forms also influenced his massive, robotlike figures and increased the effect of his clear grays and strong, unbroken colors. Among his last works were the huge murals for the United Nations building in New York. Leger's paintings are beautiful examples of mechanical precision combined with dynamic areas and blocks of color. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) One of the greatest of the universal men produced by the Renaissance. Da Vinci's intellectual powers were such that he anticipated many later discoveries in anatomy, aeronautics, and several other fields, as well as being one of the greatest of Italian artists. His intellectual powers were so diffused over an enormous range of interests that he brought hardly any major enterprise to a conclusion: He almost discovered the circulation of blood, he invented the first armored fighting vehicle, projected several aircraft and helicopters, and anticipated the submarine; however, not one of these discoveries was completed. In the same way he left thousands of notes and drawings but only a handful of paintings, and fewer still completed ones. His earliest datable work is a landscape drawing (1473) that shows his interest in rock formation and the structure of the earth. One major work, the Last Supper, stresses the psychology of the disciples and the tension of the moment when Christ announces that one of them is about to betray him, a subtlety of interpretation quite foreign to the 15th century. The stories of Leonardo's slowness in working on this wall painting and his search for psychological expressiveness justify the claims made by a later generation. They regarded Leonardo as the originator of the idea of the artist as a contemplative and creative thinker, the equal of the philosopher, not a mere artisan who was paid to cover so many square yards of wall a day. Certainly all the 16th-century ideas on the dignity of the artist can be traced back to the example set by him. His last years were spent mainly in scientific pursuits. Lettrism A phenomenon since the

1950s, lettrism is the juxtaposition of letters, words, signs, and pictographic symbols with visual effect as the primary concern and with meaning (if any) of secondary importance. Lichtenstein, Roy (b.1923) An artist of the 20th century, Lichtenstein began as an Abstract Expressionist, became involved in cartoonlike illustrations and new interpretations of the Old West paintings of Remington, and then began making art from industrial products, satirizing in his wake mass production and contemporary commercial art. Slide 89: Light Sculpture Sculpture in which light sources (fluorescent and neon bulbs, incandescent bulbs, laser beams, and sunlight) are the primary medium or source of visual interest. Lipchitz, Jacques (1891-1973) Born in Lithuania, Lipchitz's sculpture shows the influence of Cubism. However, by 1925 he had evolved a personal style of openwork sculpture. The small clay sculptures he began to model in 1941, after his arrival in the United States, became his stamp and genius. These consisted of points projected into space or solid masses rising from the earth. Lippi, Fra Filippo (ca. 1406-1469) An Italian painter, Lippi's frescoes are perhaps his major achievement and show the development of a dramatic style, with great interest in the problem of movement. In 1464, he was tried for fraud and his abduction of the nun Lucrezia. He later married her, after receiving dispensation from his friends and patrons the Medicis. In spite of his activities, his late works are infused with religious feeling and are far more lyrical than the earlier ones. Lyrical Abstraction This term . . . generally refers to the socalled third generation of abstract expressionism, which developed in the early 1970s and was characterized by more sensuous and subjective abstract interpretations than those of the second generation . . . Pop Art, Hard-edge Painting, and Minimal Art, for example. Maculature The weak impression that results when a print is made without re -inking the plate. Magic Realism Related to Surrealism, this 20th-century art movement uses the unexpected combinations of objects to create disturbing images from everyday experiences. Magritte, Rene (1898-1967) Belgian born, one of the most important Surrealist painters, Magritte's dreamlike images combine a realistic technique with an "absurd" consciousness to convey the terror of an incomprehensible world. He used the juxtaposition of ordinary objects and the precision of his technique to create feelings of unrest in the viewer. The unusual titles of his paintings rarely describe the actual subject matter, but serve to add new dimensions to his work. Maillol, Aristide (1861-1944) Beginning as a tapestry maker, Maillol was a French sculptor whose works were devoted almost exclusively to the female nude. He returned to the ideals of Greek art of the 5th century B.C. in a reaction against Rodin's fluid forms and dramatic content. By contrast, Maillol stressed the static and monumental qualities of the human figure, and throughout his work his style changed only slightly. He was successful in the rebirth of a classical idealism, and although his figures mark an end of a tradition, their Slide 90: power and life will always distinguish them. Majolica Commonly refers to the richly painted, enameled pottery produced in Italy. Makemono Far Eastern painting on a long horizontal scroll. Manet, Edouard (1832-1883) Although his well-to-do bourgeois father reluctantly allowed him to study art, Manet reacted very strongly against academic history painting and began his career as an

artistic rebel. His brilliant technique was founded on painting directly from the model with intense immediacy and on a restricted palette in which black was extremely important. His early works include many Spanish subjects inspired by troupes of dancers visiting Paris. These works were frequently rejected and, if hung, were ill-received by critics. Eventually he adopted the Impressionist technique and palette, abandoning the use of black and his genius for analysis and synthesis, for a lighter, sweeter color and a freer handling. He also tended more to sentimental subjects, lacking the sober gravity of his earlier works. He always longed for official recognition and refused to take part in the Impressionist exhibitions, bitterly resenting being coupled with them in newspaper criticisms: "Manet's gang." At the end of his life he was given the Legion of Honour and the vilification of his works abated. The tragedy of his life was that he was the perfect academic painter, unrecognized and rejected by the body whose dying traditions he alone could have revivified. Mannerism A term developed in the present century to describe the artistic manifestations, principally Italian, of the period around 1520-1600. The word mannerism was used by some to describe an art based on intellectual preconceptions rather than direct visual perceptions. Much of Mannerism consists of deliberately flouting the rules deduced from Classical Art and established during the Renaissance. The principal characteristics of a Mannerist work of art are an insistence, first on the human figure, which is set in strained poses, willfully distorted and elongated, and whose muscles are sometimes grossly overemphasized. The composition is usually forced and unclear, with the principal subject set in a corner or in the background. The color of a Mannerist picture is always vivid and often harsh, since it is intended to heighten the emotional effect rather than describe the forms. It is essentially an unquiet style, subjective and emotional. On the whole, Mannerism is a style best adapted to neurotic artists, all of whom produced major works, as well as such great masters as Michelangelo, Tintoretto, and El Greco. There were also many very dull painters who strained every nerve to be neurotically interesting but produced only frenziedly gesticulating and twisted figures. Marquetry Detailed woodwork in which different colored woods and other materials are inlaid into furniture and other wooden surfaces to form patterns. Slide 91: Matisse, Henri (1869-1954) The principal artist of the Fauve group, Matisse was strongly influenced by Impressionism. In 1910, he saw the exhibition of Near Eastern art at Munich and it is clear that this highly decorative and brilliantly colored art had a deep and lasting influence on him, particularly in his development of flat patterns with flowered backgrounds and in his use of brilliant and pure colors. In 1914 he went to Nice for the winter, to remain for most of the rest of his life on the Riviera, where he painted the still life subjects that are his main work. Meissonier, Ernest (1815-1890) French painter and illustrator, he is best known for sentimental genre scenes based on the Little Dutch Masters. He also executed large military scenes, such as the battles of Napoleon. His style is marked by remarkable realism and scrupulous love of detail. Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564) He carved the first of his major works, the Pieta, in 1496, showing that he had solved the problem presented by the representation of a fullgrown man stretched out nearly horizontally on the lap of a woman, the whole

contained in a pyramidal shape: This is the consummation of everything the sculptors of the 15th century had striven to attain. A cartoon, Bathers, with its exclusive stress on the nude human body as a sufficient vehicle for the expression of all emotions the painter can depict, had an enormous influence on the subsequent development of European art. This influence is more readily detectable in his most important work, the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. Dissatisfied with the normal working methods and with the abilities of the assistants he had engaged, Michelangelo determined to execute the whole of this vast area virtually alone, working under appalling difficulties (amusingly described in one of his own sonnets), most of the time lying down and never able to get far enough away from the ceiling to be able to see what he was doing. From its completion, Michelangelo was universally regarded as the greatest living artist, although he was then only 37 and this was during the lifetimes of Leonardo and Raphael (who was even younger). From this moment, too, dates the idea of the artist as in some sense a superhuman being, set apart from ordinary men. At 75, Michelangelo became increasingly active as an architect, and all his late works were created solely for the glory of God. Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig (1886-1969) A German-born American architect and furniture designer, Mies van der Rohe was one of the masters of modern architecture. The impersonality of his designs created the formal purity of his constructions. Relying on the richness of his materials and severe projections, he designed the now classically famous steel-framed furniture and produced the "Barcelona chair." He was also a builder of skyscrapers and private homes. Millais, Sir John Everett (1829-1896) An infant prodigy, Millais developed into a fashionable and technically brilliant academic painter of portraits, costume history, and genre pieces. Because of his fidelity to nature as the Slide 92: basis of art, he was bitterly criticized by the Victorians, and especially incurred the wrath of Dickens. Millefiori A technique used to create decorative glass pieces by bundling and fusing together a group of glass rods, then slicing through the group transversely. Millet, Jean-Francois (1814-1875) The son of a peasant, Millet was trained under a local painter at Cherbourg and his earliest works are imitations of the pastorals of the 18th century and rather erotic nudes. Eventually, his choice of subject matter led to accusations of Socialism. In 1849 he began painting scenes of peasants and their labors and also some ordinary landscapes and marines, which show his unusually sentimental approach. His works are particularly well represented in America. Miniature A small painting, usually a portrait, executed in watercolor. The 16th-century type of miniature was normally painted on playing cards or on vellum, the material used by the medieval illuminator. This type of portrait, with its allegories and symbolism, is a direct descendant of manuscript illumination. In the 17th century, the portrait miniature became more closely allied to contemporary oil painting. Minimal Art In the contemporary movements, this art form is of a more neutral and impersonal quality than most. Minimalist artists reject emotional expression and stress the importance of color, composition, and precise execution. Restraint, understatement, and lack of personal involvement are the characteristics of this genre. Miro, Joan (1893-1983) A Surrealist painter of Spanish origin, Miro lived

for some time in the United States. Of his work he wrote: "For me a form is never something abstract, it is always a sign of something. It is always a man, a bird, or something else. For me painting is never form for form's sake." Miro painted in the realm of the fantastic, the only area in which he was comfortable. In later years he created enormous works merely by allowing a single line to wander over a colored background. His whimsical world is peopled by oddly shaped filaments, amoebas, and tubes that achieve a life that reaches outside the canvas to make the viewer smile with pleasure. Mobile A kinetic sculpture invented in 1932 by Calder, consisting of a series of shapes cut from different materials. Mobiles hang at varying levels so that a gentle touch will cause the whole to revolve, giving an ever-changing sequence of planes, solids, and colors in three-dimensional movement. Modern Art In strict historical terminology, modern art began in the middle of the 19th century with the realism of Gustave Courbet. At that time, art began to free itself from the strict requirements of subject matter and developed Slide 93: increasingly toward preoccupation with form. Modigliani, Amedeo (1884-1920) The artist of elongated faces and necks who was referred to as un peintre maudit (the cursed painter). Born in Leghorn of a distinguished ItalianJewish family, Modigliani spent the rest of his life in Paris, working at first in a manner influenced by Toulouse-Lautrec. Later his real style was based on African sculpture, Cezanne and Picasso, and, above all, his Italian heritage. He became known as the greatest Italian artist of the 20th century, not a French painter at all. Modigliani was handsome, amorous, and addicted to drink and drugs. He said of himself, "I am going to drink myself dead," and he did just that. Pity, tenderness, and a sense of melancholy pervade his most famous works of children and the poor. Mondrian, Piet (1872-1944) A Dutch abstract painter, Mondrian went to Paris in 1911 and abandoned his Realistic landscapes for Cubist ones. His form of Abstraction was a peculiarly rigorous one, which consisted principally of restricting forms to purely geometrical shapes, set at right angles and colored in the primary colors, with the addition of white, black, or gray. The only enlivening touch he permitted himself was in his titles -- Broadway Boogie Woogie, for example. Monet, Claude (1840-1944) Monet was the leading member of the Impressionist group, and the one who for the longest time practiced the principles of absolute fidelity to the visual sensation, painting directly from the object and, if necessary, outdoors. Cezanne is said to have described him as "only an eye, but my God what an eye!" This description is certainly true in that his constant search for certain truths led at times to a neglect of form. From about 1890, Monet began to paint a series of pictures of one subject, representing it under various conditions and at different times of day. His most famous work of all, Water Lilies, was painted in the elaborate garden he had made for himself. It has recently been claimed that these shimmering pools of color, almost totally devoid of form, are the true starting point of Abstract Art. They were the logical outcome of Monet's lifelong devotion to the ultimate form of Naturalism, the truth of retinal sensation. Montage The sticking of one layer over another, especially when photographs of objects are applied to a photograph of an unusual or incongruous background. The technique was much used by the

Cubists and is now much exploited by advertising agents. Compare Collage. Moore, Henry (1898-1986) Moore, an eminent British sculptor, always used his material to express natural forms in terms of stone or wood. His characteristic swelling and undulating shapes expressed his feelings about the close relationship existing between man and nature, what he termed "the organic" rather than the geometric. Slide 94: Mosaic One of the oldest and most durable forms of mural decoration, mosaic was in constant use from the earliest times up to about the 13th century, when it was largely superseded by other forms of painting that are cheaper and more adaptable to a realistic style. Recently, however, mosaic has been revived as a decorative art. The technique is simple but laborious. A drawing is executed on a wall, and a small area is covered with cement. Then small cubes (tesserae) are chipped from slabs of colored stone, marble, and glass, and stuck into the cement. Great care was taken in the best early mosaics to ensure that all the pieces were not perfectly flat and level, since an uneven surface catches the light and reflects it in different ways. Mosaics were used frequently for the decoration of Early Christian and Byzantine churches. Moses, Anna Mary Robertson (Grandma) (1860-1961) An American primitive painter who, at the age of eighty, began her public career. There is great pleasure to be found in her simple depictions of the life, seasons, landscapes, and people of New England. Moses created a world where imagination traveled far beyond nature, and her unique perception and sincerity are apparent in each brushstroke. Motherwell, Robert (b.1915) An American Abstract Expressionist painter who began by studying philosophy at Harvard. He has said: "Without ethical consciousness, a painter is only a decorator." Dating from the 1950s his works have exhibited wide, massive black shapes applied to a white background. He then extended this impact by using space invaded by symbols. Mound Builders A civilization in the east-central United States that created art from A.D. 300 until the end of the 1800s. Some of the mounds built were in the form of different animals, others resembled pyramids with walkways to the top. All that now remains of these creations are the holes into which the framework was driven. A wealth of art, both utilitarian and ornamental, was discovered inside these mounds, created from wood, ceramics, copper, bone, shells, decorated leather, etc. Among the finest objects recovered were stone pipes, intricately detailed, carved into the shapes of human heads, animals, birds, and reptiles, with great attention paid to expression. Mucha, Alphonse (1860-1939) Czech Art Nouveau designer of jewelry and decorative arts, he studied in Munich, Vienna, and Paris. Mucha gained fame for his posters, illustrations, and murals for theaters and public buildings. He had opened a design studio with James McNeil Whistler and worked on jewelry for L.C. Tiffany. Munch, Edvard (1863-1944) A Norwegian painter whose childhood was filled with depression and tragedy, Munch was one of the forerunners of Expressionism. His subjects deal with basic themes of love and death, and his art, although powerful, is always neurotic and frequently hysterical, evoking empathetic feeling in the viewer. Munch wished to create his concept of the world through Slide 95: his work. He painted in long, flowing lines, choosing passionate and

expressive colors. "The Scream" by Edvard Munch Murillo, Bartolome Esteban (1617-1682) Born in Seville, where he passed the greater part of his life, Murillo started as a painter of the kind of pictures that are sold at fairs. The Spaniards mark his stylistic progression by his changes in the use of color. First, the rather hard Naturalism of the early beggar-boy pictures; then the early religious subjects, cool, detached, with only a little idealization; and then the devotional image, with idealized forms, a certain Baroque flutter to the draperies, a certain artificiality, but with warmth, charm, and quiet religious feeling. His late works all tend toward the softening and sweetening of style and color, to the sentimental emotionalism of a pious image. His later beggar-boy scenes also exploit this sentimental attitude, and he found a ready market for these glamorized, picturesque urchins in fancy-dress rags, exuding the charms of bohemianism and serving to negate poverty by robbing it of its power to inspire pity and horror. He had a large shop with many assistants, and his simple undemanding pictures enjoyed huge popularity, so much so that "Murillos" were painted until well into the 19th century, as a style in art, not primarily as forgeries. Naive Art Synonymous with the definition of Primitive Art -- a term often used to refer to artists who worked subjectively and with no conscious concern for realism. Self taught, these artists invent and create according to personal psychological concepts unaffected by instruction and culture. Their paintings are marked by distortion of form and absence of geometric perspective. Nast, Thomas (18401902) An American illustrator and cartoonist, best known for his pictorial reporting and ultimate exposure of the Tweed Ring and Tammany Hall. He was responsible for creating the symbol of the donkey for the Democratic party. Naturalism The precise representation of an object -- true to life in every detail and irrespective of subject matter or time period. Neoclassism (1790-1830) A rejection of rococo and a return to a classical style and motifs. An art form characterized by clarity, restraint, and balance. Netsuke Japanese belt toggle often made of ivory and carved in the form of an animal or animals. Nocturne A night piece. The term was first used by Whistler, who frequently gave his paintings musical titles, but the idea of painting landscapes as night scenes goes back to the 1600s. Nolde, Emil Hansen (1867-1956) A German painter who preferred solitude, Slide 96: Nolde's work has been described as rough and untamed. Most of his paintings were created in the barren northern region of Germany where he was born and where he could commune with his wild, exciting visions. He is characterized by distortion of form and vivid color, and his subject matter includes a frenzy of sunflowers, storm-ridden landscapes, and exotically portrayed scenes from the Bible. PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development World History in One Nut Shell, Almost Obelisk A tall, four-sided freestanding pillar tapering to a pyramidal terminus. Objet d'art (Fr.) A work of art of small size, as a miniature painting, statuette, vase, or snuffbox. Oiling Out A process of rubbing a drying oil (such as linseed oil) over those colors in a painting that have lost their luster. Although brilliance is restored for a while, the ultimate effect is to darken them further. Oil Painting The "invention" of oil painting is traditionally credited to

the Eycks. There are two principal ways of painting pictures in oil. One, known as "direct" painting, consists of putting on the paint and hoping it comes out right. If this fails, the proper cure is to take another canvas and start again. The second, more elaborate, technique is the one favored by the Old Masters. This involves a good deal of planning ahead. The canvas is first drawn on, then covered with one or more single-color layers of paint, and then color is added in built-up layers so that the underlying layers show through to give tone and shading. This technique, in the hands of a master craftsman, is capable of almost unlimited subtlety and variety, which is why oil painting has practically superceded all its rivals. O'Keeffe, Georgia (1887-1987) American painter who was greatly influenced by the New Mexican landscapes, the play of light on the bones and flowers of the desert. Many of her works are large, depicting a single object, and are open to varying interpretations. Oldenburg, Claes (b.1929) American sculptor, Oldenburg was one of the initiators of the Happening movement of the 1960s. He frequently created art by using such diverse elements as ice cubes and cars to portray a theme or idea. He opened his own store in New York City, aptly called "The Store," and there Slide 97: he sold food and other items reproduced in plaster, and so began the first glimmerings of Pop Art. Oldenburg abandoned "hard" sculpture for "soft" stuffed representations in vinyl, canvas, and other textured materials that often relied on the way they were placed, or fell, for interpretation. Op Art (optical art) Painting based on optical illusion, perception, and their physical and psychological effects. Also called retinal painting and perceptual abstraction. Optical Mixing The involuntary mixing of juxtaposed colors by the eye and brain. Thus, at a certain distance, juxtaposed dabs of red and yellow pigment produce the sensation of orange. The colors seen by optical mixing appear clearer and more brilliant than those obtained by mixing colors on a palette. Ormulu Gilded bronze mount used in decorating certain styles of furniture. Also, an article made or decorated with such mounts. Orozco, Jose (1883-1949) A Mexican painter, Orozco used an Expressionist style for his frequently huge decorations (often in fresco or in imitations of fresco, sometimes using modern building materials). Most of his works have strong political overtones, and many were commissioned by revolutionary governments. Papiers Colles Pictures created from cut and glued pieces of paper, cardboard, newsprint, playing cards, etc. This trompe l'oeil technique was first employed by cubist Georges Braque in 1909. Passage A term in art used to mean many different things: a particular part of a painting; the transition form one shade to another; a special technique; or an area in the painting that has been painted over by someone other than the artist. Pastiche This is a piece of art that has been created in the style of a particular artist or movement but has not been faked, as in a deliberate forgery. Patina Originally, a green layer that formed on old bronze. Now extended to mean any type of mellowing with age. Pellicle The skin that forms on the surface of drying oil paint. Pentimento When a painter changes his or her mind in the course of a picture and alters, for example, the position of a leg, it sometimes happens that the old form will begin to show through in a ghostly way; this ghost is a pentimento. It is sometimes inferred that because there are pentimenti visible a painting must be

an original -- since it shows the artist changing his mind Slide 98: - and not a copy. The validity of this argument is open to doubt. Perspective A quasimathematical system for the representation of three dimensional objects in a two-dimensional surface. The basic assumption of all perspective systems is that parallel lines never meet, but that they appear to do so; and that, further, all parallel lines going in any one direction meet at a single point on the horizon known as a vanishing point. A system was further evolved that uses two vanishing points on the horizon, and more if necessary to obtain up-hill and down-dale effects. A further refinement is the use of measuring points, which allow the exact representation of objects to scale. All this can be learned by a moderately mathematically minded art student in a few hours; for this very reason, many artists are no longer interested in perspective and prefer either to renounce the representation of the third dimension altogether (as most abstract artists do), or create a spatial illusion of their own, stressing the independence of the world created by the artist from the laws that govern appearance in the physical world. Aerial perspective deals with the changes in tone and color values observable in objects receding from the spectator. Because of the density of the atmosphere, all tone contrasts are muted and all colors tend toward blue in proportion to their distance from the observer. Thus, mountains in the background are always bluish. The difference between the atmospheres of Northern Europe and the Mediterranean accounts for the greater interest in aerial perspective to be found in the North, particularly among the Impressionists. Petard A piece of art that draws attention to itself through the unusual qualities of the colors used, subject matter, and composition. Picasso, Pablo Ruiz y (18811973) As a boy Picasso showed exceptional talent and experimented with the styles of Munch, Toulouse-Lautrec, Renoir, Gauguin, and other Late Impressionists before settling on a passion for blue, which became the dominant color for his portrayal of the squalid tragedy of the Paris streets -- the beggar, the harlot, the sick child, and the hungry. He questioned the whole basis of painting and was therefore unable to follow still further the Impressionist road. Picasso's Les Demoiselles d' Avignon of 1907 was begun in the vein of his harlequin series but ended as a semiabstract composition in which the forms of the nudes are broken up into planes compressed into a shallow space. The influence of African sculptures also fitted in with his quest for expression in form and helped, by the bizarre nature of such forms, to release him from the tyranny of the representational tradition in art. In 1907 he met Braque and they found that they faced the same problems and were striving to solve them in the same way. Both rejected decorative arabesques and bright, sensuous color and were striving to devise a pictorial language without descending to the imitation of superficial appearances. Together they evolved what is now called Analytical Cubism. By 1912, color had begun to creep back among Picasso's grays, olive-greens, and drab browns, and actual objects -- a piece of cane seating, a newspaper heading Slide 99: -- were imported. Collage was the natural extension. Objects could be literally reconstituted with bits of wood, wire, paper, and string, their forms distorted by the artist into a flat composition whose inherent third dimension is only alluded to. In 1917 Picasso returned to a traditional vision, with parallel

works in a glitteringly sophisticated idiom. Finally, contact with Classicism ushers in a series of paintings and drawings by him of monumental female nudes, at first almost motionless and then galvanized into terrifying movement that distorts them into frightening caricatures before dissolving them into convulsive and repellent distortions. In the 1930s he began the series of bullfighting subject that culminated in the imagery present in Guernica, a huge composition, prompted by the Spanish Civil War, which expresses in complicated symbolical language, comprehensible after careful study, the artist's abhorrence of the violence and beastliness of war. This dark mood persists in the dislocated forms and frightening imagery of his work during the Second World War. No man has changed more radically the nature of art. Like Giotto, Michelangelo, and Bernini, he stands at the beginning of a new epoch. Pieta The name given to the depiction in painting or sculpture of the Virgin holding the body of the dead Christ. Pissarro, Camille (1831-1903) Born in St. Thomas in the West Indies, the son of a Creole mother and a father of Portuguese-Jewish descent, Pissarro worked as a clerk in his father's general store. Then, in 1852, he ran away to Venezuela with a Danish painter, after which his reluctant parents resigned themselves to his becoming an artist. In France he worked on landscapes painted entirely in the open, but he could sell almost nothing and he and his family lived in poverty. In 1870 he fled before the German invasion, where eventually news reached him that his house had been used as a butchery by the invaders, and his store of 200-300 pictures had become duckboards in the muddy garden. In 1872 he took part in the first Impressionist exhibition. From 1895 severe eye trouble forced him to give up working outdoors, and he painted many town views from the windows of Paris. His production was enormous and in all techniques -- chiefly oil painting, but also pastel, gouache, drawing in all media, etching, and lithography. Plaster Casting An intermediate stage in the production of a piece of sculpture, which is often the last process actually to be carried out by the sculptor. Once the model has been cast in plaster it can be regarded as a finished work, rather fragile in nature, or it can be executed in bronze, lead, or any other metal. Any work of sculpture that is not a piece of direct carving in some hard substance is normally depicted in clay or wax. If a head has been modeled in wax it can be left at that; if in clay it will dry up and crumble to pieces unless it is either kept permanently damp or transformed into terra -cotta or plaster. Terra-cotta is really no more than baking the clay, in the same way as a common flower pot is produced. The result is the same in texture. A plaster cast is much more complicated, but also more durable, and more Slide 100: frequently used. Plasticity The quality of appearing three-dimensional. A painting is said to have great plasticity if it gives the impression that the figures are fully modeled and are capable of moving freely in the pictorial space. Plasticity is often obtained by emphasizing the tonal contrasts and by keeping the greater part of the picture in shadow. Pointillism An art form, developed by Seurat at the end of the 1880s, that created colors and forms from tiny dots of paint that would, when viewed from a distance, take the shape of people, objects, etc. Pollock, Jackson (1912-1956) The chief American exponent of Action painting, Pollock made studies for his apparently unpremeditated works, done on

continuous lengths of canvas tacked to the floor and later cut up with selective care. He abandoned the use of brushes in 1947, pouring the paint straight onto the canvas, but later he began to employ brushes again. He said of his paintings: "I don't work from drawings or color sketches. My painting is direct . . . I want to express my feelings rather than illustrate them . . . When I am painting I have a general notion as to what I am about. I can control the flow of paint: There is no accident, just as there is no beginning and no end." He used metallic paints and ordinary commercial synthetic enamel and plastic paint, with results that are already unfortunate since these are not durable art mediums. Pollock was one of the most famous Abstract Expressionists, freeing the United States for the first time from European dominance in the world of art. "Dripping" was the form of calligraphy he chose. He often used sticks, trowels, and knives as painting tools. His works are considered masterpieces in which tenderness and violence alternate with each other. Polyptych Technically, a work of art comprising two or more panels. However, since the terms diptych (two panels) and triptych (three panels) are widely used, the work polyptych is usually used for a work of more than three panels, nearly always an altarpiece. Pop Art An Avant-garde movement that began in New York in the late 1950s that used the expressions of popular culture and commercial art to exemplify the "bare bones" of reality and expose the modern world of mass production and utility. "Pop" endeavored to raise the ordinary, fleeting experiences of daily life to an art form, using as its medium of exploration everything from comic strips to carnage. See the works of Warhol, Lichtenstein, and Oldenburg, for example. Porcelain Hard, dense, white, and translucent ceramic material invented in China between A.D. 600 and 900 and reinvented in Europe in 1708. Regarded as the most refined of all ceramic wares. Slide 101: Poussin, Nicolas (1594-1665) The greatest of the French Classical painters, who made many experiments in his early Roman years, one being a combination of Classical form and Venetian color raised to the most supreme beauty. He turned from religious to Classical subjects and mythologies, and then to compositions filled with figures grouped in dramatic poses. Later in his life he chose Classical themes of Roman moral victory and sacrifice, or dramatic Biblical themes in which the action turns on the psychological impact of the moment. His late works are essays in solid geometry, with facial expressions eliminated and immobile figures. By comparison with his early works they are frigid and cerebral, but they are the logical exposition of his theories: A picture must contain the maximum of moral content expressed in a composition that conveys its intellectual content; the pattern must be pleasing in itself, not conflict with the two-dimensional quality of the picture plane; the color must offer no sensuous charm to lessen the unity of vision. Nowhere is this severe attitude expressed with more finality than in his landscapes. Priming A layer of white (commonly white lead or zinc combined with linseed oil) applied over a sized canvas in preparation for painting. Primitivism In 20th-century art, this term largely refers to the charming and "naive" style of such painters as Rousseau, Wood, and Grandma Moses. It is a craftlike approach to painting, using solid colors on a flat background, frequently highly stylized. Great importance is given to minutia -- the

finite detail of people and things, the intricacies of a subject. Modern primitivists often came from unpretentious backgrounds in which art lay outside their cultures, so they were, therefore, "late bloomers"; however, the charm and joy inherent in their creations have earned them an important place in the world of art. Quadratura Illusionistic painting on a ceiling or wall in which perspective and foreshortening of architectural members, figures, etc., give the impression that the interior is open and limitless. Raphael (1483-1520) The youngest of the three great creators of high Renaissance (including Leonardo and Michelangelo) and the most eclectic of great artists. In 1500 he was 17, Leonardo was 48, and Michelangelo 25 -- and yet in less than 10 years this provincial youth, who had not had their advantage in being born and brought up in Florence, was generally admitted to be their equal. In 1508 Raphael went to Rome, where he rapidly became the principal master employed in the Vatican, with the sole exception of Michelangelo, who was then painting the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. At 26 Raphael was in the front rank, and there he remained for the rest of his short life. His style eventually became larger and simpler and showed how the conception of the Madonna had changed from the simple Naturalism of the 15th century to the superhuman being, which in the 16th century was thought more Slide 102: appropriate to the Mother of God -- hence the figure floating in the clouds. Raphael was known for delicate treatment in the portrayal of his subject matter and also for the personification of his calm, serene mind. When he died at the age of 37, he occupied a unique social position, in terms of friendship with cardinals and princes, a position never before attained by an artist. The false rumor current at his death that the Pope had intended to make him a cardinal is the most eloquent proof of the change that had come over the status of the artist, a change wrought principally by Leonardo, Michelangelo, and Raphael. Rauschenberg, Robert (b.1925) One of the forerunners of Pop Art, Rauschenberg relied heavily on the portrayal of violence, scenes of city life, and irony in his art. His challenge to modern civilization made him a transitional link between Abstract Expressionism and Pop imagery. Ray, Man (1890-1976) A Renaissance man, being painter, designer, photographer, sculptor, and printmaker, Ray was one of the founders of the Dada movement. Rather than develop a personal style, he preferred "to paint as much as possible unlike other painters. Above all to paint unlike myself, so that each . . . work . . . shall be entirely different . . . " He experimented with airbrush work to produce paintings that would resemble photographs in an attempt "to create great confusion" between the worlds of art and photography. His Surrealist paintings are famous for grotesque juxtaposition of objects. Realism Signifies the search for the squalid and depressing as a means of life enhancement. It is, in fact, the total repudiation of Ideal Art and should not be confused with Naturalism, which is no more than the pleasure in being able to make an accurate transcript of nature. Realistic Art was not for the squeamish, and it underwent different transformations according to the individual painter's nationality, school of art, and particular vision. The style is one of paying strict attention to scrupulous detail. Relief Sculpture that is not free-standing, and, in having a background, approximates painting. The design in this type of sculpture comes from its

background, which is either deep (altoriliero) or shallow (bas-relief). Rembrandt van Ryn (1606-1669) A Dutch painter whose earliest works show great interest in light and represent scholars in lofty rooms, or are studies of old age. Eventually, Rembrandt moved to Amsterdam and set up as a portrait painter, attracting attention and prospering by producing highly finished likenesses. In 1634 he married a woman who brought him a considerable dowry as well as good connections that allowed him to live well beyond his means. In 1642, a group portrait, the Night Watch, was painted. It was one of several such commemorative groups of the volunteer militia enlisted to defend Amsterdam. Each man depicted in the group paid according to the prominence given to his portrait. After 1642 Rembrandt's business declined and bankruptcy followed. His son Titus "employed" him from 1660 onward, thus affording him some relief from Slide 103: creditors. During these years he turned to biblical subjects, creating a Protestant iconography, landscapes, and studies of the Jews among whom he lived. He had been painting religious subjects from the start of his career, but the later works are deeper in emotional content and far less superficially dramatic. The same contrasts can be seen in his etchings. His portraits of the 1650s and 1660s include masterpieces of psychological penetration painted to please himself. A long series of self-portraits records every stage of his career, every moment of disillusion, with ever-deepening self-analysis. Rembrandt's influence has never died. His output was prodigious, and there are about 650 paintings by him (of which some 60 are self-portraits), as well as about 300 etchings and 1500-2000 drawings. Remington, Frederic (1861-1909) American painter, illustrator, and sculptor of the Old West. Remington's work abounded in scenes of native America and the cowboy life and customs that he eventually turned into illustrations, famous for their direct appeal to the emotions. He did not attempt to document the West, but rather to popularize it by his vivid romantic portrayals. Renaissance (Fr., or Ital. rebirth) Usually defined as the revival of art and letters under the influence of Classical models in the 14th-16th centuries. This age lent a new dignity to man and his works. The period from 1420-1500 is now generally called the Early Renaissance, and the term "High Renaissance" is reserved for the tiny span of time when a pure, Classical, balanced harmony was attained, and when artists of the first rank were in absolute control of their techniques, able to render anything they wanted with maximum fidelity to nature. It is this mastery of technique that, with the elimination of superfluous detail, is one of the distinguishing marks between Early and High Renaissance. A passion for Classical models is a distinguishing mark, so Renaissance style must also have the Classical qualities of serenity and harmony. Renoir, Pierre-Auguste (18411919) One of the greatest painters affected by Impressionism. Renoir worked from the age of 13 in a china factory, and his early training as a painter on porcelain predisposed him toward the light palette of Impressionism. All his life he was conscious of the need to study art in museums and dissatisfied with the purely visual aspects of Impressionism. In 1868 he and Monet worked together on the Seine, and as a result of painting continually outdoors -- and of Monet's influence -- his color became lighter and higher in key and his handling freer, the whole canvas managed in patches of colored light and shadow without any

definite drawing. His early works include portraits, landscapes, flowers, and groups of figures in settings of cafe, dance-hall, boats, or riverside landscapes; his late works are mostly nudes, or near nudes. The warmth and tenderness of pink and pearly flesh entranced him and gave him full scope for his favorite color schemes of pinks and reds. In 1906 he settled in the south of France, but he was already crippled with arthritis, which finally rendered him completely helpless, so Slide 104: that his last pictures were painted with brushes stuck between his twisted fingers. America is particularly rich in Renoirs, since they were bought there when the artist was still unappreciated in Europe. Replica An exact copy of a picture, made by the painter of the original or at least under his supervision. It is often used to describe two or more paintings, exactly alike, when one is in doubt about which is the original. Repousse Ornamental metalwork in which the design is hammered into relief from the reverse side. Often incorrectly used to mean embossing. Representational Art In contrast with nonobjective and abstract art, representational art strives to depict figures and objects as they appear to the eye. Retreating Color A cool color, e.g., blue, which suggests distance, or at least does not appear to come to the fore. Reynolds, Sir Joshua (1723-1792) Historically the most important figure in British painting, Reynolds was born in Devon, where his father was headmaster of the Grammar School and a former Fellow of Balliol. This is worth mentioning because it shows that Reynolds was born and brought up in an educated family at a time when most English painters were hardly more than ill-educated tradesmen. Reynolds himself did more to raise the status of the artist in England through his learning and personal example than by his actual quality as an artist. The fundamental basis of his art was the deliberate use of allusion to the Old Masters. This appeal to the educated eye is the essence of his own style and the reason for the rise in public esteem for the visual arts that is so marked a feature of his age. Reynolds's practice as a portrait painter was profoundly influenced by the few weeks he spent in Venice in 1752. He was knighted in 1769 and the works of the years following show him at his most Classical and most learned. In 1781 he made a journey to Flanders and Holland and was profoundly influenced by the force and freedom of Rubens's handling; from then until his sight failed in 1789 his works are less consciously Classical and painted with greater warmth and feeling. The overwhelming majority of his vast output consists of portraits, which include almost every man and woman of note in the second half of the 18th century. Robbia, Luca della (1400-1482) Ranked as one of the great innovators at the beginning of the 15th century, he was one of the leading marble sculptors of the Early Renaissance and is considered the inventor of glazed terra-cotta, usually of white figures against a blue background. To some extent this discovery was the ruin of his art, for he was able to found a flourishing family business that later undertook some very large and highly colored commissions. Slide 105: Rococo Immediately after the death of Louis XIV of France in 1715 there was a reaction of relief against the excessive splendor and pomp of Versailles and the whole ceremonial "Sun King" way of life. One of the results was to transfer the center of French life back to Paris and to build new townhouses that were both smaller and much more comfortable than the

Baroque palaces. Rococo -- which comes from a French word rocaille, meaning rockwork -- is basically a style of interior decoration, and consists principally of the use of curves, and the love of elegance. Porcelain, gold, and silversmiths' work portray these tendencies admirably. The characteristics of small curves, prettiness, and gaiety can also be found in painting and sculpture of the period. England did not take to Rococo, and in France it fell out of fashion in the 1740s. The countries in which Rococo produced numerous great works of art was Germany and Austria. There Rococo Art can be seen in scores of absurdly beautiful churches and statues, which are elegant, modish, and deeply moving. Rodin, Auguste (1840-1917) The most celebrated sculptor of the late 19th century, who achieved during his lifetime a fame that has done much to obscure his real qualities. He worked as a mason from about 1864, and supplemented his technical training by studying in museums, where he became interested in the works of Michelangelo. In 1875 he visited Italy, and soon after began working on his first independent free-standing figure. Its lifelike quality, accuracy of proportion and anatomy, and rendering of movement gave rise to the tale that it had been made from a cast taken from a live model. Most of his public commissions were unlucky: His original Thinker was not erected as he wished and was savaged by a vandal; his Hugo was produced in several versions to meet endless objections and was finally not put up as planned; his Balzac monument was refused by the commissioning committee and only erected much later. Rodin was the creator of a new form in sculpture -- the fragment as a finished work, usually a head and trunk, but sometimes a pair of hands only -and he also employed a variant of Michelangelo's unfinished figures, giving to some parts a waxy delicacy of finish while leaving others buried in the hardly touched block. His great influence was through his expression of emotion and movement, his use of symbolism and distortion, and the amazing sensitiveness of his modeling. He was the product of Romanticism and a forerunner of Modern Art. Romanticism A current throughout the history of art laying stress on the importance of fantasy and the imagination as opposed to reason and order -- a return to nature. See the works of Blake, Daumier, and Goya. Rose Window Very ornate circular window, primarily with religious themes, intricately worked in stained glass and particularly representative of Gothic architecture. One of the most famous examples is the rose window of Notre Dame cathedral in Paris. Rossetti, Dante Gabriel (1828-1882) Poet and painter, Rossetti's subjects were drawn mostly from Dante and from a medieval dream world also reflected in his Slide 106: verse. In 1850 he met Elizabeth Siddal, who had posed for Millais, and under his inspiration she developed into an artist of both poetic and neurotic intensity. His best work was produced during the years of their uneasy association. They married in 1860; in 1862 she died of an overdose of narcotics and he became virtually a recluse and eventually a chloral addict. Rossetti's works are characterized by a typically Victorian clutter of composition and a brooding pensiveness. Rothko, Mark (1903-1970) Rothko was born in Russia but in 1913 came to America, where he became influenced by Surrealism and so created a transparent aquatic world peopled by tentacled plants and animals. As he developed his own style he began painting abstract pictures that consist of

horizontal bands of color with muzzy edges. Rouault, Georges (1871-1958) His early works were overworked oil paintings of biblical subjects with heavy dark contours enclosing areas of violent color; they express the painter's loathing of vice, hypocrisy, cruelty, and complacency. Eventually Rouault developed one of the purest forms of Expressionism. His themes were of religious subjects -chiefly of the Passion (Rouault was a devout Catholic) -- landscapes of bleak and hostile country, and an occasional bouquet of flowers. He painted with hard, thick brushstrokes and dark outlines that were reminiscent of the early work he had done in stained glass. He used colors violently, and his figures were massive, larger than life. Rousseau, Henri (1844-1910) Called an amateur or "Sunday" painter, Rousseau achieved greatness with a direct, simple, and hauntingly naive vision. He painted unusually large and complicated pictures of elaborately fanciful, exotic subjects in a "primitive" technique with the use of strong color. He combined a certain peasant shrewdness and bland self-esteem with gullible simple-mindedness. Rousseau kept a school where he taught elocution, music, and painting, wrote two plays, got himself involved, although guiltlessly, in a trial for fraud, and finally died, it is said, as a result of a disappointment in love in his pursuit of a third wife. Rubbing (Fr. frottage) Technique of capturing designs and textural effects by placing paper over objects that have raised surfaces and rubbing the paper with graphite, wax crayon, etc. Rubens, Sir Peter Paul (15771640) After a lifetime appointment as court painter to the Spanish Governors of The Netherlands, Rubens settled in Antwerp, where he built himself an Italianate palace, married Isabella Brandt, and started on what was perhaps the most energetic and fruitful career in the history of art, one that made him the most important artist in Northern Europe and the greatest Northern exponent of the Baroque. He developed a dramatic style that was less passionate than his predecessors' so that numerous Slide 107: assistants could work under him to fulfill the multitude of commissions that poured in. Rubens carefully controlled the execution of his designs, and in most cases he did the final work on a picture himself. Without the methods he devised for the division of labor, his vast output over so many years could never have been achieved, much less maintained, at so high a standard. His practice was to make smallish sketches, very free in handling, usually on panels with a light streaky buff or gray ground, the loose drawing touched in with indications of color for his assistants to follow. He produced countless altarpieces, portraits, hunting scenes, landscapes, religious pictures, mythology scenes, tapestry designs, and book illustrations. After the death of his wife he married the sixteenyear-old Helene Fourment, who became the theme and inspiration of his late mythologies and the subject of many portraits. Sargent, John Singer (1856-1925) A highly skilled American portrait painter who settled in London, Sargent painted high society in Edwardian and Georgian times, but is best known for his portraits and brilliant watercolors. He visited Spain, and the technical skill and simple color schemes of most of his portraits reflect Velazquez. His compositions were both unusual and skillful, and he often used light to obscure details and soften edges. Toward the end of his life he painted murals for the Boston Museum of Fine Arts and the Widener Library at Harvard. Sarto, Andrea del (1486-1531) The best

painter in 16th-century Florence, who had more feeling for tone and color than most of his contemporaries. He was the first Florentine to depart from the colored drawing approach in favor of composition by patches of colored light and shade. Del Sarto went to France in 1518-1519 at the invitation of Francois I and was well received, but he broke his contract in order to return to his wife, who, in the opinion of contemporaries, ruined him. He failed to live up to his great promise, but his works are of great importance in the evolution of Florentine painting. Scaling The flaking-off of oil paint from the ground, caused by careless priming or mixing of pigment or varnish, rolling or folding the canvas, or moisture attacking the back. Sculpture The art of creating forms in three dimensions or in Relief. Basically, there are two opposed conceptions of sculptural form: glyptic, which means carved, and consists essentially in removing waste material until the form is freed from the matter in which it was imprisoned (this neo-Platonic conception was Michelangelo's), and its opposite, in which form is created from nothing by building up in some plastic material. Carving and modeling are thus two separate and complementary aspects of sculpture, the present tendency being to exalt direct carving and the feel of the material at the expense of modeling, which involves using clay or wax as a preliminary material for translation into plaster, bronze, lead, or even stone. Slide 108: Scumbling The opposite of Glazing, it consists of working an opaque layer of oil paint over another layer of a different color so that the lower layer is not entirely obliterated. The two processes of glazing and scumbling together demonstrate the range of effects, from transparency to opacity, possible in the oil medium, effects that ensured its universal adoption. Serial Art (serial imagery) The repetition, with slight variations, of an image in the same work of art, whether a single canvas or related modules of a sculptured work. Serigraphy Also known as silk screen printing, the basic principles are those of a stencil, in that it is a method by which paint is brushed over a screen so that the color penetrates those parts of the screen that have not previously been masked. By using successive masks on the same screen it is possible to produce prints in several colors and also to obtain color mixtures by printing one color over another -- for instance, printing blue over yellow to make a green. The screen itself is made of fairly fine silk, and the masks are usually of paper; paint is brushed on and soaks through the silk in the parts that have not been masked. The process was originally developed for commercial purposes, since it is possible to use unskilled labor to make prints once the masks have been prepared. In recent years, however, first in America and later in Europe, the technique has been greatly developed as a method of making large numbers of artist-produced prints that can be sold at fairly low prices, although each print is, like a lithograph, an original work of art. Seurat, Georges (1859-1891) Seurat evolved first a theory of painting (See Pointillism) in which the color of the light is broken down. For instance, bright yellow-green grass contains reflections from the sky and from other nearby objects. This objective was realized by the fine and delicate use of dots of paint on canvas to create color and form. He also evolved a formal type of composition based on the relation of objects within the picture space to one another and to the size and shape of the picture and on the balance of verticals

and horizontals. The Impressionists stressed the flickering quality of light and figures caught in movement, but Seurat aimed at a static quality. His early death at 32, however, meant that his ideas were developed only by followers and imitators. Shahn, Ben (1898-1969) This Russian-born American artist's use of photographic realism and some of the technical devices of advertising set him apart from most modern American painters; however, his art has always been a vehicle for ideas. The Sacco and Vanzetti case (when two immigrant anarchists were judicially murdered) led to the production of a series of biting comments in the form of drawings, which are only one example of Shahn using art as social commentary. He was much influenced by Rouault and Rivera, collaborating with the latter on the Radio City murals in 1933. Other murals are in the Bronx Post Office, New York, and the Social Security Building, Washington. He has also Slide 109: written on art. The people who live in his paintings are extremely stylized but not characterized. He is known for his use of bright colors, extreme detail, and the absence of perspective. Sketch A rough draft of a composition or part of a composition, made in order to satisfy the artist on certain points of scale, composition, lighting, etc. It is the trial run -- or one of many -- for the full-scale work, but must be carefully distinguished from a Study. A sketch by a landscape painter is usually a small and rapid note of the effect of light on a given scene, and is intended for future reference and reworking if necessary.

by PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development Nollijy University Research Institute Arts & Sciences - Evolution

The quality of some artists' sketches is, however, so high that what they would have considered their important works are now often undervalued: Rubens and

Constable are examples. Soft Sculpture Sculpture made of pliable and sometimes impermanent materials, such as latex, vinyl, feathers, rope and string, hair, etc. Seen since the early 1960s, soft sculpture defies the tradition of hard and permanent material as the only suitable medium for sculpture. Squaring A way of transferring a small sketch to a larger surface by dividing both into the same number of squares, and then copying the design in each square of the smaller drawing onto the corresponding square of the larger surface. Stained Glass Designs or figures made from pieces of colored glass, held together by strips of lead, which form the outlines of the design. Apparently a Byzantine invention that soon became a distinctively Western and medieval art. Eventually this painstaking art died away, only to find its rebirth among 20th -century craftspeople in the form of hanging ornaments, mobiles, glass boxes, etc. Still Life Emerging as a subject in its own right in the 16th century, it appeared before that in religious pictures and portraits as part of the setting. When it became popular, still life was developed along various lines, the chief being a collection of objects chosen and arranged to remind the spectator of the transience and uncertainty of life (hourglasses, skulls, flickering candles, butterflies); in the symbolic type, the objects portrayed have a significance beyond their individual appearance (bread, wine, water in religious subject matter with references to the Trinity, etc.). Into this latter category come many still life subjects that at first sight appear no more than members of the third type -- collections of objects arranged to display the painter's virtuosity. There are also large still life pieces of the "furniture picture" type -- kitchen interiors, with quantities of raw and cooked food, flowers, guns, dogs, and cookmaids. Study A drawing or painting of a detail, such as a figure, a hand, or a piece Slide 110: of drapery, made for the purpose of study or for use in a larger composition. A study should never be confused with a Sketch, which is a rough draft of the whole, whereas a study may be very highly wrought but does not usually embrace more than a part of the composition. Surrealism This art movement claims a long artistic ancestry on a continuum with the art of Bosch and any other artist who has expressed the weird and fantastic. After the demise of Dada in 1922, Andre Breton gathered up the remnants of the group, took over the word Surrealism and defined it as "pure psychic Automatism, by which it is intended to express verbally, in writing, or in any other way, the true process of thought. It is the dictation of thought, free from the exercise of reason." The object was to free artists from the normal association of pictorial ideas and from all accepted means of expression so that they might create according to the irrational dictates of their subconscious mind and vision. Surrealism developed in two directions: pure fantasy, and the elaborate reconstruction of a dream world. The first produced such objects as a bottle dryer, a bicycle wheel, and a bird cage filled with sugar cubes and a thermometer -- a random assortment of bric-abrac. The second took the form of highly detailed likenesses of objects, straight or distorted, or three-dimensional abstractions, in a fantastic and unexpected juxtaposition, or in a setting of a hallucinatory kind: Chirico, Tanguy, Dali, Man Ray's photographs, and much of Picasso's painting and sculptures. Surrealism has been described as the feverish search for the unexpected: "Beautiful as the

chance encounter of a sewing machine and an umbrella on an operating table." The movement has had as much currency in literature and drama as in the visual arts and has had a liberating influence. Its ideas of strange juxtapositions have been widely commercialized -- particularly in sophisticated window dressing -and it survives in the world of art as a ghost of hauntingly incoherent incantations that speaks of and to the dark and unformed side of the mind -- the little animal that lies trapped inside us all. Symbolism A movement that developed in 1885 among painters and poets in an attempt to refute a "picture" of the world as a faithful representation and depict it instead through the visionary eye of dreams and allusions. Tactile Values Texture. In painting, the illusion of tangibility -- that which stimulates the imagination to sense in a physical way the plastic qualities of an object represented: its weight, mass, distance, texture, motion or stability, warmth or coolness. Tanguy, Yves (1900-1955) A French-born American Surrealist, Tanguy began life as a merchant seaman and took up painting after seeing a picture of Chirico's. Of all the Surrealists, it was Tanguy who was known best for his creation of a reality freed from the one known to the senses. His forms seem to grow as if from the floor of a dream and rise like smoke and ghosts up into the canvas, to re-form in steep cliffs and castles. Sometimes using imagery that seems to have Slide 111: arisen from the bottom of the sea, we watch as jellyfish and smoothly polished stones lift and float before our eyes. Tchelitchew, Pavel (1908-1957) An American artist of Russian origin, Tchelitchew often used such substances as sand and coffee grounds mixed into his paints to give texture and substance. He became increasingly involved in the metamorphosis within each of his paintings, as when a scene of winter transforms into a fierce tiger with a snake in its mouth, or in his famous Hide and Seek, in which at once a child and then a gnarled tree is present, repeatedly echoing into the center of the large canvas. In later years he did "interior landscapes" -- figures whose skeletons or veins showed through their skin. PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development World History in One Nut Shell, Almost Tempera This word really means any kind of binder that will serve to "temper" powder color and make it workable. For many years it was usual to paint most of a picture in tempera -- which dries in minutes - and then to apply only the final touches in oil. In the last few years a small number of painters have returned to the pure tempera medium (the paints can now be bought ready mixed). Terra-cotta A hard, fired but unglazed clay ranging in color from pink to purple-red, but usually a brownish-red. Used since ancient times for sculpture and pottery, later for architectural decoration. Throwing This term is used in ceramics to describe the way a pot, a vase, etc., is "built up" on a spinning potter's wheel. Tinsel Painting A picture painted on glass and backed by crinkled tinfoil. A popular 19th-century parlor art. Tintoretto, Jacopo (1518-1594) In his early works, Tintoretto composed his figures across the picture in a frieze, with elegant elongated forms. He made his reputation with large and crowded compositions, brilliant color, and a concentration on one moment and incident. Later he evolved compositions based on violent movement. Tintoretto kept a huge workshop where his assistants worked extensively on altered variants of his

original compositions. There are few mythologies in his work, for he had no Classical interest; neither does he show great range and inventiveness in portraits. After his death, painting in Venice dwindled significantly. Slide 112: Titian (Tiziano Vecelli) (1487-1576) The greatest Venetian painter and, in some senses, the founder of modern painting, Titian's Assumption laid the foundations of his fame. It is an enormous picture, in the "modern" style, and marks the beginning of the High Renaissance in Venice. Titian became a personal friend of the Emperor Charles V -- an unheard-of honor for a painter of the 16th century, comparable only with Michelangelo's relationship with the Popes. After the abdication of Charles V in 1555, he continued to work for his successor, Philip II of Spain, who, however, employed him less as a portraitist than as a painter of poesie (Titian's own word for more or less erotic mythologies). During these years the old painter developed a very free style, almost anticipating Impressionism in its disregard for contours and its concentration on the rendering of form as patches of color. In the 1560s there were many criticisms of his failing powers, but, in fact, he was developing a sublime late style. He was said to have laid in his pictures with a mass of color that served as a groundwork for what he wanted to express: "With the same brush dipped in red, black, or yellow he worked up the light parts and in four strokes he could create a remarkably fine figure. Then he turned the picture to the wall and left it for months without looking at it, until he returned to it and stared critically at it, as if it were a mortal enemy. The final touches he softened, occasionally modulating the highest lights into the half-tones and local colors with his finger; sometimes he used his finger to dab a dark patch in a corner as an accent, or to heighten the surface with a bit of red like a drop of blood. He finished his figures like this and in the last stages he used his fingers more than his brush." Tole Items of tinware painted with decorative designs. ToulouseLautrec, Henri-Marie-Raymond de (1864-1901) Toulouse-Lautrec had the misfortune to break both his legs in childhood, as a result of which he was stunted in growth. In 1882 he began to study art seriously in Paris, and by 1885 had a studio in Montmartre where his first posters brought him immediate recognition. In 1898 his health began to suffer from drink, and he spent three months in a clinic recovering from an attack of delirium tremens. During his convalescence he worked on a series of drawings of the circus. After his recovery, he resumed his old life, but in 1901 he broke down completely and was taken to his mother's country house, where he died. His first teacher had encouraged him to paint animals, particularly horses; after he began studying in Paris he met van Gogh, and he was deeply influenced by the technique and subject matter of Degas, and by Japanese prints, the influence of which was pervasive in Impressionist circles. His subject matter was centered narrowly around the life he led: some portraits, many painted outdoors, scenes from dance-halls and cafes in Montmartre, such as the Moulin Rouge, figures of actresses, female clowns, circus artists seen backstage, and a great number of nudes, either a la Degas -- washing, dressing -- or seen sitting around in brothels, waiting for customers. He loathed posed models; these naked women Slide 113: just walking or sitting about provided him with models in movement

and were under no restraint either in pose or behavior. His technical range was very wide. He was a superb draftsman with a gift for conveying rapid movement and the whole atmosphere of a scene with a few strokes. Most of his paintings are in spirit-thinned oil paint on unprimed cardboard, using the neutral buff tone of the board as an element in design. He was not interested in light as were the Impressionists, only in form and movement. He subscribed to no theories, was a member of no artistic or aesthetic movement, and the works in which he records what he saw and understood contain no hint of comment -- no pity, no sentiment, no blame, no innuendo. Triptych Three panels, arranged or joined side to side by hinges. Usually the central panel is twice the width of the wings so that they can be folded over to protect it. A common form of triptych, as an object of private devotion, is to have a madonna as the center and one's patron saints on the wings: The backs of the wings, which become visible when the triptych is shut, usually bear the owner's coat of arms. Trompe-l'oeil (Fr., deceive the eye) See Illusionism. Turner, Joseph Mallord William (1775-1851) A precocious talent in 1792, Turner made the first of the sketching tours that were to take up so much of his time for the next half-century. At first he was exclusively a watercolorist, but eventually he worked in oils, and his paintings tend more and more to the pale brilliance he had already achieved in watercolor. He began to think in terms of colored light or, in Constable's phrase, "tinted steam." In 1828 his Venetian watercolors showed magical effects of light. The "cataclysmic" paintings of his later years show his involvement in the warring elements in nature. Underpainting The first painting of a picture, in monochrome, which lays out the general composition. Also called dead coloring and abbozzo. Utrillo, Maurice (1883-1955) The son of Suzanne Valadon (herself a talented painter who was encouraged by Renoir, Degas, and Toulouse-Lautrec, for whom she posed as a model), Utrillo developed early into an alcoholic and a drug addict, spent many years in clinics and sanatoriums, and his drinking bouts often ended in the police station. His mother made him learn to paint as a distraction and a form of therapy. His art shows nothing of this wild and melodramatic background. His paintings are almost all town views that are transformed from the everyday into poetry -- narrow streets and lonely courtyards, and the houses of Montmartre whose walls and posters flake away into dust. They show a sensitive understanding of tone, are delicate and almost monochromatic in color (especially his milky whites, which cannot be analyzed), with precise drawing and a strange feeling for the atmosphere of a particular street or building. Valadon, Suzanne (1867-1938) Valadon began drawing in 1883, the year Utrillo, Slide 114: her son, was born. Degas, for whom she modeled, was impressed with her artistic ability. Her landscapes and still lifes are famous for her use of color and composition, and her nudes (her favorite subject) are renowned for an intense and realistic style. Valadon outlined her figures with lines that recall the leading in stained glass. Values The gradations of tone from light to dark observable in any solid object under the play of light. Tone values are independent of color and are best perceived by half-closing the eyes so that color effects are diminished (a photograph is an example of pure tonal effect). van Dyck, Sir Anthony (1599-1641) In Genoa, van Dyck laid the foundation of his

great career as a portrait painter and evolved the repertory of patterns from which he made such constant use during his years in England. In his finest portraits he was sensitive to his sitter's individuality, which he expressed with an unfailing sense of style that reflects something of his own introspective melancholy. In religious works, he leaned heavily on Rubens, Titian, and Correggio. He was famous for the "insights" he brought to his portraits and was thought inimicable in his re-creation of fabrics in paint, i.e., the heavy folds of white satin and the light blue of silk. van Eyck, Jan (ca. 1390-1441) and Hubert Flemish painters, brothers. Although there is a great debate in the art world about whether Hubert existed, here they are referred to in the plural. For a long time the brothers were credited with the invention of oil painting, and although this is no longer a reasonable idea, it is clear that Jan perfected an oil medium and varnish that has enabled his brilliant color to survive almost unchanged. It is through the capacity to observe the minute that the van Eycks achieve a complete expression of the whole, and their technique is the perfect servant of realistic, unidealizing, and unemotional attitudes. Jan's ability and inventiveness make him easily the major artist of the early Netherlands School, although few of the van Eycks are signed and still fewer documented. The van Eycks' originality is expressed in fantasy and illusion and with great attention to detail. Their subject matter was largely religious. Vanishing Point In perspective, the point, or points, on the horizon line at which receding parallel lines meet and seem to disappear. Vanitas A type of still life in which the objects depicted are reminders of the transience of temporal life. Developed in the 17th century, vanitas employed motifs such as the hourglass, skull, mirror, scales, dying or decaying plant life, and books. Veduta Representation of a town or city that is faithful enough to identify the location. Slide 115: Velazquez, Diego Rodriguez de Silva (1599-1660) His early paintings show his interest in the naturalistic representation of things seen in strong light. Velazquez was a slow worker with a deliberate technique and sober color used against a plain background for many of his portraits, so that the figure stands out as a silhouette. His court appointment gave him few opportunities for religious painting. His later work showed his preoccupation with the male nude and his fuller range of color. His brilliant use of color, panoramic landscape background, and heightened realism transcend any derivation. In the finest of his portraits, that of the little Infanta Margareta Teresa with her retinue of ladies and dwarfs, called Las Meninas, he reaches perhaps his highest point in the blending of realism with atmosphere and a deeply sensitive appreciation of character. During the 1630s and 1640s he painted a series of portraits of the court dwarfs, playmates of the royal children, for they interested him as character studies much as old age, wrinkles, and rags interested him in his imaginary portraits, and as did the aging face of the sick and gloomy King Philip, whom he painted all through his long reign, and who acknowledged the greatness of his painter by making him a Knight of the Order of Santiago in 1658. Vellum Fine grade of parchment made from the skins of calves or lambs. Used for manuscripts and bookbinding. Vermeer, Jan (1632-1675) The most calm and peaceful of all the Dutch masters, the recognition of his greatness has been long delayed. Very little

is known of his life, and his pictures were completely forgotten until the mid-19th century. He died in 1675, leaving a widow and eleven children and an enormous debt to the baker, who held two pictures of his. Vermeer was obviously a very slow worker, for only about 40 pictures are generally accepted as his and most of them are quite small. They usually represent domestic interiors with one or two figures writing, doing housework, or playing musical instruments. The splendor of the color and the play of light, falling in little pearls of paint on everything in the picture, transform the everyday scenes into poetry, totally unlike the sober prose of the average Dutch master. Vignette An ornament of leaves and tendrils; the flourishes around a capital letter in a manuscript; a small decoration or embellishment found in beginning or ending sections of a book or manuscript; a small picture or illustration not enclosed by a definite border but shading off into the surrounding page. Vuillard, Edouard (1868-1940) Fascinated with Japanese prints, the best of Vuillard's work reflects the influence of Oriental art. His scenes of family living show how well he could re-create the atmosphere of a clutter of objects and furniture in a snug, warmly lighted room. Paintings of his family, most particularly his mother, were frequent and of special delight to him. Warhol, Andy (1928-1987) An American Pop artist with a life-style both PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development World History in One Nut Shell, Almost Slide 116: affluent and elegant, Warhol began by making paintings based on comic strips and advertisements. His early works showed the influence of Abstract Expressionism. One of the crucial qualities of Warhol's images is their extreme obviousness: Campbell Soup cans, portraits of Marilyn Monroe, dollar bills, and the reproduction of the Mona Lisa -- all making a silent statement without being "transformed" into art. He began printing paintings to make art based on mass-produced imagery, rendered meaningless by constant repetition. The most striking effect of his paintings is his vivid and highly expressive use of color. Warhol died in 1987 as an indirect result of a routine gallbladder operation. He is most commonly quoted for writing, "Everyone is famous for fifteen minutes." Wash A thin, transparent layer of watercolor or ink, usually applied in broad areas. Watercolor The classical English method -- and pure watercolor is almost an English monopoly -- is to use the white paper as the highest lights and to apply transparent washes one over another to obtain gradations of color and tone. Watteau, (Jean) Antoine (1684-1721) A Flemish artist, Watteau began work as a hack painter of theatrical scenes. He had tuberculosis and at an early age showed symptoms of chronic restlessness that dominated the rest of his short life. Rubens was the main influence in the formation of his style. His pictures have a mood for a subject, a fleeting and melancholy sense of the transitoriness of all pleasure and all life. All Watteau's pictures were composed by taking the required number of figures from the big bound volumes in which he kept hundreds of his superb drawings. Studies of figures, heads, hands, and draperies were made in three-color crayon -- black, red, and white for the highlights -- and

were then used when needed. Many hundreds of these still exist, usually in better condition than most of his paintings. Because the same drawing may have been used over and over again, all his pictures have a strong family likeness. Watts, George Frederic (1817-1904) At first he led the sheltered life of a tame genius and then began to paint large allegorical pictures while earning his living as a portraitist. His portraits of beauties and celebrities make a real attempt at more than a successful superficial likeness. In his series of famous men he strove to portray the whole man -- character, personality, and appearance -- and for this reason would only paint men he could like or admire. Watts, a true Victorian, was one of the last grand allegorical history painters, expressing idealized forms with a striving for sublime feeling that results in a divorce from reality, both physical and intellectual. Whistler, James Abbott McNeill (18341903) Born in Lowell, Massachusetts, he attended West Point Military Academy. Failing there, he worked as a Navy Slide 117: cartographer, which taught him the technique of etching, before going to Paris to study painting in 1855. He lived as a dandy and had a deserved reputation as a biting wit, well able to keep up with his friend Oscar Wilde. After one particularly clever remark Wilde is supposed to have said admiringly, "I wish I had said that." Whistler replied, "You will, Oscar, you will!" Whistler's style, despite his early influence by French painting, shows a distinctly English bargain between discipline and innovation. He became famous for his technique of placing a figure against a background that was virtually empty and colorless, as in the popular painting that has come to be known as Whistler's Mother. Wood, Grant (1891-1942) An American artist who spent his life in Iowa as a "regional" painter, he sought to put a finish to America's dependence on the European art world by expounding the experiences of "local"/"locale" life. Although he was first influenced by Impressionism, the majority of his work is in the primitive style. His renowned painting, American Gothic, is an example of this style that earned him world recognition. Woodcut Print made from a woodblock cut with the grain on which the parts not cut away form the design. Wren, Sir Christopher (1632-1722) An English architect, Wren's initial fame grew from his being a mathematician. Then the age of reconstruction that followed the Great Fire of London made it possible for Wren to undertake the complete and massive reconstruction of St. Paul's Cathedral and 51 parish churches. This work also gave him the opportunity for stylistic departure in his concepts of onion domes and galleries, etc., and occupied most of his time for 36 years. One of the most important aspects of Wren's creativity lay in the distinction he made between the beauty encapsulated in geometric form (absolute beauty) and the other beauty found in more usual, everyday shapes (relative beauty). He believed both to be equal in importance. Wright, Frank Lloyd (1867-1959) An innovative American architect, Wright used materials only in their natural, untouched state -- stone, oven brick, nonvarnished woods. He frequently designed the furniture for the houses he built, using the Japanese motif of building directly into the walls. One of his most famous houses, Falling Waters, stands in Pennsylvania, a structure of cantilevered "decks" that hang suspended over a waterfall. A controversial work can be found in New York City's Guggenheim Museum, a huge spiral of stone in

which museumgoers literally find themselves traveling around in circles to view an exhibition. Wyeth, Andrew (b.1917) An American painter, Wyeth won fame at the age of twelve for his polished illustrations in an edition of Robin Hood. His style is both precise and minute in detail, a Realist influenced by the exacting techniques of photography. Pennsylvania, Maine, the artist's family, and Slide 118: neighbors comprise most of his subject matter, and he is easily recognized by his dimly lit and deserted landscapes in tones of gray and brown, which convey feelings of both loneliness and solitude. PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development World History in One Nut Shell, Almost

PeopleNology Slide 1: Ancient people were fascinated by the sky and the patterns of the stars. Little Notes By Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development PeopleNology Nollijy Univerisity Research Institute Arts Science Technology Evolution They noticed that the Moon changed its shape from night to night and changed its position against the stars. Slide 2: They traced out constellations that looked like people and animals and made up stories about them. The first astronomical observations were painted on the walls of caves 30,000 years ago. Ancient priests were among the first astronomers. They studied the sky to make sure that their calendars, based on the changes of the Moon, were accurate. At least 5,000 years ago, ancient astronomers began using large stones to chart the movement of the Sun and the stars. The most famous ancient observatory of this kind is called Stonehenge, in England. American Indians also built circles of stones lined up with the Sun and stars to figure out sunrise and the start of summer. Slide 3: Some stars and constellations, like the Big Dipper, always stay in the northern part of the sky. Ancient sailors used these stars to guide them. The Polynesians found their way to distant islands over the vast Pacific Ocean by watching the stars. The Mayans, who lived in southern Mexico, watched the movements of the Moon and the planet Venus carefully By about the year A.D. 800, they had worked out a calendar that was more accurate than the one being used in Europe at the time. They may have built special buildings like this one to study the sky. The lives of the ancient Egyptians depended on the Nile River. When the river flooded their fields, it made it possible for them to grow their crops. Slide 4: Their priests carefully recorded when the floods came and found that they came about every 365 days. So the Egyptians were the first to use a calendar with a 365-day year. The ancient Babylonians viewed the universe as a disk of land with water surrounding everything. They were the first people to study the movements of the planets and kept detailed records of their paths. Like most ancient peoples, the Babylonians believed that studying planetary

movements could help them predict the future. One biblical story tells how the people of a Babylonian city tried to build a stairway to the stars--the Tower of Babel. Slide 5: Early Greek astronomers probably picked up most of their knowledge from the ancient Babylonians. Around 550 B.C., the Greek philosopher Pythagoras pointed out that the Evening Star and the Morning Star were really the same body. Today, we know that this body is the planet Venus. At that time most people thought that the Earth was flat. One early Greek view described the world as a floating disk inside a great hollow ball. But later some Greek astronomers thought that the Earth itself might have the shape of a ball. Others even thought that the light of the Moon was really reflected sunlight. Ptolemy described the Earth as a huge ball at the center of the Slide 6: universe with the objects in the sky moving around it in great circles. Each planet moved in a separate circle. The Moon was lowest. Then came Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. The stars were farthest out. To explain why the planets changed direction, Ptolemy, using the older calculations of Hipparchus, worked out a detailed scheme of the planetary motions. Ptolemy did his work in about A.D. 150; Hipparchus, about 130 B.C. So it took about 280 years to come up with the scheme. It was very complicated, but it could be used to work out future positions of the planets. © 1996, 1995 Zane Publishing, Inc., GARETH STEVENS, Inc., and CLEARVUE Slide 7: In about 240 B.C., a Greek astronomer in Egypt, Eratosthenes, found that when the Sun was directly overhead in one city, it cast a shadow in another city 500 miles (800 kilometers) to the north. Eratosthenes figured out this meant Earth's surface curved. He also figured out that Earth was a ball about 25,000 miles (40,000 kilometers) around. Today, we know he was right. After Ptolemy, Greek science faded, but the Arabs, beginning in A.D. 632, set up a large empire, discovered Greek books on science and mathematics, translated them into Arabic, and studied them. In some cases, they improved on the Greeks. In about 900, an Arab named al-Battani worked out new ways of figuring out planetary positions. Slide 8: "Star-finders," or astrolabes, like this one, were created by Arab astronomers to solve complicated problems in astronomy. One side often contained a detailed star map. If it hadn't been for the Arabs, Greek science might have been totally lost. In July 1054, a star blazed out in the heavens. For three weeks it was so bright it could be seen in daylight. Europeans at the time took no interest, and the only reason we know that the star appeared was because Arab, American Indian, Japanese, and Chinese astronomers carefully noted it. Eventually, Europeans began to translate Arabic versions of Greek books into Latin. To many European astronomers, the Greek scheme of the universe seemed too complicated. Slide 9: During the sixteenth century, the Polish astronomer Copernicus decided that a simpler scheme would be to place the Sun at the center of the universe and have all the planets circle it. Earth would have to circle the Sun, too. This seemed against common sense, but Copernicus wrote that his idea would make it much easier to figure out planetary positions. For more than fifty years,

astronomers argued whether Copernicus was right or not. European astronomers were beginning to find out that the Greeks were indeed wrong now and then. In 1572, a Danish astronomer, Tycho Brahe, spotted and studied a bright new star, or supernova, in the sky. Slide 10: Eventually, the new star faded away. But the Greeks had thought that the sky never changed. Tycho Brahe recorded the position of the supernova so precisely that modern astronomers have photographed its remains. From his observatory in Denmark, Tycho Brahe also discovered that comets were farther from the Earth than the Moon. But the Greeks had thought comets were inside our atmosphere. All this made Europeans more ready to accept new ideas--like Copernicus's idea that the Earth circled the Sun. The turning point came when a telescope was invented in Holland. An Italian astronomer, Galileo, heard of this, built his own, and in 1609 pointed it at the heavens. He found that the Moon was a world with craters, mountains, and Slide 11: what looked like seas. He found that the planet Jupiter had four moons that moved about it, and that Venus changed shape, just as the Moon did. At once he discovered many stars too dim to be seen without his telescope. All of this didn't fit with the Greek view of the Earth-centered universe. But it did fit the views of Copernicus, and at that moment, modern astronomy had begun. Little Notes By Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development PeopleNology Nollijy Univerisity Research Institute Arts Science Technology Evolution Today, in addition to optical telescopes, astronomers have instruments to pick up radio waves from objects too far away to see. They have even sent instruments into space. Slide 12: We use these instruments to learn things that ancient astronomers never dreamed of. But in many ways, we want to learn about the universe for many of the same reasons the first astronomers did long ago. The Sun gives us light and warmth. North and south of the equator, when the Sun is low in the sky, the days become shorter and cooler, and winter comes. Winter is a reminder that, without the Sun, there would be only darkness and freezing cold. So to the ancients, the Sun was a glorious and good god. Different peoples had different images of the Sun god. The great eye of Ra represented the Sun god of the ancient Egyptians. Ra was considered the nation's protector. Slide 13: This warm and tranquil "Sun-being" was drawn in Europe during the Middle Ages. This fierce dragon gliding beneath the fiery Sun is from eighteenthcentury China. The Moon is much dimmer than the Sun, but its light at night is cool and helpful. In myths, the Moon is usually pictured as a gentle female. To the ancient Greeks, she was a beautiful maiden called Selene or Artemis. To the Egyptians, she was Isis. As it circles Earth, the Moon changes its appearance, going from thin crescent to full and back to crescent each month. Slide 14: Ancient calendars were based on this monthly cycle, and twelve of these monthly cycles made up the cycle of the seasons. It therefore became very important to watch each month for the first sign of the new moon. In fact, both month and Monday come from the word moon. From day to day and from night to night, the Sun and Moon change their positions against the stars in the sky. So do five bright, starlike objects that we call planets, from the Greek word for

"wanderers." Slide 15: This is a view of brilliant Venus and dim Mercury as they line up at sunset with a crescent moon. Venus is the brightest planet in the sky and is named for the goddess of beauty. Mercury is the fastest-moving planet and is named after the quick- footed messenger of the gods. The ancient Babylonians watched the planets move across the sky and gave them the names of gods. The Greeks and Romans copied the Babylonians in this, and we use the Roman names to this day. Mars is named after the god of war; and Saturn, after the god of agriculture. The second brightest planet in the sky, Jupiter, was named for the chief god. Slide 16: Jupiter is not as bright as Venus, but it shines all night, while Venus appears only in the evening or at dawn. In modern times, people have found new planets that are too far away for the ancients to have seen. These planets have been given names from mythology, too. Beyond ringed Saturn is Uranus, named for the god of the sky, who was Saturn's father. Farther still is Neptune, a seagreen planet named for the god of the sea. Beyond Neptune is Pluto, named for the god of the underworld because it is so far from the light of the Sun. Little Notes By Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development PeopleNology Nollijy Univerisity Research Institute Arts Science Technology Evolution Slide 17: Every so often, something unusual happens in the sky: the Sun or Moon is eclipsed and hidden from our view. The Sun is eclipsed because the Moon moves in front of it and hides its light. During a lunar eclipse, the Moon's bright face is turned a dusky red as it slips into Earth's shadow. Ancient people didn't know these causes, so they invented causes of their own. Some thought the Sun and Moon were chased by wolves, dragons, or other monsters that caught up with them now and then. Here the Hindu dragon Rahu causes a solar eclipse as he tries to swallow the Sun. Slide 18: Of course, the Sun and Moon have always come back from their eclipses. And they will continue to do so for billions of years, even though according to Norse myths, at world's end a giant wolf will finally swallow the Sun. Comets appear in the sky now and then. They are hazy objects with long tails. With a little imagination, they might look like the heads of mourning women with long, streaming hair--and in fact, the word comet comes from the Greek word for "hair." Sometimes comets look like swords, so people had several reasons to think of them as unpleasant omens. It's no wonder, then, Slide 19: that most people thought comets were messages sent by the gods, warning of war, plague, and destruction. People would pray or ring church bells in order to try to ward off the evil. But evil always came when there were comets in the sky. Of course, evil always came when comets were not in the sky, too-but people somehow didn't notice that. When you look at the stars, you may imagine that they form patterns. Some of these patterns are triangles, crosses, or squares. Some are shaped like a W. Some form wiggly lines. Two bright stars might be close together and appear to be related when viewed from Earth. Slide 20: Ancient people imagined many shapes in the sky, including even people and animals. These shapes made it easier to locate the stars. A star

might be in the "tail of the scorpion" or in the "head of the hunter." These patterns are called constellations, a word that comes from two Latin words which basically mean "stars together." The constellations were given names, many of them in Latin. The ancients also created stories about these imaginary figures in the sky. The Sun, Moon, and planets each pass through the same constellations as they make a large circle in the sky. This circle was divided into twelve constellations, Slide 21: so that the Sun took one month to go through each. Most of the constellations were pictured as animals, so the band in which the planets move is known as the zodiac, which means "circle of animals." In this thirteenth-century painting, celebrating the month of May, the Sun moves from the constellation Taurus (the Bull) into Gemini (the Twins), while Venus, the love goddess, watches over the people on Earth from her blue chariot. Some constellations in the Northern Hemisphere never set. One of these, Ursa Major (the Great Bear), contains the Big Dipper. Slide 22: Sailors in old times noticed that Ursa Major was always in the northern sky. This meant that they could look for it and always tell which direction was north. Thanks to the Dipper, sailors could voyage out of sight of land and find their way home. We know that both ancient and modern cultures have seen figures in the constellations. Sometimes these figures are similar. Babylonians as well as ancient Mongols saw the Milky Way as a seam sewn in the two halves of heaven. And several cultures from different times and places- -the Sumerians, Vikings, and some American Indians--believed the Milky Way was a bridge between Earth and the sky for the dead. But most cultures differ in their reading of the stars. The Inca Indians, for instance, interpreted the dark clouds of the Milky Way, Slide 23: rather than the stars, and saw in them animals such as a bird, fox, llama, toad, and serpent. To the Norsemen, it was a huge spike driven through the universe around which the heavens revolved. To the Mongols, it was the Golden Peg, a stake that kept the heavens from whirling apart. The Chinese likened it to an emperor, the chief star that ruled the others. In India, it was the place where a holy young prince faithfully meditated. "It" is the Pole Star, that stable star in the north around which all others seem to revolve. Slide 24: As shown here, the two stars at the end of the Big Dipper's bowl point toward the Pole Star. But, in reality, there has not been just one Pole Star. Because Earth's axis wobbles a bit, various stars have been the Pole Star: Alderamin, Deneb, Vega, Thuban, and our current Pole Star, Polaris. And, of course, during those years, there have been periods when there was no star exactly to the north. People talk about objects in the sky in different ways. Astronomers talk about the skies in familiar ways. But astrologers talk about the skies in ways that are less familiar. The practice of astrology, dating from ancient times, Slide 25: is to work out methods for predicting the future by using the position of the planets in the zodiac. Even today, many newspapers carry a horoscope for those who seek advice from the stars. Astronomers, who use the methods and tools of modern science, are skeptical about astrology. Yet many people believe it to be true, just as ancient peoples found their stories of the skies to be true. So

history shows us that while we are still uncovering secrets about the universe, one thing remains certain: our endless desire to make sense out of the objects above and around us. Slide 26: In ancient times, astronomers learned a great deal about how the Sun, Moon, and planets moved across the sky by simply gazing skyward. They figured out the length of the year and worked out calendars. Nowadays, astronomers still look at the sky. But today they have new ways of collecting information from the sky, and they have new ideas about how the universe works. What's more, astronomers are always developing even newer and better instruments. The best-known instruments of astronomers today are the large telescopes. In 1948, on Mount Palomar in California, this telescope with a mirror 200 inches (about 5 meters across was installed. It collects 360,000 times as much light as the human eye does. Slide 27: In 1974, the Soviet Union built a telescope in the Caucasus Mountains with a mirror 236 inches (about 6 meters) across. Now, even bigger and more effective telescopes are in the works. This is a model of the Keck Telescope in Hawaii, which will use thirty- six small mirrors, all coordinated by computer, to create a mirror twice as wide as Palomar's. And scientists are developing newer types of glass to make telescopes both stronger and lighter. But it doesn't matter whether the telescope is in an observatory or in your bedroom window: all telescopes on Earth have problems. Clouds and fog hide the sky. Slide 28: The atmosphere absorbs some kinds of light. It scatters light by day so you can't see the stars. Even on clear nights, the air can be unsteady, causing the stars to quiver. The United States put a large telescope--the Hubble Space Telescope--into orbit beyond Earth's atmosphere. From there, it will help us see farther and more clearly into the cosmos. It will show us distant galaxies, and it will be our "eyes," peering deep into star clusters. Little Notes By Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development PeopleNology Nollijy Univerisity Research Institute Arts Science Technology Evolution Slide 29: Here are two simulated views of a distant star cluster as seen from Earth (on the left) and through the Hubble Space Telescope (on the right). The clarity with which the space telescope will gather light from near and deep space will help us figure out how large and how old the universe is. It will help us know more about the very farthest edges of the universe. Stars give off radio waves as well as light, so we have built special radio telescopes that concentrate and receive radio waves. Radio waves can give us information that light does not. This is M31, the closest spiral galaxy to us, as seen by radio waves. Slide 30: This is M31 as seen by visible light. Each method shows us something different about this spiral galaxy. Radio waves have helped us discover very distant objects. In 1967, a young British astronomer, Dr. Jocelyn Bell Burnell, detected strange, steady radio signals from deep space. She had discovered pulsars-- rapidly spinning neutron stars sending out radio signals with each turn. Scientists can use computers to make a number of small telescopes work together exactly as if they were one large telescope. Slide 31: Here, an array of small radio telescopes have been electronically

combined to function as one "superscope." These radio telescopes are part of the VLA--Very Large Array--in Socorro, New Mexico. Each arm of the VLA is 13 miles (21 kilometers) long. Thanks to computers, radio telescopes that are thousands of miles apart can detect radio waves more sharply than ordinary telescopes see light. Computers also help analyze the data that telescopes receive and study it with great precision. Thanks to computers, astronomers can now see dim stars, Slide 32: remote galaxies, and other distant objects in the sky more sharply than ever before. Here, an astronomer studies an image produced by radio telescopes. As we see objects that are farther and farther off in space, we also see them as they existed longer and longer ago. Traveling at about 186,000 miles (300,000 kilometers) per second, light from the nearest star other than our Sun takes over four years to reach us. Light from the Andromeda Galaxy, a relatively close galactic neighbor, takes over 2 million years to get here. Quasars are distant objects with very bright centers. We see them by light that left them from 1 to 10 billion years ago. Slide 33: Radio telescopes created this image of a huge gas jet erupting from quasar 3C -273. Right now, our best instruments can detect distant galaxies by light that left them 17 billion years ago. All of this suggests something about how old the universe might be and the way in which it might have developed after it came into being. Every once in a while, a star explodes and briefly shines with the light of a billion ordinary stars. Slide 34: The latest known supernova appeared in February 1987 in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a galaxy only about 160,000 light-years from us. The bright spot (on the left) is Supernova 1987A. When a supernova explodes, most of its matter is scattered through space. Minutes before astronomers detected the explosion of Supernova 1987A, a smattering of small particles called neutrinos, given off by the dying star, passed through neutrino detectors like this one on Earth. Here, a diver is working inside the water-filled particle detector. Over 2,000 light sensors watch for the telltale flashes that occur when neutrinos are captured. Slide 35: This is a computer image showing which sensors have detected the flash from a passing neutrino. Being an astronomer is fun, but it can be hard work. It may mean staying up all night to observe the skies and spending countless hours examining data for days, weeks, and even months on end. If this sounds unpleasant, keep in mind that the excitement of making a new, important discovery makes all the hard work worthwhile. There is no shortage of objects to observe in the sky, and many of those who look for these objects are amateurs. These people are not professionals, Slide 36: but they are fascinated by the sky. They keep looking at the sky night after night, recording their findings, taking photographs, and drawing sketch Amateur astronomers are often the ones who discover new comets, observe meteors, and keep track of stars that change in brightness Sometimes they even spot a nova, a star that suddenly increases very much in brightness. This photo of a total solar eclipse was taken by an amateur astronomer. Sometimes amateur astronomers make interesting observations with little more than a pair of high-

quality binoculars. Others buy or construct small telescopes. This amateur telescope features a drive mechanism and a computer readout. Slide 37: Sometimes it's hard to tell the difference between an amateur astronomer and a professional astronomer. One amateur, Asaph Hall, was a carpenter, but he loved astronomy. He got a job at the Harvard Observatory as an assistant and eventually discovered the satellites of Mars Clyde Tombaugh was too poor to go to college, but he got a job as an assistant at Lowell Observatory and eventually discovered the planet Pluto. Astronomy takes equipment, patience, and luck. But it also takes a lot of thinking about science and mathematics. Albert Einstein was not an astronomer, Slide 38: but he figured out an explanation of how gravity and other forces in the universe might work. This explanation, called the general theory of relativity, has helped astronomers decide what to look for in the cosmos. In 1936, Albert Einstein said that light from a distant star would curve around another star on its way toward Earth. We would thus see the distant star not as a point of light, but as a ring of light. This ring is called a gravitational lens, or Einstein ring. In 1988, half a century after Einstein's explanation, Slide 39: astronomers observed this light from one galaxy bending--forming an Einstein ring-- as it passed by another galaxy. So far, everything astronomers have found has backed up Einstein's theories. Despite all the history and all the work with all the instruments, astronomers don't have all the answers. They don't know just how old the universe is, or exactly how it came into existence, or just how it may have developed from a tiny object into the huge, galaxy-filled universe that now exists. Most modern astronomers agree that the universe is expanding, but Slide 40: they don't know if it will expand forever or start contracting again someday. There may be parts of the universe we can't detect, but we don't know what these missing parts may be composed of. Will we ever have all the answers? Probably not. For many people, not having all the answers seems itself to be a big problem. But then, problems make life more interesting, and they certainly make astronomy more exciting. Slide 41: The sky changes as we watch. Through the night, we see stars rise and set, turning in large circles about a spot in the sky near the North Star, Polaris. That's because Earth is turning on its axis. Polaris is called the North Star because it is almost directly above Earth's North Pole. As a result, it doesn't move, but always stays in the north. As you might guess, the brightest object in the night sky is the Moon. The Moon shines by reflected light from the Sun. When the Moon and Sun are on opposite sides of the Earth, we see the Moon's lighted side as a "full moon," shining all night. Slide 42: When the Moon and Sun are on the same side of the Earth, we face the Moon's unlighted side. Perhaps we see just a bit of the lighted side as a crescent just after sunset. From night to night, the crescent gets thicker until there is a full moon, and then thinner and thinner until there is a "new moon." The Moon goes around the Earth in a little less than a month. In that time, we see all its shapes, or phases, in order. A group of stars in the sky that seems to trace out a pattern or figure is called a constellation.

Slide 43: Many of the constellations we see in the Northern Hemisphere are named after the gods and heroes of ancient Greek mythology or after objects that were used in ancient times. The pattern of these stars reminded the ancient Greeks of Sagittarius (the Archer). From the Northern Hemisphere, we can see certain constellations that always appear to circle Polaris. Here, two of these constellations have been connected by imaginary lines. On the left is the constellation called the Big Dipper. The two stars at the bowl end of the dipper are called the "pointers." An imaginary arrow through them "points" at Polaris. Slide 44: On the other side of Polaris are five stars in a W shape. This constellation is Cassiopeia (the Queen). There are also some stars that circle a point above the South Pole, opposite Polaris. A constellation called the Southern Cross, composed of four bright stars, points to the place the southern stars circle about. But in the Northern Hemisphere, we can never see this part of the sky. If you looked in the northern sky at the same time each night, you'd see that, from night to night, the patterns in the sky shift. Slide 45: A pattern of stars at midnight on one night won't return exactly until a whole year has passed. So the patterns change with the seasons. That's because Earth revolves around the Sun. In summer, the Big Dipper and Cassiopeia would be positioned something like this. In the autumn, they would have moved to be positioned like this. Little Notes By Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development PeopleNology Nollijy Univerisity Research Institute Arts Science Technology Evolution In winter, they would look like this;... Slide 46: ...and in spring, like this. Not until the next summer at the same time-after a whole year has passed--will they appear in the same location in the sky. In the next pictures, you should imagine that you are looking up at the night sky facing toward the south. As you face south, imagine that the top of the picture is folded toward you and passes over your head. The bottom of the picture would then be south, and the top would be north. As you face south in the spring and look way up over your head, the Big Dipper will stretch across the sky above you. Slide 47: If you follow the curve of the handle of the Big Dipper back toward the southern part of the sky, you will come upon the kite-shaped constellation Bootes (the Herdsman). Arcturus, one of the brightest stars in the spring sky, is part of Bootes. If you continue to follow the imaginary curve south, you will come to the constellation Virgo (the Maiden) and its bright star, Spica. To the west of Virgo (right as you face south) is the constellation Leo (the Lion) with its bright star, Regulus. Slide 48: One of the easiest constellations to spot in the summer sky is Sagittarius (the Archer). Its outline looks something like a teapot in the southern sky. The Milky Way, a band of foggy light that encircles the sky, passes through Sagittarius. To the west, right of Sagittarius, is a curve of stars. This constellation is Scorpius (the Scorpion) with its bright red giant star, Antares. Over your head as you face south is Lyra (the Lyre) with its bright star, Vega. To the east of Lyra, shaped like a great cross, is Cygnus (the Swan). Halfway between Cygnus and Sagittarius is the bright star Altair, in Aquila (the Eagle). The three stars Vega, Deneb, and Altair form a star pattern we call the summer triangle.

Slide 49: The constellation Pegasus (the Flying Horse) is high up in the autumn sky, nearly overhead as you face south. Its four bright stars form the Square of Pegasus. Attached above and to the left of the Square of Pegasus is Andromeda (the Chained Maiden). Andromeda is exciting because within it, you can just barely spot a small, foggy patch of light. If we looked at this patch through a telescope, it would turn out to be a huge collection of stars called the Andromeda Galaxy. Slide 50: To the southeast of Pegasus (lower left as you face south) is Cetus (the Whale) which has a rather dim star that is variable. A variable star grows brighter, then dimmer. When astronomers first saw this star, this changing brightness seemed so unusual that they named the star Mira, which means "wonderful." In the cold winter sky, you can see Orion (the Hunter). This beautiful constellation can help you find other star groups in the winter sky. On Orion's northeastern edge (the upper left, as you face south) is the huge red giant star called Betelgeuse. Orion's southwestern edge (lower right) is marked by Rigel, a star about 55,000 times brighter than our Sun. Between these two bright stars is a row of three stars--Orion's belt. Slide 51: Below the belt is another row of stars--Orion's sword. The middle "star" of the sword is actually the Orion Nebula. Through a telescope, the Orion Nebula is seen as a giant gas cloud in which stars are born. Orion's belt points down and to the left (southeast) at the bright star Sirius, in Canis Major (the Great Dog). Sirius is the brightest star visible from Earth--not counting the Sun, of course. The belt also points up and to the right (northwest) toward Aldebaran, the brightest star in Taurus (the Bull). Taurus is one of the twelve constellations of the zodiac. Slide 52: The zodiac constellations, represented here on a plate, form a band across the sky that includes the paths of the Sun, the Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. The Moon moves through the constellations of the zodiac in a little less than a month. The Sun moves along the same path, but moves much more slowly, staying in each constellation for one month and making its complete circuit in a year. Because Venus and Mercury are closer to the Sun than we are, we always see them near the Sun. When the Sun sets, Venus is sometimes in the western sky as the brilliant Evening Star, setting a couple of hours later. Mercury is even closer to the Sun, but it is dimmer, Slide 53: so it is harder to observe. This is a view of brilliant Venus and dim Mercury as they line up at sunset with a crescent moon. Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn can all shine in the midnight sky, but through a telescope you can see Jupiter as a small globe and Saturn with its bright ring. There are still farther planets: Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. You can see Uranus and Neptune easily with a small telescope, but you need a large one to see Pluto. Telescopes come in two varieties: refracting and reflecting. Refractors, like this one, use lenses to concentrate the light,... Little Notes By Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development PeopleNology Nollijy Univerisity Research Institute Arts Science Technology Evolution Slide 54: ...a large mirror bounces and focuses light onto a smaller mirror, which bounces it into the eyepiece. With telescopes, we can see far-off celestial

objects. Through large telescopes, astronomers have taken photographs like this one of the spiral Whirlpool Galaxy --M51, which looks like a fuzzy pinwheel--... ...or of the Helix Nebula, a faint shell of gas blown off an aging star. But even a small telescope can give you an idea of the vastness of the universe and the wonder of the stars.

PeopleNology Don’t find love, let love find you. That’s why its called falling in love, because you don’t force yourself to fall, you just fall.. Lucky is the man who is the first love of a woman, but luckier is the woman who is the last love of a man. It takes a minute to have a crush on someone, an hour to like someone, and an day to love someone... but it takes a lifetime to forget someone. It breaks your heart to see the one you love is happy with someone else, but it's more painful to know that the one you love is unhappy with you. If love is the answer, can you please repeat the question? Faith makes all things possible. Love makes them easy. I believe that to truly Love, is the ultimate expression of the will to live. A heart that truly loves is forever young. Love makes life so confusing, but without love would you really want to live? Love me now, love me never, but if you love me, love me forever. If love is the answer, can you please repeat the question? Three things of life that are most valuable - Love, self-confidence & friends.

To the world you may be just one person, but to one person you may be the world. Who do you turn to when the only person in the world that can stop you from crying, is exactly the one making you cry? Many a young lady does not realize just how strong her love for a young man is until he fails to pass the approval test with her parents. Is it better for a woman to marry a man who loves her …. than a man she loves??? Give her two red roses, each with a note. The first note says 'For the woman I love' and the second, 'For my best friend. A good marriage is like a casserole, only those responsible for it really know what goes in it. Love, true love, is that which can give the most without asking or demanding anything in return. All, everything that I understand, I understand only because I love… Love cures people -- both the ones who give it... and the ones who receive it… One word frees us of all the weight and pain of life: That word is love. It is wrong to think that love comes from long companionship and persevering courtship. Love is the offspring of spiritual affinity and unless that affinity is created in a moment, it will not be created for years or even generations…. When they asked me what I loved most about life, I smiled and said you…

Just because you know someone doesn't mean you love them, and just because you don't know people doesn't mean you can't love them. You can fall in love with a complete stranger in a heartbeat, if God planned that route for you. So open your heart to strangers more often. You never know when God will throw that pass at you.

by PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development Nollijy University Research Institute Arts & Sciences - Evolution
Love... What is love? Love is to love someone for who they are, who they were, and who they will be. Why do you say you love me, if you are only going to leave me? Love is like a river, always changing, but always finding you again somewhere down the road… Love is a language spoken by everyone, but understood only by a heart !!! It doesn't take a reason to love someone, but it does to like someone. You don't love someone because you want to, you love someone because you are destined too. It's because you fall in Love with them, that you then try to find a reason, but you always come up with the answer, No reason!

PeopleNology Slide 1: Bodenhamer’s The rise of PeopleNology was very slow and then all at

once exploded within the market-place. If you’re starting a business, growing a business, big or small PeopleNology works. Little companies and giant Fortune 100 companies use PeopleNology as it teaches you the Earth Laws and Order of how people think and act, all over the world. The feats of science is explored, we explain the world at work, the wars and weapons of management, marketing and sales. We give you the power to influence and persuade, the art of management, the insider secrets of all people. It’s a healthy diet about people. Including your own everyday life, when you’re on the move or relaxing the powerful evolutionary triggers control everything you think and do. Your triumphs and business building can be predicted. Recruiting, retention, rewarding and recognition comes to life inside your business. PeopleNology is the food and drink of modern and progressive companies. The milestones of people, the medicine you need to sustain and build, to move from survival to stablity then to success and sifnificance is all inside the exciting PeopleNology. Welcome. Slide 2: Bodenhamer’s EARTH LAWS Governing All Human Beings PeopleNology for Business, the World The Best Business Books that fully explain every human being inside and outside of your company. Enjoy the remarkable introductory journey inside PeopleNology. Discover the hidden secrets of people and how they’re persuaded and influenced to grow and profit any size business. BedRock - BedRoom - BoardRoom World Class Best-Sellers Slide 3: EARTH LAWS Governing All Human Beings PeopleNology If you would like to know what’s brewing for Business inside other companies, unlock the mysteries of people, build your own road to personal and business success, you should strive to Become a PeopleNologist Today - become the PeopleNologist inside your Free Knowledge - Around the World own company. You’ll become the best executive, manager or During the nineteenth century, ideas and supervisor. You’ll fully understand how to institutions which once had appeared so solid relax the cruel corset of management and get and real...are not so real today. People, more done, increase productivity, improve places and things have all changed very profits and retention and quickly and there’s a lot of confusion much more. within the workplace and the homes in America. Take a minute and send us an email and get started PeopleNology understands the powerful for free. forces that changes your business and what makes your employees think and feel Having a PeopleNologist certain ways, at certain times. The Human Certificate is your first Beings running around the world really have step to a greater business, not changed that much and its time you it’s money in the bank. learned the truth. PeopleNologist AME R EN H BOD GREG Slide 4: EARTH LAWS Governing All Human Beings Become a PeopleNologist Today - Free Knowledge - Around the World Powerful companies in America and a few around the world understand the extreme psychology and evolutionary madness of every human being. You can now explore the absolute knowledge you need to grow and prosper your business through the absolute power of the human mind. The companies that understand their people will also understand their customers and future markets. You’ll be able to attract stronger and smarter people and grow your business profits, building better products and services starts with people. In the twentieth century, mechanization has Understand the

extreme given form to much of man experiences and psychology and evolutionary the planet went wild for mechanical things, madness of every human steam engines, gears and screws, factories being and then do and tall buildings. What the twentieth something about it. century never counted on was the thousands of evolutionary drivers or evolutionary triggers that control every human being walking on earth today. Slide 5: Become a PeopleNologist Today - Free Knowledge - Around the World PeopleNology of America founder Gregory Bodenhamer has allocated over 29 years to research and study the history of mankind and mother earth. His intellectual property has been made available to private industry for profits. Greg Bodenhamer’s PeopleNology brings about people knowledge that you have never experienced. This life’s work of our founder brings many surprises to even the experts. PeopleNology for Business, understanding the farmer in the city that you call an employee changes everything you think and feel. The things you thought you understood will Product quality improves and become clear for the first time. Employees innovations of new designs become people again and productivity moves and ideas are brought to the up and slogans are taken down. Control table. Productivity and charts point to greater profits and recruiting Quality jumps up off the costs move down. Product quality improves charts. People and systems and innovations of new designs and ideas are working together like never brought to the table. PeopleNology for before. Business is about people, its about you, its about all of us. Slide 6: Become a PeopleNologist Today - Free Knowledge - Around the World You might think you know what your biggest issues are inside your business today but it’s a lot bigger than you think, but you know for sure that some employees don’t seem to understand. Quality problems seem to never go away, employee turnover never seems to stop, productivity moves up and down like a roller coaster. What are the real issues? PeopleNology teaches you that our subconscious mind processes positive and negative memories you're not even aware of as it just happens without us knowing it. Yet experts think that this information holds the key to understanding, relationships, problems, answers, new product ideas, grand new services where you might have issues today building your business. PeopleNology will give you the means and the Quality problems seem to never go way to bring about conscious thinking within away, employee turnover never seems your business with all your people. The 75 to stop, productivity moves up and Secrets of The Mind, a PeopleNology down like a roller coaster. What are publication opens the door to all your people. the real issues? Why they come and go? Why they tend to be lazy? What makes them get up and go? What makes them a success first? Slide 7: Become a PeopleNologist Today - Free Knowledge - Around the World Our arts hold up a mirror to our values and all you have to do is look back through history and see where we all started. We’re not that far removed from the cave and how we think has really never left the cave. We are from the land and seemingly trapped in the contraptions of business and most people you call employees resent this fact within their subconscious. Growing your business is first about understanding your people. The most powerful companies in the world

are based on people first, products second. Slide 8: Become a PeopleNologist Today - Free Knowledge - Around the World The evolutionary drivers and triggers, found in every human being will be explored so you’ll understand how your people really think and what they think about on a subconscious level. You’ll be amazed what people think about when you’re confident their thinking about working related topics, tasks, objectives and goals you have all over the conference room. The machine has replaced the human being and his natural world as the motif and theme of much of our day to day living. Don’t drive your automobile, unplug your refrigerator, turn off your computer, disconnect the satellite dish and go sit under a tree to discover the mechanics and engineering of the modern world. Man was not made for the machine even though man has surrounded himself/herself with every machine idea that can be converted from an idea into something helpful. Slide 9: Become a PeopleNologist Today - Free Knowledge - Around the World PeopleNology will give you the people power back to your business. Your employees are worried about quality but they worry more about their children’s SAT test scores. They worry about report cards and bank balances, light bills, car payments, lovers and new shoes. They think of safety, clothing and shelter, sex, food and romance while at the same time you want to constantly grade them on productions, performance, sales revenue, percentage of growth, profit margins, new customers, lost customers and your success. Technology is in your hands. Your success will not be based on technology now or in the future even though its going to help you a great deal. You success will be found in helping people helping other people. Do you want to be ranked in the same old ways, profit margins, revenue growth, market share? Do you want to build the best products or services in the world? Slide 10: Become a PeopleNologist Today - Free Knowledge - Around the World The market constantly grades your people performance and you have to measure up to the market. The intelligence found within the right group of people will change your company forever. PeopleNology will grow your business, encourage and reward smart people and over time create a new culture of people success. The Not-So-Smart companies will fall behind and lose their market share. Their employees will dream about failure and pink slips while at the same time you break open the power of people. Success is solving problems, which is the whole point of our civilization and your company can lead the way. The doorstep to the future is PeopleNology and all the power it holds concerning the 75 Secrets inside every person walking around. PeopleNology is Power. Slide 11: You have committed your company to the machine. How many computers do you own? How many trucks and company cars? How many telephones, forklifts, power tools, chairs, tables, pens and paperclips does it take to build a business? You have committed your company to things and not people. Machines do not build a business only people can. People demand more and more machines but who will build them, sustain them, change them, design and engineer the new ones. Modern man demands the machine, so be it. Get your people to build the new design, the faster rates, the higher quality and let people build the machines for all the other people wanting and needing more and

more. In turn, machines and machine thinking people dominate our lives. These machine thinking companies are leaving their people behind. You cannot leave your people behind in the future. They’re your customers, friends, associates, lovers, engineers and competitors. Stop the machine thinking and start on the people thinking to build better machines. The unique thing about your company is the people inside. The irrational thing about your company is the people inside your company. PeopeNology brings the unique, original, irrational thinking of these people into a rational and productive culture of your future. Slide 13: EARTH LAWS Governing All Human Beings Changing Cultures Borderless Profits Competitive Advantages PeopleNology, the Magnificent Earth Laws governing all human beings remains the quite revolution in the operating theater of American business today. Invoking the teachings of PeopleNology is the ice-cold shower that your company needs today to improve all of your key result areas. PeopleNology quickly dislodges the fixed ideas or delusions that you have about your people, regardless of authority level. Discover and fully utilize the purifying powers of PeopleNology and change your culture, create borderless profits and advantages. Welcome to the Frontiers of Knowledge, the New - Ancient Earth Laws of our Planet and all Human Beings, welcome to PeopleNology. Nollijy University Research Slide 14: Human Resources PeopleNology The Magnificent EARTH LAWS Governing All Human Beings Gregory Bodenhamer by All Rights Reserved & Protected 2007 Gregory L Bodenhamer PeopleNologist 1974 Intro- duction Series Slide 15: PeopleNology The Magnificent EARTH LAWS Governing All Human Beings EARTH LAWS Governing All Human Beings To ensure that the instrument of PeopleNology, Celebrating The Magnificent Earth Laws© works properly within the American business environment it’s constantly researched, utilized and modified to assure it remains the sharp blade of success that’s required today. Working alone for many years the founder of PeopleNology has been publishing the first written accounts of PeopleNology for many years. Many disciplined sciences have been brought to bear and held closely together within PeopleNology. If you can imagine all the knowledge in the known world being successful years researched and tested you will clearly see that of dedicated research and development for the PeopleNology has become the Master Work of new world business management and success. betterment of all human beings and their business endeavors. PeopleNology, The Magnificent Earth Laws© is the new weapon for your organization to exploit the market and find the unique source for greatness. It’s the Master Gregory L Bodenhamer Work’s the Masterpiece to create the future of your PeopleNologist 2007 business, the willpower will come to life, you’ll be able to persuade and influence like never before. In the purest form you’re going to understand every human being walking on earth today. Including yourself, Guaranteed. Slide 16: PeopleNology The Magnificent EARTH LAWS Governing All Human Beings PeopleNology Earth Laws The theories behind PeopleNology goes Governing All Human Beings back millions of years and in fact Gregory L Bodenhamer it all began before people were around. PeopleNologist -

Copyrighted 2007 To understand people you first must Geology, Ecology, and Biology have a lot to do with the success or failure of your company. The history of mother earth is a mystery but we’ve unlocked many of her secrets. We’re going to cover many areas of knowledge and many experts will speak to us through their teachings. What we can agree on within the confines of PeopleNology is that all human beings and our planet mother earth are connected. The first thing you must do is accept the idea that you’re the most perfect creation known to history. You’re not perfect but you remain the most perfect creation. Whether you believe in some higher creator or you believe Earth Laws The Creation of that mother earth is just that, it remains true that you are the most amazing creature known to mankind. PeopleNology takes you on a journey through different understand the Earth Laws that times and different places in time so you can begin to seemingly brought us all together. understand birds, mammals and even dinosaurs and seemingly at the end of the trail all Human Beings. This knowledge is so powerful that before PeopleNology it could not be found in one single place. In fact the debate remains, should PeopleNology be taught at all? Slide 17: Gregory L Bodenhamer PeopleNologist - Copyrighted 2007 PeopleNology The Magnificent EARTH LAWS Governing All Human Beings What we do know is that the earth as a place was here a long time before we were. The sciences of The history of mother earth is truly not fully known but the Geology, Ecology, and Biology are by no means best minds consider that our solar system and the other planets began about five billion years ago. We think that perfect but they are pointing the way to facts that some exploding stars produced some enormous cloud of gas and interstellar dust in space. Could this have been caused by some creator or the Gods that billions of people have faith? Absolutely yes! Could the earth's beginning or the primordial cloud or nebula, consisting of hydrogen, helium and other heavy elements just be some natural event? Absolutely yes! All we’re really sure of is that there is an Earth and they’re Human beings running all over the place. From dust to life Geology - Ecology Biology is the most dramatic question ever asked by mankind and many doubts remain about the earth’s origins let alone me and you. We have satellites running around our planets and we can look at Mars, Venus and Saturn just to mention a few of our are very difficult to dispute with our limited planet neighbors. knowledge. The structure of the earth, After the first formations of the oceans and our primordial formations of rocks, volcanoes and eruptions, atmosphere we think the first forms of life appeared about tectonic plates, rivers, lakes, mountains, oceans 3.9 billion years ago. and climatic changes have been around longer than me and you. The other eight planets, including the downgraded little Pluto are too close or too far away from the Sun to sustain the conditions of life, as we know them today. Slide 18: Gregory L Bodenhamer PeopleNologist - Copyrighted 2007 The history of mother earth is fully explored within the series known as “Bedrock” PeopleNology. Before the creation of mankind there was a place called Earth and we ride around on mother nature today. Imagine before people, dinosaurs on the hunt, before feathers and flowers maybe, the arrival of terrible lizards. Life

has never been very peaceful on earth and her secrets are becoming clear and focused. Five major mass extinctions have already taken place, some biologists say we’re in the midst of number six. After one of these major extinctions, after the disaster there is life again. Extraordinary variety of life forms, interacting in beneficial ways. The landscape of primordial earth, hot atmosphere, seas of volcanoes, landscape of vapors and lava erupting from the core of the planet was not the place for us. These gases escaped through volcanoes, clouds formed and rainfall began. The formation of the atmosphere and the oceans, climatic effects, eruptions, volcanic gases gave rise to a primordial atmosphere for hundreds of millions of years before the appearance of oxygen. The “Bedrock” of you, the tricky predictions, behavior of the animals and people, fish and birds all started at the Bedrock level first, strangely agitated by mother earth. Slide 19: Gregory L Bodenhamer PeopleNologist - Copyrighted 2007 PeopleNology The Magnificent EARTH LAWS Governing All Human Beings What we think may not be true but something created something. It’s thought that some giant About four billion years ago the Earth was a red-hot place shock wave, about five billion years ago, caused and we were being constantly hit by comets and meteorites. This was before insurance companies. by an exploding star probably caused the Around 3.8 billion years ago the hot magma that had poured out of mother earth started to cool and formed a Geology - Ecology Biology primitive crust that we still kind of walk around on today. from Obviously, no one was able to observe any of this so Dust to Life everything we’re talking about comes from statistics based on stars, super-sciences, applied theories and some guess work. About four billion years ago, from the new oceans that were forming on earth, the primordial soup, we seem to have statistics that show some origin of life in this primordial soup. 5 billion years ago About 3.5 billion years ago the first single-cell bacteria developed from some molecules of organic substances. condensation of the nebula of Then something neat happened. Stromatolites, a gas and dust fromwhich community of single cell alga, started populating the coastal waters. the Sun was born? All the matter revolving around it About two billion years ago the conditions had been fo rmed and we’ve named them Mercury, created for aerobic respiration and we started to form the Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, ozone layer that we know about today. Neptune and just for fun Pluto. Slide 20: Gregory L Bodenhamer PeopleNologist - Copyrighted 2007 PeopleNology The Magnificent EARTH LAWS Governing All Human Beings Our Earth has a crust that forms the continents Atmosphere which is only about 1824 miles thick. We’re really living on shaking ground and not a lot of it. Continental Crust Floating around on top of most of this shaking ground we have water and below that we have a oceanic crust of about 3 to 3.7 miles. 18 24 miles When you add in a few miles of atmosphere you’re Ocean talking about the whole thing concerning humans. Water Oceanic Crust 3 3.7 miles Geology Ecology - Biology Lithosphere from Dust to Life Asthenosphere The Earth has killed Mantle everything that ever Outer Core Inner Core lived on it, so far. PeopleNology Center of Earth Bodenhamer Slide 21:

Slide 22: PeopleNology by Gregory Bodenhamer 2007 Nollijy University Research Institute Translating PeopleNology Techniques into Recruiting & Retention Rewarding & Recognition results Social and System Engineering Write for FREE information; Publications of PeopleNology - Nollijy University Research Papers Leftovers - Aunt Polly Company Medicine The Royal Flush by Ph.D. Gregory Bodenhamer All Rights Reserved 2007 Expert Consulting Seminars Working on the Company Line Curiosity of People - Royal Flush Retention Boiling Your Own Frogs Selling More Pigs Gregory L Bodenhamer PeopleNologist - Copyrighted 2007 The Grand Swindle of Managers Pay Packages and Mergers Fortune 100 companies in America utilize the fantastic posters and graphics of PeopleNology. Compliance Profit Service Growth Complex issue made easy by the experts at PeopleNology. Recruiting Retention Rewarding Recognition Your sales and operational meetings come to life and your improved results are soon to follow. Your staff can quickly become functional experts on persuasion, sales and management. Slide 23: PeopleNology The Magnificent EARTH LAWS Governing All Human Beings Inclinations of Human Beings The Real Earth Laws that directly control every human being on planet earth. The top secret, undisclosed, hush-hush, cloak-and-dagger stuff about human beings. Slide 24: PeopleNology The Magnificent EARTH LAWS Governing All Human Beings PeopleNology The Magnificent EARTH LAWS Governing All Human Beings Accept the idea All these evolutionary drivers are alive and well in every human being on earth today. From the Bedrock Mother Earth that very intelligent to the Bedroom Evolutionary Research PeopleNology has human beings have found the 36 unmistakeable curiosities that make people been on earth a long time. stop or go, be happy or sad, invest or walk away etc. All human beings have well-defined inclinations that constrain or maneuver us in every day living. These tendency characteristics make every human being on earth almost like the next one. From the ancient times found with the historical record human beings that populate the world have sense and gut feelings about everything. Not one human being is sure how we arrived on earth so lets just accept the idea that we’re here at the same time for reason or not. If we advanced from one platform to another or were fashioned by a maker the actuality still remains you and lots of other people roam the earth. We’re so confident that what we’ve found is true and Creature makeup or disposition is the deep and hidden applicable we’ve been giving it away for years through our instinct that guides you around the world assorted with research papers. These 26 medicines and 10 absolutes millions of information fragments known as experience. control about 95% of everything you do, plan to do, say or not say, work or be lazy, lie or be honest, cheat, steal, rob or Your passion, sensation, awareness, outlook, attitude all have a struggle to get what you want. You can get your copy by firm foundation found within the original and sending us an email - and we’ll primitive you that still lives within you today. send it for free, no obligations, no hidden fee’s. This information has been released by Gregory Bodenhamer, the founder of PeopleNology for many years now. You can send it to your friends, associates or family members, it’s FREE.

Slide 25: PeopleNology The Magnificent EARTH LAWS Governing All Human Beings PeopleNology The Magnificent EARTH LAWS Governing All Human Beings Significant research and intelligence has created The knowledge that we’ve research papers that take by surprise the smartest gathered has accumulated people on planet earth. and been drafted out under many programs. Noteworthy scholars from around the world have known about the mystery and riddles of all human Advertising beings for many years. Newsletters Even with the thousands of books published the Productions and information is not effortlessly compiled. Process Controls PeopleNology accepted the challenge to reach out, complete the massive research, document our findings You can teach your key and publish to industry and at times individuals. people to be better managers, supervisors and This massive research gives the impression that much build a bigger, faster and of the speculation and guess work has been removed better business. from the knowledge. Hundreds of thousands of We do understand many things about human beings. dollars may be affordable to substantial companies The information is so enormous and bulky that you can but, what about the other gain knowledge of little bits and pieces if you smaller companies? contribute many years of learning. PeopleNology, for your big The human being is so multifaceted that each or small, for distance learning or inhouse seminars knowledge authority can just give you a quick look at can satisfy one segment at a time. PeopleNology put it all your learning, knowledge based objectives. together for big or smaller companies. Slide 26: PeopleNology The Magnificent EARTH LAWS Governing All Human Beings PeopleNology The Magnificent EARTH LAWS Governing All Human Beings Collecting this awareness has taken several decades of my own life and many others before me. The Nollijy University in which I’m the founder was established to gather and convey fundamental essentials and details about human beings to the general public. Some fundamental questions; Are you determined by mother nature or cultivating? What are the mechanisms of mother nature characteristics and are they shared all around the world? How does a creature of the natural world learn, experience and It seems after years of work and struggle PeopleNology was the spread out all over the world? right idea for a growing struggle concerning people. Is it imperative that we advance this knowledge? Many people are concerned, including our founder, that people will abuse this knowledge power. With warning, we caution our What is the certainty, reality and exactness of human beings students, clients and associates that with our techniques you from around the world? can control most human beings. PeopleNology is for the positive benefit of people only. If these particulars could be established and instituted would the whole story of human beings help human beings? Is this knowledge already accessible to intelligence sources around the world? What are the top secret, undisclosed, hush-hush, cloak-and- dagger stuff about human beings that are not being taught to the wide-ranging public? Slide 34: Slide 35: Has this sequence evidence been hidden from the public for a reason? Can the normal and regular person become skilled at complex knowledge? What is a well-defined inclination that does in fact constrain or maneuver us in every

day living? The most widespread and universal inclination known to man-kind is the search for provisions known as food. You will find no disagreement on this familiar inclination about me and you. The only reason you’re reading this book is because you have enough food. If you didn’t have an adequate amount of food you would be doing something else to get your hands on food. It seems we all worry about a fire bell sounding in the middle of the night? We all consume food and water and each one of us make a great effort to have shelter from the world around us. This tendency or uniformity of individual creatures known as human beings is completely acknowledged by many major universities around the world. All creatures have natural feeling instincts. Every human gets hungry. Every child cries for food. It gives the impression that we all grin when we’re happy and cry when we’re sad. Academia within their academic world only teach a small portion of knowledge that is obtainable through further exploration, examination and inquiries. Foundations of this knowledge is based on the primal facts that are long accepted and time-honored. Write Gregory Bodenhamer 247 Secrets Survival Sexual Solutions Seduction PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer PeopleNology Business Management Philosophy Extreme Business Energy Human Resources The Human Being Gregory Bodenhamer

If you can learn these few things, really learn them, study and apply what Gregory Bodenhamer teaches, you’re going to change your success rate, inspire other people, forget about the price of gasoline and start helping other people. PeopleNology is being taught around the world, one human being at a time. Nollijy University Research Institute sponsors the white paper research and people, around the world are taking notice. PeopleNology

There are many areas of preferences that people have that shape cultures.

There are, within these, a few which are of particular influence around change. There are many reasons learn and use PeopleNology By Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D Nollijy University Research Motivation: The overall subject of what drives us. Processing: The thinking that leads to action. Behaviors: That result from our decisions.

Culture: How we socially act together. Learning Theory: How we get to make sense. Personality: What makes us who we are. Power: Our capability to act. Where we get it and how we use it. Social Research: philosophers, philosophies and the search for meaning. Stress: What winds us up. PeopleNology

1 Fear of retribution Following out of fear is not so much following as being tugged along at the end of a rope. 2 Blind hope Here, the follower is desperate for some solution, and what the leader is offering is either the only option they see or the best of a relatively weak set of choices.

3 Faith in leader In this situation, the follower is blind to the solution but is following because they have such faith in the leader, they believe that they will, by some magic or

genius, provide the answer to the follower's needs. PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Mechanicsburg Pa

4 Intellectual agreement Here, the follower understands the logic of the argument that the leader is putting forward and hence is following the rationale rather than the leader as a person, who they may respect but are not blindly following. 5 Buying the vision When people buy a vision, they are emotionally closing on a view of the future that is appealing to them in some way and pulls them forward. 6 Followers and Respect When a person is evaluating a situation and deciding whether to collaborate (and hence become a follower), they judge both the leader and also the solution the leader is offering to determine what action they will take. 7 Respect for the leader When the leader is respected, which means they are at the very least trusted and probably liked as well, then this enables the leader to make proposals that followers will take seriously. 8 Respect for the solution When the solution is respected, then the respect for the leader is not as important, although if the leader is not respected then the followers may doubt the ability of the leader to make the right choices along the way. 9 Followers and Trust People follow those they trust.

10 Care and concern We all have a very basic need for safety, which we can get either by taking

control ourselves, or, as followers do, ceding this to our leaders. 11 Passive concern Leaders make choices that can harm people. If you carefully avoid harming me, then I can trust you. 12 Active care Beyond a passive concern is the active care where you may take deliberate action, which you would not otherwise take, to look after and actively care for me. 13 Reliability Leaders need for their followers to trust that they will do as they say they will do. 14 Keep your promises A simple rule for leaders is : 'Do what you say'. Keep your promises. 15 Honesty The problem with honesty is that the short-term implications can be bad for leaders. 16 Tell the whole truth If you always tell the truth, including the unvarnished whole truth and bad news that others might hide, then I know that when you say something, I have the complete story. 17 Followers and Liking If I do not like you, then I will not follow you. 18 Goodness If I judge you to be good, then I know you have similar values to me. 19 Similarity We use external similarity as a short-cut to determine if a person is like us on the inside. 20 Vulnerability

We see ourselves as vulnerable, often with the sense of being a child that we all have to some degree. We see our failings, our limitations, and weaknesses. PeopleNology

21 Followers and Support People follow those that help them.

22 Goals Where the personal goals of the followers are aligned with the direction that the leaders is pointing, then it seems like a good idea to follow the leader, especially if it looks like they will be able to help me get what I want.

23 Support I will also follow a person who actively helps me to get what I want. 24 Followers and Ideas People will follow an idea, but not constraining objectives, then I may do it, but not in a way that makes me want to follow you. 25 Objectives as instructions Objectives are useful in most organizations, of course, but they are often presented as fixed instructions, telling people what to do and how to do it in so much detail that it leaves little to the imagination. PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Mechanicsburg Pa

26 Objectives as ideas Objectives can be used to motivate and leaders can make effective use of formal systems of objective-setting to provide effective challenge and stimulation that will motivate people not only to do the work but also to follow the leader.

27 Ideas as inspiration Inspiration occurs when an idea both aligns with my values and also gives me a sense of possibility, of what is not now but which could be in the future. It might thus change my beliefs and mental models.

28 Context Analysis When investigating change it is important to understand the context within which the current situation is operating. 29 External context The external context that affects the organization provides the forces to which the business must react and are common root causes of the need for change. 30 PESTLE forces The broader business climate includes the external sea in which the business and its competitors must swim and provides the ultimate playing ground. PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Mechanicsburg Pa

31 Market forces Within the chosen markets, forces as price pressures, competitive shifts, customer demands and so on may be creating business tensions. 32 Internal context As well as the external context, there are many contextual factors within organizations that can lead to the need for change. 33 Driving objectives Out of the external forces and internal ambitions, business leaders identify the key purposes and objectives that they want to achieve and hence achieve success in the organization. 34 Organizational alignment

An aligned organization has its processes, technology, reporting structures and individual objectives all aligned with one another. 35 Organizational capability As well as alignment, an organization needs its people to be able to complete work given to them. 36 Leadership Leadership is a subject which includes a great deal about changing people's minds, often in fundamental ways. 37 Follower ship The nature of leadership can perhaps be best understood by turning the coin over and studying follower ship. 38 The Leader-Follower loop Leaders who want to create true followers do not just stand at the front of the army, yell 'charge' and then run forward. 39 Followers respond Followers are seldom blind. They are human. 40 Gossip If the leader does something that concerns them, then they will voice these concerns to one another long before letting the leader know. 41 Pack response There may well be some level of pack response from followers. PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D Powerful Human Development Social System Process Engineering & Design Mechanicsburg Pa 17055 Seminars Workbooks Publications Classroom Consulting White Papers

42 Leaders adjust If leaders do not do anything about the situation, then followers, who are volunteers, remember, will abandon in droves. 43 Noticing At some point in the proceedings, the leader notices that followers are not as inclined to follow as they once were. PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Mechanicsburg Pa

PeopleNology Business Management Philosophy Extreme Business Energy Human Resources The Human Being Gregory Bodenhamer 44 Diagnosing When the shift in follower behavior is noticed, the next step is to figure out why, and particularly to know whether and how to connect this to the leader's own words or actions, or at least to external events that have shifted the playing field. 45 Adjusting When you know where it is going and why it happened, then you can do something about it.

46 The dance continues

And so the band plays on. It is a closed system, with followers responding to leaders, who themselves adjust in response to this. Leadership and follower ship is thus an ongoing dance. 47 Structural Analysis There are many structures within an organization which influence people's behavior. 'Function follows form' is a relevant saying. 48 Organizational structure The hierarchical organization with its 'scalar chain of command' is at the heart of most organizations. 49 Process structure People work within processes, which may stretch across functions or be contained within them. 50 Motivational structure There are deliberate structures in the organization that seek to motivate people. Typically, this is based on financial reward. 51 Social structure Overlaid across the organization is another invisible structure which is made up of the many and complex social relationships across the company. 52 Physical structure The physical structure of the organization can have a very significant effect on the social structuring. 53 Causal Analysis An excellent question when analyzing around change is 'why?' Causal Analysis seeks to identify and understand the reasons why things are as they are and hence enabling focus of change activity. PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Mechanicsburg Pa

54 Root causes

The basic principle of causal analysis is to find causes that you can treat rather than treating symptoms (which, as all doctors know, seldom effects a lasting cure). 55 Ask why five times The trick with seeking root causes is to keep looking. When you ask 'why' of something, you will get a nearby direct cause. If you keep asking 'why' of each answer, you will eventually get to a cause that you can act on. 56 Cause-effect diagram The Cause-effect Diagram is a simple hierarchical tool that is used to break down cause into a tree-structure, allowing you to follow individual streams of possible cause. 57 Circular causes Many causes are not linear but instead act in circles, much as births lead to population increase which leads to even more births. 58 Systemic cause In systemic problems, the cause is found in the whole system, with the problem distributed across multiple related causes, all of which conspire together to cause the identified effect. 59 Vicious spirals and virtuous circles Circular cause leads to exponential increases or decreases that are very difficult to interrupt.

60 Creating a positive culture A positive culture is the holy grail of many change activities. 61 Develop a sense of history History is important to people, giving them a sense of identity and belonging. Just look at how genealogy becomes more important to people as the grow older.

62 Create a sense of one-ness Leaders who bring people together talk about 'us' more than 'I'. They propagate the stories of history and present stories that create a sense of togetherness. 63 Promote a sense of membership Belonging also comes from the benefits that people gain, so work on the reward and recognition system. 64 Increase contact and exchange Help people stay in touch with one another. This is particularly important in a global or otherwise distributed organization. PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Mechanicsburg Pa

65 Social distance We like to keep our distance from others and there are very specific social rules about how close we can go to others in particular situations. PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D Powerful Human Development Social System Process Engineering & Design Mechanicsburg Pa 17055 Seminars Workbooks Publications Classroom Consulting White Papers

66 Why the distance Regulating the distances between us and other people provides us with several benefits.

67 Social distances The social distances here are approximate, of course and will vary with people. 68 Public Zone 12 feet The public zone is generally over 12 feet. That is, when we are walking around town, we will try to keep at least 12 feet between us and other people. 69 Social Zone 4 - 12 feet Within the social zone, we start to feel a connection with other people. 70 Personal Zone 2-4 feet In the personal zone, the conversation gets more direct, and this is a good distance for two people who are talking in earnest about something. 71 Intimate Zone < 2 feet When a person is within arms reach or closer, then we can touch them in intimate ways. 72 Varying rules The rules about social distance vary with different groups of people. 73 Town and country People who live in towns spend more time close to one another and so their social distances may compact somewhat. 74 Different countries Different countries also have different rules about social distances.

75 Preferences What makes us different? 76 Preference scales There are many scales of preference. Note that there are two styles that are commonly used.

77 Feedback and reward A major driver of people in companies and hence their culture is the general feedback and specific rewards that tell them they are doing a good or bad job. 78 Risk Uncertainty and risk are something that some people hate and some people thrive on. 79 Solidarity Solidarity is the degree to which people think together in the same ways, sharing tasks and mutual interests. 80 Sociability Sociability comes from mutual esteem and concern for ones colleagues. 81 What is culture? Culture is the collective programming of the human mind that distinguishes the members of one human group from those of another. Culture in this sense is a system of collectively held values. Culture is the deeper level of basic assumptions and beliefs that are shared by members of an organization, that operate unconsciously and define in a basic ‘taken for granted’ fashion an organization's view of its self and its environment. A simple way of defining culture is: Culture is a system for differentiating between in-group and out-group people. 82 Culture as shared meaning Culture is very much about groups, and a basic need of groups is to be able to communicate, both at a superficial level (for which ordinary language largely suffices) and also at a deeper level of meaning. 83 Culture as behavioral rules When a group of people are to exist together, they need a set of rules that helps everyone know what to do in various circumstances, from arguing with one another to dealing with outsiders. 84 Change Complexity Analysis

Change Complexity Analysis seeks to identify how difficult a change project will be. The more complex the project, the more carefully the project will need to be managed. PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Mechanicsburg Pa

85 Elements of Culture What are the visible attributes of culture? What are the elements that you can point to and say 'that is there to show and sustain this culture? 86 Artifacts Artifacts are the physical things that are found that have particular symbolism for a culture. They may even be endowed with mystical properties. 87 Stories, histories, myths, legends, jokes Culture is often embedded and transmitted through stories, whether they are deep and obviously intended as learning devices, or whether they appear more subtly, for example in humor and jokes.

88 Rituals, rites, ceremonies, celebrations Rituals are processes or sets of actions which are repeated in specific circumstances and with specific meaning. 89 Heroes Heroes in a culture are named people who act as prototypes, or idealized examples, by which cultural members learn of the correct or 'perfect' behavior. 90 Symbols and symbolic action Symbols, like artifacts, are things which act as triggers to remind people in the culture of its rules, beliefs, etc. 91 Beliefs, assumptions and mental models An organization and culture will often share beliefs and ways of understanding the world.

92 Attitudes Attitudes are the external displays of underlying beliefs that people use to signal to other people of their membership. PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Mechanicsburg Pa PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D Powerful Human Development Social System Process Engineering & Design Mechanicsburg Pa 17055 Seminars Workbooks Publications Classroom Consulting White Papers

93 Rules, norms, ethical codes, values The norms and values of a culture are effectively the rules by which its members must abide, or risk rejection from the culture (which is one of the most feared sanctions known). 94 People complexity The major additional complexity that change projects add over other projects is the potential problems around people. 95 Scope of impact When some things are changed, they have a significant ripple on other things. Thus, for example, changing a company policy or an organizational goal will have a very broad impact on whoever is involved. 96 Amount of work

The 'what' of change equates to the amount of work that needs to be done. This does not necessarily equate to how many people are affected.

by PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development Nollijy University Research Institute Arts & Sciences - Evolution
97 Complexity of work Some work is easy to do, whilst other work requires significant expertise, such as when new products or complex IT systems need to be developed.

98 Who is changed The most difficult work of change is often around people. 99 Numbers of people When you have to change a lot of people then, even if the change is small, the job will not be that easy. When you have a lot of people to change, then you may find that someone, somewhere will be more trouble than the rest of people put together. 100 Degree of resistance If you are going to implement a change that will highly unpopular into an organization where authority is devolved to a low level (for example where most people are 'professionals'), then you must expect a significant level of resistance.

101 Sponsorship of change In change projects, the normal hierarchy of management control is often broken as the project stretches across many parts of the organization. 102 Initiating sponsor This is the person who starts the change project and may well be the person with whom you meet at the first meeting. 103 Key sponsor This is one person (often the most senior manager) who can resolve the stickiest of problems, such as differences between other primary sponsors, and who provides the ultimate authority for the project. 104 Primary sponsors This is a small group of managers whose support is critical and who have sufficient clout to unblock most problems, including problems with secondary sponsors. 105 Secondary sponsors PeopleNology Business Management Philosophy Extreme Business Energy Human Resources The Human Being Gregory Bodenhamer These are managers whose support is needed, albeit at a limited level. They are important at least as they have the ability to block change. 106 The role of sponsors The sponsors of the project can play a number of roles in the change project.

107 Sponsorship trap Mismanaging sponsorship is perhaps one of the main reasons why change projects fail. A common sponsorship trap occurs where sponsors see their role as an early agreement, but with no further engagement. 108 Power Words

There are words that are hardly noticed. There are words that stand out. 109 God words Sometimes words arise in a society or even across societies which, like a God, demand absolute obedience. 110 'In' words Within companies and specific social groups, God words if I say 'this is profitable' to an executive, he or she will be hard put to turn me down. 111 God talks jargon Jargon words can very often be God words, as they have special meaning to closed groups. PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D Powerful Human Development Social System Process Engineering & Design Mechanicsburg Pa 17055 Seminars Workbooks Publications Classroom Consulting White Papers

112 Devil words Just as God terms give you power, there are also words which will sap your power. Using these in a positive sense is taking your life in your hands.

113 Devil word repulse Devil words are so repulsive and so scary, people will quickly turn away from them.

114 Non-PC words Non-politically-correct words were once quite acceptable, but as society's values changed and people realized that they were using something unacceptable, it made them run even harder away from them. 115 Insults Beyond non-PC words, variations can easily become pejorative and intended to insult, denigrate and belittle. 116 Charisma words Between God and Devil words are words that invoke particular effects on other people and can make you appear to have a mystical persuasive charisma. 117 Context counts The power effect of the words you use depend on the context within which you use them. 'Profit' is very likely to be a God word in most companies, yet in the public services it may well be a Devil word. 118 Don't over-do it! If you are going to use power words effectively, then they should have a subtle effect. 119 Persuasive language All use of language can act to persuade, and there are many other pages in the language section of this site that include persuasive elements.

120 Culture Culture is what happens when people get together. It tells us how to behave and agree. Understanding the culture of a team, organization or country can make a lot of difference when you want to change minds. 121 Retention techniques When a person is converted to a particular set of beliefs, then it has been found

that, particularly if coercive or authoritarian methods were used, then most people will, if there is no effort to sustain the change, will drift back to their original beliefs.

122 Diagnosing change

When you are faced with a situation where change seems to required, one of the early activities is to investigate more fully, to understand context, causes and so on, so you can plan to implement changes that will actually improve things. 123 Historical Review Much of the reasons why change is required is rooted in the history of the organization. History can also give you lots of very useful information about how your plans may go astray. For these and more reasons, it can be a good idea to look backwards before you look forwards. 124 Look at the external climate When times are ripe and the pickings are easy, then companies do not have to be very innovative to thrive. 125 See the innovation and change Companies often start with innovation, but this does not always continue. Look at the great new products that appeared and how they wowed the market. Look for incremental innovation that shows a sustained push to stay ahead of the curve.

126 Watch for the curse of success When you have a successful product range, it can last for such a long time that you forget how to innovate. 127 Look at the records Companies may have many records that tell you a story, filling the details and confirming or disconfirming your suspicions. PeopleNology

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128 Look at the finances The finances of the company will tell you about the fundamental ups and downs. They will show you the profitable and less profitable times and where change became an imperative rather than a possibility. PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Mechanicsburg Pa 129 Look at the words Written records such as company reports, meeting minutes and so on will also tell a story. Especially those around times of change, you will see what the real priorities of the organization are. 130 Listen to the people The people of the organization are perhaps the best resource for finding out about the company history. 131 Listen to the old timers Find the people who have been around since the year dot. Most organizations have people who have survived the ups and downs and who are, to a large extent, the living historians of the company. 132 Hear the range of stories Get to people in all positions, high and low. Listen to the stories of power and politics.

133 Hear the critical events Listen for the critical events of change within the organization and what happened next. 134 Look at the history of change In looking through the areas above, most of all look at how people and the organization as a whole managed change. 135 Watch for change readiness A change-ready organization is alert and ready. Change does not faze it. People do not fear different things, but look forward with interest and excitement to the challenge of the new.

136 Watch for change capability It is one thing to be ready for change -- it is another to be good at it. Look at the history of change success and change failure, and try to determine the critical factors that made the difference. 137 Driving objectives Out of the external forces and internal ambitions, business leaders identify the key purposes and objectives that they want to achieve and hence achieve success in the organization. 138 Organizational alignment An aligned organization has its processes, technology, reporting structures and individual objectives all aligned with one another.

139 Organizational capability As well as alignment, an organization needs its people to be able to complete work given to them. This is often assumed to be largely about motivation and skill but, although these may be factors, they are often not as significant as initially assumed. 140 Culture and change

Culture is a perennial problem in change projects and needs to be carefully understood, especially if there is any expectation or desire to change the culture as a part of the project. Culture includes common values, attitudes and consequent behaviors. It directs how people make decisions and how they react to change. It can also vary within an organization, for example a 'leading edge' attitude may be found in research departments and 'customer first' value in service areas. There are many areas of preferences that people have that shape cultures. There are, within these, a few which are of particular influence around change. PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Mechanicsburg Pa

141 The focus on task or people Understanding the balance of focus on task vs. person will help you understand the way the leaders of the organization are likely to make decisions. 142 Task first When there is a focus on task before people, then change may well be harsh and thoughtless. People will be hired and fired without a second thought. 143 People first When the leaders have a people-first focus, then they may hold back from difficult decisions that will hurt others. 144 The focus on risk or safety Depending on the risk bias, people will seek or avoid risk. Change often appears to be very risky. 145 Risk-seeking A company where there is a focus on innovation and taking risks will find change more acceptable and easier to adopt. This is both a good thing and a bad thing. 146 Risk-averse A company that is risk-averse will likely try to put off change for as long as possible, at least as long as it takes for not changing to be become riskier than moving, and possibly longer.

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147 The focus on self or others When people focus may vary between self and others, particularly in the stress of change, then their approach may vary significantly. 148 Self-centered When people who put themselves first are faced with change, then they will happily sacrifice others in order to save themselves.

149 Other-centered When people put the well-being of others before themselves, they will sacrifice themselves before others. 150 Helping them change In helping the company find balance, then your influence will depend on their start point. If they are task first, then show them how ignoring people will lead to tasks done badly or not at all. 151 Emotions Emotions are our feelings. Literally. We feel them in our bodies as tingles, hot spots and muscular tension. There are cognitive aspects, but the physical sensation is what makes them really different. Emotions affect and are a part of

our mood, which is usually a more sustained emotional state. Mood affects our judgment and changes how we process decisions. 152 Motivation First of all, motivation are 'e-motions'. They act to motivate us. Without emotions we would probably not do very much and hence would not survive - at least in the evolved form we are in now. 153 Internal signals Internally, for example when we are trying to make understand something or make a decision, we use our emotions to deduce whether what we have concluded is a good idea. 154 Social signals We generally wear our hearts on our sleeves as our inner emotions are displayed on our outer bodies. Our faces, in particular, have around 90 muscles, 30 of which have the sole purpose of signaling emotion to other people. 155 Emotional Intelligence 'Emotional Intelligence' is a neat metaphor that borrows from the notion of IQ. It implies that some people are better at handling emotions than others. It also hints that you might be able to increase your EQ. 156 Self-awareness Being emotionally self-aware means knowing how you feel in “real time.” Selfknowledge is the first step in being able to handle emotions. 157 Emotional literacy Emotional literacy means being able to label emotions precisely. This includes the emotions of others and especially yourself. PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Mechanicsburg Pa

158 Empathy & compassion Empathy is the ability to feel and understand the emotions of others. If you can empathies, you can engender trust, as people desperately want to be understood

at the emotional level. 159 Balance The ability to balance emotion and reason in making decisions leads to good decisions. Emotion should not be abandoned, lest cold and callous decisions are made. 160 Responsibility Emotional Intelligence means taking primary responsibility for your own emotions and happiness. You cannot say that others “made” you feel the way you feel.

161 Association and emotion An interesting phenomenon is that when we put ourselves mentally into a person or situation, we experience the emotions of that person more strongly. PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D Powerful Human Development Social System Process Engineering & Design Mechanicsburg Pa 17055 Seminars Workbooks Publications Classroom Consulting White Papers

162 Putting yourself in the picture Personal history Take an emotional experience from your past, and think back to that time. Put yourself in the picture, so you are re-living the experience (not standing back or looking down on yourself). See the situation 'through your own eyes'. 163 Empathizing

We can do the same with other people - when we empathize with them, we are putting ourselves into their body and their experiences. 164 Standing back The reverse of association is dissociation. Take that same emotional experience and now move to a position above the scene, so you can see yourself in it. You will now most likely experience the emotion far less. 165 Feeling what other feel Empathy is the ability to not only detect what others feel but also to experience that emotion yourself. 166 It's not sympathy Empathy and sympathy are very close and are sometimes used as synonyms. The easiest way to separate them is to remember that empathy is about feelings whilst sympathy is about actions. 167 It's definitely not psychopathic A defining element of a psychopath is that they do not and probably cannot empathize with other people. They are often good at imitating this, but in doing so they are using it in a cold and manipulative way. 168 It has many benefits The value of empathy comes not from understanding the other person's feelings, but what you do as a result of this. 169 Empathy builds trust Empathy displayed can be surprising and confusing. When not expected, it can initially cause suspicion, but when sustained it is difficult not to appreciate the concern. Empathy thus quickly leads to trust. 170 Empathy closes the loop Consider what would happens if you had no idea what the other person felt about your communications to them. PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Mechanicsburg Pa

171 Emotion and decision We make many decisions, and sometimes we are more or less logical about them. And it is arguable that all decision are, ultimately emotional. 172 Logical vs. emotional decision-making Decision-making is a cognitive process where the outcome is a choice between alternatives. We often have different preferences as to our preferred, approach, varying between thinking and feeling. 173 Logical decision-making When we use logic to make decisions, we seek to exclude emotions, using only rational methods, and perhaps even mathematical tools. 174 Emotional decision-making There is a whole range of decision-making that uses emotion, depending on the degree of logic that is included in the process. 175 Emotion and rationality Emotion and rational thinking are, to a certain extent, mutually exclusive. 176 Primary emotions What is felt first Primary emotions are those that we feel first, as a first response to a situation. Thus, if we are threatened, we may feel fear. When we hear of a death, we may feel sadness. They are unthinking, instinctive responses that we have. We will typically see these in animals also, which confirms our suspicion that they have an evolutionary basis. Typical primary emotions include fear, anger, sadness and happiness (although it is worth noting that these can also be felt as secondary emotions).

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177 Secondary emotions What is felt next Secondary emotions appear after primary emotions. They may be caused directly by them, for example where the fear of a threat turns to anger that fuels the body for a fight reaction. They may also come from more complex chains of thinking. 178 Greed 179 Something not needed Greed is when I want something that I do not really need. I want it just to possess it. 180 Something for nothing Greed is also a form of hope where the expected reward is typically far in excess of the time and cost expected to be invested. 181 Hope Hope happens when someone sees something, decides that it is desirable, realizes that they may not get it, but believes that there is still a chance of getting it. To put it tersely, though perhaps in a complex way, hope is expectation moderated by probabilistic estimation of a desired event.

182 Envy Envy is often associated with the color green and is portrayed as 'the green-eyed monster'. It is wanting what others have, desiring to possess what they possess. You can be envious of tangible and intangible things, including their wealth, their good looks and their innate intelligence.

183 Envy and jealousy Jealousy is slightly different from envy as it involves a third party. It can involve potential loss, such as when we are jealous when someone threatens to woo away our boyfriend or girlfriend. Envy is always about potential gain. 184 Desire Desire happens when we want something. The strength of that desire can range from weak 'would like to sometime' to a raging thirst to possess something now. 185 Triggering desire Desire is triggered when we see or think about something we want. Desire increase when what we want is visible, but just out of reach. It may also increase when we have closer contact with the item, but which we still do not possess. 186 Love Love is a massive motivator and can lead people to perform all kinds of selfsacrificial acts. 187 Conversion Conversion is the changing of beliefs, values, attitudes and behaviors of individuals into different ideologies. These pages are largely drawn from studies of destructive cults and brainwashing, although the methods used are surprisingly common elsewhere, including in religions, social groups and organizations.

188 Asset-stripping One thing that most groups need to survive is money, and one source of this is new members. If the group can strip them of their assets. 189 Dematerializing In their focus on what it right and wrong, the group removes material wealth from being worthwhile and good from their list of values. It is seen as a distraction from the core ideology and purpose of life in the group. 190 Reframing wealth

Assets and their pecuniary value are re-framed as being useful not to the individual but to the group and its purposes. 191 Confession Confession may seem like an odd part of conversion, but it is particularly effective at enabling people to put an undesirable past behind them. As well as a conversion technique, it is also useful for retention. 192 Agreeing the rules

The basic idea behind confession is that there are some things which are bad, and which contravene defined rules and values. PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D Powerful Human Development Social System Process Engineering & Design Mechanicsburg Pa 17055 Seminars Workbooks Publications Classroom Consulting White Papers

193 Starting easy Agreement over rules typically starts with generalized rules with which it is hard to disagree, for example 'people should help one another'. 194 Tightening the rules These rules may then be gradually tightened over time. As people accept the basic premise, additional judgment criteria are added. 195 The assumptions of guilt and atonement

A basic assumption (and by implication a rule) that is often unspoken is that the person in question is already guilty. Guilt is an effective lever that casts the person as imperfect and inferior. 196 Confessing sins Having agreed what the rules are, individuals are encouraged to confess past 'sins'. 197 The tension of guilt This creates a tension between the person's actions and their stated belief that the action is bad. 198 Release and atonement Confessing thus leads to a blessed relief, especially when the tension has been exacerbated by declarations of how terrible sins are and how the person is understood to be basically good. 199 The subtle lever of authority A subtle implication of all this is to position the sinner as inferior and the person to whom they are confessing as superior. 200 The building of trust Confessing sins is to expose vulnerability, which requires trust. Confession thus acts to increase the bonding of the individual to those hearing the confession, as consistency principle provides the argument that if I am confessing, then those listening must be trustworthy. PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Mechanicsburg Pa

201 Public confessions The whole effect may be intensified by making the confession public. It both increases the hurt of discomfort and also enables a greater rescue effects and consequent relief. 202 Entrancement

Entrancement is used during conversion to open the mind to suggestion and limit rational consideration. 203 Altered states It can be argued that we are always in some kind of trance, and that we dip in and out of deeper states as we daydream and fixate on things in our normal lives.

204 Individual and social You can go into a trance individually. You can also become entranced as a group. Crowd effects are well known, for example at large sports events whole swathes of the audience will emote and act as one. 205 Suggestibility During the altered state, the person is likely to be susceptible to suggestion. That is, they may accept something with limited or no cognitive challenge or thoughtful reflection. 206 Hypnotic possibilities If a person is hypnotized, will they do things they would not normally do? One theory states that we will not do things outside our morals. Yet in the 1950s, the CIA were exploring the use of hypnosis. 207 Rhythm Repetitive rhythm has an interesting effect on us. Perhaps it is something primitive, but a repeating rhythm tends to send us into a trance state. Think about music, dancing, drumming and chanting. These are used in many religious meetings as well as the clubs and dance-halls where social groups gather. Singing may be about group tenets. PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Mechanicsburg Pa

208 Ritual Repetition not only happens at the speed of clapping - it also happens as we repeat familiar rituals. If I perform various acts that end up with going into a

trance, then next time I start the same sequence, I will be most of the way to the trance before I get there. 209 Prayer and meditation In prayer and meditation, the person concentrates on a particular theme and seeks to exclude all other thoughts. 210 Guided thinking The final method of entrancement discussed here is where the person gives up control of where they are thinking to someone else who tells them what to think and feel. 211 Isolation One of the methods by which groups convert and retain members is by separating them from influences that enable or encourage them to think in contrary ways. PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D Powerful Human Development Social System Process Engineering & Design Mechanicsburg Pa 17055 Seminars Workbooks Publications Classroom Consulting White Papers

212 Entrapment One of the first dilemmas for groups seeking to recruit new members is how to get them in one place long enough to apply sufficient persuasion to cause them to convert (or at least take the next step in the right direction). 213 The weekend session

One of the most effective ways of doing this is to invite them to a 'weekend in the country'. The event may be framed as getting to know more friends, discussions, education or other attractive purposes. 214 Social events Another method is through shorter-term sessions, perhaps lasting just one evening, where it may appear that there are a number of other recruits who all are persuaded - whilst the truth might be that they are already full members of the group. 215 Individual relationships An even slower method is to build one-to-one relationships, which may even be romantic in nature or may just be based on apparent friendship. 216 Excluding contrary influence If a person is provided with persuasive arguments, they may be dissuaded from joining the group or even persuaded to leave by contrary arguments (particularly if the original arguments are shaky). 217 Physical isolation The first stage is to isolate people from external influences by moving the people physically away from them. Hence the weekend session is most effectively done when there is no way for the people to escape (for example they were transported there by group members and it is a long way home). 218 Mental isolation

There are many ways that a person can be made to feel alone, and hence seek the attention of whoever is there. If they are told that all they have once held to be true, then they will start to feel uncertain. 219 Control of media Once physical isolation is achieved, a further step is to use information control to ensure that no contrary messages appear by accident. Thus newspapers, television, books etc. may all be removed, censured or controlled. These can then be replaced with confirming and persuading literature and other media.

220 Social confirmation Perhaps the most persuasive message is one that you are told in the corridor by friends who seem not to have any particular axe to grind. Social confirmation occurs when everyone else confirms the core message. 221 Guilt When values are involved, then the choices are not just between agreement or disagreement - they are about good and bad. Any thought that is against group values and rules is framed as bad, which carries a heavy guilt penalty. 222 Thought-stopping Thought-stopping includes various methods of stopping thinking by distraction or dissuasion. 223 Keeping busy A very simple method that groups use to retain their members is very simply to keep them busy. 224 Every minute of the day The people in the group have their days planned out for them, such that they have hardly a moment to themselves during which they may think about leaving of disobeying. 225 And into the night What many of us call 'night' can also be a period during which people are kept busy. Group members may go to bed late and/or get up early. Groups may also wake people up at various times during the night for assorted rituals, from prayer to 'important revelations' from the leader. 226 Everything is provided When first joining the group, it can be a great relief to find that everything is provided for you. After the weight of responsibility of life outside, where you are constantly faced with difficult choices, it can be marvelous to find that you don't have to do everything for yourself. PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D

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227 Rites of passage A classic method that groups and gangs use is a rite of passage where initiates have to perform embarrassing, difficult or painful tasks, that can range from body mutilation to fasting to suffering ritualized abuse. 228 Every detail of living The more the person gets into the group, the more even the smallest decisions may be removed from them.

229 Polarization One way in which groups lock in their members is by creating a simple, but powerful, black-and-white picture of the world in which sharp choices have to be made. 230 Lionizing the group The group is presented as representing or seeking ultimate good. This may start with the notion of a socially caring and harmonious society, but then positions itself as being superior to the rest of the world. In fact only an idiot would consider leaving such a paradise.

231 Demonizing the out-group Anyone who is not a member of the group is cast either as innocent and 'to be saved', or bad and either to be shunned or to be fleeced or otherwise taken advantage of.

232 Punishing offenders By association, anyone who expresses any thoughts about leaving the group is effectively saying that they prefer the company demons to the company of gods. This is just cause for judgment and punishment to 'cleanse' them of such evil thoughts. 233 Special language Language and words are how we encapsulate meaning. Hence, if you control language, you control thought. 234 The meaning of words Words are little capsules of meaning. They are symbols upon which we hang bagsful of inferences and understanding. We think in words and sentences. 235 New words for new meanings When something new is discovered, then we give it a new word. This separates the new thing from other things. Having a separate word makes it a separate thing, with different meaning. 236 Old words for new meanings The reverse can also be done, in that existing words can be redefined to have different meanings. Teenagers and advertisers regularly do this, and superlatives from many different domains have been pressed into new service. 'Fabulous' means 'like a fable'. 'Fantastic' means 'like a fantasy'. And so on. 237 Words that control Using special words and language can lead to significant influence and control of other people. PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Mechanicsburg Pa

238 Emotional control Words contain and trigger emotions. Think about swearing, children, crime, movie icons and more. With a few choice words, it is possible to evoke most emotions in other people. Power words are a typical example.

239 The allure of special words Groups and leaders often keep special words for use only within inner circles of power. These then become symbols within the inner group of its exclusivity and also become attractors to others who want to join the inner group and learn these special words. PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D Powerful Human Development Social System Process Engineering & Design Mechanicsburg Pa 17055 Seminars Workbooks Publications Classroom Consulting White Papers $5,000. Psychological Review Free Make ANY COMPANY BETTER By Utilizing PEOPLENOLOGY

240 Striving A way that members of groups are retained is by assuring that they never reach completion, and that they are constantly striving for more. 241 Creating hope Jonathan Swift said, 'It is better to travel hopefully than arrive'. Hope is a key part of striving, along with a belief in better things to come for those who strive. 242 Ultimate promises The group typically dangles a carrot in front of the person in the form of the promise of enlightenment, riches, being 'saved' and so on. Framing what the person once thought as unattainable as now a real possibility awakens a deep longing in them.

243 Early success

Early successes serves to bond the person further into this goal and serves to amplify their hope. This may often be created by a self-fulfilling prophesy - if you believe in something enough, it is surprising what you can achieve. 244 A sequence of rewards A more controllable form or reward is given with promotion within the group to higher levels, for example by giving them a new status name (acolyte, traveler, master, manager, director, etc.) 245 Unattainable perfection Individuals are constantly encouraged to constantly push towards this ultimate but unattainable perfection. 246 The leader knows perfection The leader of the group is the ultimate judge of what perfection is and how well or badly the person is progressing towards it. 247 Imperfection into punishment The unattainability of the ultimate perfection can then used to induce guilt and show the person to be sinful and hence sustain the requirement for confession and more ardent obedience to those higher than them in the group's order of perfection.

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About The LAST RIGHTS of Motor Freight Managers PeopleNology PeopleNology Medicine for Women by Ph.D. Gregory Bodenhamer Describing People-Nology sounds easy we know. The mystery of all your people and how they think is revealed through our program systems. We teach you the powerful secrets of the mind, including yours, which allows you to aspire, assist, assure and guarantee full compliant participation. People-Nology understands and teaches the motives of people. Your employees are emotional and base their mysterious actions and thinking on their education, emotions, experiences that surround their core values, their evolutionary inheritance of the past. People-Nology Medicine for Your Trucking Company Imagine knowing how people think. You will be able to predict almost everything about your group which gives you practical control. Knowing the internal process of how a human thinks, what mental steps are taken, the evolutionary emotion triggers that are utilized gives you great power of influence, persuasion, trust, affection and love. It’s power over people. You can become, very quickly, the new and improved model of your trucking company. Understanding why people do things, how they think, what makes them think certain things in certain order within certain conditions gives you tremendous influence and power concerning that particular person. At this moment in time you do not know how your people think and cannot predict what they may or not do at any moment. Predicting behavior within a group also gives you the ability to predict the performance, habits, commitment level of the group and individuals. People-Nology is based on scientific research, scientific application results and is not based on guesswork. Your people base everything they do or don’t do, unfortunately, on what they want and need within their evolutionary drivers or individual mandates. We’ll explore these predictors with you as to allow you to control the direction of the group. At this moment in time you are overestimating your people based on your experiences and their performance based on your goals. At this very moment in time their deciding to work or not, care or not care, cheat or be honest and are only reliable if it serves their needs. You will be able to apply People-Nology Principles, Applications and Systems in real life during any given set of circumstances and control the person, their effort against some activity you manage and measure their results against your reasonable goals. Is there a relationship to what people do at work with what they think about? The answer seems obvious but this truth is mostly neglected except at larger, profitable and progressive companies. Your company can only become what you think about. Your employees can only become what they think about. It’s a good idea and very profitable for you to help them think, plan and take actions within your organization. People-Nology will allow you the blueprint for relationship building. You’ll be able to build trust, affection and love within the company like never before. Your operating ratio, your driver turnover rate, your compliance, accounts receivable balance, revenue growth, on-time services, customer services has a direct correlation to what you and your people think about. Control the mind and you can control the body. Evolutionary Psychologists have identified 26 Behavior Traits that all humans on earth share. People-Nology has taken advanced research, principles, theory experiments and tested the mental processes that influence what people say and do at home and work. We understand and can apply for your benefit, through the influence of People-Nology principles and applications so your company is more creative, able to make better decisions, better problem solving skills and how to control your people systems much better than you do today. As you can imagine these 26 Behavior Traits are everywhere today inside your company. Your trucking company survives today, one day at a time. Progressive and more profitable companies reach out into the future, proclaim the power of People-Nology and survive and prosper because they are the fittest idea or company in the market. People-Nology will teach you the most important of these evolutionary drivers and behavior traits so you can become more aware and therefore control the natural tendencies of your social and working people groups. All human beings have minds but the culture of the environment produces slightly different versions. This variant is called the Sociocultural Perspective. You see an example of this mostly on a daily basis. One trucking doing great and the other one doing good. One company growing and buying equipment and the other one trying to find drivers, fix flat tires, answer the phone and collect the money. The winning trucking companies in the market have created a culture of winning and you can do the same thing starting right now. What your company may allow today may not be allowed in another company down the street. Your people’s feelings, thoughts and behavior are influenced by the culture you control. Every human, me and you, have these 26 evolutionary traits. They are inside us and we cannot decide about them but, we can control them, understand them more, influence and persuade people to our way of thinking using the magic of these traits. We can also create a culture from our own perspectives to influence how other people think, act and do their job tasks. All your people come to work with these traits and do not understand them. They are playing a role, decided by your culture, designed by policy and procedure, following rules and being socially acceptable. People-Nology Medicine for Your Trucking Company Let’s quickly review the Psychology of People-Nology so you can have a better understanding of your future. The school of People-Nology teaches us that they’re many different disciplines and benefits to our programs. Motor Carrier Social Engineering Teaching - Applications - Research Sociocultural Consulting & Counseling Motor Freight Transportation Management Educational and Organizational Structures - Systems - Process Controls People-Nology is used, as a private consulting practice, employed by motor freight transportation companies, as a provider of unique services and programs to improve the business. We diagnose and treat system disorders predominantly in trucking through the education of the ownership, executive staff and managers of the company by the way of consulting or by direct participation. We repair impairments arising from people failures which fail a system or process using copyright protected People-Nology programs. These impairments are found mostly within D.O.T. compliance, profit, service, growth, retention, recruiting, rewarding, recognition and the communications area of the business. We apply psychological knowledge known as People-Nology, to assist the company as experts and consultants within transportation management. We help through direct involvement in communications, policy structure, freight movement systems, workshops and seminars to bring about a community of people to grow a healthy organization. We develop specific programs for our carriers drawing from our extensive research and previous experience. We work toward the improvement of the trucking company, improved operating results. We teach what we know and continually research for improvement. We conduct independent research that may influence performance levels and the cultures of our clients. We assist, assure, aspire and guarantee to help people function at some optimally acceptable level within the work place. We understand the process and help in the personnel selection and training and marketing and advertising of our clients. We are employed or retained by commercial organizations within private consulting. PeopleNology@Hotmail.comSend PeopleNology an Email and receive our free PDF executive introduction by return email or ask any question, schedule appointment or just hello. Medicine for Your Trucking Company Mechanicsburg Pa 17055Send People-Nology an Email Today and receive a FREE Issue of some of our most popular issues World Aspirations for Women From Bedrock, Bedroom to Boardroom, Poetry, Instruction, Beautiful Art Works Wonderful for Adult Working Woman always free, around the world. Curiosity Of People The amazing truth about people concerning Philosophy Concepts, Principles and Theories Our Most Popular Workbook People-Nology Executive Introduction Explains our consulting programs workshops, seminars, workbooks for Motor Freight Transportation that you can afford. People-Nology You can request any of the listed publications 100% free with no obligations. You can select all 3 if you like with our thanks. We’ll send them to you via e-mail ASAP contained within safe and secure PDF files. Enjoy them and feel free to request our free Newsletter delivered free to your email. All People-Nology publications are protected by International Copyright Protection Laws 2006 and cannot be altered or duplicated without prior approval of the publisher. You are allowed to email to your friends and business associates under the same copyright restrictions. Warning People-Nology should not be used without proper instructions. These programs are powerful emotional tools to increase profits and inspire human beings. Improper use can cause harm to individuals and extreme caution should always be used using our applications. PeopleNology The Best Guidance for Transportation People Retention - Recruiting - Rewarding - Recognition Service Failures Equipment Damage Property Damage Compliance Violations Claims - Charge backs Cost Moving Up Quickly Behavior - Discipline Cash Flow Profit Pressure Salary Group Culture Breakdown Vendor Problems Everybody Looking Loyalty Gone Extreme Customers Loss of Authority System Confusion Investment Danger All Harmony Removed Objectivity Removed Market Perception