Slide 1 - Poverty and Social Exclusion in the UK by pengxiuhui

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									Measuring poverty, hardship and
living standards in New Zealand:
         a brief overview

                   Bryan Perry
       Ministry of Social Development, NZ

      2nd Peter Townsend Memorial Conference
                Bristol, January 2011



                                               1
                    Introduction
• New Zealand does not have an official measure of
  poverty or material hardship …
• the Ministry of Social Development reports on:
     – income distribution and income poverty using a range of
       measures
     – material hardship and deprivation using non-monetary
       indicators

• Statistics New Zealand sends NZ income distribution
  and income poverty information to the OECD
• involvement by state agencies is relatively recent
     – Brian Easton
     – NZ Poverty Measurement Project

                           Bristol                   Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
                Introduction (cont’d)
• MSD also publishes an annual ‘Social Report’
     – includes income distribution and poverty information …
     – but it has a wider scope - 10 domains, 43 indicators

• some limited use of ‘social inclusion’ / ‘social
  exclusion’ discourse … some on ‘social cohesion’ …
  more about ‘social and economic wellbeing’
• some use of an ‘underclass’ notion by current PM


• the major data gap in NZ is for the dynamics of
  poverty and hardship … social mobility

                           Bristol                   Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
                          Outline
• active promotion of a common language and
  understanding around poverty and hardship
• using HH incomes
     – relative and fixed (anchored) poverty lines
     – an illustration of the limitations of the incomes approach
       (older NZers)

• using non-monetary indicators to construct more
  direct measures of material wellbeing
     –   the ELSI measure – its development, properties and value
     –   addressing some of ELSI’s limitations
     –   international comparisons
     –   next steps?

                             Bristol                    Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
     Active promotion of the big ideas
• idea of ‘poverty’ in richer nations
     – we use the EU’s high level conceptualisation

• income poverty & deprivation – different constructs
• poverty and hardship are multi-dimensional … even
  more so if ‘causes’ and ‘consequences’ are included
  … but we try to keep an uncluttered focus on the
  goods, services and opportunities that money can
  buy
• cannot avoid judgment in setting thresholds … but
  some thresholds are much more plausible /
  defensible than others


                           Bristol                    Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
   Income and living standards




HH income                  Living
                         standards




               Bristol           Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
                                       Govt services              Access to
   Current income                       & subsidies             other services
     (eg last 12 months)                                         & amenities
                               +                +
                                                                             +
expected future income


    Previous               +   Assets                 Living
     income                                         standards
                                   +
Contributions to budget not                                 _
picked up in ‘current income’
 eg HH production,                           Special demands on budget
    help from outside the HH                  eg unexpected bill
                                                 health/disability costs
                                                 high housing costs
                                                 support for others o/s HH
                                   Bristol                       Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
                                       Govt services              Access to
   Current income                       & subsidies             other services
     (eg last 12 months)                                         & amenities
                               +                +
                                                                             +
expected future income


    Previous               +   Assets                 Living
     income                                         standards
                                   +                                preferences
                                                                     & wants?
Contributions to budget not                                 _
picked up in ‘current income’
 eg HH production,                           Special demands on budget
    help from outside the HH                  eg unexpected bill
                                                 health/disability costs
                                                 high housing costs
                                                 support for others o/s HH
                                   Bristol                       Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
Trends in HH incomes and income poverty,
               1982 to 2009




                  Bristol         Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
                                              Median HH income ($2009), 1982-2009, NZ
                                         40
Equivalised HH income in $2009 (000's)


                                         35


                                         30


                                         25


                                         20


                                         15


                                         10


                                         5


                                         0
                                         1980 82   84   86   88   90   92     94 96     98   00   02   04   06   08 2010
                                                                             HES Year

                                                                            Bristol                         Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
                                                    Income poverty rates, 1982 to 2009, NZ
                                           35%
Proportion of population below threshold



                                           30%
                                                          60% REL

                                           25%


                                           20%


                                           15%


                                           10%


                                           5%


                                           0%
                                             1980   82   84   86    88   90   92    94   96    98   00   02   04     06     08    2010
                                                                                    HES year
                                                                               Bristol                             Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
                                                    Income poverty rates, 1982 to 2009, NZ
                                           35%
Proportion of population below threshold



                                           30%
                                                         60% 98 FIXED

                                                         60% REL
                                           25%


                                           20%


                                           15%


                                           10%


                                           5%


                                           0%
                                             1980   82   84   86   88   90   92    94   96   98   00   02   04     06      08    2010
                                                                                  HES year
                                                                              Bristol                            Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
 The limitations of relying on an incomes
              approach alone:
   the case older New Zealanders (65+)
• NZ has a two-tier system of retirement income
  provision
    – NZ Superannuation - a universal pension, neither income
      nor asset tested
    – private provision by citizens
    – no earnings-related component

• around half of older NZers have incomes of NZS plus
  less than $100 pw from other sources




                            Bristol                Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
                                          Income poverty rates using different
                                             thresholds, by age group, 2008
                                 70
                                                 65+
                                 60              under 18
Proportion below threshold (%)




                                                 total
                                 50
                                                 18-64

                                 40


                                 30


                                 20


                                 10


                                 0
                                      42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80
                                                 Threshold as a proportion of the median (%)

                                                                  Bristol                      Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
     Using NMIs: our general approach
• information from individual items is useful … but need
  multiple items working together for a robust picture
• we don’t directly use the ‘socially defined necessities’
  approach with, say, a 3+ lack defining ‘deprivation’
• we use the ‘enforced lack’ notion …
  … but are very conscious of the impact of ‘adaptive
  preferences’
• deprivation (and material living standards more
  generally) is conceptualised as a latent variable
  reflected in the pattern of association between a
  number of observable indicators


                          Bristol               Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
 Using NMIs: our general approach                     (cont’d)

• the indicators or survey items cover the ‘necessities’,
  ‘desirables’, and ‘(common) luxuries’ categories
     – development of a full range living stds index (low to high)
     – reality of consumption decisions within HHs – even the
       relatively poor have some ‘desirables’, even a few
       ‘luxuries’

• no explicit attempt to derive an income poverty line
  using NMIs …
     – but we use the steepening of the gradient of the core
       necessities vs income curves to provide credibility for the
       thresholds we do use




                             Bristol                    Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
 Can the ‘enforced lack’ NMI approach to
     measuring hardship be extended
to cover a wider range of living standards,
            from low to high?




                    Bristol          Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
Extending the enforced lack NMI approach
to cover a wider range of living standards?
• the development goal
• candidate items to use in the extension
• the model and the model fit (CFA)
• a user-friendly version (ELSI and ELSI levels)
• validation
• point in time findings using ELSI
• a closer look at the underlying conceptualisation of
  living standards for ELSI
• implications of this for measuring changes over time
• next steps
                         Bristol               Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
                                              Stylised summary of development goal
                            100
Cumulative percentage (%)




                            80           mainly necessities, a few
                                         desirables

                            60


                            40


                            20


                             0
                                  0         10            20      30             40       50          60          70            80

                                      material hardship        from 'just getting by' to very good living standards



                                                                       Bristol                                   Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
                                              Stylised summary of development goal
                            100

                                           mainly necessities, a few
Cumulative percentage (%)




                            80            desirables
                                          more desirables and
                            60            'luxuries' added

                                                                                                     the development goal
                            40


                            20
                                                                                       Non-linear ordinal scale, running from low
                                                                                           to high material living standards

                             0
                                  0         10            20       30             40        50          60           70             80

                                      material hardship         from 'just getting by' to very good living standards



                                                                        Bristol                                    Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
               Wider range of items
• in addition to the usual ‘necessities’ and ‘near
  necessities’, we needed some items that generally
  reflected higher living standards
• tried various consumer durables … such as a
  dishwasher (too much variation across groups ...)
• overseas holiday once each 3 years (ie no EL)
• economising items (‘not at all’) eg
     – cut back on local trips to visit friends and relatives
     – put off buying new clothes as long as possible
     – bought cheaper or less meat than wanted to

• self-rated material standard of living


                             Bristol                     Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
            The first model

                           Ownership ELs

                           Participation ELs

                           Economising
 Material
  living                   Financial hardship
standards
                           Housing problems

                           SR material LS

                           SR income adequacy


                 Bristol                    Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
            The first model

                           Ownership ELs

                           Participation ELs

                           Economising
 Material
  living                   Financial hardship
standards
                           Housing problems

                           SR material LS

                           SR income adequacy


                 Bristol                    Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
            The current model

                            Ownership ELs

                            Participation ELs

                                                Added to
 Material                   Economising         stretch the
                                                top end more
  living
standards                   SR material LS

                            SR satisfaction with LS

                            SR income adequacy

                  Bristol                 Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
Extending the NMI deprivation approach ….
• CFA analysis for a five factor model reflecting a single
  latent variable - model fit very good

• reliability also very good (Cronbach of 0.79)

• we created a user-friendly version of the scale, with
  scores ranging from 0 (low) to 60 (high living
  standards)
     – correlation of 0.98 with generic scale
     – ‘ELSI’ (the Economic Living Standards Index)
     – for presentation purposes, created 7 ‘levels’ from very low
       to very high living standards
     – Levels 1 and 2 – clear hardship zone
     – Level 3 – hardship?

                             Bristol                   Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
                             Distribution of ELSI scores by ELSI level
                                       whole population, 2008
                        30
                                                                           26

                                                                      23
Population percentage




                        20                                  18




                                             10                                 9
                        10
                                        7
                                  6




                        0
                                                  ELSI levels (1-7)

                                                  Bristol                       Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
                        Validity?
• to what degree can we trust an instrument to be
  measuring what it claims it measures?
• requires a careful marshalling of evidence from
  different sources – cumulative, never ‘final’
                        *********
   - items … close examination - not covered today
   - internal structure - CFA and reliability 
   - relationship with other variables - next section
   - consequences in practice - later
   - re-examination of underlying construct - later



                            Bristol                     Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
                             Non-ELSI items: negative association with ELSI
                        60
                                                            52
Population percentage




                        40
                                                                 33
                                                                                                 31


                               23                                       23

                        20                                                                            18

                                                                                13
                                    9
                                                                                                           7
                                        3                                            4                         3
                                            0   0   0   0                                0   0                       0   0    0
                         0
                              meal with meat, chicken or   could not pay utilities on help with food, clothes or
                             fish at least each 2nd day time in last 12 mnths [MORE money from NGO welfare
                                           [EL]                  than ONCE]           agency in last 12 mnths
                                                                                        [MORE than ONCE]
                                                                      Bristol                                      Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
                             Non-ELSI items: negative association with ELSI
                        80     75

                                    68
Population percentage




                        60               55
                                                                                                 53



                                                                                                      42

                        40                    37
                                                                                                           32
                                                                28
                                                                                                                26

                                                   20
                        20                                           15                                              16
                                                                                                                          14
                                                                          12
                                                                                9   8
                                                        5                               4
                                                                                            2                                  2
                                                            0
                         0
                               books, music CDs or              crime / vandalism in the        quality of accommodation
                             downloads [cut back / went         neighbourhood [MAJOR            paid for on holidays [N/A]
                                  without A LOT]                        problem]
                                                                      Bristol                                    Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
                              Non-ELSI items: positive association with ELSI
                                                                                                                                       98
                        100                                                                                                       94
                                                                                                 93
                                                                                            89

                                                                                                                             83
                                                                                       78                              78
                         80                                 75
Population percentage




                                                                                  67
                                                       63

                         60                       56
                                                                                                                  54
                                                                            52
                                                                                                             49
                                                                       47
                                          42 41
                                                                                                        39
                         40
                                                                  29
                                     25

                         20     17




                          0
                              current health self-rating         overall condition of home            overall satisfaction with life
                                       [VG / EX]                      (GOOD / VG]                      [SATISFIED / V SATIS]
                                                                        Bristol                                             Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
                              Non-ELSI items: positive association with ELSI
                                                             99
                        100
                                                        89



                         80
Population percentage




                                                   72                                         72                                  71




                         60                                                                                                  57
                                              53


                                                                                         41                             41
                                         38
                         40
                                                                                                                  30

                                    23                                                                       24

                         20                                                         15                  16
                               11                                                                  11
                                                                                5
                                                                          2
                                                                  0   0
                          0
                                   delayed repair /        spot purchase of non-         quality of kitchen and
                              replacement of appliances essential but desirable $250 kitchen appliances [TOP of
                              not working [NOT AT ALL] item [NO RESTRICTION]               RANGE / GOOD]
                                                                      Bristol                                          Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
Using ELSI for point in time comparisons




                  Bristol          Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
                                                           ELSI levels by age group, 2008
                        50
                                                                                                                                                                              46




                        40
Population percentage




                                                                                                                                               31
                        30
                                                                            27
                                                                                 26
                                                                                                             25
                                                                                                                  23                      23                             23
                                          22 22                        22
                                                                                                        20
                        20
                                                  17
                                                                                                                                     15
                                     14                                                                                                                                            14
                                                                                                                                                    12
                                                                                                   11
                             10 10                                                                                                                                  10
                        10                                       9 9
                                                                                               8                       8         8
                                                       7                                   6
                                                                                      6                                    6 6
                                                                                                                                                                3
                                                             2                                                                                            2 2

                        0
                               0-17 years                    18-24 years                    25-44 years                    45-64 years                      65+ years

                                                                                          Bristol                                                        Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
                                  ELSI levels by family income source, 2008
                        50
                                                                                                                       46




                        40
Population percentage




                        30
                             26                                                       26
                                                                                 25
                                                                                                                  23
                                  21
                                            19                              20
                        20             18

                                                                                                                            14


                                                 10                    10                  10               10
                        10
                                                      5           6
                                                              4                                         3
                                                                                                2   2
                                                          0
                        0
                             Income-tested benefit                    Market <65                            65+

                                                                  Bristol                                   Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
                                 ELSI levels by family type (under 65), 2008
                        40

                                                                                  34



                        30
Population percentage




                                                   25                                                                                           26
                                                                             25
                                              24
                                                                                                                                                     23
                                                                                            22                                             22
                                                                                                           21
                                         20
                        20                                                                            19


                                                                                                 15
                                                                        13             14
                                                                                                                13
                                                                                                                                      11
                                     9
                        10       8                                                                                   8                                    8
                                                        8                                                                        7
                                                                    7
                             6
                                                                4                                                            4
                                                            3
                                                                                                                         3


                        0
                                 One person                     Couple only                      Sole parent                     Two parent

                                                                                  Bristol                                            Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
                                                              ELSI levels by tenure, 2008
                        50
                                                                                 44


                        40
Population percentage




                                                                                                                                                             32
                                                                                                                31
                        30                      27
                                                     26                                                    25
                                                                                                                                          24
                                                                            23
                                           21                                                                                                  21                      21
                                                                                                                                                                  20
                        20                                                            19
                                                                                                      16                                            16
                                                                                                                                     14
                                                                                                                     13                                                     13
                                                                                                                                12
                                      10
                                                                        9                                                  10                                                    9
                        10
                                                          7
                                  5                                                             6 6
                                                                    4                      4                                                             4                           4
                             3
                                                              1 1                                                                                                                        1

                        0
                                 Owned with                     Owned                          Family trust               Private Landlord                             HNZC
                                  mortgage                    mortgage free
                                                                                           Bristol                                                           Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
                                             Children’s items by family ELSI level, 2008
                             60
Proportion of children (%)




                                                                 44
                                   42
                                                                                                 40
                             40                                                                                                38




                                                                                                                                    23

                             20                                       16
                                                                                                      13                                 13
                                        11
                                             9                             9

                                                                               4                           5                                  4
                                                 3                                                                                                4
                                                     0   0                                                     1
                                                             0                     0   0   0                       0   0   0                          0   0
                              0
                                   2 pr strong / sturdy a waterproof coat for    have children's    children went without
                                  shoes for each child     each child [EL]    friends to a birthday music, art, dance,
                                           [EL]                                     party [EL]      swimming lessons [A
                                                                                                            LOT]
                                                                                       Bristol                                            Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
                                         Children’s items by family ELSI level, 2008
                             80
Proportion of children (%)




                                    61
                             60

                                                                     47

                                         39                               40
                             40
                                              33
                                                                                                            31
                                                                                 26

                                                   19
                             20                                                                                  17
                                                                                         14
                                                        12                                                            12
                                                                                              9
                                                             7
                                                                                                  3                        4     4
                                                                 1                                    1                               0   0
                              0
                                  house difficult to keep warm       dampness or mould                       enough bedrooms for
                                  in winter [MAJOR problem]            [MAJOR problem]                      children of opposite sex
                                                                                                          (aged 10+) to be not sharing
                                                                                                                      [EL]
                                                                               Bristol                                         Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
                                                                      Different worlds …
                             75

                                      62
                                                                                                         60
Proportion of children (%)




                             50            47




                                                33                                                  33                                   32



                             25
                                                                                                                                    15
                                                     12                                        12

                                                          6                                                                     7
                                                                                           4                           3   3
                                                              2          1   1     2                           1   1
                                                                  0
                              0
                                  borrowed money from family    spot purchase of non-                         employed cleaner on a
                                    and friends for everyday essential but desirable $250                         regular basis
                                  needs [MORE than ONCE item [NO RESTRICTION]
                                       in last 12 mnths]
                                                                                 Bristol                                       Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
      Children: cumulative disadvantage
• ELs
     –   friends to birthday party
     –   waterproof coat
     –   separate bed
     –   separate bedrooms for children of opp sex (10+)
     –   all school uniform required
• Economising ‘a lot’
     –   continued with worn out clothes/shoes
     –   postponed visit to doctor
     –   did not pick up prescription
     –   unable to pay for school trip
     –   went without music, dance, kapa haka, art, swimming, etc
     –   involvement in sport had to be limited

     Distribn of children                 lower to higher LS 
   across the LS levels (%)             12    10    18   18          41
         % with 4+ deps                 35    11    2     0           0
                              Bristol                         Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
          ELSI is very useful as is,
       but it is still a work in progress
• Respondent burden
     – 40 items
     – have a ‘short-form’ of 25 items, but need to reduce further

• Compression in upper half of the scale
     – need for more items for modest to high living standards
     – potential with some ‘quality’ items, two new economising
       items, and one about ‘no restrictions’ for making an
       ‘unplanned purchase’ of around GBP125
     – would like to reduce reliance on global self-ratings

• Underlying conceptualisation of living standards
     – what does ELSI actually measure?

                             Bristol                   Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
        What does ELSI actually measure?

           Representative list of basics and non-basics (O & P)

                                         Don’t have
          Have       Want, don’t have       Want, don’t
                      because of cost      have for other   Don’t want
                     (= enforced lack)       reasons

Score       1               0                    1                1


• ELSI scores reflect the degree of financial restriction
  (freedom) that respondents report about
  consumption relative to desired consumption from a
  list of basics and non-basics …
• … that have been shown to reflect a common
  underlying or latent variable

                             Bristol                        Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
Implications for monitoring changes in
  material living standards over time
• ‘Our living standards are higher today than 20 years
  ago’ usually means that consumption is higher / more
  people have access to more of the goods and
  services considered out of reach 20 years ago.

• ELSI is about changes in consumption relative to
  desired consumption, not changes in consumption
  per se

• If expectations about consumption rise in step with
  rising living standards, then the average ELSI score
  is likely to show little or no change over time.


                       Bristol               Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
Implications for monitoring changes in
material living standards over time (cont’d)
• This is what we found from 2000 to 2004 to 2008 –
  no change in avg ELSI scores

• The way people respond to global self-ratings of
  living standards is consistent with ELSI’s ‘relative to
  desired consumption’ conceptualisation
     – viz if a person’s living standards rise in rough step with
       those of their ‘reference group’ then their self-rating will
       remain much the same

• The ELSI conceptualisation of living standards is
  internally consistent … but there is a marketing
  challenge !

                            Bristol                     Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
                        FRILS?
• We have experimented with a ‘Fixed Reference
  Index of Living Standards’ (FRILS)
       – O and P items: have it / don’t have it
       – E items: economise a lot ≡ don’t have
       – SR items: omitted


          Representative list of O, P and E basics and non-basics
                                          Don’t have

              Have        Want, don’t have      Want, don’t
                                                                   Don’t
                           because of cost     have for other
                                                                   want
                          (= enforced lack)      reasons
ELSI           1                      0                1              1
FRILS          1                      0                0              0



                            Bristol                        Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
          ELSI and FRILS compared:
            point-in-time rankings
• rankings for the usual population groups are much
  the same for ELSI and FRILS
• main exception is for those aged 65+, esp singles …
  FRILS produces similar hardship rates but a much
  lower proportion with higher living standards
• ‘adaptive preferences’ for the 65+, esp the singles?
  compared with younger adults they report fewer ELs
  for a given number of lacks, and also satisfaction
  with less:
     – to maintain dignity and/or sanity by saying they’re OK
       even when just getting by and ‘overstating’ self-ratings? or
     – having found that that is a ‘better’ way to live?
                             Bristol                    Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
ELSI & FRILS compared: hardship rates
                            ELSI   FRILS
    Overall                  13     13
    Age group
       0-17                  19     19
       18-24                 11     11
       25-44                 14     13
       45-64                 12     11
       65+                   4       3
    Ethnicity
       European              10      9
       Maori                 26     27
       Pacific               33     31
       Other                 14     14

                  Bristol                  Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
                                                Avg ELSI & FRILS scores compared
                               10

                                                          ELSI   FRILS
                                5
difference from overall mean




                                0
                                     ben with     sole        two        single   couple   single        couple
                                       dep       parent      parent       <65      <65       65+           65+
                                -5


                               -10


                               -15


                               -20
                                                                      Bristol                       Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
ELSI & FRILS compared: ‘doing OK’ rates
                             ELSI   FRILS
     Overall                  50     51
     Age group
        0-17                  36     43
        18-24                 45     46
        25-44                 47     51
        45-64                 62     63
        65+                   71     50
     Ethnicity
        European
        Maori
        Pacific
        Other

                   Bristol                  Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
ELSI & FRILS compared: ‘doing OK’ rates
                             ELSI   FRILS
     Overall                  50     51
     Age group
        0-17                  36     43
        18-24                 45     46
        25-44                 47     51
        45-64                 62     63
        65+                   71     50
     Ethnicity
        European
        Maori
        Pacific
        Other

                   Bristol                  Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
       ELSI and FRILS compared:
       tracking changes over time

• major difference for 2000 to 2004 to 2008
     – no change in ELSI mean
     – noticeable rise in FRILS mean

• using FRILS – there was an increasing proportion
  with higher scores (better living standards) … not so
  using ELSI
              % with higher LS         index: 2000 = 100
              ELSI      FRILS          ELSI      FRILS
     2000      31         29            100        100
     2004      32         35            104        120
     2008      32         41            104        140
                         Bristol                      Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
            The current model

                            Ownership ELs

                            Participation ELs

                            Economising
 Material
  living
standards                   SR material LS

                            SR satisfaction with LS

                            SR income adequacy

                  Bristol                 Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
            Possible next model

                              Ownership ELs

                              Participation ELs

                              Economising – few new ones
 Material
  living                      SR material LS
standards
                              Quality of kitchen,
                ?             furniture, other durables

                              Ability to purchase non-
                              necessities ‘at will’
                    Bristol                    Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
         International comparisons
• Return to deprivation indices

• Great value in having an internationally comparative
  NMI scale – EU 9 items, with all its limitations




                        Bristol              Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
                                                    Hardship rate for population, EU index
                                                                    EU + NO, IS and NZ, 2008
                                        60
Proportion with 3+ enforecd lacks (%)




                                        50



                                        40



                                        30
                                                                                         NZ

                                        20



                                        10



                                         0
                                             LU NO NL SE IS DK AT FI UK IE ES BE FR DE NZ SI   IT EE CZ PT GR CY SK HU LT PL LV

                                                                               Bristol                            Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
                                               Hardship rate for those aged 65+, EU index
                                                                    EU + NO, IS and NZ, 2008
                                        60
Proportion with 3+ enforecd lacks (%)




                                        50



                                        40



                                        30



                                        20

                                                        NZ
                                        10



                                         0
                                             LU NO NL SE NZ DK IE IS UK DE FI FR AT BE ES IT CZ SI EE PT GR HU LT PL SK CY LV

                                                                               Bristol                          Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
                                                 Hardship rate for children (0-17), EU index
                                                                    EU + NO, IS and NZ, 2008
                                        60
Proportion with 3+ enforecd lacks (%)




                                        50



                                        40



                                        30
                                                                                               NZ


                                        20



                                        10



                                         0
                                             LU NL NO SE DK ES FI IS AT DE SI EE IE BE FR UK MT NZ IT CZ GR PT CY LT SK PL HU

                                                                               Bristol                         Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
                          1.8


                                                                                                       This quadrant:
                          1.6
                                                                                                       above median
                                                                               UK                   deprivation rate and
                                                                                                     above median risk
Risk ratio for children




                                                                          IE             NZ                 ratio
                          1.4       LU        SE
                                                                               BE
                                         NL
                                               ES         IS         DE
                                                                                          CZ
                          1.2
                                              DK               AT              FR   IT
                                         NO         FI                    EE
                                                                                                             CY
                          1.0                                                                                              SK
                                                                                                   PT
                                                                                              GR                  LT
                                                                SI
                          0.8



                          0.6
                                0         5              10               15             20             25        30             35
                                                              Deprivation rate for children (%)

                                                                          Bristol                                 Bryan Perry, Jan 2011
                  Next steps
• further index development
    – improving ELSI for middle to high living standards
    – more thorough development of FRILS
    – deprivation indices – dimensions
    – understanding drivers of low living standards?

• revised item list for SNZ surveys using the 25
  item budget

• an official set of measures of poverty and
  hardship for NZ




                        Bristol                   Bryan Perry, Jan 2011

								
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