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Curriculum Reference Guide for Parents Sixth Grade 2011 – 2012 Sixth Grade Standards of Learning 2011-2012 Scope and Sequence Nine Mathematics Semester Courses Week Marking English Grade 6 Grade 6E Science Social Studies Period First 6.3b 6.19a-c 6.19a-c 6.1a-k USII.1a-h 6.4bcdfh 6.1 7.16a-e 6.6a-g USII.2a-c 6.6a-e 6.2a-d 6.1 6.4a-g USII.3a-c Description 6.4 6.2a-d 6.2a-e USII.4a-e 6.7bde 6.6a-b 6.4 USII.5a-c 6.7 6.6a-b USII.6a-d 6.7 Second 6.3acd 6.16 a-b 6.16 a-b 6.1a-k USII.1a-h 6.4abeg 6.5 7.9 6.3a-e USII.2c 6.6a-e 6.17 7.10 6.5a-g USII.7abc Narrative 6.8 6.5 6.7a-g USII.8a-e 6.7a 6.10 6.17 6.9a-d USII.9a-d 6.7f 6.18 6.8 6.8a-i 6.10 7.5 6.18 Third 6.1a-d 6.20 6.20 6.1a-k USII.1a-h 6.2 a-f 6.3 a-c 7.15 a-b 6.6a-g USII.2a-c 6.5 efg 6.11 a-b 6.3 a-c 6.4a-g USII.3a-c 6.6a-e 6.12 7.3 a-b 6.2a-e USII.4a-e Persuasive 6.13 6.11 a-b USII.5a-c 6.7c 6.15 a-b 7.8 USII.6a-d 6.12 6.13 7.7 6.15 a-b Fourth 6.5a-d 6.14 a-c 6.14 a-c 6.1a-k USII.1a-h 6.6a-e 6.9 7.11 a-b 6.3a-e USII.2a-c Explanation 6.9 6.5a-g USII.7abc 6.7a-g USII.8a-e 6.9a-d USII.9a-d 6.8a-i Interim Dates for All Subjects: Additional Interim Dates for Science and Social Studies: October 5, 2011 September 20, 2011 February 15, 2012 December 14, 2011 October 20, 2011 March 20, 2012 March 2, 2012 November 29, 2011 April 25, 2012 May 8, 2012 January 10, 2012 May 24, 2012 ENGLISH b) Use knowledge of narrative and poetic structures to aid comprehension and predict The sixth-grade student will be an active participant outcomes. in classroom discussions. The student will present c) Describe the images created by language. personal opinions, understand differing viewpoints, d) Describe how word choice and imagery distinguish between fact and opinion, and analyze contribute to the meaning of a text. the effectiveness of group communication. The e) Describe cause-effect relationships and their student will begin the study of word origins and impact on plot. continue vocabulary development. The student will f) Use information stated explicitly in the text to read independently a variety of fiction and nonfiction, draw conclusions and make inferences. including a significant number of classic works, for g) Explain how character and plot development are appreciation and comprehension. The student will used in a selection to support a central conflict also plan, draft, revise, and edit narratives, or story line. descriptions, and explanations, with attention to h) Paraphrase and summarize the main points in composition and style as well as sentence formation, the text. usage, and mechanics. The student will also demonstrate correct use of language, spelling, and 6.5 The student will read and demonstrate mechanics by applying grammatical conventions in comprehension of a variety of informational writing and speaking. In addition, reading and writing selections. will be used as tools for learning academic concepts, a) Identify questions to be answered. and available technology will be used as b) Make, confirm, or revise predictions. appropriate. c) Use context to determine meanings of unfamiliar words and technical vocabulary. Oral Language d) Draw conclusions and make inferences based on explicit and implied information. 6.1 The student will analyze oral participation in e) Organize the main idea and details to form a small-group activities. summary. a) Communicate as leader and contributor. f) Compare and contrast information about one b) Evaluate own contributions to discussions. topic contained in different selections. c) Summarize and evaluate group activities. g) Select informational sources appropriate for a d) Analyze the effectiveness of participant given purpose. interactions. Writing 6.2 The student will listen critically and express opinions in oral presentations. 6.6 The student will write narratives, descriptions, a) Distinguish between fact and opinion. and explanations. b) Compare and contrast viewpoints. a) Use a variety of planning strategies to generate c) Present a convincing argument. and organize ideas. d) Paraphrase what is heard. b) Establish central idea, organization, elaboration, e) Summarize what is heard. and unity. f) Use grammatically correct language and c) Select vocabulary and information to enhance vocabulary appropriate to audience, topic, and the central idea, tone, and voice. purpose. d) Expand and embed ideas by using modifiers, standard coordination, and subordination in Reading complete sentences. e) Revise writing for clarity. 6.3 The student will read and learn the meanings of unfamiliar words and phrases. 6.7 The student will edit writing for correct grammar, a) Identify word origins, derivations, and inflections. capitalization, punctuation, spelling, and sentence b) Identify analogies and figurative language. structure. c) Use context and sentence structure to determine a) Use a variety of graphic organizers, including meanings and differentiate among multiple sentence diagrams, to analyze and improve meanings of words. sentence formation and paragraph structure. d) Use word-reference materials. b) Use subject-verb agreement with intervening phrases and clauses. 6.4 The student will read and demonstrate c) Use pronoun-antecedent agreement to include comprehension of a variety of fiction, narrative indefinite pronouns. nonfiction, and poetry. d) Maintain consistent tense inflections across a) Identify the elements of narrative structure, paragraphs. including setting, character, plot, conflict, and e) Choose adverbs to describe verbs, adjectives, theme. and other adverbs. f) Use correct spelling for frequently used words. MATH 6, 2009 Standards of Learning 6.3 The student will The sixth-grade standards are a transition from a) identify and represent integers; the emphasis placed on whole number arithmetic in b) order and compare integers; and the elementary grades to foundations of algebra. c) identify and describe absolute value of The standards emphasize rational numbers. integers. Students will use ratios to compare data sets; 6.4 The student will demonstrate multiple recognize decimals, fractions, and percents as representations of multiplication and division of ratios; solve single-step and multistep problems, fractions. using rational numbers; and gain a foundation in the 6.5 The student will investigate and describe understanding of integers. Students will solve linear concepts of positive exponents and perfect equations and use algebraic terminology. Students squares. will solve problems involving area, perimeter, and surface area, work with π (pi), and focus on the Computation and Estimation relationships among the properties of quadrilaterals. Focus: Applications of Operations with Rational In addition, students will focus on applications of Numbers probability and statistics. 6.6 The student will While learning mathematics, students will be a) multiply and divide fractions and mixed actively engaged, using concrete materials and numbers; and appropriate technology such as calculators, b) estimate solutions and then solve single- computers, and spreadsheets. However, facility in step and multistep practical problems the use of technology shall not be regarded as a involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, substitute for a student‟s understanding of and division of fractions. quantitative concepts and relationships or for 6.7 The student will solve single-step and multistep proficiency in basic computations. Students will also practical problems involving addition, identify real-life applications of the mathematical subtraction, multiplication, and division of principles they are learning and apply these to decimals. science and other disciplines they are studying. 6.8 The student will evaluate whole number Mathematics has its own language, and the numerical expressions, using the order of acquisition of specialized vocabulary and language operations. patterns is crucial to a student‟s understanding and appreciation of the subject. Students should be Measurement encouraged to use correctly the concepts, skills, Focus: Problem Solving with Area, Perimeter, symbols, and vocabulary identified in the following Volume, and Surface Area set of standards. 6.9 The student will make ballpark comparisons Problem solving has been integrated throughout between measurements in the U.S. Customary the six content strands. The development of System of measurement and measurements in problem-solving skills should be a major goal of the the metric system. mathematics program at every grade level. 6.10 The student will Instruction in the process of problem solving will a) define π (pi) as the ratio of the need to be integrated early and continuously into circumference of a circle to its diameter; each student‟s mathematics education. Students b) solve practical problems involving must be helped to develop a wide range of skills and circumference and area of a circle, given the strategies for solving a variety of problem types. diameter or radius; c) solve practical problems involving area and Number and Number Sense perimeter; and Focus: Relationships among Fractions, d) describe and determine the volume and Decimals, and Percents surface area of a rectangular prism. 6.1 The student will describe and compare data, using ratios, and will use appropriate notations, Geometry a Focus: Properties and Relationships such as b , a to b, and a:b. 6.11 The student will 6.2 The student will a) identify the coordinates of a point in a a) investigate and describe fractions, decimals, coordinate plane; and and percents as ratios; b) graph ordered pairs in a coordinate plane. b) identify a given fraction, decimal, or percent 6.12 The student will determine congruence of from a representation; segments, angles, and polygons. c) demonstrate equivalent relationships among 6.13 The student will describe and identify properties fractions, decimals, and percents; and of quadrilaterals. d) compare and order fractions, decimals, and percents. Probability and Statistics Focus: Practical Applications of Statistics 6.14 The student, given a problem situation, will a) construct circle graphs; b) draw conclusions and make predictions, using circle graphs; and c) compare and contrast graphs that present information from the same data set. 6.15 The student will a) describe mean as balance point; and b) decide which measure of center is appropriate for a given purpose. 6.16 The student will a) compare and contrast dependent and independent events; and b) determine probabilities for dependent and independent events. Patterns, Functions, and Algebra Focus: Variable Equations and Properties 6.17 The student will identify and extend geometric and arithmetic sequences. 6.18 The student will solve one-step linear equations in one variable involving whole number coefficients and positive rational solutions. 6.19 The student will investigate and recognize a) the identity properties for addition and multiplication; b) the multiplicative property of zero; and c) the inverse property for multiplication. 6.20 The student will graph inequalities on a number line. MATH 6 Enrichment, 2009 Standards of Learning 6.3 The student will The sixth-grade standards are a transition from a) identify and represent integers; the emphasis placed on whole number arithmetic in b) order and compare integers; and the elementary grades to foundations of algebra. c) identify and describe absolute value of The standards emphasize rational numbers. integers. Students will use ratios to compare data sets; 6.4 The student will demonstrate multiple recognize decimals, fractions, and percents as representations of multiplication and division of ratios; solve single-step and multistep problems, fractions. using rational numbers; and gain a foundation in the 6.5 The student will investigate and describe understanding of integers. Students will solve linear concepts of positive exponents and perfect equations and use algebraic terminology. Students squares. will solve problems involving area, perimeter, and surface area, work with π (pi), and focus on the Computation and Estimation relationships among the properties of quadrilaterals. Focus: Applications of Operations with Rational In addition, students will focus on applications of Numbers probability and statistics. 6.6 The student will While learning mathematics, students will be a) multiply and divide fractions and mixed actively engaged, using concrete materials and numbers; and appropriate technology such as calculators, b) estimate solutions and then solve single- computers, and spreadsheets. However, facility in step and multistep practical problems the use of technology shall not be regarded as a involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, substitute for a student‟s understanding of and division of fractions. quantitative concepts and relationships or for 6.7 The student will solve single-step and multistep proficiency in basic computations. Students will also practical problems involving addition, identify real-life applications of the mathematical subtraction, multiplication, and division of principles they are learning and apply these to decimals. science and other disciplines they are studying. 6.8 The student will evaluate whole number Mathematics has its own language, and the numerical expressions, using the order of acquisition of specialized vocabulary and language operations. patterns is crucial to a student‟s understanding and 7.3 The student will appreciation of the subject. Students should be a) model addition, subtraction, multiplication, encouraged to use correctly the concepts, skills, and division of integers; and symbols, and vocabulary identified in the following b) add, subtract, multiply, and divide integers. set of standards. Problem solving has been integrated throughout Measurement the six content strands. The development of Focus: Problem Solving with Area, Perimeter, problem-solving skills should be a major goal of the Volume, and Surface Area mathematics program at every grade level. 6.9 The student will make ballpark comparisons Instruction in the process of problem solving will between measurements in the U.S. Customary need to be integrated early and continuously into System of measurement and measurements in each student‟s mathematics education. Students the metric system. must be helped to develop a wide range of skills and 6.10 The student will strategies for solving a variety of problem types. a) define π (pi) as the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter; Number and Number Sense b) solve practical problems involving Focus: Relationships among Fractions, circumference and area of a circle, given the Decimals, and Percents diameter or radius; 6.1 The student will describe and compare data, c) solve practical problems involving area and using ratios, and will use appropriate notations, perimeter; and a d) describe and determine the volume and such as b , a to b, and a:b. surface area of a rectangular prism. 6.2 The student will 7.5 The student will a) investigate and describe fractions, decimals, a) describe volume and surface area of and percents as ratios; cylinders; b) identify a given fraction, decimal, or percent b) solve practical problems involving the from a representation; volume and surface area of rectangular c) demonstrate equivalent relationships among prisms and cylinders; and fractions, decimals, and percents; and c) describe how changing one measured d) compare and order fractions, decimals, and attribute of a rectangular prism affects its percents. volume and surface area. Geometry 6.20 The student will graph inequalities on a number Focus: Properties and Relationships line. 6.11 The student will 7.15 The student will a) identify the coordinates of a point in a a) solve one-step inequalities in one variable; coordinate plane; and and b) graph ordered pairs in a coordinate plane. b) graph solutions to inequalities on the 6.12 The student will determine congruence of number line. segments, angles, and polygons. 7.16 The student will apply the following properties 6.13 The student will describe and identify properties of operations with real numbers: of quadrilaterals. a) the commutative and associative properties 7.7 The student will compare and contrast the for addition and multiplication; following quadrilaterals based on properties: b) the distributive property; parallelogram, rectangle, square, rhombus, and c) the additive and multiplicative identity trapezoid. properties; 7.8 The student, given a polygon in the coordinate d) the additive and multiplicative inverse plane, will represent transformations properties; and (reflections, dilations, rotations, and e) the multiplicative property of zero. translations) by graphing in the coordinate plane. Probability and Statistics Focus: Practical Applications of Statistics 6.14 The student, given a problem situation, will a) construct circle graphs; b) draw conclusions and make predictions, using circle graphs; and c) compare and contrast graphs that present information from the same data set. 6.15 The student will a) describe mean as balance point; and b) decide which measure of center is appropriate for a given purpose. 6.16 The student will a) compare and contrast dependent and independent events; and b) determine probabilities for dependent and independent events. 7.9 The student will investigate and describe the difference between the experimental probability and theoretical probability of an event. 7.10 The student will determine the probability of compound events, using the Fundamental (Basic) Counting Principle. 7.11 The student, given data for a practical situation, will a) construct and analyze histograms; and b) compare and contrast histograms with other types of graphs presenting information from the same data set. Patterns, Functions, and Algebra Focus: Variable Equations and Properties 6.17 The student will identify and extend geometric and arithmetic sequences. 6.18 The student will solve one-step linear equations in one variable involving whole number coefficients and positive rational solutions. 6.19 The student will investigate and recognize a) the identity properties for addition and multiplication; b) the multiplicative property of zero; and c) the inverse property for multiplication. SCIENCE i) data are organized and communicated through graphical representation (graphs, charts, and The sixth-grade standards continue to emphasize diagrams); data analysis and experimentation. Methods are j) models are designed to explain a sequence; and studied for testing the validity of predictions and k) an understanding of the nature of science is conclusions. Scientific methodology, focusing on developed and reinforced. precision in stating hypotheses and defining dependent and independent variables, is strongly Force, Motion, and Energy reinforced. The concept of change is explored through the study of transformations of energy and 6.2 The student will investigate and understand matter. The standards present an integrated focus basic sources of energy, their origins, on the role of the sun‟s energy in the Earth‟s transformations, and uses. Key concepts include systems, on water in the environment, on air and a) potential and kinetic energy; atmosphere, and on basic chemistry concepts. A b) the role of the sun in the formation of most more detailed understanding of the solar system and energy sources on Earth; space exploration becomes a focus of instruction. c) nonrenewable energy sources (fossil fuels Natural resource management, its relation to public including petroleum, natural gas, and coal); policy, and cost/benefit tradeoffs in conservation d) renewable energy sources (wood, wind, hydro, policies are introduced. geothermal, tidal, and solar); and e) energy transformations (heat/light to The sixth-grade standards continue to focus on mechanical, chemical, and electrical energy). student growth in understanding the nature of science. This scientific view defines the idea that 6.3 The student will investigate and understand the explanations of nature are developed and tested role of solar energy in driving most natural using observation, experimentation, models, processes within the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, evidence, and systematic processes. The nature of and on the Earth‟s surface. Key concepts include science includes the concepts that scientific a) the Earth‟s energy budget; explanations are based on logical thinking; are b) the role of radiation and convection in the subject to rules of evidence; are consistent with distribution of energy; observational, inferential, and experimental c) the motion of the atmosphere and the oceans; evidence; are open to rational critique; and are d) cloud formation; and subject to refinement and change with the addition e) the role of heat energy in weather-related of new scientific evidence. The nature of science phenomena including thunderstorms and includes the concept that science can provide hurricanes. explanations about nature, can predict potential consequences of actions, but cannot be used to Matter answer all questions. 6.4 The student will investigate and understand that Scientific Investigation, Reasoning, and Logic all matter is made up of atoms. Key concepts include 6.1 The student will plan and conduct investigations a) atoms are made up of electrons, protons, and in which neutrons; a) observations are made involving fine b) atoms of any element are alike but are different discrimination between similar objects and from atoms of other elements; organisms; c) elements may be represented by chemical b) a classification system is developed based on symbols; multiple attributes; d) two or more atoms may be chemically c) precise and approximate measurements are combined; recorded; e) compounds may be represented by chemical d) scale models are used to estimate distance, formulas; volume, and quantity; f) chemical equations can be used to model e) hypotheses are stated in ways that identify the chemical changes; and independent (manipulated) and dependent g) a limited number of elements comprise the (responding) variables; largest portion of the solid Earth, living matter, f) a method is devised to test the validity of the oceans, and the atmosphere. predictions and inferences; g) one variable is manipulated over time, using 6.5 The student will investigate and understand the many repeated trials; unique properties and characteristics of water and h) data are collected, recorded, analyzed, and its roles in the natural and human-made reported using appropriate metric environment. Key concepts include measurements; a) water as the universal solvent; b) the properties of water in all three states; c) the action of water in physical and chemical Resources weathering; d) the ability of large bodies of water to store heat 6.9 The student will investigate and understand and moderate climate; public policy decisions relating to the environment. e) the origin and occurrence of water on Earth; Key concepts include f) the importance of water for agriculture, power a) management of renewable resources (water, air, generation, and public health; and soil, plant life, animal life); g) the importance of protecting and maintaining b) management of nonrenewable resources (coal, water resources. oil, natural gas, nuclear power, mineral resources); 6.6 The student will investigate and understand the c) the mitigation of land-use and environmental properties of air and the structure and dynamics of hazards through preventive measures; and the Earth‟s atmosphere. Key concepts include d) cost/benefit tradeoffs in conservation policies. a) air as a mixture of gaseous elements and compounds; b) air pressure, temperature, and humidity; c) how the atmosphere changes with altitude; d) natural and human-caused changes to the atmosphere; e) the relationship of atmospheric measures and weather conditions; f) basic information from weather maps including fronts, systems, and basic measurements; and g) the importance of protecting and maintaining air quality. Living Systems 6.7 The student will investigate and understand the natural processes and human interactions that affect watershed systems. Key concepts include a) the health of ecosystems and the abiotic factors of a watershed; b) the location and structure of Virginia‟s regional watershed systems; c) divides, tributaries, river systems, and river and stream processes; d) wetlands; e) estuaries; f) major conservation, health, and safety issues associated with watersheds; and g) water monitoring and analysis using field equipment including hand-held technology. Interrelationships in Earth/Space Systems 6.8 The student will investigate and understand the organization of the solar system and the relationships among the various bodies that comprise it. Key concepts include a) the sun, moon, Earth, other planets and their moons, meteors, asteroids, and comets; b) relative size of and distance between planets; c) the role of gravity; d) revolution and rotation; e) the mechanics of day and night and the phases of the moon; f) the unique properties of Earth as a planet; g) the relationship of the Earth‟s tilt and the seasons; h) the cause of tides; and i) the history and technology of space exploration. UNITED STATES HISTORY: 1865 TO THE Reconstruction: 1865 to 1877 PRESENT USII.3 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the effects of reconstruction by th th th Students will continue to use skills of historical and a) analyzing the impact of the 13 , 14 , and 15 geographical analysis as they examine American Amendments to the Constitution of the United history since 1865. The standards for this course States; relate to the history of the United States from the b) describing the impact of Reconstruction policies Reconstruction era to the present. Students should on the South and the North; continue to learn fundamental concepts in civics, c) describing the legacies of Abraham Lincoln, economics, and geography within the context of Robert E. Lee, and Frederic Douglas; United States history. Political, economic, and social challenges facing the nation reunited after civil war Reshaping the Nation and the Emergence of will be examined chronologically as students Modern America: 1877 to the Early 1900s develop an understanding of how the American USII.4 The student will demonstrate knowledge of experience shaped the world political and economic how life changed after the Civil War by landscape. a) identifying the reasons for westward expansion, including the impact on American Indians; The study of history must emphasize the intellectual b) explaining the reasons for the increase in skills required for responsible citizenship. Students immigration, growth of cities, new inventions, practice these skills as they extend their and challenges arising from this expansion; understanding of the essential knowledge defined by c) describing racial segregation, the rise of “Jim all of the standards for history and social science. Crow,” and other constraints faced by African Americans in the post-Reconstruction South; Skills d) explaining the impact of new inventions, rise of USII.1 The student will demonstrate skills for big business, the growth of industry, and life on historical and geographical analysis, including the American farms; ability to e) describing the impact of the Progressive a) analyze and interpret primary and secondary Movement on child labor, working conditions, source documents to increase understanding of the rise of organized labor, women‟s suffrage, events and life in United States history from and the temperance movement. 1877 to the present; b) make connections between past and present; Turmoil and Change: 1890s to 1945 c) sequence events in United States history from USII.5 The student will demonstrate knowledge of 1877 to the present; the changing role of the United States from the late d) interpret ideas and events from different nineteenth century through World War I by historical perspectives; a) explaining the reasons for and results of the e) evaluate and debate issues orally and in writing; Spanish American War; f) analyze and interpret maps that include major b) describing Theodore Roosevelt‟s impact on the physical features; foreign policy of the United States; g) use parallels of latitude and meridians of c) explaining the reasons for the United States‟ longitude to describe hemispheric location; involvement in World War I and its leadership interpret patriotic slogans and excerpts from role at the conclusion of the war. notable speeches and documents. USII.6 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the social, economic, and technological changes of Geography the early twentieth century by USII.2 The student will use maps, globes, a) explaining how developments in factory and photographs, pictures, and tables for labor productivity, transportation (including the a) explaining how physical features and climate use of the automobile), communication, and influenced the movement of people westward; rural electrification changed American life and b) explaining relationships among natural standard of living; resources, transportation, and industrial b) describing the social changes that took place, development after 1877; including prohibition, and the Great Migration c) locating the 50 states and the cities most north and west; significant to the historical development of the c) examining art, literature, and music from the United States. 1920s and 1930s, with emphasis on Langston Hughes, Duke Ellington, and Georgia O‟Keeffe and including the Harlem Renaissance; d) identifying the causes of the Great Depression, its impact on Americans, and the major features of Franklin D. Roosevelt‟s New Deal. USII.7 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the major causes and effects of American involvement in World War II by a) identifying the causes and events that led to American involvement in the war, including the attack on Pearl Harbor; b) locating and describing the major events and turning points of the war in Europe and the Pacific; c) describing the impact of World War II on the home front. The United States since World War II USII.8 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the economic, social, and political transformation of the United States and the world between the end of World War II and the present by a) describing the rebuilding of Europe and Japan after World War II, the emergence of the United States as a superpower, and the establishment of the United Nations; b) describing the conversion from a wartime to a peacetime economy; c) identifying the role of America‟s military and veterans in defending freedom during the Cold War, including the wars in Korea and Vietnam, the Cuban missile crisis, the collapse of communism in Europe, and the rise of new challenges; d) describing the changing patterns of society, including expanded educational and economic opportunities for military veterans, women, and minorities; e) Describing how international trade and globalization have impacted American life. USII.9 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the key domestic issues during the second half of the twentieth century by a) examining the Civil Rights Movement and the changing role of women; b) describing the development of new technologies and their impact on American life; c) identifying representative citizens from the time period who have influenced „America scientifically, culturally, academically, and economically; d) examining American foreign policy, immigration, the global environment, and other emerging issues. Exploratory Course Offerings Art 6 (nine week course) Keyboarding 6 (nine week course) The standards emphasize exploration. Using the This course is designed for middle school students elements of art and the principles of design as a to develop and enhance touch skills for entering framework, students will investigate a variety of alphabetic, numeric, and symbol information on a experiences and concepts. Students will explore keyboard. Students compose and produce personal, various two-dimensional and three-dimensional art educational, and professional documents. This media, using a variety of expressive and technical course is the foundation for success in Keyboarding approaches. Students will understand the factors and Computer Solutions. that distinguish artistic styles and that clarify the role of art in American culture. Through critical Chorus 6 (nine week course) examination, students will determine how artists The beginning level standards are designed for convey meaning through the use of forms, media, students experiencing their first vocal/choral class. and symbols. Students will test and develop their Beginning choral students may be found at any own ideas regarding the nature of art and will grade level within the elementary, middle, and encounter philosophical and ethical questions. Upon secondary school setting, as prescribed by the local the successful completion of the visual arts school district. The Beginning Level standards standards, students will possess the skills that will emphasize fundamental vocal development, allow them to evaluate the effects of various traditional notation, and the introduction to ensemble influences on the discipline of the visual arts. singing. These standards require performance, creativity, and investigation at a fundamental level. General Music 6 (nine week course) Opportunities are provided for students to explore The general music standards involve students in a the relationship between music and the other fine higher level of music concepts and the further arts and between music and disciplines outside the development of music skills through singing, playing arts. instruments, moving, and listening. The standards encourage the reading of music notation and the Band 6 and Orchestra/Strings 6 (year-long course) assimilation of previous music study toward Students will demonstrate proper care of the understanding the mechanics of a music score. instrument and will be familiar with the technology of Students will explore the creative and expressive the instrument. They will demonstrate basic aspects of music through composing and arranging. positions, tone production, and fingerings, and will Evaluation of music performances will allow students count, read, and perform the beginning level of opportunities to apply music knowledge and music being studied (VBODA Solo Repertoire, Level experiences to new situations. 1-2). Teachers will use available standard method books to deliver instruction in either homogeneous Introduction to Technology 6 (nine week course) or heterogeneous class settings with limited This course provides students with the opportunity to ensemble work. study the elements of technology and explore technological careers. Students study tools/machines, material processing, energy, information, and people. Students learn about at least one of the four systems of technology: construction, transportation, communication, and production/manufacturing. They relate the impact of technology on society, environment, and culture to future consequences and decisions. Exploring Work & Family Roles 6 – commonly known as FACS (nine week course) This course provides a foundation for management of individual, family, work, and community roles and responsibilities. Students focus on areas of individual growth such as personal goal achievement, responsibilities with the family, and accountability for personal safety and health. They also explore and practice financial management, clothing maintenance, food preparation, positive and caring relationships with others, and self- assessment as related to career exploration.