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									                Problem Solving /
                Decision Making
                 Kepner-Tregoe
            The New Rational Manager
                   Chapter 7

Problem Solving / Decision Making      Chapter 7 - 1
                                    Chapter 7 Contents
   Situation Appraisal, Tool for Evaluation
   Situation Appraisal Techniques
   Situation Appraisal in Practice




Problem Solving / Decision Making                  Chapter 7 - 2
                                    Where to Begin?
     When  faced with a situation, we may
      experience confusion and uncertainty
      over where to begin.
     We may struggle to recognize and
      break apart actions that overlap and are
      required to address the situation.



Problem Solving / Decision Making               Chapter 7 - 3
                   More on Where to Begin
     A manager who is skilled at the three basic
      rational processes of PA, DA, and PP(O)A is
      more efficient than one who is not.
          These three rational processes are analytical in
           nature - there purpose is to analyze and resolve
     But to be more effective, a manager must also
      be skilled at another rational process:
      Situation Appraisal (SA)
          SA is an evaluative technique leading to the
           proper selection and use the analytical techniques
Problem Solving / Decision Making                       Chapter 7 - 4
                                    SA Techniques
   Listthreats and opportunities
   Separate and clarify concerns
   Consider seriousness, urgency, and
    growth
   Determine analysis needs
   Determine help needed
   See W Fig 16 p 169, B Fig 13 p 165

Problem Solving / Decision Making             Chapter 7 - 5
   List Threats and Opportunities
                   Four Activities
   Listcurrent deviations, threats, and
    opportunities
   Review progress against goals
   Look ahead for surprises
   Search for improvement




Problem Solving / Decision Making          Chapter 7 - 6
   List Threats and Opportunities
               Specific Questions
        Where are we not meeting standards?
        What problems remain unsolved?
        What recommendations are we working
         on?
        What decisions need to be made?
        What major projects, systems, or plans are
         about to be implemented?
        What bothers us about …..?


Problem Solving / Decision Making              Chapter 7 - 7
                              Separate and Clarify
                                        Concerns
   Most   issues are more complex than they
    first appear
   “It is unlikely that employing the
    separation step of Situation Appraisal
    will be a waste of time.”




Problem Solving / Decision Making             Chapter 7 - 8
      Separate and Clarify Specific
                        Questions
        Do we think one action will resolve this?
        Do we agree on the reason for our concern?
        What evidence do we have that this is a
         concern?
        What do we mean by ….?
        What is actually happening in this
         situation? Anything else?
        What actions are suggested?


Problem Solving / Decision Making             Chapter 7 - 9
                              Separate and Clarify
                               Specific Questions
   Together,              these questions get below the
    surface
   They shift us from subjective opinion to
    verifiable information
   FACTS and DATA!




Problem Solving / Decision Making                  Chapter 7 - 10
                              Separate and Clarify
                               Specific Questions
   “Without    the separating questions, it is
      entirely possible for people to sit
      through an entire meeting in the
      mistaken certainty that their individual,
      disparate assessments of a situation
      represent the understanding of the
      group at large.”


Problem Solving / Decision Making             Chapter 7 - 11
                        Consider Seriousness,
                         Urgency, and Growth
  A    practical and systematic process for
      determining dimensions of importance
        How serious is the current impact on
         people, safety, cost, productivity, etc.?
        How urgent is it to keep the concern from
         becoming difficult, expensive, or
         impossible to resolve
        What evidence is there that the seriousness
         will grow?
Problem Solving / Decision Making             Chapter 7 - 12
                        Consider Seriousness,
                         Urgency, and Growth
   Postpone   any concern that ranks low in
    all three dimensions
   “Experienced managerial teams …. can
    usually pick out the top five (concerns)
    in a relatively short time.”
   Don’t be unnecessarily swayed by
    activities you enjoy or activities from
    demanding people.
Problem Solving / Decision Making        Chapter 7 - 13
             Determine Analysis Needs
                     Problem Analysis
   Does  the situation require explanation?
   Is there a deviation from expected
    performance?
   Is the cause of the deviation unknown?
   Would knowing the cause help us to
    take more effective action?


Problem Solving / Decision Making       Chapter 7 - 14
             Determine Analysis Needs
                     Decision Analysis
   Does  a choice have to be made?
   Is there a dilemma around the best
    action to take?
   Do objectives need to be set in order to
    undertake some activity?




Problem Solving / Decision Making       Chapter 7 - 15
       Determine Needs: Potential
    Problem (Opportunity) Analysis
   Has  a decision been made that has not
    been implemented, and is it necessary
    to act now to avoid possible future
    trouble?
   Does a plan need to be made to
    safeguard a decision or future activity?
   Can we generate additional value by
    implementing a plan or decision?
Problem Solving / Decision Making       Chapter 7 - 16
           Selecting the Right Rational
                               Process
   The  kind of answer we need determines
    the choice of Rational Process
   How much of an answer we need
    determines whether we will use all the
    process or only part of it.
          Partial use of the rational processes is
           common


Problem Solving / Decision Making                     Chapter 7 - 17
                    Determine Help Needed
   Often    responsibility for resolving
      concerns must be shared or assigned to
      others
          Who needs to be involved for:
             Information           Approval
             Commitment            Development
             Implementation        Creativity
             Analysis              Presentation


Problem Solving / Decision Making                  Chapter 7 - 18
                    Determine Help Needed
                               (continued)
   What  needs to be done and when?
   Who will do it?
   Who will document the process and the
    results?




Problem Solving / Decision Making     Chapter 7 - 19
                                    SA in Practice
                                      The Cases
   Sue’sReports are Late Again
   Crushed Cartons
   A Difference of Opinion
   The Madge Problem
   Replacing Obsolete Equipment




Problem Solving / Decision Making             Chapter 7 - 20
                                    Chapter Summary
   “Far too much time is wasted trying to
    make sense of concerns that are
    unactionable collections of concerns,
    each with its own unique features and
    requirements.”
   Formal and informal use of SA can
    significantly reduce this waste of time
    and energy.
Problem Solving / Decision Making               Chapter 7 - 21

								
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