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BASELINE SURVEY ON KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION STRATEGIES ON CLIMATE CHANGE
AMONG PASTORALISTS AND AGRO-PASTORALISTS IN FAFI AND DADAAB DISTRICTS

Research Team: Mwaura, J., Tura, I., Raude, J. (Kenya Agricultural Research Institute –Garissa) Contact: Email.
jmwauram@gmail.com Tel.+254723388479

ABSTRACT: The baseline study assessed Knowledge on climate change and Adaptation strategies among
pastoralists and agro-pastoralists in Fafi and Dadaab districts. The study area is located between Bura to the South,
Tana River to the South West, Garissa to the West, Republic of Somalia to the East and Wajir to the North- and is
vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Climate change is caused by accelerated increase in greenhouse gas
(GHG) concentrations in the atmosphere which now presents fundamental challenges to the well-being of all
countries, with particular adverse effects on countries with less adaptive capacity more so in arid and semi arid
regions such as Fafi and Dadaab. In these regions, climate change is likely to extend periods of drought and make
them more frequent, putting more stress on water resources and increasing competition between humans and
wildlife hence exacerbating poverty levels. With the high rate of poverty and most of the labor force depending on
livestock and agro-pastoralism for their livelihoods many are likely to experience various adverse impacts from
climate change. Hence, efforts to facilitate adaptation are needed to enhance the resilience of the
agricultural/Livestock systems, ensure food security, and cut poverty Methodology used included desk review study,
sampling, field study, data collection, and data analysis using SPSS 17. In all 322 household questionnaires were
administered and 150 respondents consulted through Focus Group Discussions and Key informants‟ interviews. All
respondents were Muslims; Ninety-eight per cent Somali. Most of them (see table below) had low/no education,
earned below KES 2,000 a month and had considerable knowledge on climate change prior to the study. Based on
this knowledge, several spontaneous coping measures were in place and interest for sustainable adaptation is high
among pastoralists and agro-pastoralists in Fafi and Dadaab districts. However adaptation is hampered by lack of
disaster warning prep, biting poverty, stringent land tenure system, inadequate skills, lack of water and ignorance.
Given the scenario, the study founded pertinent base for further research and enhancement of adaptation strategies in
Fafi and Dadaab districts.

Key Words: Climate Change, Vulnerability, Adaptation, Greenhouse Gas, pastoralism, FGD


KEY OBJECTIVES:

        To establish pastoralists‟ and agro-pastoralists‟ knowledge on climate change;
        To review the community vulnerability and climate-shock preparedness;
        To profile climate-shock causal factors and adaptation strategies;
        To ascertain spillover effects of the impacts on neighboring ecosystems; and
        To assess impacts on natural resources and perceptions on sustainable management of the invasive
         vegetation ref Prosopis


EXPECTED OUT PUT AND OUTPUTS:

        increased clarity on community knowledge on impacts of climate change,
        set up comprehensible knowledge base on adaptation strategies to bolster enhancement of coping measures
         and further research,
         profile impacts spillover effects and causal factors,
        upped community appreciation of the potential economic and environmental benefits from sustainable
         management of Prosopis,
        map out areas with heightened vulnerabilities and adversity on biodiversity consistent with changed climate
         in Fafi and Dadaab districts.
STUDY METHODOLOGY: Key methods used were desk review study, sampling, field study, data
collection, and data analysis. Fafi and Dadaab districts have six divisions; Bura, Galmagalla, Jarajilla,
Dadaab, Dertu and Liboi. From each division, a location was randomly selected and data collated and
triangulated through use of household questionnaires, Discussions (FGD), literature review, observation
and photos. Sample size ratio was 1:4 given n=200HH/site. Also Key informants‟ interview and FGD
were administered on stakeholders in Tana basin and Merti aquifer given that adaptation strategies in both
Fafi and Dadaab ecosystems largely depend on water from the two systems.

SUMMARY RESULTS: All respondents were Muslims; Ninety-eight per cent Somali. Most of them
(see table1 below) had low/no education, earned below KES 2,000 a month and had prior knowledge on
climate change prior to the study. Ninety-eighty per cent know that climate change shocks are ongoing
and are affecting them in livestock deaths and crop failure. Also eighty-two per cent specified that climate
change diminished quality of life which elicits despair, sadness, confusion and fear. Based on this
knowledge, several spontaneous coping measures were in place and interest for sustainable adaptation is
high among pastoralists and agro-pastoralists in Fafi and Dadaab districts. However adaptation is
hampered by lack of disaster warning prep, biting poverty, stringent land tenure system, inadequate skills,
ignorance, over -abstraction from both River Tana and Merti Aquifer.

Table 1: percentage adaptation strategies in Fafi and Dadaab districts

                                                                           FAFI          DADAAB
  Adaptation strategy                                                 %             %

                                                Education Level
  No Education                                                                      74
  Primary education                                                                        12
                                         Knowledge of climate change
  Prior knowledge of climate change                                   85            71
                                                     Source of info
  Radio                                                               37            70
  Mosque meetings                                                     15            8

  Traditional disaster tellers                                        15            1

  Chief‟s baraza                                                      8             2
  Group meetings                                                      14            3
                                                      Frequency
  Daily                                                               39
                                                                                    27


  Weekly                                                   60                       23
                                           PREFERRED MEDIUM

  Radio                                                               71            59

  Mosque meetings                                         25                        16
                                        ADAPTATION STRATEGIES
  Individual pastoralist have a role in adaptation                    74            61
Nurturing planted trees                                        24    5
Adopt drought tolerant crops                                   14    10
Harvest rain water using tanks                                 10    5

Committed to planting trees on their lands                     38    20
Stop indiscriminate felling trees                              23    12
Adopt improved livestock                                       19    -
Committed to water conservation                                26    5
 „Living for today‟ preferable to worrying about future effects 66   41
of climate change
                                   CAUSES OF CLIMATE CHANGE:
Caused by “Amri ya mwenyezi mungu”(Will of God ref. sin)        45   72

Cutting down trees / significant woodland degradation (        24    52
Dadaab area -firewood: 138,000 t/yr, pole wood: 32,000 t/yr)

Fossil fuels                                                   32    21

               DEGRADATIONN OF RANGELANDS BY INVASIVE VEGETATION

Rangeland was now barer than it was 40 years ago               52    63

Rangeland had more vegetation but of invasive species          19    11

Prosopis was the dominant invasive vegetation                  82    72

                                    PROSOPIS DISADVANTAGES
Disease caused by thorn prick                                  27    32

Decreased fodder                                                     26

increased poverty                                              22    10

Food insecurity                                                37    10

colonization of otherwise arable riparian and                  14    20
biodiversity-rich range lands

                                    GAINFUL USE OF PROSOPIS
Making furniture,                                              36    10

Prosopis for carbon sink                                       6     7

 Prosopis for fodder provision                                 32    16

Useful for hydrological cycle and microclimate                 7     9
Eradication of Prosopis as the one way to manage it   6    28

                              ANXIETY ON FUTURE EFFECTS
Escalation of livestock deaths                    20       17

Increased human and livestock diseases (types and     18   9
magnitude

Rising temperature and drought                        12   37

Disappearance of vegetation/fodder altogether         11   8

                             LIMITATION TO ADAPTATION
Poverty/lack of finances                         31        -

Inadequate skills                                     18   25

Ignorance                                             12   -

Lack of water pans                                    15   75

Lack of own land                                      12   -
                                                   ECOSYSTEM DEGRADATION:
                                                   Colonizing invasive vegetation;
                                                   pollution from municipal& agric
                                                   chemicals (Kitui, Murang’a,
                                                   Kerugoya); Degradation in
                                                   Dadaab area threat to Merti
                                                   aquifer; Climate shocks




                                                          ADAPTATION

                                                        FAFI & DADAAB
         DIMINISHING WATER &                                                                MANAGEMENT CHALLENGE:
         CONFLICTS: Drying streams                                                          Unsupportive land tenure
         (Murang’a, Kerugoya sub                                                            systems; WRUA concept is new
         catchments); siltation e.g.from
                                                                                            & outfit spread thin; Poor,
         Nyabene Hill & runoff; Herders
         forcing their way upstream                                                         wasteful irrigation technology;
         (Kitui, Lamu,Tana Delta); R.Tana                                                   weak upstream-downstream
         over-abstracted; Lowering water                                                    collaboration management;
         table                                                                              poverty, ignorance




Fig. 2: Indicate limitation to Adaptation in Fafi and Dadaab based data collected in River Tana and Merti Aquifer

RANGE ECOSYSTEM DEGRADATION IN DADAAB DISTRICT

Dadaab districts and environs epitomize human-wildlife conflict and serious but spatially restricted
impacts in North Eastern region chiefly due to increasing refugee population (World Bank, 2010). The
adverse impacts on the natural capital is mostly felt 0-20 km of the camps but distances currently expand
to 50 km and beyond ( see Fig. 1)
Fig. 2: Population density around Dadaab (Excluding Refugee camps)




Source: (World Bank, 2010)

				
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posted:11/23/2011
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