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									Breeding for Salt Tolerance in Rice




             R.K. Singh
                                                     R.K.Singh
            PBGB, IRRI          Plant Breeding Course, April 06
    Outlines of the Lecture
     Extent of the problem and
      management options
     Reason of Limited Success
     Plant adaptation – salt
      tolerant mechanisms
     Morphological symptoms
     Basic concepts (genotype vs.
      phenotype and heritability)
     Genetic Studies
     Screening techniques
     Breeding strategy
     Physiological mechanisms
     Molecular mapping
     Varietal development
     NRM approaches




                                R.K.Singh
           Plant Breeding Course, April 06
              EXTENT OF SALT-AFFECTED SOILS

                              World’s Total area
                                12.78 b ha
340 x 106 ha (Ponamperuma, 1984) FAO Database
954 x 106 ha ( Massoud, 1974)     397 x 106 ha (3.1%) – Saline soils
10% area ~ 1.2 b ha (Tanji, 1991) 434 x 106 ha (3.4 %)– Sodic Soils
                              Asia, Pacific and
                              Australia (M ha)
                     Saline
                                 195          249
                                                         Sodic


                                            Total : 444 M ha
                    Source : FAO database

                                                                                      R.K.Singh
                                                                 Plant Breeding Course, April 06
                    What are the salt-affected soils ?


  Salt-affected    Electrical  Exchangeable    Sodium
      type        conductivity   Sodium       Absorption
                     ECe        Percentage      Ratio                     pHs
                   (dSm-1)#      ESP (%)        SAR
 Saline               >4           < 15         < 13                      < 8.8
 Sodic                <4           > 15         > 13                    8.5-10.5
 Saline - sodic       >4           > 15        Variable                   > 8.5
# at 25C



        ESP =     Exchangable Sodium x 100                Na 
                                              SAR 
                                                      Ca 2   Mg 2 
                  Cation Exchange Capacity                   2




                                                                                        R.K.Singh
                                                                   Plant Breeding Course, April 06
              How to Manage the Salt-affected Areas ?


Do we need         1. Environment
ST cultivars       modifying approach :
     ?             Change the
                   environment for the
                   normal growth of plants

                   2. Crop based
                   approach : Select or
                   develop crop variety
                   which can withstand
 Rice has          the salt stress
enormous
variability
                                                                    R.K.Singh
                                               Plant Breeding Course, April 06
             Management of the Salt-affected Soils

 3. Hybrid Approach

It is the combination of
environment modifying
and plant based approach.

Advantages:
• More viable                          Salt tolerant rice variety,
• Highly productive                    CSR13, with 25% Gypsum


• Low resource cost

                                     Local variety without gypsum         R.K.Singh
                                                     Plant Breeding Course, April 06
                Reasons of Limited Success


 Salt stress seldom happen in isolation

 Harsh, highly variable environment, large G/E

 Lack of efficient / precise screening procedure

 Lack of mechanistic understanding

 Low priority and less number of researchers involved




                                                                   R.K.Singh
                                              Plant Breeding Course, April 06
Salt Stresses and Associated Complexities
                            Fe, Al          R                        G
S   S    Acid   (P, Zn)
                             tox
                                                      Sub-
A                                           A        merged          r
    A
L                                           I                        a
    L                      Fe, H2S                    Deep-          I
T        SO4    (P, Zn)      tox
                                            N
    I                                                 water          n
                                            F
S   N
                          Al, Organic       E        Drought
T   E    Peat   (P, Zn)    Acids tox
                                                                     Q
R                                           D                        u
E                                                                    a
S   ALKALINE    (P, Zn)      (Fe)                                    l
S                                                                    i
E
                                             Irrigated
     INLAND                                                          t
S                    (P & Zn)                                        y
      SALINE
                                        (Source: Glenn B. Gregorio)
                                                                     R.K.Singh
                                                Plant Breeding Course, April 06
                        Breeding
                           for
     Salt tolerance         +    High productivity
       Single trait

•   Na+ Exclusion               Quantitative trait
•   Tissue tolerance
•   K+ uptake
•   Partitioning etc.

All are quantitative trait




                                                                  R.K.Singh
                                             Plant Breeding Course, April 06
     Predominant salt-tolerance mechanisms operating in plant

4. Sequestration of the toxic ions
to vacuole or cell wall – cell level
compartmentation


3. Excretion of salt through salt
glands, salt-hairs or bladders – in
most halophytes


2. Transporting the toxic ions to
stem, leaf sheath or older leaves –
plant level compartmentation


1. Restricting the entry of toxic
                                                        Na+ Cl-
ions at root level - Exclusion

                                                                       R.K.Singh
                                                  Plant Breeding Course, April 06
       Physiology: traits associated with
                 salinity tolerance
Regulation of uptake                Earliness                  Responsive
                                                                stomata
Compartmentation
  In old tissue                                                  Protective
                                                                 metabolites
Upregualtion of                                                    Polyamines,
                                                                    dehydrins,
 antioxidants
                                                                   glyoxalates

Vigorous growth
                                                      AOSS     Osmoprotectants

                                           K+
Compartmentation within tissue                     AVP1           +
                                                                        AtNHX1
                                                       H+     [Na ]    Na+    H+
     (tissue tolerance)                             PPiase             Vacuolar Na+/H+
                                             SOS1
                                         Na+     H+
             Source : A.M. Ismail         Plasma Na+/H+                        R.K.Singh
                                                          Plant Breeding Course, April 06
                 Manifestation of Salt Stress
Morphological Symptoms
v White leaf tip followed by tip burning (salinity)
v Leaf browning & death (sodicity)
v Stunted plant growth
v Low tillering
v Spikelet sterility
v Low harvest index
v Less florets per panicle
v Less 1000 grain weight
v Low grain yield
v Change in flowering duration
v Leaf rolling
v White leaf blotches
v Poor root growth
v Patchy growth in field
                                                                     R.K.Singh
                                                Plant Breeding Course, April 06
   First symptom
      “Leaf tip
      burning”




  “Leaf tip burning
   extends toward
    base through
      Lamina”




 “Ultimate death
 of leaf – always
  from oldest to
     youngest”




Salinity symptoms at the vegetative stage                    R.K.Singh
                                        Plant Breeding Course, April 06
Effect of salinity at Reproductive stage – Spikelet Sterility
                                                                         R.K.Singh
                                                    Plant Breeding Course, April 06
Effect of salinity at reproductive stage – papery sterile spikelets
                                                                          R.K.Singh
                                                     Plant Breeding Course, April 06
            Manifestation of Salt Stress


Physiological & Biochemical
v High Na+ transport to shoot
v Preferential accumulation of Na in older leaves
v High Cl- uptake
v Lower K+ uptake
v Lower fresh and dry weight of shoot and roots
v Low P and Zn uptake
v Increase of non-toxic organic compatible solutes
v Increase in Polyamine levels


 Screening parameters ?


                                                                R.K.Singh
                                           Plant Breeding Course, April 06
   Vegetative vs. Reproductive stage salt tolerance


     Which is the most reliable stage for screening ?



                                            Correlation Coeff.
       Association between             Glasshouse    Field studies
                                        studies
Veg. stage tolerance vs. Grain yield     - 0.58ns       - 0.022ns
Rep. stage tolerance vs. Grain yield    - 0.97**        - 0.82**
Veg. stage vs. Rep. stage tolerance       0.59ns          0.34ns




                                                                          R.K.Singh
                                                     Plant Breeding Course, April 06
  IR66946-3R-178-1-1


      Papery florets




   Chaffy panicles
                     R.K.Singh
Plant Breeding Course, April 06
                 Probability of getting the desirable genotype

 Why Recurrent selection – mating of the selected individuals ?

                 Number of gene(s) responsible for a trait (n) / Genotypic classes

                  1                             2                        5              10
 F2    1:2:1                   1:2:1:2:4:2:1:2:1                     243         59,049
 F3    3:2:3                   3:2:3:6:4:6:3:2:3                     classes     classes
 F4    7:2:7                   7:2:7:14:4:14:7:2:7
 F5    15:2:15                 15:2:15:30:4:30:15:2:15
 F6    31:2:31                 31:2:31:62:4:62:31:2:31
 P* 1/4                        1/16                                  1/ 1,024    1/ 1,084,576
*: P is the probability of getting the desired homozygote at all the loci in smallest perfect
population in F2 (1/4n)
Trait A = 5 loci -- Desired recombinant – 1/1,024
Trait B = 10 loci -- 1/1,084,576
Prob. of getting both desired one in one background = 1/1,024 x 1/1,084,576
                                                = 1/ 1,110,605,824 (> 1b)
                                                                                              R.K.Singh
                                                                         Plant Breeding Course, April 06
                         Precision vs. Resources

         Precision                            Resources
          r                                   low
No. of        l                                    more

                     y                               Very High



Since the salinity is highly variable in soil due to the dynamic state
of soluble salts hence one should go for more blocks at different
locations over the years (judiciously compromising the resources)
for the precise estimates
                                                                               R.K.Singh
                                                          Plant Breeding Course, April 06
Genetics of Salt Tolerance
  Inheritance Pattern

                            SALINITY
         Based on reproductive stage tolerance
                      Bas. 370 / CSR10

                        Substituted


         Bas. 370 / CSR11             Pak. Bas. / CSR10


         Controlled by numerous minor genes as
         revealed by the normal distribution curve
         with few major genes (skewness)




                                                           R.K.Singh
                                      Plant Breeding Course, April 06
                                                           Genetics of Salt Tolerance

                               (a) Bas.370 x CSR10

             700
                                                                                Inheritance for sodicity tolerance
             600
Frequency




                                                               n=1689
             500
             400
             300                                                                Similar results (based on the same
             200
             100
               0
                                                                                crosses
                       1          3            5           7            9
                       P2                 F1           X                                                   (c) Pak. Bas x CSR10
                                                                    P1

                               (b) Bas.370 x CSR 11                                              350
                                                                                                 300                              Frequency



                                                                                     Frequency
                 140
                                                                                                 250
                 120                                               n=306                                                          Trend
     Frequency




                                                                                                 200
                 100
                 80                                                                              150
                                                                                                                         F1          n=443
                 60                                                                              100
                 40                                                                               50
                 20                                                                               0
                   0                                                                                   1      3      5        7           9
                           1          3            5           7            9

                                      F1                   X                                                       Score X                P1




                                                                                                                                               R.K.Singh
                                                                                                                          Plant Breeding Course, April 06
                  Genetics of Salt tolerance
               Gene Action (based on 6x6 diallel)

                                        Genetic Estimates of Parameters
  Genetic Parameters        Salinity tolerance
                                                        K+              Na+/K+
                                score (R)

Variation due to additive    10.760*1.080        0.056*0.009      0.099*0.017
effects (D)

Variation due to              7.532*2.916        0.067*0.024      0.129*0.044
dominance effects (H1)

Degree of Dominance              0.837               1.091              1.139
((H1/D)½ )

Heritability in narrow            0.65                0.50               0.41
sense (h2ns)


     SV             df                          Mean Square
GCA                  5           15.36*              0.238*             0.100*
SCA                 15            3.71*              0.066*             0.033*
Error               40            0.22                0.012              0.006
                                                                                       R.K.Singh
                                                                  Plant Breeding Course, April 06
           Screening Techniques Standardised

Seedling stage tolerance:In 20 days can classify the
                     tolerance level




                                                               R.K.Singh
                                          Plant Breeding Course, April 06
                                     Screening technique standardised



                          Muskan41




                                           Cheriviruppu
 IR 66946-3R-178-1-1
        Tolerant check

IR 29 (sensitive check)




                                                                        IR 29
                                                          IR 66946-3R-178-1-1




                                                                                KR 1-24
    NB: Instead of Pokkali, now IR 66946-3R-178-1-1 is being used as tolerant check
    which is derived from IR29 / Pokkali cross. It is semi-tall, photoinsensitive and highly
                                                                                        R.K.Singh
    salt tolerant                                                  Plant Breeding Course, April 06
                           Normal
          1                    2                  3




   FL478 / IR29         FL478 / IR29         FL478 / IR29



                           Saline
           1                    2                  3




                                                                       (Source: Dante Adorada)
   FL478 / IR29        FL478   / IR29        FL478 / IR29




Performance of 1 mo-old FL478 (tolerant line) and IR29 (susceptible variety) rice seedlings
under normal and saline (14d EC12 then 14d EC18) conditions using SNAP and nutrient
solutions: (1) 100% SNAP solution in tap water, (2) 75% SNAP solution in tap water, and (3)
nutrient solution in distilled water.                                                          R.K.Singh
                                                                          Plant Breeding Course, April 06
 Comparison between 28-day old rice seedling grown for 21 days in SNAP solution (Simple
Nutrient Addition Program) with (a) 100% nitrate and (b) 90% nitrate & 10% ammonium in
                                    their composition.

                                                              (Source: Dante Adorada)

                                                                                        R.K.Singh
                                                                   Plant Breeding Course, April 06
       Phenotyping for the Adult Plant Salinity Tolerance

       Microplots with controlled salinity and sodicity




                                        Saline Soil Environment
Sodic Soil Environment
                                             (Rain shelter)




          Automatic Circulatory Solution Culture System                        R.K.Singh
                                                          Plant Breeding Course, April 06
                   Salinity Tolerance in Rice

 Na is the most notorious element causing salt related
  problems in plants

 Its higher uptake hinders the metabolic activities in plants

 Plants try to resist this element using various physiological
  mechanisms
   • Na+ exclusion,
   • Tissue Tolerance
   • Higher K+ uptake to counter Na
   • Compartmention (Preferential accumulation of Na+ in stem,
     leaf sheath, older leaves etc.)
   • Early vigour
   • …… Many more
                                                                     R.K.Singh
                                                Plant Breeding Course, April 06
                      Breeding Strategy


vIdentification of the genotypes based on the inherent
 physiological mechanism (Na exclusion, K uptake, Tissue
 tolerance and high initial vigor etc.) responsible for salinity
 tolerance

vInter-mating of the genotypes with high degree of expression
 of the contrasting salinity tolerance mechanism

vIdentifying / screening of the recombinants for pooling/
 pyramiding of the mechanisms

                                                                       R.K.Singh
                                                  Plant Breeding Course, April 06
                        Breeding Strategy


Identify the donors for predominant physiological mechanisms
                  responsible for salt tolerance

• Na+ exclusion,
• Tissue Tolerance
• K+ uptake,
• Preferential accumulation of Na+ in stem, leaf sheath, older
  leaves etc.
• Early vigour

However, none of the rice variety posses all the possible positive
  mechanism conferring salinity tolerance.

                                                                         R.K.Singh
                                                    Plant Breeding Course, April 06
   Grouping of the rice varieties on the basis of
           Na accumulation per day


                           Na accumulation per day
                                (mmol/g dwt)


        Low                          Medium                                     High
   < 0.1 mmol/g                0.1 - 0.499 mmol/g                           > 0.5 mmol


Bas.370, CSR10, CSR19   CSR11, IR36, HBC19, CSR20, ADT36         SR26B, CSR21, IR4630, Pokkali, T-23
  MI-48, Bas.385,        HKR128, CSR1, Jaya, CSR13, Achhi       GR11, Panvel-2, Indrasan, IR 58, RP144
                        Sukhvel, IR42, IR24, Majhera7, Mangla   Hathwan, Carps Clark, Swarndhan, Ravi
  CSR18, PR108
                        SLR51214, Prasad, Vandna, Salivahna     Udaya, T-21, Majhera-3, Barkat, MK47-22




                                                                                                R.K.Singh
                                                                           Plant Breeding Course, April 06
           Grouping of the rice varieties on the basis of
                    K accumulation per day


                                         K accumulation per day
                                              (mmol/g dwt)


             High                                Medium                                     Low
         > 0.4 mmol/g                        0.2 - 0.4 mmol/g                            < 0.2 mmol


CSR21, IR4630, Hathwan, Swarndhan    CSR11, IR36, CSR20, Panvel-23, BC1       SR26B, HBC19, CSR1, Pokkali, T-23
  Indrasan, Achhi, Muskan, Udaya     Ravi, Salivahana, Hasan Sarai, Barkat   GR11, PR108, CSR10, CSR18, CSR19
    RP144, VKL-39, Carps Clark       PR106, IR58, IR24, Majhera-3, ADT36     Jaya, HKR128, MI-48, Bas.370, Bas.385
                                    SLR51214, IR42, MK47-22, T-23, Mangla    Majhera-7, Prasad, Vandna, Vikramarya




                                                                                                              R.K.Singh
                                                                                         Plant Breeding Course, April 06
                                                                Na/K ratio




                                                                 0.0
                                                                 1.0
                                                                 2.0
                                                                 3.0
                                                                 4.0
                                                                 5.0
                                                                 6.0
                                                                 7.0
                                                                 8.0
                                                                 9.0
                                                                10.0
                                                      PR 108
                                                       P-203
                                                      CSR19
                                                    HB-101B

                                                MTUAR 2038
                                                 Hasan Sarai
                                                       CSR1
                                                     VKL-39

                                                      CSR18
                                                      CSR20
                                                     CSR 10
                                                        IR 42

                                                  Dehraduni
                                                        IR36
                                                     CSR 11

                                                   Ratnagiri
                                                      Barkat
                                                    Hathwan
                                                     HBC 19

                                                   Panvel-33
                                                   Majhera-7
                                  Varieties         Indrasan
                                                       93109

                                                    Pusa-150
                                                       Udaya
                                                    Kaling-2
                                              P-1176-91-1-2-2

                                                      SR 26B
                                                                             Na/K ratio in different rice varieties




                                                   POKKALI
                                                 Pusa 1298-1
                                                 Vikramarya

                                                IR61311-3B-8
                                                      Sarbati
                                                     Pak-803

                                                      CSR 8
                                                     IR 2153
                                                       JAYA
                                                    HKR 128
Plant Breeding Course, April 06
                     R.K.Singh
                     R.K.Singh
Plant Breeding Course, April 06
                                         Rice variety C
Rice variety A
Good excluder                             Good excluder
      +                                         +
poor tissue tolerance                  High tissue tolerance




Rice variety B               Garbage
Poor control at root level    Na+
       +
High tissue tolerance                                 K+

                             Dustbin
                                                              R.K.Singh
                                         Plant Breeding Course, April 06
       An Ideal High Yielding Salinity Tolerant Variety


v   Highly tissue tolerant
v   Good Excluder- Minimum per day uptake of Na+
v   High uptake of K+ per day
v   Low Cl- uptake
v   Low Na+/ K+ ratio
v   Good initial vigour
v   Agronomically superior with high yield potential (plant type
    + grain quality)




                                                                     R.K.Singh
                                                Plant Breeding Course, April 06
                  Breeding Strategy


vGrouping of the genotypes based on the inherent
 physiological mechanism responsible for salinity
 tolerance

vInter-mating of the genotypes with high degree of
 expression of the contrasting salinity tolerance
 mechanism

vIdentifying / screening of the recombinants for pooling/
 pyramiding of the mechanisms - MAS

                                                                 R.K.Singh
                                            Plant Breeding Course, April 06
                     Progress of Saltot locus
      Short arm of chromosome 1

0.0               RM283                                 •   Saturated map of the
                                                            Chromosome 1
27.4             R844                                       (Saltol segment) is
                                  0.0   AP3206
28.4             S2139                  CP03970             developed
                                  1.0
40.0              RM23            1.3   RM3412
60.6
64.9                              1.2   RM8094          •   Closely linked
                  RM140                 RM493
66.2             C52903S          1.8
                                                            markers linked to
                                  1.9
                                        CP6224
71.2              C1733S                                    the saltol locus
75.3              RM113                 RM140               identified
 77.2             S1715
 91.9             S13994                                •   MAS is being
 98.2             RM9
 99.1
                  R2374B                                    validated in 3
103.1             RM5
119.5                                                       breeding populations
123.5             C1456
                  RM237
129.9             RM246                 (Source: Glenn B. Gregorio)
          A
                                                                                    R.K.Singh
                                                               Plant Breeding Course, April 06
Chromosome location of associated QTL of
Salinity tolerance trait


                                      AP3206

                                      CP010136

                                      RM3412

            LOD threshold             CP03970

            a                         RM8094

                                      RM493
                                      CP6224
  b

                                      RM140
                2.5          0.0                        R.K.Singh
                                   Plant Breeding Course, April 06
                                                    Rice Chromosome 1
                                                          Saltol region ( Major QTL K+/Na+ratio )

cM
     60.6        60.9             62.5                  64.9            65.4         65.8         66.2   67.6      67.9

       • CP12 domain, putative                           • preprotein translocase, SecA subunit      • phospholipid/glycerol
       • Stress-inducible membrane pore protein                                                      acyltransferase –like
                                                         • Sec23/Sec24 trunk domain, putative
       • Zinc finger, C3HC4 type (RING finger),                                                      • Mitochondrial carrier
       putative                                          • Ser Thr Kc                                protein, putative

       • Universal stress protein family                 • Protein kinase domain                     • GDSL-like
                                                                                                     Lipase/Acylhydrolase,
       • Cation-chloride co-transporter                  • S-adenosylmethionine synthetase           putative

       • Receptor like protein kinase                    • chloroplast membrane protein              • organic cation transporter

       • Myb-like DNA-binding domain, putative           •Cold shock protein                         • major facilitator
                                                                                                     superfamily protein
       • Peroxidase, putative                            • secretory peroxidase
                                                                                                     •Cell wall protein type
       • Cell wall protein type                          • CBL-interacting protein kinase 19         (Extensin,Hydorxyproline
       (Extensin,Hydorxyproline rich, glycine                                                        rich, glycine rich)
       rich)                                             • Peroxidase, putative

       • Cation transporter                              • Cell wall protein type (Extensin,
                                                         Hydorxyproline rich, glycine rich)
       • Phospholipase D. Active site motif,
       putative
       • Protein kinase domain, putative
       • Dual specificity phosphatase, catalytic
       domain, putative
       • Pectinemethyesterase/invertase inhibitor
                                                                               (Source: Ellen Tumimbang)
       • Pectinesterase
                                                                                                                    R.K.Singh
                                                                                               Plant Breeding Course, April 06
                                                           chloroplast
      preprotein                                                                  CBL-interacting
                                         SAM               membrane
      translocase, Sec23/Sec24           synthetase                               protein kinase 19         S_Tkc;
                                                             protein
      SecA subunit trunk      Ser Thr Kc                                                                    WD40


                          WD40                                       secretory
                                      Receptor like cold                                  Peroxidase,
                                                    shock            peroxidase            putative
                                      kinase
                                                   protein

                                                      SALtol Region ( Major QTL
                                                              K+/Na+)
                                             12.0Mb          0.27 Mb (~40 genes)         12.27 Mb


                                                       12.11Mb            12.27Mb



                                 11.9 Mb                            12.13 Mb


                                                                     12.25Mb                            12.40Mb



                                                                       OSJNBa0011P19                                 12.7Mb
11.10Mb                                         B1153f04
                                                              P0426D06                B1135C02


cM
     60.6     60.9        62.5                 64.9          65.4              65.8     66.2     67.6       67.9

                                           Chromosome 1 of Rice
                                                                                                                    R.K.Singh
                                       (Source: Ellen Tumimbang)                               Plant Breeding Course, April 06
    List of genes that are located in the region of QTL and up-
                  regulated by high salinity in rice
                                                      Rice 60k chip data
                                   Clone ID           under high salinity
                      Insertion
   Gene name                      full length          (fold-induction)             References
                        lines
                                    cDNA
                                                0.5 h      2h       6h
Pectinesterase       1B-23740,    Ak105998      1.1        3.3      4.9
                     1B-23741
                     CG408589
Ser/thr kinase                    AK065231                 2.3      2.7       Guo et al., 2001


Phospholipase D      1515         AK120868                 3.5      2.6       Kacperska, 2004
                                                                              Zhu, 2002
SecA/protein         CL520490     AK070488      3.1        1.5
transport factor     CL520492
Peroxidase                        AK099187                 2.6      3.05      Pastori and Foyer, 2002
                                                                              Sottosanto et al., 2004
Alkaline Invertase                AK120720      4.0        2.2      4.2
Unknown cDNA                      AK099887      0.37       1.6      2.4


                                                            (Source: Ellen Tumimbang)            R.K.Singh
                                                                            Plant Breeding Course, April 06
                     The position of the candidate genes in chromosome 1


                                              Saltol region ( Major QTL K+-Na+ratio )

cM
     60.6     60.9        62.5               64.9        65.4         65.8       66.2   67.6    67.9

                                                • Putative SecA-type
            • Pectinesterase                      chloroplast protein                     Plant
                                                  transport factor                        neutral/alkaline
            • Phospholipase D. Active site                                                invertase
                 motif -- putative              •   Serine/threonine kinase
                                                •   Peroxidase




                                                                      (Source: Ellen Tumimbang)

                                                                                                              R.K.Singh
                                                                                         Plant Breeding Course, April 06
  Mapping Salinity Tolerance Genes
      at Reproductive Stage
QTLs for salinity tolerance genes at seedling
stage are different from reproductive stage

• Seedling stage tolerance in chrom 1.
• Reproductive stage tolerance in chrom 3, 4, 7,
  and 9
                             Dr. Mirza M. Islam
                             Ph.D.

                                                             R.K.Singh
                                        Plant Breeding Course, April 06
Salt tolerant rice varieties developed by IRRI and released
                        in Philippines

         IRRI 112          -        PSBRc48 (Hagonoy)
         IRRI 113          -        PSBRc50 (Bicol)
         IRRI 124          -        PSBRc84 (Sipocot)
         IRRI 125          -        PSBRc86 (Matnog)
         IRRI 126          -        PSBRc88 (Naga)
         IRRI 128          -        NSICRc106

Other salt-tolerant rice varieties

CSR10, CSR13, CSR23, CSR27, CSR30, CSR36 and Lunishree, Vytilla 1,
Vytilla 2, Vytilla 3, Vytilla 4, Panvel 1, Panvel 2, Sumati, Usar dhan 1, 2 &
3 (India); BRRI dhan 40, BRRI dhan 41 (Bangladesh); OM2717, OM2517,
OM3242 (Vietnam)

                                                                                R.K.Singh
                                                           Plant Breeding Course, April 06
                     R.K.Singh
Plant Breeding Course, April 06
          Realization of the Genetic Potential

                                                                       Genetic
                                                                      Variation

 Promote the                                                                                                                                  Physiological
                      Cultural Practices
  Interdisciplinary                                                                                                                            Mechanisms




                                                                        Response of genotypes under salt stress
                                                                                                                  Seedling stage




                        Nursery / seedling
  IRRI-NARS                                                                                                         tolerance




                          Management



                                             Management
                                             Adult plant




                                                                                                                                     Screening from available
  collaborative




                                                                                                                                                                Molecular Markers
                                                                                                                                        genetic variability
                                                                                     environment
  research, based                                                                                                 Vegetative stage
                                                                                                                     tolerance

  on CNRM                   Nutrient
                       Management with
                         respect to salt
  technology and      tolerant germplasm
                                                                                                                   Reproductive
                                                                                                                  stage tolerance
  its validation in                                                                                                                          Biochemical
                                                                                                                                             mechanisms
  the farmers                             Farmers’
                                           opinion
  participatory                          (PVS/PPB)

  mode
                                                       True Potential of the salt tolerant
                                                       rice genotype under salt-affected
                                                                     soils
                                                                                                                                            R.K.Singh
                                                                                                                       Plant Breeding Course, April 06
              Progress in salinity research
                   Saline        Sodic         Zn-def              Acid
   Donor                                                           
Screening
          Lab.                                                    
technique
           Field                                                   
Mechanism                                                         
Genetics                         ?                                 
MAS                                                               
development
Elite lines                                                         ?
          = completed, = fast track, = not available
             /available                   /on-going                            R.K.Singh
                                                          Plant Breeding Course, April 06
Glenn B. Gregorio        Rafiqul Islam     Mirza M. Islam       Jong C. Ko
R K Singh                Andy Sajise       Ghasem M. Nejad      Glenn Alejar
Adorada Dante            Venus Elec        Swe Thein            Midie
Rhulyx Mendoza           Jean Melgar       Lorelie Ramos        Venessa
Ellen Tumimbang Jaarmi            Orly                 Kelvin
Rollin De Ocampo         Angelito Francisco




               Thanks for Your Kind Attention                                   R.K.Singh
                                                           Plant Breeding Course, April 06
Please feel free to contact any time

       r.k.singh@cgiar.org




                                                    R.K.Singh
                               Plant Breeding Course, April 06

								
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