Lectures 1 and 2: Welcome to IEE by 4ZTz0T4

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									                 Lectures 1 and 2:
                  Welcome to IEE


    A practical introduction to electronics
      for anyone in any field of practice
        Voltage, Current, Resistance,
              Power, & Diodes

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                   STOLEN FROM K. A. Connor
                 Bill Mielke
•   mielke@rpi.edu
•   Office: JEC 1209
•   Phone: 6881
•   Secretary: None
•   Info on WebCT – Go to http://webct.rpi.edu
•   Office hours, M-F, 8am-5pm
•   Lab is in JEC 5107

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             Course Organization
• Lectures each Monday on a range of topics
  involving the use of electronics and other
  fundamental concepts. Used in Electrical,
  Computer and Systems, and Electric Power
  Engineering as well as other fields of study.
• 10 Labs
• Homework (NONE)
• All work must be completed in a timely
  manner to pass. (S/U grade)

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             Course Goals
• Expose students to a wide variety of
  electrical and electronic concepts in
  order to make an informed decision as
  to their future course of study. In depth
  study of IEE topics are covered during
  the sophomore through senior years.


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             Course Goals
• Provide students with 18-20 hours of
  intensive hands-on circuit building
  exercises, work which may be listed on
  a résumé.

• Begin to develop the troubleshooting
  skills necessary to make circuits
  functional.

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             Course Goals
• Create a learning environment whereby
  students are encouraged and
  empowered to explore topics of interest
  by talking to other faculty, selecting
  appropriate books from the library,
  search on the internet, etc.


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             Course Goals
• To demystify electronic concepts so that
  non engineering/science majors will
  have a sound understanding of the
  basics and won’t be talked into repairs
  that are unnecessary.

• HAVE FUN WITH ELECTRONICS

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               My Goals
• To have the largest class size of any
  course on campus
• To teach any student the basics of
  electronics so that they can carry on an
  intelligent conversation about circuits,
  no matter what field of study they
  pursue

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               My Goals
• To have as much fun as is humanly
  possible while teaching about one of my
  life’s passions, electronics.

• Any resemblance to a 16 year old’s
  behavior should be obvious.


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             So why should I be here?

• NO TEXT BOOK
• NO LAB MANUAL TO BUY
• NO HOMEWORK
• NO CALCULUS

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             So why should I be here?

•   NO TESTS
•   NO FINAL EXAM
•   NO READING
•   NO PROJECTS

• DESIGN YOUR OWN PROJECT, IF
  YOU WANT. I HAVE TO APPROVE IT
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                 Requirements
• Class attendance affects your grade
      Attendance is taken through an in class quiz
      Up to 2 unexcused absences are permitted
• All labs are mandatory
      Contact your TA should a lab be missed
      All labs must be completed before the end of the
       semester. No incompletes are given.
• Signed rules statement is required
      Please read syllabus (online) for policy details
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              Section______________________

              PRINTED NAME ______________________________________________
              (USE CAPITAL LETTERS ONLY)


              SIGNED NAME________________________________________________

              Date_________________________



                                RULES TO PASS
                   INTRODUCITON TO ENGINEERING ELECTRONICS

              1.    LECTURE ATTENDANCE AFFECTS YOUR GRADE. You
                    are allowed to have two unexcused absences during the
                    semester. That means if you don’t show up for class for
                    whatever reason, two times, there is no penalty. For those
                    times when you are not in class and you do not want it to
                    be counted as an unexcused absence you must:

                    Send me a signed excuse from your doctor’s office, the
                    administration, i.e., health office, Dean of Students office,
                    athletic office, another faculty member, etc., verifying your
                    absence. Hard copies mailed to me must be on company
                    letterhead stationary. Excuses on tablet paper will not be
                    accepted. E-mail response is also acceptable.

                    In class quizzes are used for attendance. No quiz sheet
                    will be accepted after you have left class.

              2.    ALL LABORATORY EXERCISES MUST BE COMPLETED. If
                    you miss a lab you must make up the work. Either contact
                    a TA in another section during your free time and ask
                    permission to attend, or wait until lab make up time at the
                    end of the semester.


              THREE OR MORE UNEXCUSED ABSENSES MEANS YOU FAIL.

              IF YOU DO NOT COMPLETE ALL THE LABS YOU FAIL.

              YOU ARE RESPONSIBLE TO KEEP TRACK OF MISSED
              LECTURES AND LABS.


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               Lab Rules
•   No eating or drinking in the lab
•   Be on time. The door will be shut
•   Play music, no inappropriate lyrics
•   Pick up answer sheet when you arrive
•   Sleeping, partner does work, no sig
•   Clean up the workbench and floor

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   How are absences tracked?
• In class quiz, no late submissions
• Lab attendance taken with answer
  sheets
• EWS used for any misses
• LECTURES CAN NOT BE MADE UP!
             • DO NOT ASK!!!
• SENIORS – NO F TESTS GIVEN
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                     Voltage, Current,
                   Power and Resistance

• Fundamental concepts                                              R1




      Voltage         V         volt
                                                                    50
                                                                                  I
                                                             V1

     Current         I         amp             V
                                                                                  R2
                                                                                  50


     Power           W         watt
     Resistance      R         ohm
                                                                         0




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                      Voltage
• Voltage is defined as the amount of work
  done or the energy required (in joules) in
  moving a unit of positive charge (1 coulomb)
  from a lower potential to a higher potential.
  Voltage is also called potential difference
  (PD). When you measure voltage you must
  have two points to compare, one of them
  being the reference point. When measuring
  the voltage drop for a circuit component it is
  sometimes called measuring the potential
  across that component.
            1 volt = 1 joule/coulomb

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                      Voltage
• Voltage is analogous to pressure. A
  battery in an electrical circuit plays the
  same role as a pump in a water system.




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                         Current
• Current is the amount of electric charge
  (coulombs) flowing past a specific point in a
  conductor over an interval of one second.
        1 ampere = 1 coulomb/second

• Electron flow is from a lower potential
  (voltage) to a higher potential (voltage).

                 e      e        e        e
             +                                             -
                            Wire

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                     Current
• For historical reasons, current is
  conventionally thought to flow from the
  positive to the negative potential in a
  circuit.




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                      Power
    • Power is the rate at which energy is
      generated or dissipated in an electrical
      element.
              1 watt = 1 joule/sec


Generated

                                                           Dissipated



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                          Resistance




• Charges passing through any conducting medium collide with
  the material at an extremely high rate and, thus, experience
  friction.
                                                               l
                                                    R
                                                               A
• The rate at which energy is lost depends on the wire thickness
  (area), length and physical parameters like density and
  temperature as reflected through the resistivity
                                                                    
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                       Circuit Diagram


                            e
                                                                     Heat
             BATTERY            Resis tor
                                              Pump                   Exchanger
                            e
               e e e
                Current                                      Water


• Water flow analogy is helpful, if not
  totally accurate

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             Basic Electrical Laws
• Ohm’s Law
                            V  IR
• Kirchoff’s Voltage Law

                          V  0
• Kirchoff’s Current Law

                           I 0
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                  Ohm’s Law




                                                 Georg Ohm

• There is a simple linear relationship
  between voltage, current and
  resistance.          V  IR
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             Kirchoff’s Voltage Law (KVL)




                                              Gustav Kirchoff
• The sum of the voltage differences
  around a circuit is equal to zero.

                           V  0
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             Kirchoff’s Current Law (KCL)


                       Applying
                       conservation of
                       current.




• The sum of all the currents entering or
  exiting a node is equal to zero.
                                                             I 0
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               Conservation Laws

• Both the KVL and KCL are based on
  conservation laws.
      KVL conserves voltage
      KCL conserves current
• Other conservation laws we know about
      Conservation of energy
      Conservation of momentum
• A key to understanding any system is
  identifying the relevant conservation laws

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             Series Combination of Resistors
                   A

                  Ia         +

                       Vr1   R1
                                                          Ib
              +                                   +
                                                                         +
                             -
       V                                    V                     Vreq
                                                                             Req
                             +
              -                                    -                     -
                       Vr2   R2


                             -

                   B

• Resistors add in series
                     REQ  R1  R2 ... RN



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             Series Combination of Resistors

                                                                         R1

                                                    10Vdc                    30ohms
                                                               V1



                                                                         R2
                                                                             10ohms



                                                                    0




• The effect of resistors in series is additive.
  There is a corresponding voltage drop
  across each resistor.
                           REQ  R1  R2 ... RN
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         Parallel Combination of Resistors
              A

             I1        Vr1                                             Ib
     +                            +                           +
                       +                                                           +
                  I2   R1    I3   R2
V                      -          -    Vr2              V                   Vreq
                                                                                       Req


     -                                                         -                   -
                  I4

              B


• The reciprocal or inverse of resistors
  add in parallel.   1    1     1       1
                                ...
                    REQ R1 R2           RN

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        Parallel Combination of Resistors

                                          10Vdc
                                                  V1           R1        R2
                                                               30ohms        10ohms




                                                           0



• For resistors in parallel, the same voltage occurs
  across each resistor and more than one path exists
  for the current, which lowers the net resistance.
                               1   1   1       1
                                       ...
                              REQ R1 R2        RN
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              Series Combination of Resistors
            A
                     • KVL:          V  Vr1  Vr 2
          Ia               +

                     Vr1   R1
     +
                           -
V
      -
                           +          • Ohm’s Law: V  I a R1  I a R2
                     Vr2   R2


                           -

            B                         • We can say:

                                                               V  I a  R1  R2 
               Ib
     +
                                +

V                   Vreq
                                    Req


      -                         -
                                      • In General:
                                                 REQ  R1  R2 ... RN
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                 Parallel Combination of Resistors
                                                  • KCL:
             A

            I1
                                                                            I1  I 2  I3
    +
                      Vr1
                      +               +
                 I2         I3        R2


                                                  • Ohm’s Law:
                      R1
V                     -               -     Vr2
    -
                 I4                                     V V        1                       
                                                    I1       V                          
                                                        R1 R2     R                        
             B
                                                                   EQ                      
    +
            Ib
                            +
                                                  • We can say:
V                 Vreq
                                Req

                                                            1   1   1       1
        -                   -
                                                                    ...
                                                           REQ R1 R2        RN

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             Combination of Resistors
• Series             REQ  R1  R2 ... RN

• Parallel          1
                      
                        1
                          
                            1
                              ...
                                    1
                   REQ R1 R2        RN
• For two resistors, the second
  expression can be written as
                                      R1 R2
                          REQ      
                                     R1  R2

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             Combination of Resistors


• Adding resistors in series always results
  in a larger resistance than any of the
  individual resistors
• Adding resistors in parallel always
  results in a smaller resistance than any
  of the individual resistors


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                         Diodes
                            D1
             ANODE                           CATHODE
                            DIODE




• A diode can be considered to be an
  electrical one-way valve.
• They are made from a large variety of
  materials including silicon, germanium,
  gallium arsenide, silicon carbide …
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                          Diodes




• In effect, diodes act like a flapper valve
      Note: this is the simplest possible model of
       a diode
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                             Diodes
• For the flapper valve, a small positive
  pressure is required to open.
• Likewise, for a diode, a small positive voltage
  is required to turn it on. This voltage is like the
  voltage required to power some electrical
  device. It is used up turning the device on so
  the voltages at the two ends of the diode will
  differ.
      The voltage required to turn on a diode is typically
       around 0.6-0.8 volt for a standard silicon diode
       and a few volts for a light emitting diode (LED)
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                            Diodes
                                                D1

                                                D1N4002
VAMPL = 10V   V1
                                                             R1
FREQ = 1k
                                                             1k




• 10 volt sinusoidal voltage source
                                                     0



• Connect to a resistive load through a
  diode

      This combination is called a half-wave
       rectifier
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                                                    Diodes
VAMPL = 10V               V1                          • Sinusoidal Voltage
FREQ = 1k



     10V




      5V




      0V




     -5V




    -10V
           0s                  0.5ms        1.0ms         1.5ms          2.0ms   2.5ms   3.0ms
                V(D1:1)
                                                           Time



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                                                                 Diodes
                                              D1

                                              D1N4002
                                       V                          V

                                                                                         • Half-wave
VAMPL = 10V             V1
                                                                       R1
FREQ = 1k

                                                                                           rectifier
                                                                        1k




             10V
                                                   0




              5V




              0V




             -5V




            -10V
                   0s                 0.5ms              1.0ms         1.5ms          2.0ms      2.5ms   3.0ms
                        V(D1:1)   V(D1:2)
                                                                        Time


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       At the junction, free electrons from the
       N-type material fill holes from the P-
       type material. This creates an insulating
       layer in the middle of the diode called
       the depletion zone.

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         Diode V-I Characteristic
• For ideal diode, current flows only one way
• Real diode is close to ideal


                                                    Ideal Diode




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Where Will You See These Concepts Again?

• In later labs in this course
• V, I, R, Kirchoff’s Laws, Combining
  Resistors: ECSE-2010 Electric Circuits
• Diode and Transistor Theory and
  Electronic Design: ECSE-2050 Analog
  Electronics, ECSE-2060 Digital
  Electronics and ECSE-2210
  Microelectronics Technology

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