# TAKS Objective 5 .1

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```					TAKS Objective 5 .1

Motion , Forces
and Energy
Let’s see what you already know
questions.
correct, go to the quiz at the end and see if
you can correctly answer all of those.
 If you get all of those correct also, go to the
next tutorial.
1. What is the potential energy of the
rock?

A 59,900 joules
B 64,600 joules
C 93,100 joules
D 121,600 joules
2. Which switches, if opened, will
6.
cause the light bulb to stop glowing?

F. Q
G. R
H. S
J. T
USE THE FORMULA SHEET!!
3. What is the current in a copper wire that
has a resistance of 2 ohms and is
connected to a 9 volt electrical source?
A. 0.22 amp
B. 4.5 amps
C. 11.0 amps
D. 18.0 amps
4. The primary way liquids and gases
transmit heat is by the process of —

A reflection
B conduction
D convection
1.   C
2. F
3. B
4. D
If you have all 4 correct, go to the end quiz
and try those to see if you need to do this
tutorial.
Energy
Is defined as the
Ability to do Work
Energy has Two Types:

Kinetic (Energy of Motion)
and
Potential (Stored Energy)
Kinetic Energy
KE = ½ m v          2

Ex: A moving
car has the
ability to do
work on the
light pole if it
hits it.
Gravitational Potential Energy or
Will it fall?
GPE = m g h
m is the mass of the
object in Kg,
g is the acceleration
due to gravity which is
9.8 m/s2 on earth and
h is the height in meters
Law of
Conservation of Energy
Energy can change forms,
but is not created nor destroyed.
Loss in one form = gain in another form

The total energy remains the same.
Example: A falling object speeds up
as it falls to the ground;

PE decreases as KE
increases, the KE
it has at impact
with the ground is
equal to the PE it
Remember #1?
1. Objects of the same mass but of
different sizes and shapes were
dropped from a given height.
Their rates of free fall were
measured and recorded. Which of
the following is most likely the
question this experiment was
A How does height affect the force of
gravity?
B How does gravity affect objects of
different densities?
C How do mass and weight affect
falling objects?
D How do size and shape affect an
object’s rate of free fall?
Energy can be conserved in
Non-Mechanical forms
The chemical energy in a battery
transforms into electrical
energy
Any reaction where the energy
is given off is more than used
to start it is Exogonic
An Endogonic reaction absorbs
energy and causes cooling
Electrical Energy -
Moving electrons in a path is electricity

 Electrical Potential Difference (v) is
measured in Volts
 The rate of moving electric charges, Electric
Current (I), is measured in Amperes
 Resistance or opposition to the movement of
the energy is called Resistance (R).
Circuits – 2 types
 Series circuits are the
most simple.
 One (1) path for the
current to travel.
 Contains an energy
source, a path, and a
to do, like a lamp)
Circuits – 2 types
 Parallel circuits
provide more than
one path for the
current to travel.
 Most circuits are
parallel, since if
one lamp goes out,
the others can
stay lit.
6. Which switches, if opened, will
cause the light bulb to stop glowing?

F. Q
G. R only
It is the
C. S
switch in
D. T
series to
both the
battery and
light.
Remember question #3?
3. What is the current in a copper wire that
has a resistance of 2 ohms and is
connected to a 9 volt electrical source?
A. 0.22 amp
V = I R so,
B. 4.5 amps
C. 11.0 amps        9V = I x 2 ohms or
D. 18.0 amps
4.5 amps
Thermal Energy
A body contains internal KE due to
the motion of its atoms (they are
constantly wiggling and jiggling)
Thermal Energy is the total internal
KE of a body
Temperature is the average KE of a
body
Heat- Transfer of           Three forms
Thermal Energy              of heating:

1. Conduction-direct contact, a
pot heating on a stove (solids)
2. Convection- heating by
circulating fluids, heating from
a fireplace (liquids and gases)
And. . .
Electromagnetic (E.M.) Energy
Objects are heated when
The suns heats the earth by
along with other forms of E.M.
energy 93,000,000 miles through
empty space
4. The primary way liquids and gases
transmit heat is by the process of —

A reflection
Fluid heat movement
B conduction
is convection. Fluid
D convection   liquids and gases.
Nuclear Reactions - Fusion
Fusion occurs when two atoms
combine to form a new element.
The sun produces all of its
energy through fusion.
Two hydrogen atoms combine
to form a Helium atom from the
great gravitational forces and
pressure in the sun’s core
Nuclear Reactions - Fission

 Fission  is the splitting of
nucleii of large atoms such as
Uranium and Plutonium
 Produces large amounts of
forms of E.M. Energy such
as Gamma Rays
 Currently, it is the main form
of Atomic Energy on Earth
Electromagnetic Energy (EM)

 Allradiant energy travels at 3.0 x 108
m/sec in space
 Velocity of a wave = wavelength x
frequency
 Visible light is just one type of EM Energy
All of the forms of radiation given off
Electromagnetic Spectrum
by vibrating energy.

of vibrating or “throbbing
bundles of energy” called
photons
The frequency of the vibrating
energy determines which type
and how much energy will
be given off
The entire E.M. Spectrum in order
from lowest to highest frequency
 Radio waves: AM and FM
 Microwaves: cooking
 Infrared: heat
 Visible: (ROYGBV)
 Ultraviolet: tanning
 Xrays: medical
 Gamma:
Waves - Energy carried by
rhythmic disturbances in space
 Two   types:
move through
empty space
 2. Mechanical
require a medium
(air or water) for
movement
All waves have similar
properties

 Frequency-   the number of vibrations
per second or the speed of the
movement of the vibrating particles
 Amplitude – the size of the movement
of the vibrating particles
 Both are controlled by the disturbance
that created the waves
Velocity of all waves - v=f λ
f is frequency and λ is
wavelength (distance
between identical points on
two consecutive waves)
 Reflection- bounce off
barriers in regular ways
 Refraction- waves change
direction when speed
changes
D 3300 Hz
At 0°C sound travels through air at a speed of
330 m/s. If a sound wave is produced with a
wavelength of 0.10 m, what is the wave’s
frequency?
A 0.0033 Hz Use the formula chart!!!
B 33 Hz
Velocity = f λ OR
C 330 Hz
D 3300 Hz      330 m/s = f x 0.10 m
Waves - 2 Types
Longitudinal or
Compress ional Waves
Vibrating particles move
back and forth along
the direction of the
wave velocity
Parts consist of
compressions and
rarefactions
Ex. Sound Waves
Sound Waves are Compressional

Sound is produced when a
It requires a producer and a
medium to travel through.
The more elastic the object, the
faster sound travels.
Sound acts like other waves
 Echoes   are reflected
sound waves
 Sonar uses echoes
to judge distance to
obstructions
 Human hearing is
20-20,000 Hz, below
10 Hz is infrasonic,
and above 20,000 Hz
is ultrasonic.
For the next 7 slides, answer on your
own paper, title is Obj. 5.1

 Use the
equations page
to look up the
formulas.
 Calculate your
guess!
1. Which process best shows the
conversion of solar energy to chemical
energy?

A Prevailing winds causing windmills to
spin
B Green plants making their own food
C Uranium producing heat to make
steam
D Tides generating electricity
2. What is the current in a copper
wire that has a resistance of 0.5
ohms and is connected to a 9 volt
electrical source?
A. 0.22 amp
B. 4.5 amps
C. 11.0 amps
D. 18.0 amps
3. At 0°C sound travels through air at a
speed of 330 m/s. If a sound wave is
produced with a wavelength of 10 m,
what is the wave’s frequency?

A 0.0033 Hz
B 33 Hz
C 330 Hz
D 3300 Hz
4. The diagram shows an
electric motor lifting a 6
N block a distance of 3
m. The total amount of
electrical energy used
by the motor is 30 J. How
much energy does the
motor convert to heat?
A 9J
B 12 J
C 18 J
D 21 J
5. Objects of the
same mass but        A How does height affect
of different sizes     the force of gravity?
and shapes were
dropped from a       B How does gravity affect
given height.          objects of different
Their rates of         densities?
free fall were
measured and         C How do mass and
recorded. Which        weight affect falling
of the following       objects?
is most likely the
question this        D How do size and shape
experiment was         affect an object’s rate
designed to            of free fall?
6. According to the table,
which workers have the
greatest chance of
experiencing significant
hearing loss over time?

A Police traffic officers
B Shoe-factory workers
crews
D Library desk clerks
7. One tuning fork is struck and placed next
to an identical fork. The two forks do not
touch. The second tuning fork starts to
vibrate because of —

A interference
B the Doppler effect
C resonance
D standing waves
1. B 2. D 3. B 4. B 5. D 6. C 7. C
 Make sure you look up the equations.
 Use the calculator.

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