Umthsezi Perspective Part1 Data by vu0HD60

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									PART ONE: PERSPECTIVE REPORT - DATA AND ANALYSIS


1.        INTRODUCTION

         1.1      Integrated Development Plan

                  The Umtshezi Local Municipality appointed the Bergman-
                  Ingérop / Setplan/ Dludla Development Consortium to prepare
                  an Integrated Development Plan (IDP) in terms of the
                  requirements of the Municipal Systems Act (Act No 32 of 2000).
                  The Integrated Development Plan is a strategic planning tool to
                  guide the development of the area for a period of five years.

                  The IDP consist of five phases, namely:

                  Phase I           :        Situation Analysis
                  Phase II          :        Strategies
                  Phase III         :        Projects and Action Plan
                  Phase IV          :        Integration
                  Phase V           :        Approval

                     Phase I: Situation Analysis

                  The Situation Analysis determines the priority issues and needs
                  for the area, based on a review of the existing situation. This
                  includes a review of all existing information and past planning
                  exercises. Needs will be identified through this process.

                  The methodology to be employed will include:

                  -   Background research and setting of standards for the
                      provision of services
                  -   Desktop Analysis
                  -   Socio-economic scan
                  -   Interviews and Discussion Groups
                  -   Workshops

                  The Situation Analysis will include the following:

                  -   Financial analysis
                  -   Social matters, including gender and poverty analysis
                  -   Technical analysis, including Municipal services
                  -   Institutional analysis
                  -   Environmental analysis
                  -   Economic analysis




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Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                  The output of Phase I will comprise:
                  - A Data and Municipal Analysis Report
                  - An Aggregation Report
                  - Priority issues and needs
                  This consolidated report for Phase I is the edited combination of
                  Report 1: Umtshezi IDP Data and Municipal Analysis and
                  Report 2: Municipal Aggregation & Analysis of Issues.

                        Phase II: Strategies

                  Once the priority issues are identified and the available
                  resources are determined, alternative strategies for the future
                  will be developed. Phase II will include:

                  i)        The development of a vision of the preferred future.
                  ii)       Identification of development objectives that state what
                            the Local Council would like to achieve in order to
                            address the priority issues in realizing the vision.
                  iii)      The development of strategic guidelines that address
                            alternative means for meeting the development
                            objectives.
                  iv)       The identification of strategies and projects.

                  The outputs of Phase II will include:

                  -      The Development Vision
                  -      Strategic guidelines
                  -      Resource identification and financial strategies
                  -      Identification and analysis of alternative solutions
                  -      Strategies and Projects

                        Phase III: Projects and Action Plans

                  Phase III identifies specific projects, estimates of costs, sources
                  of funds, responsibilities and timing.

                  The output of Phase III will be a Draft Business Plan including:

                  -      Projects per sector and an action plan
                  -      Cost and budget estimates
                  -      Performance indicators

                        Phase IV: Integration and Implementation Plan

                  This Phase allows the Local Authority to ensure that the
                  identified projects are in line with the Local Council’s objectives,
                  strategies and resource framework.


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Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                  The outputs of Phase IV include:

                  -   Sector plans
                  -   Five Year Financial Plans

                     Phase V: Approval

                  Once Phases I to IV have been completed, the IDP is approved
                  by the Municipality, after which it is submitted to the Provincial
                  Authority for their information.

                  This report is for Phase One of the IDP process, as illustrated in
                  the diagram overleaf.




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         1.2      Approach

                  In the past, Planning was very physical, such as is embodied in
                  Structure Plans and Guide Plans. With the advent of the
                  Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP), a new
                  approach to Planning emerged. The RDP set the basic
                  principles for development, based on:

                  -   Integrated planning
                  -   Sustainable development
                  -   People-centred development
                  -   The democratization of society

                  The Integrated Development Plans (IDPs) that are now required,
                  are based on these fundamental principles. Sustainable
                  development requires that an integrated approach be taken. Not
                  only physical matters are considered in Planning, but also the
                  social, environmental, economic, institutional and financial
                  matters. People-centred planning and the democratisation of
                  society involve establishing a process whereby communities
                  influence matters that affect their lives. This does not involve
                  consultation, as utilised in previous Planning systems, but
                  effective involvement and the establishment of partnerships to
                  decide on matters affecting the development of the area. This
                  approach is based on creating a practical, action-orientated
                  process to make a difference in the lives of people. Local
                  Authorities, as part of this process, also have a more proactive
                  role in being partners with the community as well as the
                  business sector, in managing the development of the area. In
                  particular, Local Authorities need to upgrade their skills in raising
                  funds and managing these funds.

                  The approach adopted in developing these IDPs is based on the
                  above and can be summarised as being:

                  -   Integrated
                  -   Sustainable
                  -   Issue driven
                  -   People-centred
                  -   Practical
                  -   Action-orientated

         1.3      Purpose of Report

                  This “Phase One Perspective Report”, is an edited consolidation
                  of Report: 1 Data and Municipal Analysis and Report 2 Municipal
                  Aggregation & Analysis of Issues. This Phase One Report
                  should be read in conjunction with the reports for Phases Two,
                  Three and Four.
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         1.4      Report Structure

                  This Perspective Report for Phase One of the IDP consists of an
                  Executive Overview followed by two parts:
                   Umtshezi Perspective: Executive Overview (available in
                     English and isiZulu)
                   Part One: Data and Municipal Analysis
                   Part Two: Needs and Key Issues

                  Part One is structured under the following headings:
                             Introduction
                             Context
                             Social Matters (including the HIV/ AIDS pandemic)
                             Technical Matters (including Services and Spatial
                                Implications)
                             Economic Matters
                             Land Reform
                             Financial Matters
                             Institutional Matters
                             Environmental Matters
                             Key Performance Indicators
                             Needs Identification

                  Part Two is structured under the following headings:
                             Introduction
                             Key Performance Indicators
                             Needs
                             Key Issues
                             Conclusion


2.       CONTEXT

         Umtshezi Local Authority is located in Kwa-Zulu Natal, approximately
         165km north west of Durban and 400km south east of Johannesburg,
         as illustrated in the following Locality Map.




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         FIG 1: LOCALITY MAP




         Umtshezi Municipal area is one of five Local Authorities forming the
         Uthukela District Council.




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Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
         FIG 2:            UTHUKELA DISTRICT




      Umtshezi Municipality (KZ234) comprises parts of the Magisterial Districts of Weenen
      and Estcourt. The main urban core of the uThukela district is Emnambithi (Ladysmith)
      to the north of Umtshezi. The Local Authority area is made up of 198 farms. (Refer to
      Annexure I.)

      The area has great scenic beauty with mountainous areas in the north,
      There is the Tugela River along the northern boundary, and the
      Bushmans River, which traverses the centre of the Municipal area. The
      Bushmans River is well suited to development for eco-adventure tourism
      as there are numerous settlement nodes in close proximity to the River.
      The potential for development is heightened by the fact that the water is
      of a very high quality and the river is ideal for canoeing and river rafting.




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Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
         For the purposes of this report, the present population of Umtshezi has
         been estimated to be 49 442 people. (Source: statistics provided by
         Uthukela PIMSS Office, August 2001). It is estimated that Umtshezi will
         have the highest population growth rate in the District at 1.6% per
         annum. (Umtshezi Economic Regeneration Study 2001) The high
         growth rate is expected, based on migration trends into the area.


3.       SOCIAL MATTERS

         3.1      History / Culture

                  The area has a rich history and a range of cultures. In particular,
                  the “Battlefields” routes and museums capture the history of
                  conflict that formed the area. This aspect of the history and
                  culture is being well marketed and is contributing to the
                  economy of the area through tourism and an appreciation of the
                  history of the area. (Refer to websites www.kwazulu.net /
                  route@battlefields.org.za / brta@futurest.co.za) The value and
                  role of the history and the culture of the area in contributing to
                  the development of Umtshezi needs to be investigated further.

                  The main urban centre of Umtshezi is Estcourt, which was
                  originally called Bushmans River. The town was renamed
                  Estcourt after the British MP Thomas Estcourt who sponsored
                  settlers to the area through the Byrne immigration scheme. In
                  the early history, the urban areas of Umtshezi developed as
                  stopover points for ox wagons and mule-drawn coaches. The
                  development of the transport route that passed through the
                  Umtshezi area, between the major port city of Durban and
                  Johannesburg, the “economic heart” of the country, supported
                  the growth of the area. The subsequent development of the N3
                  National Highway in the 1970s has contributed to the economic
                  decline of the area. There has been a loss of trade as a result of
                  the absence of passing traffic. (Refer to Section 5.)

         3.2      Race and Language

                  The Municipal area has the full range of languages and cultures
                  found in South Africa. The most prevalent racial group is Black
                  (78.39%) followed by Indian (11.88%) as illustrated overleaf.
                  The most common language spoken is isiZulu, although both
                  English and isiZulu are used in most official business.




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Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                  FIG 3: RACE

                            %                                   Graph

      Black      38 760 78.39



    Coloured 1 188         2.40



      Indian     5 875 11.88



      White      3 321     6.72




      Other       298      0.06


         Source: 1996 Census as supplied by uThukela PIMSS office

                  Further details on Race and other demographic statistics for the
                  Umtshezi area, relative to the Uthukela District, are attached as
                  Annexure II. The distribution of population is illustrated on the
                  Population Map overleaf. The lightest colour indicates the
                  highest population density.

         3.3      Gender

                  The majority of people in the area are female (53.38%) as
                  illustrated below.


                  FIG 4: GENDER
    Gender Amount           %                                  Graph




      Male     23 052 46.62




    Female 26 390 53.38
       Source: 1996 Census as supplied by uThukela PIMSS office

                  The prevalence of females is often an indicator of a weak
                  economy, as males relocate to seek employment and females
                  remain to care for the family and the home. Further research
                  needs to be undertaken on migration trends.
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Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
         3.4      Age

                  The population of Umtshezi is very young, with the majority of
                  people (65%) being under the age of 29 years. Of the total
                  population, almost half (49%) are of school-going age or
                  younger (under 19). This very young age profile will place a
                  large burden on the education system, as well as on the
                  economy to provide adequate jobs. Despite the large
                  percentage of very young people, the population pyramid does
                  not indicate the normal situation of a large base. That is, most
                  people are in the youngest age groups (under 4 years). In this
                  instance, there are more people in the age group between 5 and
                  10 years, than in the age group of 0 to 4 years. This high infant
                  mortality rate over the last five years can be directly related to
                  the HIV/Aids pandemic. (Refer to Section 3.7). This is supported
                  by the fact that the population of people aged 20 to 49 years, is
                  disproportionately small. The children under the age of 5 years,
                  that are HIV positive, are likely to die. In light of this, the
                  provision of school facilities will need to be reassessed. Specific
                  programmes will need to be developed to cater for the very
                  young orphaned children and the HIV positive adults.

                  FIG 5    :         AGE


                               AGE                      NUMBER                     %
                                   0–4                        5 254                     10.63
                                 5 – 10                       7 382                     14.93
                                11 – 20                      11 352                     22.96
                                21 – 30                       8 318                     16.82
                                31 – 40                       6 311                     12.76
                                41 – 50                       4 470                      9.04
                                51 – 60                       2 771                      5.60
                                61 – 70                       1 709                      3.46
                                71 – 80                         855                      1.73
                                81 – 90                         270                      0.55
                                91- 100                          34                      0.07
                                  100 +                           -                         -
                             Unspecified                        716                      1.45
                           TOTAL                             49 442                    100.00

                  Source: 1996 Census as supplied by uThukela PIMSS office




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         3.5      Education

                  The 1996 census recorded 43 schools in the area which now
                  forms Umtshezi. In more recent information provided by the
                  Uthukela PIMSS centre, 50 schools are recorded, as illustrated
                  below.

                  FIG 6: UMTSHEZI: SCHOOLS

                    1      Brynbella I                             Combined
                    2      Cecilia P                               Primary
                    3      Celukuphiwa Cp                          Primary
                    4      Chieveley Islamic Sa P                  Primary
                    5      Cornfields P                            Primary
                    6      Drakensberg Comprehensive H             Secondary
                    7      Drakensberg S                           Combined
                    8      Drakensview P                           Primary
                    9      Emahhashini P                           Primary
                    10     Emobeni P                               Primary
                    11     Enhlangwini P                           Primary
                    12     Estcourt Christian Academy              Combined
                    13     Estcourt H (martin Rd)                  Secondary
                    14     Estcourt P                              Primary
                    15     Estcourt S (alexander St)               Secondary
                    16     Ezamukuthula P                          Primary
                    17     Ferdinand P                             Primary
                    18     Florence Booth P                        Primary
                    19     Forderville P                           Primary
                    20     Gannahoek P                             Primary
                    21     Hattingshope P                          Primary
                    22     Heavitree P                             Primary
                    23     Horseshoe P                             Primary
                    24     Inkanyiso P                             Primary
                    25     Lyndhurst P F                           Primary
                    26     M L Sultan Estcourt P                   Primary
                    27     Mkholombe P                             Primary
                    28     Mthaniya P                              Primary
                    29     Muntuza P                               Primary
                    30     Mvubu State Aided P                     Primary
                    31     Ndingeni P                              Primary
                    32     Nhlawe P                                Primary
                    33     Nkaseni P                               Primary
                    34     Phumalanga P                            Combined
                    35     Riverdale P                             Primary
                    36     Riversbend P                            Primary
                    37     Selbourne P                             Primary
                    38     Siphimfundo P                           Primary
                    39     Siraatul Haq Islamic                    Combined
                    40     St Gregory College                      Combined
                    41     Stockton P                              Primary
                    42     Thandanani P                            Primary
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Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                    43     Thembalihle C (estcourt)                Primary
                    44     Vukasekusile S                          Secondary
                    45     Vulekani P F                            Primary
                    46     Weenen C                                Combined
                    47     Weenen P                                Primary
                    48     Weenen P                                Primary
                    49     Wembezi S                               Secondary
                    50     Zola P                                  Primary

                  The “physical spread” of these schools is illustrated in the
                  Education Map overleaf. In a survey conducted in March 2001
                  as part of the Annual Survey of Schools, 219 schools were
                  recorded and surveyed in the Estcourt District (area larger than
                  Umtshezi Municipal area). The vast majority of these schools is
                  rural, has no basic services and was described in the survey as
                  “tatty” or “weak”. The Annual School Survey provides a good
                  benchmark against which the need for improvements can be
                  determined. Lyndhurst and Mthaniya are two schools in the
                  Municipal area which have been identified for upgrading and
                  which form part of the Capital Works Projects of the relevant
                  Provincial Department. The poor condition of education
                  infrastructure is reflected in the bad education levels and poor
                  pass rates in the Local Authority area. Almost a quarter of
                  people (24%) in the newly demarcated Municipal area have no
                  education, although almost half the population (45%) has some
                  primary or secondary education. A relatively high percentage of
                  the population of the Province (12%) has matric or tertiary
                  education.

                  The sector of the population with no education comprises older
                  people who were not legally compelled to attend school.

                  FIG 7    :        EDUCATION LEVELS

                                                      NUMBER                 %
                   No schooling                           12 007.00                24.34
                   Grade 1                                   509.00                 1.03
                   Grade 2                                   657.00                 1.33
                   Grade 3                                 1 545.00                 3.13
                   Grade 4                                 2 175.00                 4.41
                   Grade 5                                 2 018.00                 4.09
                   Grade 6                                 2 153.00                 4.37
                   Grade 7                                 2 659.00                 5.39
                   Grade 8                                 2 996.00                 6.07
                   Grade 9                                 2 191.00                 4.44
                   Grade 10                                2 980.00                 6.04
                   Grade 11                                1 992.00                 4.04
                   Z Matric                                  625.00                 1.27
                   Only Matric                             4 629.00                 9.38
                   Matric certificate                        301.00                 0.61
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                   Matric + Diploma                          610.00             1.24
                   Matric + B Degree                         231.00             0.47
                   Matric + B Degree + Dip                        -                -
                   Matric + B Degree + Hon.                   16.00             0.03
                   Matric + M Degree                          13.00             0.03
                   Matric + Doctorate                          3.00             0.01
                   Other Qualifications                      214.00             0.43
                   Unspecified                             3 284.00             6.66
                   Age less than 5                         5 516.00            11.18
                   TOTAL                                  49 324.00           100.00
                  Source: 1996 Census as supplied by uThukela PIMSS office

                  The Uthukela Regional Development Plan (1998) indicated a
                  shortfall of 120 schools in the Umtshezi area. The present
                  shortfall will need to be determined, based on the agreed
                  standards for education. Education programmes need to be
                  developed for the presently large school-going population, to
                  prepare these young people for activities needed for the
                  development of the area, such as tourism, agriculture and
                  business. If this is not done, these people will leave the area
                  when they have completed their schooling.

         3.6      Rural / Urban

                  Within the Local Authority area, it is often difficult to make a
                  distinction between people who are “rural” as opposed to those
                  who are “urban”. For example, many people live in a “rural” area
                  but work in the “urban” area. Utilising housing classifications
                  relating to urban and rural areas provides some insight into this
                  issue.

                  Over 60% of the people of Umtshezi live in formal urban
                  housing. A third of the housing (29%) is however clearly rural,
                  occurring either in rural traditional villages (8%) or on rural farms
                  (21%). The significant portion of housing and people living in the
                  rural areas requires that development activities focus on both
                  rural and urban areas. Further investigations are needed into
                  the application of a rural support system, such as the Rural
                  Services System in the Mbazwana Rural Service System Pilot
                  Project.




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                   FIG 8: HOUSEHOLD CLASSIFICATION
                                                              Amount       %
                         Urban Formal                         5486      60.81
                         Urban Informal                       562       6.23
                         Urban Hostels                        28        0.31
                         Urban Institutions                   18        0.20
                         Semiurban Formal                     0         0.00
                         Semiurban Informal                   282       3.13

                         Semiurban Hostels                    0         0.00

                         Semiurban Institutions               0         0.00
                         Rural Formal                         0         0.00
                         Rural Formal semiformal              0         0.00
                         Rural Tribal Villages                746       8.27
                         Rural informal                       0         0.00
                         Rural Hostels                        0         0.00
                         Rural Institutions                   0         0.00
                         Rural farms                          1913      21.20
                         HType Other                          0         0.00
                         HType Unknown                0        0.00
                          Source: 1996 Census as supplied by uThukela PIMSS Office

         3.7      Health Services

                  The health services in the uThukela Region, including the
                  Umtshezi area, are undergoing major revitalisation. This process
                  is largely as a result of recent legislation, the “KwaZulu Natal
                  Health Act. (No 4 of 2000) This Act is designed to restructure the
                  delivery of Provincial Health Services by establishing policy,
                  norms, standards and a framework to improve access to the
                  Province’s available heath care resources. The “cornerstone” of
                  the policy is to maximize the use of available resources by
                  improving primary health care to relieve the burden on hospitals.
                  The strategic framework for hospitals in the Province is based
                  on the following ten principles:

                  1) Classification of all hospitals in accordance with different
                     levels of health care.
                  2) Creation of five different categories of hospitals:
                     - District
                     - Regional
                     - Provincial Tertiary
                     - Central
                     - Specialised
                  3) Patients to be treated at simplest, least expensive level for
                     the care needed at the time.
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Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                  4) Creation of Network allowing referral of patients to next level
                      of care when appropriate.
                  5) Number of beds per hospital to be in line with norms of
                      National Department.
                  6) Healthcare must be accessible, appropriate, of a good quality
                      and comprehensive.
                  7) Establishment of referral pattern.
                  8) Access to and referral to specialized hospitals at any level.
                  9) Provision of an outline of the structure of hospitals in the
                      Province to all relevant parties.
                  10) Strategy must be dynamic. As with the Provincial Hospitals,
                      all Primary Health Care Clinics in the Province are being
                      classified in order to:

                          Assist with the implementation of District Health System.
                          Provide Province with data for a resource audit.
                          Assist with the implementation and management of
                           Primary Health Care Services.
                          Prioritize Clinics in need of upgrading, repair and
                           maintenance.

                  Classification of Primary Health Care Clinics takes into account
                  aspects of the physical structures and services offered. In the
                  uThukela District, there are 23 Primary Health Care Clinics of
                  different categories. All health care facilities in the Umtshezi
                  Municipal area have been classified and mapped. The
                  classification includes 13 different types of health care facilities
                  in Umtshezi, ranging from “State-aided Mobile” to “Local
                  Authority Clinic”. The adequacy of the health care facilities in
                  uMtshezi will need to be measured against the norms and
                  standards to be developed in the IDP process. The physical
                  location of hospitals / clinics is illustrated on the map overleaf.

         3.8      HIV / AIDS

                  The AIDS pandemic in KwaZulu-Natal, and more specifically in
                  the uMtshezi Local Authority areas, presents the greatest
                  challenges for the Integrated Development of the area, as the
                  pandemic will affect every aspect of development.

                  AIDS is caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
                  that is spread through the exchange of infected body fluids. The
                  virus reduces the body’s ability to fend off disease. After
                  acquiring AIDS, sufferers succumb to opportunistic diseases.
                  Infants infected with HIV before birth are unlikely to live beyond
                  their fifth birthday. In sub Saharan Africa, the time from infection
                  of adults to the development of full-blown AIDS takes between 5
                  and 10 years. There is presently no cure for AIDS.

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                  In Africa, the primary spread of HIV is through heterosexual
                  intercourse and from infected mothers to unborn infants in the
                  womb, during birth or through breast-feeding. HIV can also be
                  spread through the sharing of needles by intravenous drug users
                  and through blood transfusions, although this is now very rare.

                  The AIDS pandemic has spread rapidly in South Africa since the
                  first two deaths were reported in 1983. It is estimated that over
                  one million adults are currently infected in KwaZulu-Natal. (TRP
                  Commission Report on Impact of HIV/AIDS, 2000.) KwaZulu-
                  Natal has the highest rates of HIV infection in the country, as
                  illustrated below.
                  FIG 9: NATIONAL AND PROVINCIAL PREVALENCE 1994-8


                                   35                                             32,5

                                   30                                   26,8
                                   25                                          22,8
                      Percentage




                                                               19,9
                                   20               18,2                                 SOUTH AFRICA
                                                                      16
                                          14,4              14,2
                                   15                                                    KWA ZULU-NATAL
                                                 10,4
                                   10   7,6

                                   5
                                   0
                                        1994     1995       1996      1997     1998

                                                        Calender Year


                  Source: Town and Regional Planning Commission Report: The Impact of
                  HIV/ AIDS on Planning Issues in KwaZulu-Natal

                  The above figures were obtained from antenatal clinic surveys.
                  Recent surveys (2000) in the area, including the Connor Street
                  Clinic and the Forderville Clinic, indicate an infection rate of
                  64.7% as illustrated overleaf. It should be noted that these
                  clinics treat people from the Region, which includes people from
                  beyond the municipal boundaries of Umtshezi.




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                  FIG 10:            PERCENTAGE    HIV   POSITIVE    CLIENTS                     IN
                                     OKHAHLAMBA/ UMTSHEZI SUB DISTRICT


                                                       % of HIV Positive Clients
                       Jan     Feb     Mar     Apr     May     Jun      Jul    Aug   Sep   Oct   Nov   Dec
                     59.3% 69.6% 61.2% 64.6% 69.6% 74.2% 66.7% 56.9% 61.9% 71.8% 57.5% 63.3%




                            A total number of 1069 clients were tested during 2000 – This total
                            excludes Mnambithi sub-district – as they did not submit HIV/ AIDS
                            data for 2000.
                            Average of 64.7% of the Clients who were Tested for HIV were found
                            to be HIV Positive.
                            An average of 24.6% of clients come back to the Counselor for Post-
                            test counseling.

                            Source: Annual Statistical Report – 2000, Uthukela District, DJ
                            Govender



                  HIV/AIDS will have demographic, economic, social and
                  developmental impacts. (Refer to Annexure III: Impact of AIDS.)
                  From recent studies, it is apparent that by the year 2005, 19.5%
                  of the South African population will be HIV positive. These
                  projections are based on modeling undertaken by the South
                  African Insurance industry, as illustrated overleaf.




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Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                        FIG 11: HIV/AIDS DATA 1997 – 2005 FOR SOUTH AFRICA

            1997         1998                                  1999                                        2000                      2001                           2002                       2003               2004         2005
#HIV    +   2127906      2597926                               3053222                                     3474845                   3870873                        4235374                    4577189            4886566      5161047
adult
#HIV    +   87097        114368                                143698                                      173018                    200597                         226073                     249536             271255       291087
children
AIDS        17629        24647                                 32713                                       41508                     50471                          59064                      67079              74492        81361
cases
children
AIDS        14089        19115                                 24733                                       30649                     36499                          42032                      47172              51932        56325
deaths
children
Orphans     60410        96125      147056      216817      308837     425490     567686      734208                                                                                                                           921394
                        Note : Adult is 15 to 59, children 0 to 14, orphans are children from 0 to 14
                        who lost mother due to AIDS

                        Source : Town and Regional Planning Commission Report : The Impact of
                        HIV/ AIDs on Planning Issues in KwaZulu-Natal

                        Demographic impacts in Umtshezi will include changes in:
                                         Mortality and Morbidity
                                         Life expectancy
                                         Fertility
                                         Population size and growth
                                         Dependency Ratio
                                         The number of orphans
                        While an increase in morbidity (illness) and mortality (death) can
                        be expected, this is not likely to result in a negative population
                        growth. The population structure will change with higher death
                        rates amongst those less than five years of age and those in the
                        reproductive years, as illustrated below.
                        FIG 12: ANNUAL MORTALITY BY AGE: 1996
                            % of People Dying Per Year




                                                         16%
                                                         14%
                                                         12%
                                                         10%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    AIDS
                                                          8%
                                                          6%                                                                                                                                                        No AIDS
                                                          4%
                                                          2%
                                                          0%
                                                                     5 - 9 years
                                                                                   10 - 14 years




                                                                                                                                                                                                            80+
                                                               0-4




                                                                                                   15-19
                                                                                                            20-24
                                                                                                                    25-29
                                                                                                                            30-34
                                                                                                                                    35-39
                                                                                                                                            40-44
                                                                                                                                                    45-49
                                                                                                                                                            50-54
                                                                                                                                                                    55-59
                                                                                                                                                                            60-64
                                                                                                                                                                                    65-69
                                                                                                                                                                                            70-74
                                                                                                                                                                                                    75-79




                                                                                                                             Age Groupings



                        Source :                                        Town and Regional Planning Commission Report : The
                                                                        Impact of HIV/ AIDS on Planning Issues in KwaZulu-Natal



                                                                                                                                                                                                                          19

      Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                  Details of the expected impact on fertility, population size,
                  dependency ratios, number of orphans, economics, social
                  relations and development, are outlined in Annexure III.

                  In order to plan for the development of Umtshezi, care must be
                  taken in using past norms and standards that may need to
                  change as a result of HIV/AIDS. In particular, these are norms
                  and standards relating to education, health facilities, and social
                  welfare including orphanages, cemeteries and housing. The
                  Town and Regional Planning Commission report on the Impact
                  of HIV/AIDS has developed a checklist in this regard, illustrated
                  on page 42 of Annexure III.

         3.9      SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE: POST OFFICES AND POLICE
                  STATIONS

                  The social infrastructure in Umtshezi, in terms of Police Stations
                  and Post Offices, is relatively poor. There is an underprovision pf
                  Post Offices, and there are no postal services to the vast
                  majority of the Municipal area.

                  One of the priority issues identified by communities is the need
                  to improve safety and security. At present, there are police
                  stations at Weenen, Estcourt, Ntabamhlophe, and Loskop and
                  there is a satellite police station at Wembezi, as illustrated on
                  the map overleaf. These police stations each have their own
                  Community Policing Forums but are all under capacitated in
                  terms of resources and staff. (Refer to Figure 13 Below).

                  FIG 13: POLICE STATION STAFF SHORTAGES JANUARY 2002
                      Police        Type        Est.     Actual   Ideal   Shortage
                     Station                 Population   Staff  Staffing
                                              Served
                  Weenen             Full      23 184      25       33        8
                  Estcourt           Full      77 453      95      121       26
                  Wembezi         Satellite       -
                  Ntabamhlophe       Full      87 588      20       40       20
                  Loskop             Full      36 764      16       31       15
                  Source: SA Police Service: Management Services

                  The official crime statistics indicate a decline in crime from 3 875
                  incidents in the year 2000 to 2 455 in 2001 (37%). This is a
                  significant reduction but crime, particularly the threat to
                  “personal safety”, remains at an unacceptably high level and is a
                  priority issue for the area. (Refer to Section 14). The breakdown
                  of crime statistics for the area for the period 1999 to 2001 is
                  attached as Annexure IV.




                                                                                     20

Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
4.       TECHNICAL MATTERS

                   Technical issues deal with services standards, services, and
                   housing. Each of these is dealt with under a separate heading
                   below.

                   In the Umtshezi Sub-regional Plan: Strategic Framework, (Scott
                   Wilson 2000) it was noted that, “ The region is characterized by
                   the inadequate provision of social and physical infrastructure. It
                   is estimated that in the sub-region, 5 600 households do not
                   have access to a minimum level of water services, 6 700
                   households have inadequate road access, 7 000 households are
                   without adequate sanitation, 10 000 households do not have
                   electricity, and the health of 11 000 households is jeopardized
                   by inadequate refuse removal services. These backlogs are
                   concentrated in tribal areas as well as in the Weenen District.”

         4.1       Standards

                   Typical standards could be used, such as those used in the
                   Lovu Structure Plan. These are illustrated below.
                   FIG 14: PLANNING STANDARDS

                                     Facility                                                1
                                                                                  Standard
                   Education :
                   Primary School                                 1/450 – 550 Dwelling Units
                   Secondary School                               1/1 350 – 1 500 Dwelling Units
                   Other                                          N/A
                   Health Facilities :
                   Neighbourhood Clinic                           1/1 350 – 5 500 Dwelling Units
                   Community Health Centre                        11/8 000 – 10 000 Dwelling Units
                   Community Hospital                             1 per sub-region
                   Social and Welfare :
                   Crèche                                         1/400 – 600 Dwelling Units
                   Children’s Home                                1/200 000people
                   Old Age Home                                   1/20 000people
                   Orphanage                                      1/town
                   Place of Safety                                1/200 000 Dwelling Units
                   Other :
                   Cemetery                                       1 ha per 200 Dwelling units

                   Source: Town and Regional Planning Commission Report: The Impact of
                   HIV/AIDS on Planning Issues in KwaZulu-Natal

                   In determining standards to be applied for engineering services,
                   the Guidelines for Human Settlement Planning and Design
                   published by CSIR Building and Construction Technology,


1
 The standards are based on those included in the Lovu Structure Plan and standards communicated by the Dept of
Town and Regional Planning, University of Natal                                                               21

Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                  (commonly known as the “Red Book”) should first be
                  considered.

                  The Red Book goes into considerable detail in recommending
                  standards. A full comparison of the existing infrastructure with
                  these standards would however require acquisition of detail such
                  as, as-built drawings of roads and drainage structures, as well
                  as back-analysis of water reticulation networks.

                  The infrastructure described in this Phase 1 report presents only
                  an overview of the existing situation. Much of what follows under
                  the heading “Standards” is a synopsis of The Red Book.

         4.2      Housing

                  The majority (53%) of the people in Umtshezi have what is
                  described as a “House Site”. This implies a place to erect a
                  dwelling. Almost a third (28%) of the people in the Local
                  Authority area live in formal housing, consisting of single
                  dwelling units. A small percentage (6%) lives in flats,
                  townhouses or retirement villages.

                  While no people are technically homeless, there is a need to
                  provide housing for almost 60% of people who are inadequately
                  housed, as illustrated in the following figure:




                                                                                   22

Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                    FIG 15:             DWELLING TYPES

                 Amount           %                                     Graph
House Site         5 014        52.81
  Trade
                  2 657          27.98
 Dwelling
    Flat            421          4.43
Townhouse           106          1.12
Retirement
                    19           0.20
  Village
 Building
                    401          4.22
 Backyard
 Informal
                     38          0.40
 Backyard
 Informal
                    564          5.94
   Other
   Room
  Flatlet            96          1.01
  Shared
Caravan /
                     29          0.31
  Tent
 None /
                      -            -
Homeless
   Other              7          0.07
Unspecified         114          1.20

Institutional
                     29          0.31
   Hostel

   Total          9 495       100.00
                    Source: 1996 Census as supplied by uThukela PIMSS office

                    The demand for housing is not only in the more urban areas but
                    also in the rural areas. The Department of Housing has noted a
                    demand for the “settlement type” of Land Reform applications in
                    the areas around Estcourt-Bergville (Redistribution Projects:
                    Refer to Section 6). Three potential rural housing projects have
                    been identified namely: Gujini, Middelplaats and Frere.

                    Gujini is a Restitution Project that is currently being dealt with by
                    the Commission on Restitution of Land Rights. It is expected
                    that Land for 1074 sites for this project will be allocated shortly,
                    after which a rural housing project will be required.

                    Middleplaats is Redistribution Project of 400 sites currently being
                    considered by the Uthukela Land Reform Office. This project will
                    assist in easing the demand for land in the Weenen area.

                    Frere is a growing informal settlement around the St. Gregory
                                                                                       23

  Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                  College. A comprehensive Development Plan is required for this
                  area.
                  The above projects have been incorporated into the Provincial
                  Housing Development Plan.

                  A comprehensive Housing Development Strategy and action
                  Plan that incorporates these projects, is required for Umtshezi.

         4.3      Water

                  4.3.1 Water Standards
                  The provision of clean potable water is seen as the most
                  important service for the Council to deliver to the community.
                  The recent Government requirement for the free supply of 6000
                  litres of water a month to every household, should be paramount
                  in determining the standards to be applied.

                  The Department of Water Affairs and Forestry and the
                  Department of Health lay down water quality guidelines. These
                  relate to microbiological aspects, chemical and physical aspects
                  and organic pollution.

                  While a large part of the area under the Council’s jurisdiction will
                  be supplied by the conventional distribution of treated water via
                  a reticulation network, much of the rural population is dependent
                  on springs, wells and boreholes and streams for their water
                  supply.     These alternative sources of supply will require
                  improvement and maintenance to meet the general need for
                  clean water.

                  In many cases, water obtained from a particular source will
                  require some treatment before being distributed for domestic
                  use. Water obtained from boreholes, protected wells, protected
                  springs and harvested rainfall often requires little or no
                  treatment. Most surface water will require treatment, both to
                  remove turbidity and for disinfection.

                  Distribution and storage.
                  The elements of a water distribution and storage system in the
                  urban environment include some or all of the following:
                   Bulk water transmission systems
                   Bulk storage reservoirs
                   Intermediate storage reservoirs
                   Distribution networks
                   Terminal consumer installations

                  Demand for Water.
                  This is based on historical consumption but where water
                  consumption records are not available, present consumption per
                  capita can be estimated by consulting the residents.
                                                                                    24

Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                  Factors influencing water demand are:
                   The type of sanitation system
                   The development level.
                   Topography
                   Water quality
                   Water tariff.
                   Metering and cost-recovery mechanisms.

                  Water storage.
                  The purpose of storing water is to meet balancing requirements
                  and to cater for emergencies (e.g. fire fighting) or planned
                  shutdowns.

                  Storage in Reservoirs.
                  Where water is obtained from a bulk water supply authority, the
                  storage capacity provided should comply with the requirements
                  of that authority. A storage capacity of 48 hours of annual
                  average daily demand is suggested, although there may be
                  situations where 24 hours will suffice.

                  Distribution networks.
                  Service reservoirs should be located as close to the distribution
                  network as possible. Among other aspects, the design of
                  distribution networks must consider:
                   Maximum head
                   Minimum head
                   Minimum pipe sizes
                   The use of the minimum number of different pipe sizes to
                      reduce stock for maintenance and repair.

                  Terminal consumer installations are those points where
                  consumers obtain their water. These are commonly:
                   Public standpipes
                   Water kiosks
                   Water tanks with taps
                   Yard taps
                   Yard tanks
                   Roof tanks
                   House connections (single or multiple taps)
                   Hand pumps
                  The selection of water-supply terminals for a community
                  depends on a number of factors. The most important of these
                  are:
                   Size of population
                   Distribution of population
                   Affordability of system (for agency/users)
                   Selected method of cost recovery
                                                                                   25

Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                     Unit cost to end-user
                     Long-term maintenance requirements

                  4.3.2 Water Supply
                  The Umtshezi Local Authority area has good natural water
                  sources from rivers in three different catchment areas, namely:
                   Bushmans and Little Bushmans River Catchment (Estcourt
                     vicinity)
                   Tugela River Catchment (Northern areas)
                   Mooi River Catchment (Southern areas)

                  Salient information on the sub-catchment areas of these rivers is
                  illustrated in the following figure.

                  FIG 16: SUB- CATCHMENT AREAS

   SUB CATCHMENT                   AREA         MEAN          MEAN ANNUAL          AFFOREST-
                                           ANNUAL RUN- PRECIPITATION                 ATION
                                                 OFF
                                 HA           10*6XM*3              MM                KM*2
V14c TUGELA RIVER               2100             20.7               790                21
V20a Mooi River                 1163              84               1025              11.63
V20b Little Mooi River         701.6             53.3               972              7.016
V20c Little Mooi River          1364             50.5               953              13.64
V20d Little Mooi River         1622.6            51.4               857              16.226
V20e Mooi River                2114.3            53.1               755              21.143
V20f Mooi River                2315.4            27.1               867              23.154
V70c Bushmans River            3032.5            60.2               877              30.325
                 Source: Department of Agriculture and Environment, 2000

                  The presence of these water sources has led to the
                  consideration of Thukela Valley as one of the largest
                  development opportunities in the Province. However, the
                  Kwazulu–Natal Cabinet decided in 1997 that this was not a
                  Provincial priority. (Umtshezi Economic Regeneration Study,
                  August 200.) The presence of these water resources has led to
                  the recent investigations into two large dam projects for the
                  area, the Mielietuin and Jana Dams. It is envisaged that these
                  dams will be used primarily for supplying the Vaal River Transfer
                  Scheme with additional water for the Gauteng Province.

                  The Water Service Authority for the Umtshezi Municipality is the
                  Uthukela District Municipality and the Water service Provider is
                  the Umtshezi Municipality.

                  Water for Estcourt / Wembezi is abstracted from the Bushman’s
                  River (405 kl/day) and the Wagendrift Dam (8 750 kl/day).

                  The urban areas of Weenen and Estcourt have an adequate
                  supply of water, with Estcourt having a surplus of ±10 Megalitres
                  per day. The rural areas are poorly supplied. Approximately
                  three quarters of the people (73%) of Umtshezi area have
                                                                                          26

Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                  access to clean water, either in their dwelling (46%) or from on-
                  site taps (12%) or public taps (15%). The remaining quarter of
                  the population does not have access to clean water, with 16% of
                  people utilizing “natural” sources such as rivers, as illustrated in
                  the following figure.
                  FIG 17: WATER

                Amount         %                                    Graph
  Dwelling
                  4 353       45.96

   Onsite
                  1 109       11.71

 Public Tap
                  1 395       14.73

   Tanker
                    94        0.99

  Borehole
                   725        7.65

   Natural
                  1 556       16.43

    Other
                   157        1.66

Unspecified         83        0.88

   TOTAL          9 472     100.00
                  Source: 1996 Census as supplied by uThukela PIMSS office

                  The application of the free quota of water in the Umtshezi area
                  will be difficult, due to the lack of adequate water infrastructure.

                  As Estcourt has spare water production capacity, consideration
                  should be given to connecting areas such as Cornfields and
                  Thembalihle by pipeline to Estcourt for water supply.

                  Many individual rural residents have to arrange their own supply
                  of water from springs or streams.


                  Estcourt Supply Details
                  Of the total connections supplied by Estcourt Municipality,
                  approximately 4 912 are residential consumer accounts (serving
                  ±20 000 users), 94 are industrial consumer accounts and 337
                  are other accounts.

                  The service level for industrial accounts is reported to be 100%
                  adequate.

                  Service quality is such that there are approximately 35 service
                  complaints per year. These are attended to on the same day as
                  the complaint is received.                                    27

Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                  Metering and Billing
                   ±6% of yard taps are metered
                   60% of house connections are metered.
                   100% of metered consumers are billed monthly.
                  There are no consumers on a prepaid supply system.

                  The present tariff is 95 cents per kilolitre with the first 3 kilolitres
                  being provided free to registered indigent persons in Estcourt.

                  Treatment Works
                  Estcourt has two treatment works:
                   Archie Rodel Water Works is currently running at a capacity
                     of 8 Ml/day.
                   George Cross Water Works is currently running at a capacity
                     of 12 Ml/day.

                  The following supplementary information has been obtained
                  from the Umtshezi Sub-Regional Development Plan Perspective
                  Report - May 2000 - by Scott Wilson Planning and Development
                  Resources.

                  The raw water supply to Estcourt is from the Wagendrift dam on the
                  Bushmans River. Raw water is abstracted from the dam and treated at
                  a water treatment works that runs at 60-70% of its capacity. Bulk
                  storage reservoirs in the TLC generally have 48 hrs of storage, and
                  from these storage reservoirs bulk water mains and pump stations
                  feed into the reticulation. The bulk mains and the pump stations are at
                  approximately 60% of their capacity.

                  There are currently no technical difficulties in supplying water to any
                  area in the TLC. Of the 8000 sites in the area, all have metered water
                  connections in Estcourt and only 10% of those in Wembezi are
                  metered. The balance of those in Wembezi is either unmetered
                  connections or standpipes.

                  With a current project underway to meter the balance of Wembezi,
                  there are no major needs for water supplies in the area that are not
                  being met at present.

                  There is currently a CMIP application in place for a R 500,000 bulk
                  water project at Mimosadale.
                  (Umtshezi Sub-Regional Development Plan Perspective Report - May 2000 - Scott
                  Wilson Planning and Development Resources)

                  Weenen
                  Weenen’s water treatment works is a complex high-technology
                  operation not suited to the town’s needs. Maintenance inputs
                  are too high, resulting in excessively high production costs and
                  as a result, the water tariff is presently high at R2.20 per kilolitre.

                                                                                             28

Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                  The water works is situated in Paterson Street and is currently
                  running at a capacity of 1 Ml/day. There are 994 un-metered
                  connections in Weenen.

                  The following supplementary information has been obtained
                  from the Umtshezi Sub-Regional Development Plan Perspective
                  Report    - May 2000 – by Scott Wilson Planning and
                  Development Resources.

                  The raw water supply to Weenen is from the Bushmans River. A weir
                  on the river upstream of the town feeds an irrigation canal, which
                  follows the river downstream past the town. An abstraction point on
                  the canal sends water to a treatment works, which has a capacity of
                  60 kl/hr. From the treatment works water is pumped into the Weenen
                  reticulation system, and is also pumped to a reservoir that feeds water
                  by gravity to Kwanababa.

                  There is currently a CMIP application in place to do a R 1.2 million
                  upgrade of the canal.
                  (Umtshezi Sub-Regional Development Plan Perspective Report - May 2000 - Scott
                  Wilson Planning and Development Resources)



                  The following supplementary information has been obtained
                  from the Weenen Local Development Plan – November 2000 –
                  by Korsman & Van Wyk.

                  Treatment
                  Water is treated through a package system installed by LAM
                  Chemicals.

                  Bulk Supply
                  The present situation is as follows:

                  Capacity of the water treatment works amounts to 60kl per hour or
                  1,440 kl/day
                  Average total demand amounts to:
                  Weenen                 398 kl/day
                  Kwanobamba             466 kl/day
                  TOTAL                  865 kl/day
                  PEAK                 1 180 kl/day

                  Average demand per site amounts to:
                  Weenen             1 900 l/day
                  Kwanobamba            618 l/day

                  The average daily water demand per site is quite high and that can
                  possibly be contributed to losses in the network due to wastage,
                  leakage and breakages.

                  However, for the present and the foreseeable future, the capacity of
                  the water treatment works is considered sufficient.

                  Reservoir Capacity
                                                                                             29

Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                  Present capacity amounts to:
                  Water Plant            400 kl
                  Kwanobamba             800 kl
                  TOTAL               1 200 kl

                  Reservoir capacity allows only for 24 hours of storage. Additional
                  capacity (for a total of 48 hours) needs to be considered once water
                  losses have been addressed.

                  Reticulation
                  Water distribution in Kwanobamba occurs through reticulation to
                  communal standpipes at RDP standards.

                  In Weenen water is reticulated to 210 individual properties where it is
                  metered. This network is in a bad state of repair with leaks and
                  breakages occurring frequently. The estimated replacement cost in
                  November 2000 is estimated to be R 1 235 000.
                  (Weenen Local Development Plan – November 2000 – Korsman & Van Wyk)



                  Weenen has an additional unique water supply system in the
                  form of irrigation canals that were constructed in the late 19 th
                  and early 20th centuries. These continue to supply water for
                  agricultural and domestic use. The canals are in need of
                  continuous maintenance and major repairs in some areas.
                  There is a tendency for them to silt, changing the gradient and
                  hydraulic characteristics with the consequence of reduced
                  supply to users further along the system. Another problem is
                  leakage resulting from damage to the level part of the canals’
                  cross-section, caused either by natural means (root growth and
                  small animal burrows) or adjacent construction work.

                  A system of tariffs will need to be developed to charge water users for
                  the water that has actually been utilized, rather than the area under
                  irrigation.
                  (Weenen Local Development Plan – November 2000 – Korsman & Van Wyk)

                  Estcourt Complex: Wembezi and rural areas

                  Piped water systems originating at the Loskop dam or Tugela River
                  and augmented by groundwater abstractions, supply certain areas
                  with standpipes. There are also hand pumps associated with
                  boreholes in certain areas. These services, particularly the piped
                  water network, need to be extended into unserviced parts of the
                  complex.
                  (Umtshezi Sub-Regional Development Plan Perspective Report - May 2000 - Scott
                  Wilson Planning and Development Resources)




                                                                                             30

Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                  4.3.3 Strategy/Implications

                  A canal management strategy could be considered to improve
                  and maintain the canal system in Weenen, thus maximizing
                  delivery of irrigation water. The method of charging for canal
                  irrigation water should be reviewed.

                  An optimal rural water supply strategy would include:
                   The development of boreholes and springs to yield a
                     minimum of 10 litres of potable (but untreated) water per
                     person per day.
                   Small-scale treatment and reticulation networks to yield 25
                     litres per person per day for areas of closer settlement.
                   Bulk supply systems to provide 60 litres/person/day within
                     200 metres walking distance of the place of residence, in
                     keeping with the RDP.

         4.4      Sanitation

                  4.4.1 Standards

                  The requirements for sanitation can be separated into two
                  categories:
                   Urban areas that require offsite treatment of human waste.
                     The waste has to be transported from site to a treatment
                     works.
                   Rural areas where the cost of transportation prohibits offsite
                     disposal and waste matter must be disposed of on-site.

                  In each of the above cases, the option exists to add water to the
                  waste material being disposed of.

                  The Red Book identifies the four main categories of sanitation
                  systems in a table that is reproduced below:




                                                                                   31

Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                  FIG. 18: CATEGORIES OF SANITATION SYSTEMS

     WATER                     REQUIRING                    NO CONVEYANCE REQUIRED
                              CONVEYANCE                   (treatment, or partial treatment,
                                                                       on site)

No Water Added                    GROUP 1                               GROUP 2
                                                                  Ventilated improved pit toilet
                              Chemical Toilet                   Ventilated improved double-pit
                                                                                           toilet
                                                                          Ventilated vault toilet
                                                                 Continuous composting toilet


  Water Added                   GROUP 3                                  GROUP 4
                          Full waterborne      Flushing toilet with septic tank and
                          sanitation              subsurface soil absorption field.
                         Flushing toilet with         Low-flow on-site sanitation
                         conservancy tank                       systems (LOFLOs)
                         Settled sewage system                     Aqua-privy toilet
                                                                   Pour-flush toilet
                                                                 Low-flush system
                                                              Low-flow septic tank


                  Group 1: No water added – requiring conveyance.
                  Chemical toilets store excreta in a holding tank, which contains a
                  chemical mixture to prevent odours caused by bacterial action.
                  The contents of the holding tank must be emptied periodically
                  and conveyed to a sewage works for treatment and disposal.
                  The system is particularly useful for sports events, construction
                  sites or other temporary applications where the users are
                  accustomed to the level of service provided by a waterborne
                  sanitation system.

                  Group 2: No water added – no conveyance.
                  The VIP toilet is a pit toilet with an external ventilation pipe. It is
                  both hygienic and inexpensive, provided that it is properly
                  designed, used and maintained.

                  It is possible to construct the entire toilet from local materials
                  although it is more usual to use commercial products for the vent
                  pipe and the pedestal. Several toilet superstructures are also
                  commercially available. When the pit is full, the superstructure,
                  pedestal, vent pipe and slab are normally moved to a freshly dug
                  pit and the old pit is covered with soil.

                  There are a number of variations on the VIP toilet for use in
                  areas where plots are small or difficult ground conditions are
                  encountered.
                                                                                               32

Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                  Group 3: Water added – requiring conveyance.
                  Full waterborne sanitation is an expensive option that requires
                  ongoing maintenance of the toilet installation, the sewer
                  reticulation and the treatment works. The system requires a
                  water supply connection to each property. Excreta is conveyed
                  by water in underground pipes, to a treatment works which may
                  be a considerable distance from the source. The treatment
                  works must be able to handle the high volume of liquid required
                  to convey the excreta.

                  The flushing toilet with conservancy tank system consists of a
                  standard flushing toilet that drains into a storage or conservancy
                  tank on the property. A vacuum tanker regularly conveys the
                  excrement to a central sewage treatment works for purification.

                  Settled sewage systems are also known as solids-free systems.
                  The solid portion of excreta (grit, grease and organic solids) is
                  retained on site in interceptor tanks (septic tanks) while the liquid
                  portion of the waste is drained from the site in a small diameter
                  sewer.

                  Group 4: water added – no conveyance.
                  In the flushing toilet with septic tank and subsurface soil
                  absorption system, water is used to flush the waste from a
                  conventional toilet pan into an underground septic tank, which
                  can be placed a considerable distance from the toilet. The septic
                  tank receives the sewage (toilet water and sullage) and the
                  solids digest and settle to the bottom of the tank in the same
                  manner as the settled sewage system.

                  The term LOFLOs refers to the group of on-site sanitation
                  systems, which use low volumes of water for flushing. (Less
                  than 2,5 litres per flush.) These systems include a pedestal,
                  digestion capacity and soakaway component.


                  4.4.2 Sanitation Supply
                  The provision of sanitation services correlates closely with the
                  provision of water as outlined in 4.3 above. The majority of
                  people in the Municipal area (83%) have access to sanitation. In
                  the urban areas of Estcourt, 98% of people have waterborne
                  sewerage and the remainder has pit latrines. In Wembezi, 85%
                  of households have waterborne sewerage. In Weenen, there is a
                  combination of septic tanks, conservancy tanks and pit latrines.
                  The oxidation pond for the area is however only 20% utilized
                  (Head: Civil Engineering Services.) Many people in Umtshezi
                  (17%) do not have sanitation facilities, as illustrated overleaf:



                                                                                     33

Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                  FIG 19: SANITATION

                Amount         %                                    Graph
    Flush
                  5 302       55.98

 Pit Latrine
                  2 478       26.16

   Bucket
   Latrine
                    57        0.60


    None
                  1 560       16.47



Unspecified         74        0.78


   TOTAL          9 471     100.00
                  Source: 1996 Census as supplied by uThukela PIMSS office

                  A comprehensive sanitation programme is needed to curtail the
                  spread of waterborne diseases, particularly cholera.

                  It is worth noting that the subsidy provided for housing schemes
                  does not fund waterborne sewerage, only VIPs, unless
                  geotechnical conditions can be proved unsuitable. New housing
                  therefore tends to skew data relating to the provision of
                  sewerage services.

                  Housing developments encounter problems with many
                  properties unable to discharge grey water to mid-block sewers.
                  Grey water is discharged to unlined open drains in the road
                  reserve, causing erosion and in some instances, the unsanitary
                  ponding of foul water.

                  Treatment Works
                  Estcourt has two treatment works:
                   Estcourt, located at Kemps Road, has a treatment capacity
                     of 9 Ml/day and discharges 6 Ml/day of effluent.
                   Wembezi, which has a treatment capacity of 3 Ml/day and
                     discharges 2 Ml/day of effluent.

                  Effluent discharge meets required standards except for e-coli.
                  Independent consultants monitor discharge water quality and
                  water quality records are available.

                                                                                   34

Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                  Sludge disposal is by means of lagoons and drying beds.

                  The treatment works have expansion capacity but additions
                  and/or replacement will only be required in 10 to 20 years’ time.
                  The works are considered adequate, however, a desirable
                  improvement would be the construction of chemical contact
                  chambers to improve disinfection of effluent discharge.


                  Reticulation network
                  The Estcourt reticulation network is generally in good condition
                  and feeds to the treatment works by both gravity and pumping.

                  The following supplementary information has been obtained
                  from the (Umtshezi Sub-Regional Development Plan
                  Perspective Report - May 2000 – by Scott Wilson Planning and
                  Development Resources.

                  Both Estcourt and Wembezi have a sewerage treatment works. Of all
                  sites in the area approximately 90% are on waterborne sewage and
                  10% are on pit latrines. At present the Estcourt works is running at
                  about 70% of its organic load and about 60% of its hydraulic load.

                  The Wembezi works is running at 50% of its organic load and is at
                  capacity (100%) of its hydraulic load. The trunk sewers and pump
                  stations feeding into the Estcourt works are currently running at about
                  70% of their capacity. There are technical difficulties in providing
                  waterborne sewerage to Section C of Wembezi.
                  (Umtshezi Sub-Regional Development Plan Perspective Report - May 2000 - Scott
                  Wilson Planning and Development Resources)



                  Weenen
                  There is a fundamental problem with Weenen’s sewage
                  treatment works in that it is at a higher elevation than the area
                  that it serves, requiring sewage to be collected from low points
                  by tanker and transported to the works for processing.

                  Weenen’s treatment works is situated at Kwanobamba and has
                  a treatment capacity of 0,5 Ml/day.

                  The following supplementary information has been obtained
                  from reports as acknowledged at the end of the relevant
                  paragraphs:

                  There is no waterborne sewage in Weenen. The Weenen area is
                  serviced by conservancy tanks and septic tanks, and the Kwanababa
                  area is serviced by pit latrines. All of these are regularly de-sludged
                  and the trucks deposit the sludge at the local sewerage works, which
                  consists of maturation ponds. The number of houses in Weenen and
                  Kwanababa suggests a population of approximately 5100 and the
                  works has recently been upgraded to cater for a population of 12000.
                                                                                             35

Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                  (Umtshezi Sub-Regional Development Plan Perspective Report - May 2000 - Scott
                  Wilson Planning and Development Resources)




                  The treatment works is situated approximately halfway between
                  Weenen and Kwanobamba. This is a pond system that allows for the
                  drying of sludge and evaporation of moisture. The works is able to
                  treat septic tank effluent for approximately 1 200 sites. At present
                  sanitation is managed on site as follows:

                  Weenen:
                  The effluent of approximately 100 sites is treated at the evaporation
                  ponds. On site systems such as French drains occur elsewhere.

                  Kwanobamba:
                  All sites have been provided with a VIP toilet system and no effluent is
                  treated at the ponds.

                  On site sanitation
                  The maintenance of the VIP toilet system in Kwanobamba is posing a
                  problem to the municipality. Contamination of the sub-terranean water
                  is very probable and once full, the pits must be emptied.
                  (Weenen Local Development Plan – November 2000 – Korsman & Van Wyk)



                  Estcourt Complex: Wembezi and rural areas
                  The only form of formal sanitation in the area is VlPs. This appears to
                  be the only practical solution for sewage disposal in the medium term.
                  However, more of these are required throughout the area to provide a
                  basic level of service to new areas.
                  (Umtshezi Sub-Regional Development Plan Perspective Report - May 2000 - Scott
                  Wilson Planning and Development Resources)



                  4.4.3 Strategy / Implications
                  In rural areas, the minimum provision of a properly constructed
                  VIP latrine for each family should be considered.

                  An education project to increase community awareness
                  regarding the health hazards of un-hygienic sewage disposal
                  should also be considered.

         4.5      Electricity

                  The urban areas of Estcourt and Wembezi all have electrical
                  supplies, except for the new housing development of
                  Mimosadale, which will be supplied shortly. The rural areas of
                  Umtshezi are poorly supplied. The Local Authority does not have
                  a license from Eskom to supply these areas. The setting of local
                  Municipal supply standards and strategies is a fruitless exercise
                  until such time as the Local Authority obtains the rights to supply
                  electricity.
                                                                                             36

Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                  As with water, the provision of a free quota of electricity to all
                  sub-economic households will be difficult, due to the lack of
                  appropriate infrastructure. The present level of provision is low,
                  with approximately half the households (49%) in the Municipal
                  area utilizing gas, paraffin or candles, as illustrated in the
                  following figure:
                  FIG 20:           ELECTRICITY

                  Amount        %                                   Graph
 Municipality
                    4 561      48.16

 Municipality
   Other              71       0.71

      Gas
                      27       0.29

   Paraffin
                     243       2.57

   Candles
                    4 417      46.64

Other Source
                       2       0.02

                               1.58
 Unspecified         150


     Total          9 471     100.00
                  Source: 1996 Census as supplied by uThukela PIMSS office

         4.6      Roads

                  4.6.1 Road Standards
                  The N3 Toll Road connecting Durban and Gauteng is a National
                  Road and as such does not form part of the IDP.

                  Although Provincial Main Roads are the responsibility of the
                  KwaZulu-Natal Department of Transport, where these pass
                  through established urban areas, they should conform to the
                  various elements of design given in the Red Book. These would
                  include, adequate skid resistance, appropriate design speed,
                  operating speed, correct sight distances and correct horizontal
                  and vertical geometries.

                  Collector roads and local streets should conform to the same
                  criteria but at a level appropriate to their usage.

                  The structural design of the pavements in an urban environment
                  cannot be done in isolation. Design must take into account
                  funding mechanisms, the ability to execute maintenance when
                  required, the ability of the end users to pay, appropriate
                  standards and environmental impact. All these factors will 37
Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                  influence the structural design process. These issues cannot be
                  quantified numerically in the design process. By their nature,
                  roads and transport routes in general, can be environmentally
                  intrusive. It is important to construct them so that their impact on
                  the environment is as small as possible. Some of the impacts
                  associated with the construction, maintenance and use of roads
                  have been identified and are summarized below:
                   Physical characteristics of the site and surroundings
                   Ecological characteristics of the site and surroundings
                   Current and potential land use and landscape character
                   Cultural resources, Socio-economic characteristics of the
                      affected public
                   Adjacent and associated infrastructure services
                   Social and community services and facilities
                   The nature and level of present and future environmental
                      pollution
                   Health and safety

                  Risk/Safety
                  Where a Local Authority is responsible for the costs of
                  construction and maintenance, the structural design must take
                  into account the affordability of construction and maintenance
                  costs. In informal settlements there may be unknown and
                  unclassified street systems, and arterial routes may be graveled.
                  Safety levels can be lower on informal streets, which may be
                  taken over by the Local Authority. Safety levels must be related
                  to road usage. Higher risk can be accommodated on lower-
                  usage roads, while lower risk should be applied to main routes
                  and arterial roads.

                  Stormwater
                  Topography plays a large role in the structural design of streets
                  and related drainage. Other factors that influence the design and
                  standards of stormwater drainage include maintenance costs
                  and the need for protection from erosion.

                  Unpaved streets
                  In rolling and mountainous terrain, there may be steep gradients
                  which cause the erosion of gravel streets and, in particular,
                  erosion of their drainage facilities. This has direct implications for
                  safety and functional use.

                  The use of the road surface, or of surface channels to
                  accommodate minor stormwater flows can be more appropriate
                  than the use of piped systems in certain instances. In areas
                  where regular maintenance of piped systems does not take
                  place, surface systems are more appropriate.


                                                                                      38

Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                  4.6.2 Road Provision
                  Public Road Transport
                  The primary mode of public transport is mini-bus taxis. The
                  major taxi route is Estcourt – Wembezi. Taxis also provide
                  services to all parts of Umtshezi, based on demand.

                  Estcourt has a formal taxi rank with a surfaced area of
                  approximately 10 000 m². Management of the rank was
                  delegated to three taxi Associations. The management of this
                  rank is reported to be unsatisfactory. The main concerns with
                  the management of the rank relate to:
                   No organization of parking
                   Vehicles are repaired and washed amongst passengers (no
                     designated areas)
                   Informal traders operating without any apparent control.
                   Passengers’ comfort and safety is compromised.

                  There are 5 privately owned buses in Estcourt and 3 in Weenen.
                  The buses provide a limited services to surrounding areas and
                  do not play a significant role in public transport for the area.

                  Provincial Roads
                  MR 29, the Wembezi/Ntabanhlope road, needs upgrading.

                  On the R103, traffic volumes are increasing through Estcourt but
                  the town receives no payment from KZN-DOT for maintenance.
                  This road needs upgrading largely due to heavy truck traffic
                  avoiding the toll route.

                  The MR10 needs upgrading and rehabilitation.

                  Estcourt Roads
                  All main roads in Estcourt are surfaced. However, the roads are
                  not in a good condition and as a result, they are not utilized to
                  their full capacity. The main roads, MR29 and MR10, are in
                  particular need of upgrading. Of the minor roads in the area,
                  about 25% are gravel roads. The existing minor roads need
                  upgrading. No need has currently been identified for additional
                  main or minor roads in the Estcourt area and no expansion of
                  the road network is planned. There is currently a Consolidated
                  Municipal Infrastructure Programme (CMIP) Application in place
                  for R350 000 for bulk roads in Mimosadale. The main routes in
                  the Municipal area are illustrated on the Transport Map overleaf.

                  The present road inventory is:
                   Provincial Main Roads        ±10,3 km
                   Local Council surfaced roads ±100 km
                   Local Council graveled roads ±14,2 km

                                                                                   39

Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                  Estcourt town roads need maintenance. A Pavement
                  Management System is in place but insufficient funds are
                  allocated for its implementation. Major road intersections are
                  showing damage caused by turning movements (scuffing) of
                  heavy vehicles, many of which travel through the town to avoid
                  the N3 toll road.

                  Road maintenance is generally short of funding and is limited to
                  pothole and patch repairs as needed. The Estcourt road asset
                  value is estimated at R63 million but the allocated maintenance
                  budget is only 1% of this. Ideally maintenance spending should
                  be in the order of 20% of capital value. In the 2001/2002
                  budget, R15 million was requested for maintenance and
                  necessary reconstruction but only R1, 4 million was allocated for
                  re-sealing work.


                  There are also sections of roads where localized re-alignment is
                  highly desirable.

                  All main roads in Estcourt are surfaced. Higher traffic flows could be
                  accommodated on these roads. However the roads are not in good
                  condition and in particular the MR 29 and the MR 10 need upgrading.
                  No further main roads are needed or are being planned. Of the minor
                  roads in the area, approximately 25% are gravel. There is no need for
                  any further minor roads in the TLC, but there is a need for the existing
                  minor roads to be upgraded.
                  (Umtshezi Sub-Regional Development Plan Perspective Report - May 2000 - Scott
                  Wilson Planning and Development Resources)

                  CMIP applications are pending for a road project in Mimosadale,
                  the upgrade of Wembezi roads and the Kwanabamba bus route.


                  Weenen Roads
                  Apart from the Provincial main road and one or two town roads
                  that are asphalt surfaced, most roads in Weenen have gravel
                  surfaces and are in need of maintenance and improvement.

                  The provincial main road which runs through Weenen is tarred while
                  most of [he internal roads within the town are comprised of gravel
                  roads. The main access route between Weenen and KwaNobamba is
                  gravel and is in good condition. Circulation of traffic within the town
                  has been improved by the construction of a further bridge across the
                  Bushmans River, which provides alternative access to and from
                  KwaNobamba.

                  There are two sites within Weenen which are reserved as Taxi sites
                  on lots 18 3217m2) and Sub 1/13 of lot 101 (4820m2).

                  There is an existing airstrip to the west of the town, which is used for
                  private aircraft.

                                                                                             40

Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                  The railway line to Weenen has been closed since 1983 because it
                  was under-utilized and not cost effective. There are still potential uses
                  for the railway line for tourism purposes.

                  Provincial roads
                  The portion of provincial road (tarred) traversing through the municipal
                  area measures approximately 10,7km.


                  District road
                  The portion of the district road connector (gravel) from the provincial
                  road to Sun Valley, traversing through the municipal area, measures
                  approximately 7,5 km.


                  Bus and Taxi routes
                  The main bus and/or taxi route is the link road between Weenen and
                  Kwanobamba. This gravel road (2,5 km) is in a bad state of repair and
                  requires upgrading.


                  Other Municipal roads
                  Weenen core area:
                  Total length:         14,35km
                  Length tarred:         3,30km
                  Length graveled:      11,05km

                  Weenen farm roads
                  The total length amounts to more than 14,25km.

                  Kwanobamba
                  The total length amounts to more than 13,62km of gravel road.
                  (Weenen Local Development Plan – November 2000 – Korsman & Van Wyk)

                  Some important transportation routes pass through the Umtshezi
                  sub-region. These include the following:

                     The N3 Toll Road which links the port facilities of Durban with
                      Gauteng.
                     The main national rail which also links Durban to Gauteng.

                  These are National and Provincial assets and are the
                  responsibility of the National and Provincial Authorities. General
                  observation has indicated that the level of service provision in
                  Traditional areas is very low. The roads in the previous TLCs are
                  chiefly divided into main and minor roads.




                                                                                         41

Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                  4.6.3 Roads Strategy/Implications
                  The KwaZulu-Natal Department of Transport should be
                  approached to carry out or fund improvements to the MR29 and
                  the MR10.

                  The KZN-DOT should be asked to fund repairs and
                  improvements to mitigate damage caused by heavy vehicles to
                  the R103 through Estcourt and particularly the Estcourt CBD.

                  A management strategy for the Estcourt taxi rank should be
                  considered.

                  In the already developed areas, particularly where Pavement
                  Management Systems have been commissioned, funding should
                  be allocated to facilitate their full implementation.

                  Road management systems should be extended to the entire
                  municipal area.

                  The relevant responsibilities between Umtshezi Municipality and
                  the Provincial Roads Department should be defined particularly
                  with regard to maintenance of rural roads.

         4.7      Stormwater

                  4.7.1 Stormwater Management Standards
                  Stormwater management is based on:
                   The need to protect the health, welfare and safety of the
                     public, and to protect property from flood hazards by safely
                     routing and discharging stormwater from developments
                   Improving the quality of life of affected communities
                   Conserving water and making it available to the public for
                     beneficial uses
                   The need to preserve the natural environment
                   Creating a sustainable environment while pursuing economic
                     development
                   Providing the optimum methods of controlling runoff in an
                     affordable manner to the beneficiaries

                  Certain legal and physical constraints to Planning and
                  Development have to be considered. The main constraints to
                  Development relate to the 20-year and 50-year flood planes,
                  which have to be determined. Developments within these flood
                  areas must be controlled.

                  Master drainage planning should be undertaken on a catchment-
                  wide basis, irrespective of urban and other man-made
                  boundaries. The environmental impact of the stormwater on that
                  catchment must be investigated and is the responsibility of the
                  controlling regional or local authority. Hydraulic routing of the
                                                                                   42

Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                  stormwater must be considered. In analyzing stormwater
                  drainage, consideration should be given to the use of open
                  spaces like parks, sports field, and transport circulation routes
                  for stormwater management.

                  Stormwater management within an urban area is the
                  responsibility of the Local Authority, however certain Central and
                  Provincial Government legislation has to be complied with:
                   The requirement to insert the 1-in-100 year flood lines on all
                     township development plans
                   Prevention of water pollution
                   Safety of dams
                   Alteration of a public stream
                   Auditing systems and records of decision
                   Mines and Works Act

                  Runoff can be stored in constructed dams but successful
                  detention of runoff can also be managed by:
                   Detention ponds
                   Overland flows as opposed to pipes
                   Maintaining pervious surfaces
                   Maintaining vegetation cover

                  Road Drainage: Surfaced roads
                  The main function of urban roads is the carrying of traffic.
                  However, they also have a stormwater management function.
                  During minor storm events, the two functions should not be in
                  conflict. During the major storm events, the traffic function will be
                  interrupted, the flood control function becomes more important
                  and the roads will act as channels. A well-planned road layout
                  can significantly reduce the total stormwater-system costs.

                  Road Drainage: Unsurfaced roads
                  Unsurfaced roads are susceptible to erosion.

                  Roads with steep gradients should, as far as possible, not be
                  used as drainage ways nor should any adjacent side drains
                  without proper erosion protection.

                  Runoff from earth or gravel roads will contain grit; the
                  conveyance of this runoff in pipes can eventually block or
                  damage the pipe network.

                  Open-channel systems can obviate this problem

                  4.7.2 Stormwater Provision

                  Estcourt
                  Conventional design parameters have been adopted for the
                  design of stormwater systems in the developed areas.   43

Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                  Weenen
                  All stormwater is surface controlled.
                  The area around the taxi rank has restricted runoff and creates swamp
                  like and unhygienic conditions during wet conditions. Consequently, a
                  proper drainage system should be constructed that can drain
                  stormwater to the Bushmans River over a distance of approximately
                  1 000 meters. The first portion of 600 meters will require a concrete or
                  similar type of lining.
                  Storm water causes many problems in Kwanobamba due to the slope
                  and the level of the water table.
                  (Weenen Local Development Plan – November 2000 – Korsman & Van Wyk)

                  Estcourt Complex: Wembezi and rural areas

                  Former township roads are in a satisfactory condition but
                  drainage improvements are required.         Residents have
                  expressed a preference for piped stormwater drainage systems
                  instead of open drains.

                  Gravel surfaced roads and graded access tracks appear to be an
                  appropriate level of service for the area for the time being, until traffic
                  volumes increase. However, to maintain this level of service in good
                  working order, it is important that funds are budgeted for ongoing
                  maintenance of these roads and tracks, particularly in the wet season.
                  (Umtshezi Sub-Regional Development Plan Perspective Report - May 2000 - Scott
                  Wilson Planning and Development Resources)

                  4.7.3 Strategy/Implications
                  A project should be considered for the upgrading of stormwater
                  drainage in the former township areas.

                  Settlement of land in areas adjacent to rivers and streams
                  should be continuously monitored particularly in the light of
                  legislation relating to floodlines.

                  Rural stormwater management should focus on erosion control
                  and the impact of stormwater discharge on settlement areas.

         4.8      Solid Waste

                  4.8.1 Solid Waste Standards
                  There are seven major categories of waste, the disposal of
                  which has to be considered.

                  FIG 21:           CATEGORIES OF SOLID WASTE

                 Domestic and household               Foodstuffs, garden rubbish, packaging
                 waste
                 Business and commercial              Paper, glass, packaging
                 waste
                 Sanitary waste                       Sewage etc. if there is no waterborne system
                 Non-hazardous industrial             Scrap metal, plastics, textiles
                 waste
                                                                                                 44

Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                 Construction waste                   Building rubble, scrap timber
                 Hospital and medical waste           Disposable syringes, swabs, dressings, body
                                                      tissue
                 Hazardous and toxic waste            Dangerous chemicals

                  Standards of waste collection need to be defined in accordance
                  with several factors, these include:
                   Affordability
                   Accessibility
                   Level of education
                   On-site storage facilities
                   Potential benefits
                   Available facilities and infrastructure
                   Distance to disposal site
                   Pollution potential

                  Small Contractor Collection Systems
                  Small Contractor or Communal collection is an option in poorly
                  developed areas. In these areas, householders or small
                  entrepreneurs place the waste in strategically positioned
                  containers for collection and disposal by large motorized refuse
                  vehicles.

                  Door-to-door Collection
                  Either the collection crew removes the waste container from the
                  premises and returns it after it is emptied, or the householder
                  places his or her refuse containers on the pavement, ready for
                  collection by the collection crew.

                  Flexibility of refuse collection is an important factor. While
                  mechanical systems of collection are efficient in urban
                  environments, this may be inappropriate for highly dense,
                  congested settlements

                  Options available for transporting collected waste for disposal
                  range from the basic handcart to technically sophisticated
                  compaction vehicles. Careful consideration of the local road
                  conditions, accessibility and topography of the area to be
                  serviced is needed before selecting any one of the options.

                  Street cleaning is necessary to deal with wind-blown litter and
                  illegal dumping of uncollected waste. If not controlled, these
                  become major contributors to blocked stormwater drains and
                  sewers

                  Transfer stations are facilities for transferring waste from the
                  collection vehicle to a more appropriate vehicle where longer
                  haul distances are necessary for final disposal. The need for a
                  transfer station and the degree of sophistication required will be

                                                                                                45

Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                  determined by the volume of waste generated, the collection
                  system implemented, and the distances to the disposal site.

                  The location of disposal points must be carefully planned to
                  ensure accessibility and acceptance by the community. These
                  collection points should not interfere with pedestrian movement,
                  nor create an eyesore or a public nuisance of dust and odour.

                  Final disposal will be to a landfill site, which must comply with
                  the requirements of the Department of Water Affairs & Forestry
                  (1994) as well as other relevant legislation.

                  The volume and content of waste will dictate the size and
                  classification of the landfill. There are generally only two distinct
                  types of landfill:

                   General waste landfills for waste normally produced within
                    residential and business communities
                   Hazardous waste landfills for waste which has the potential
                    to have adverse effects on both public health and the
                    environment.

                  4.8.2 Solid Waste Status and Removal
                  Refuse removal is largely confined to the urban parts of
                  Umtshezi, with 61% of refuse removal occurring through weekly
                  Municipal removals, as illustrated below:

                  FIG 22:           REFUSE REMOVAL

                  Amount        %                                   Graph
 Municipality
  Weekly              5 820   61.45

 Municipality
   Other               49      0.52

  Communal
    Dump              177      1.87

 Own Dump
                      2 133   22.52

 No Disposal
                      1 133   11.96

     Other
                       14      0.15

 Unspecified          145      1.53
                  Source: 1996 Census as supplied by uThukela PIMSS office

                  There is a fully licensed solid waste disposal site for the urban
                  areas of Estcourt and Wembezi. However the Weenen waste 46

Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                  disposal site is experiencing a number of major problems. There
                  is an urgent need for a District or Regional disposal site and the
                  means of transporting waste for disposal.

                  The following additional information (in italics) has been
                  obtained from the Umtshezi Sub-Regional Development Plan
                  Perspective Report (May 2000) by Scott Wilson Planning and
                  Development Resources and supplied by the Uthukela PIMSS
                  Office.

                  Estcourt
                  Estcourt TLC has a DWAF registered Class 2 solid waste disposal site
                  situated on Rem of Sub of Beaconhill of Zaailager. The site has an
                  expected life of a further 2 years, and the selection of a proposed new
                  site is in progress and a preliminary survey has been conducted.

                  The entire area has a refuse collection service, and a total daily
                  volume of 300m3/day is collected.
                  (Umtshezi Sub-Regional Development Plan Perspective Report - May 2000 - Scott
                  Wilson Planning and Development Resources)




                  Weenen
                  Weenen makes use of an unregistered tip site where compact and
                  cover activities are carried out. The site is reported to be adequate for
                  current purposes.
                  (Umtshezi Sub-Regional Development Plan Perspective Report - May 2000 - Scott
                  Wilson Planning and Development Resources)

                  The solid waste disposal site is situated next to the sewage works. It
                  will need to be upgraded and licensed with the Department of Water
                  Affairs and Forestry. Management will need to be investigated and
                  improved. An integrated waste management strategy would ensure
                  that waste management in the future moves towards a sustainable
                  approach with lower resource consumption and a longer landfill
                  lifespan.
                  (Weenen Local Development Plan – November 2000 – Korsman & Van Wyk)

                  Estcourt Complex: Wembezi and rural areas
                  There is no formal solid waste disposal in any of the settlements. The
                  most practical solution to solid waste disposal in the medium term will
                  be to implement a community based program of collection and burying
                  of waste in selected pits.
                  (Umtshezi Sub-Regional Development Plan Perspective Report - May 2000 - Scott
                  Wilson Planning and Development Resources)



                  4.8.3 Solid Waste Strategy/Implications
                  Provision of a Regional solid waste disposal site should be
                  considered.
                  An education programme to advise rural residents on safe and
                  hygienic methods of solid waste disposal is desirable.

                                                                                             47

Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
         4.9      Telecommunications

                  A large percentage of people (81.35%) have access to a
                  telephone either in their homes, through neighbours, public
                  phones or a nearby phone, as illustrated below:
                  FIG 23: TELEPHONE

                  Amount        %                                   Graph
   Dwelling         2 936     31.14
   Neighbor         1 112     11.80
Public Phone        2 932       31
Other Nearby          778      8.25
 Not Nearby           121      1.28
  No Access         1 506     15.98
 Institutions         20       0.21
     None              0       0.00




 Unspecified          22       0.23




                  Source: 1996 Census as supplied by uThukela PIMSS office



                  The above does not take mobile phones into account. These do
                  make a significant contribution to the access to phones. The
                  Umtshezi area has a high level of access to the telephone
                  communication system. However, the levels of services in the
                  rural areas however may need to be investigated further.

         4.10     Parks, Recreational Facilities and Cemeteries

                  4.10.1         Standards
                  An increasingly popular means of providing public amenities is
                  the creation of functional clusters of facilities. An example is
                  school playgrounds and fields, shared among the schools in an
                  area and made available to the community after hours and on
                  weekends.
                  Public facilities, which serve numerous communities or the
                  region as a whole, are best located along major transport routes.
                  These routes should form part of the public transport systems
                  and have public transport stops at frequent intervals. This will
                  ensure that public facilities are easily accessible to all sectors of
                  the population. The location of public facilities along these
                  routes provides exposure of the facilities, encouraging their use.
                  Parks
                                                                                     48

Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                  As larger parks serve the wider area, as well as local users,
                  maximum distances for end users to access them will
                  sometimes be greater than maximum walking distances (500m
                  or 10 min). The implication of this is that parks will often need to
                  be accessed by bicycles or public transport.

                  As smaller parks are accessed by foot and are likely to be used
                  on a daily basis by children, elderly people and workers, they
                  should be located within 300m to 700m of users. The maximum
                  time spent walking to a smaller park should be approximately 10
                  minutes.

                  Sports fields
                  School sports fields should be located within easy walking
                  distance (i.e. ±300m) of school buildings - with primary schools
                  requiring closer locations than secondary schools. Sports fields
                  should be located within 500m to 1 500m of other user groups.
                  (e.g. sports clubs.)

                  Play spaces
                  Play spaces should be located within easy walking distance (i.e.
                  ±300m) of primary school buildings and crèches, and should be
                  located within 500m to 1 500m of other users. As play spaces
                  sometimes serve children from surrounding areas, maximum
                  distances will occasionally be greater than maximum walking
                  distances. (i.e. ±500m or 10 min.)

                  Sports clubs
                  These are generally privately provided and therefore fall beyond
                  the scope of this report.

                  Sports stadiums
                  These are usually Regional facilities, located along major
                  transportation routes in close proximity to public transportation
                  stops. The regional scale of the facility means that they would
                  be planned for in terms of a development framework and not
                  when designing specific living environments.

                  Cemeteries
                  Cemeteries require special consideration as they have specific
                  geotechnical requirements. Not all land is suitable for burial
                  purposes. The cultural needs of the different users also have to
                  be taken into account.




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Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                  4.10.2 Provision of Recreational Facilities and Cemeteries

                  Recreational facilities: Estcourt / Wembezi

                  Wembezi has a soccer field and a stadium and there are five
                  satellite soccer fields in the wards.

                  Estcourt has the Lambert Park facility, which caters for rugby,
                  cricket, hockey and soccer practices.

                  Forderville has a sports centre with a swimming pool, 4 tennis
                  courts and a football field. There is a proposal to enlarge a
                  school playing field to accommodate a cricket field, which could
                  then be utilized by the general community by arrangement with
                  the school governing body.

                  Most soccer fields are over-utilized and consequently the grass
                  cover cannot be properly maintained. There is a problem with
                  vandalism of change rooms and other facilities as well as the
                  theft of fencing at sports fields and cemeteries.

                  There are few, if any, sports facilities in the rural areas.

                  Recreational facilities: Weenen
                  Most of the public open space within Weenen is reserved for sports
                  and passive recreation purposes. Because many of the residential
                  properties and agricultural smallholdings are so large, the need for
                  large areas of formal open space may not have been considered
                  necessary.

                  The Bushmans River provides a natural open space, which can be
                  used to provide many of the open space requirements of the town.
                  Land along the river can provide areas for picnic sites for the
                  community and tourists and level areas for playing fields. The
                  riverbanks also provide opportunities for formal trails and walks to be
                  established.
                  (Weenen Local Development Plan – November 2000 – Korsman & Van Wyk)



                  Cemeteries: Estcourt / Wembezi
                  Estcourt / Wembezi has two cemeteries. It is estimated that the
                  Estcourt cemetery will be fully utilized within 7 years while that at
                  Wembezi should be useable for another 10 years. Burials in the
                  Estcourt / Wembezi area are being conducted at an average
                  rate of 40 per month but it is believed that there also are a
                  considerable number of unofficial burials taking place on private
                  property.


                  Cemeteries: Weenen
                  There are several cemeteries within Weenen and it is estimated that
                  there is sufficient space to accommodate future requirements for the50

Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                  next five years. There is a cemetery located on town land between
                  KwaNobamba and Weenen and one on lots140, 393 and 164, which
                  are used to accommodate different religious requirements.

                  Additional cemetery space will be required within the next five years.
                  In order to ensure that the demand for burial plots does not exceed
                  availability, alternative or additional sites will need to be selected.

                  Erosion control at the Muslim cemetery is an important issue to be
                  managed as soon as possible. Various methods can be employed to
                  stabilize the soil, but the long-term elimination of the problem is critical
                  to avoid a recurrence of the situation. Implementing drainage to
                  ensure that water is collected and channeled away from any areas
                  where it can erode the soil is likely to be the most lasting solution to
                  the erosion.
                  (Weenen Local Development Plan – November 2000 – Korsman & Van Wyk)

                  Cemeteries: Rural
                  People in rural communities tend to bury their dead in traditional
                  family or clan cemeteries, the locations of which are not always
                  well known.

                  A regional cemetery should be planned within the Umtshezi
                  Municipal area of jurisdiction.

                  There are no crematoria in Umtshezi.

                  4.10.3       Strategy/Implications
                  The provision of soccer fields for rural communities should be
                  considered.

                  The provision of a Regional cemetery by the Uthukela District
                  Municipality should be considered.

                  A project could be considered for the identification and
                  registration of rural burial sites.


         4.11     Spatial Implications

                  4.11.1 National, Provincial and Regional Spatial Implications

                  The spatial development of Umtshezi is influenced by numerous
                  factors, ranging from National to Local influences. In planning for
                  the future, consideration must be given to National, Provincial
                  and District Strategies and Planning. The National Roads
                  Planning, which resulted in the N3 Highway bypassing the major
                  urban centre of Estcourt, has had a dramatic impact on the
                  socio-economic profile of the area. Similarly, the “Good Hope
                  Plan” of 1982, which created decentralization points, did not
                  identify Estcourt as an industrial decentralization point but it did
                  identify Ladysmith and Newcastle.                                  51

Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                  In the Provincial Growth and Development Strategy for
                  KwaZulu-Natal, Estcourt is identified as a small town whose
                  population has grown while experiencing contracting
                  employment opportunities. (Provincial Growth and Development
                  Strategy    for      KwaZulu-Natal,   Development    Planning
                  Management Committee of KwaZulu-Natal, 1996). This
                  Provincial Strategy has the following as its stated roles with
                  regard to spatial strategies:

                          Setting of policy in terms of the overall spatial distribution
                           of Development
                          Response to the spatial implications and synergies
                           arising from the Development Strategy and other policies,
                           and the ensuring of appropriate co-ordination
                          Setting of frameworks for Planning at lower levels; to co-
                           ordinate and facilitate their planning; and to provide
                           appropriate support for these levels. Much of the detailed
                           spatial planning will occur through regional plans
                           (covering Regional Local Government areas) or plans for
                           smaller areas. These may be the responsibility of
                           Regional and Local Governments, but given the uneven
                           capacity at this level, the Provincial Government may also
                           play crucial roles in initiating or supporting the
                           development of these plans in certain areas.
                          To plan for areas of interaction and intersection between
                           areas covered by Regional and Local Councils – i.e. for
                           areas above the level of a single authority.

                  The strategy identifies seven programmes for the development
                  of the Province:

                  1) Building the Winning Province
                  2) Local Economic Development
                  3) Fueling “the Powerhouse”
                  4) Addressing the needs of the poor
                  5) Preparing the people for development through the utilization
                     of human resources
                  6) Formulation of an appropriate spatial framework
                  7) The development of institutions and implementation capacity


                  The above programmes will be taken into account in Phase II of
                  the IDP. The main spatial implication of this Provincial Strategy
                  is the potential impact of the proposed Tugela – Vaal Water
                  Scheme on the region. This scheme, aimed at channeling water
                  from the Tugela to Gauteng, would have a major impact on the
                  area. This impact would be in the form of job creation, potential
                  tourism around the dams, supply of water for farming, movement
                  of people from areas to be used for the dams. The scheme is
                                                                                       52

Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                  still in the feasibility stage and is unlikely to have an impact over
                  the time horizon of this IDP (Five years). Similarly, the Provincial
                  Spatial Growth and Development Framework identifies the
                  Umtshezi area as part of the Secondary Cities and Smaller
                  Towns. The key concepts of this framework are:

                     DEVELOPMENT CORRIDOR/ SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT
                      INITIATIVES (SDIs)
                         - Coastal N2 (Port Shepstone - Durban -Richards Bay -
                                        Maputo)
                         - Inland N3 (Durban – Pietermaritzburg - Gauteng)
                         - Concentration of economic growth opportunities
                         - “Shadow Corridor” focus for service delivery


                     TOWNS: SECONDARY CITIES, REGIONAL CENTRES
                      AND SMALLER TOWNS
                        - Focus on local economic development, comparative
                          advantages and links to agricultural hinterland


                     SPATIAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE PROVISION OF PUBLIC
                      SERVICES
                       - Hierarchy of centres to co-ordinate the spatial provision of
                         public administrative and economic services to outlying
                         rural
                         areas


                     REGIONAL PLANS
                        - To cover the entire Province and co-ordinate initiatives
                           within each region
                        - Incorporate spatial frameworks for the provision of
                        services - Seek opportunities for small towns and their
                        rural
                          hinterlands


                     PLANNING LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK
                        - To provide a statutory basis for Development Planning
                        on a Provincial scale


                  The spatial implications of District Planning for Umtshezi will be
                  derived from the District IDP for the uThukela District. This
                  District IDP will be developed in an interactive and co-ordinated
                  manner with this IDP.

                  Umtshezi area has five distinct Bioresource areas, and the two
                  urban areas of Weenen and Estcourt/ Wembezi. In general, the
                                                                                     53

Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                  urban areas of Estcourt/Wembezi are adequately serviced to
                  support economic development. However, the rural areas and
                  Weenen are poorly serviced in terms of infrastructure. Servicing
                  of the rural areas must take into account the Bioresource nature
                  of the area, in particular the need to conserve productive
                  agricultural areas. The present spatial structures of the two
                  towns developed largely as a result of historical influences. In
                  Estcourt, during the apartheid era of the 1970s, Black people
                  were moved10km West from Kwezi Township to Wembezi. The
                  hostel in Kwezi remained for “migrant workers”. The Wembezi
                  area suffered severe damage to buildings prior to the elections
                  as a result of local violence. Colored and Indian people were
                  located in Forderville and Colita, and Whites lived in the Western
                  parts of Estcourt. The Planning at that time, including
                  infrastructure planning, re-enforced these spatial patterns. As a
                  result, the urban structure of the town is dispersed. Attention will
                  need to be paid to the spatial integration of the different areas.

                  The CBD of Estcourt developed at the intersection of roads
                  catering for through-traffic from Colenso and Mooi River, as part
                  of the route between Durban and Johannesburg. With the
                  advent of the N3, the spatial rationale for the location of the CBD
                  disappeared. As the infrastructure and the town CBD are well
                  established, it would be counterproductive to attempt to relocate
                  the CBD. Attention may need to be given to more intensive
                  activities along the routes that link the CBD to the N3. Similarly,
                  with regard to the Industrial Areas, in particular Broomcliffe, the
                  original locational criteria of flat land and a location close to rail,
                  may no longer be relevant. The location of further industrial
                  activities will need to take into account environmental issues, in
                  particular air and potential pollution of river courses as well as
                  compatibility with adjacent uses.

                  Any development proposals in the rural areas will need to take
                  into account appropriate standards, not only in terms of user
                  affordability, but also capital costs relative to other areas that
                  may be less costly to service. Trade-offs may be necessary
                  between levels of service in a preferred location and higher
                  order services in areas which are more appropriate to service
                  from a technical perspective. While these trade-offs will be
                  sensitive, consideration must be given to the long-term ability to
                  maintain the technical services. The spatial development pattern
                  should not be led only by technical concerns or the existing
                  settlement patterns. The spatial development of the area must
                  take into account financial, social, technical, environmental,
                  economic and institutional matters in an integrated manner, to
                  ensure long term sustainability.



                                                                                       54

Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                  4.11.2 Hierarchy of Settlements
                  In the past, different methods have been used for Planning for
                  the purpose of developing a hierarchy of settlements. One of the
                  most well known is the “Central Place Theory”. This is the theory
                  that has been used In KwaZulu Natal for the “Hierarchy of
                  Settlement” approach and the “Web system”. The different
                  hierarchy of settlements in each of these systems is illustrated
                  below:

                  FIG. 24: SETTLEMENT HIERARCHIES
                   LEVEL         RURAL SERVICES                    WEB SYSTEMS
                                      SYSTEMS
                       1         Main Town                           Main Town
                       2         Hub                                Primary Web
                       3         Satellite                         Secondary Web
                       4         Sub Settlement                     Tertiary Web
                       5                                            Smaller Areas
                       6                                            Outside Areas
                  Source: uThukela PIMSS office

         For the purposes of the Integrated Development Plans, the Uthukela
         PIMSS office has defined a hierarchy based on the above two systems
         namely:


         FIG. 25: UTHUKELA SETTLEMENT HIERARCHIES
          LEVEL                   TYPE                    APPROXIMATE
                                                           POPULATION
              1        Hub                             More than 15 000
              2        Primary Settlement              ±7 000 - ±15 000
              3        Secondary                       ±4 000- ±7 000
                       Settlement
              4        Tertiary Settlement             ±1 000 – 4 000
              5        Smallest                        Less than 1 000
         Source: uThukela PIMSS office

         Utilizing the above approach, the uThukela PIMSS office, together with
         officials of the Umtshezi Municipality, has developed a spatial hierarchy
         for the Municipal area. The “Hub” incorporates the Estcourt / Wembezi
         area; the primary area is Weenen; secondary areas consist of
         Cornfields/ Thembalihle and the lower order areas are as illustrated in
         the “ Settlement Hierarchies” Map overleaf.




                                                                                    55

Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
         The purpose of defining a Hierarchy of places is to apply different
         norms and standards for services facilities and amenities in each of the
         different types of places as illustrated below:

         FIG. 26: STANDARDS
         Type     Of Hub                      Primary    Secondary Tertiary    Smallest
         Service                              Settlement Settlement Settlement
         Population District                  15 000     7 000      4 000      1000 and
                     Service                                                   less
                     Area
         Education   High                     High              Grade 10           Grade 8     Grade 7
                     School/Fet               School
                     System
         Crèches     No of                    No of
                     Crèche                   Crèches
         Health      Hospital                 24 Hour               Mobile
                                                                Clinic                         Mobile
                                              Clinic                Clinic                     Clinic
         Housing           Priority           Scheme     Community Community                   Community
                           Scheme                        Driven     Driven                     Driven
         Postal            Post Net           Post Boxes Post Boxes
         Police            Station            Satellite         Mobile             Mobile
                                              Station           Service            Service
         Access     Tarred                    Gravel            Graveled           Good        Accessible
         Roads      Access                    Good              Good               Condition
         Community  Multi                     Community         Community
         Halls      purpose                   hall to           Hall
                    community                 serve large
                    hall                      area
         Sport      District                  Medium            Small
                    Facility                  Size
         Taxi Rank  With                      Small             Small
                    hawker
                    stalls and
                    ablution
         Telephones Public     Public                           Public    Community Community
                    phones at Phones                            Phones at Driven    Driven
                    MPCC                                        core
         Multi      MPCC       Satellites
         Purpose               to MPCC
         Community
         Centre
         (MPCC)
         Business   Well       Small                            LED core           LED core    LED core
         centres    Developed
         Pension    Community Community                         Community Shelter
         Point      Hall       Hall                             Hall      and
                                                                          Ablution
                                                                                                 56

Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
         Cemeteries        Regional           District          Local              Local      Use
                           variety of         Facility          Facility           Facility   Facilities at
                           facilities                                                         tertiary
                                                                                              Web
         Emergency         Service            Satellite         Comm.              Comm.      Comm.
         Services          Centers                              Point              point      point
         Electricity       To be
                           discussed
         Source: uThukela PIMSS office



5.       ECONOMIC MATTERS

         5.1      International and National Trends

                  The economy of Umtshezi is influenced by National and
                  International trends, these include:
                   New Local Government system
                   Globalization of world markets
                   Growth of tourism
                   Changes in transport modes and systems
                   Stagnant national economy
                   Growth in HIV positive population and AIDS related deaths.

                  While it may not be possible to influence the above trends
                  significantly, it is important that they be taken into account in
                  developing appropriate strategies for uMtshezi.

         5.2      Provincial and Local Economic Dynamics

                  Umtshezi performs specific functions in the economic dynamics
                  of the Province and District. Within the Province, Umtshezi is
                  influenced by Durban and more directly by Msunduzi
                  (Pietermaritzburg), as primary economic centres. In the
                  uThukela District, uMtshezi is influenced by Ladysmith as the
                  urban core. Umtshezi also plays a significant role in the
                  economic functions of the Midlands, providing backward and
                  forward linkages in trade and services. A number of factors
                  influenced the development of the existing spatial patterns and
                  economic functions. The main factors are:

                               The Durban/Johannesburg transport corridor. (The
                                establishment of this corridor in the mid 1900’s
                                boosted the development of the area. Conversely, the
                                development of the N3 bypassing Estcourt in the
                                1970s, resulted in economic decline for the Umtshezi
                                area).
                               Railway Linkage (The rail line initially stimulated
                                development but the decline in rail transportation in
                                the 1980s has had a negative influence on the area). 57

Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                           Tugela and Bushmans Rivers (The influence on the
                            spatial economy of the water resources is still large
                            with the potential development of the Mielietuin and
                            Jana Dams).
                          Natural Environment (The area has five distinct
                            Bioresource areas, ranging from dry harsh areas to
                            fertile areas and areas of exceptional natural beauty
                            (See Figure 21).
                          Towns in the area (Hierarchy of different socio-
                            economic and institutional functions).
                          Historical Influences (Various wars: English, Zulu and
                            Boer).
                      (Umtshezi Economic Regeneration Study, August 2001)

                  Within Umtshezi, there are distinct economic functional areas.
                  The two main urban areas are Estcourt/Wembezi and Weenen.
                  Other areas include those defined by the five Bioresource areas
                  and man-made interventions such as the dams and Land
                  Reform Projects. (Refer to Section 6).

         5.3      Estcourt/Wembezi
                  The economy of Estcourt/ Wembezi is predominately focused on
                  the manufacturing and government services sector. These two
                  sectors contributed 60% to the economy of the district in
                  1997(SA Stats.) The agricultural sector is also important in
                  Estcourt, contributing 9.7% to the local economy.

         5.4      Weenen
                  Approximately half of the economic activity in Weenen (47%) is
                  as a result of the Agricultural sector. Trade, including tourism, is
                  an important sector, contributing approximately 22% to the local
                  economy. A general indicator of economic growth is the
                  construction sector, which declined by an average of 7% per
                  annum between 1972 and 1997.

         5.5      Bioresource Areas
                  Five distinct Bioresource areas, identified by the Department of
                  Agriculture and Environmental Affairs, occur in Umtshezi. These
                  areas need to be taken into account in the spatial and economic
                  development planning of the area. The areas are:
                      Moist Highland Sourveld (BRG8)
                      Moist Tall Grassveld (Brg12)
                      Dry Tall Grassveld (BRG13)
                      Mixed Thornveld (MT-BRG 18)
                      Valley Bushveld (BRG 21)
                  (Refer to Figure 27 for further detail.)



                                                                                    58

Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                 5.6     Key Economic Sectors

                         Gross Geographic Product (GGP) is a good indicator of
                         economic health. In the “Umtshezi Sub-regional Plan 2000”
                         (Scott Wilson), Gross Geographic Product (GGP) for the region
                         is placed at R857 million. This results in an average annual GGP
                         per capita of R4294. While this is the highest GGP in the
                         uThukela Region, the GGP figure per capital is however below
                         the Provincial average.

                         The document cited above states that the major contributor to
                         the economy (48%) is the manufacturing sector. This figure
                         differs somewhat from the findings of the 1996 census, but
                         indicates the same pattern of the dominance of the
                         manufacturing sector. A review of the industry breakdown in the
                         Umtshezi region indicates the importance of Manufacturing,
                         Trade including Tourism, Government and Private Households
                         (Domestic workers) in the economy, as illustrated below. The
                         importance of these sectors is also highlighted in the findings of
                         the Umtshezi Economic Regeneration Study. The key economic
                         sectors for Umtshezi are identified as:

                               Agriculture
                               Manufacturing
                               Trade including Tourism


FIG 27: UMTSHEZI: KEY ECONOMIC SECTORS



                600000
   GGP Values




                500000
                400000
                300000
                200000
                100000
                     0
                                       es




                            an e
                                        g
                                        s




                                       er
                          Se re




                        ov nce




                                         t
                                        n




                                        g
                                        t




                                      or
                                    en
                       on ice




                                   ad
                                     in
                                     io




                                   rin
                                   tu




                                   th
                                   iti




                                sp
                                in
                                ct




                              nm
                              na




                               Tr
                               tu
                               ul




                               O
                               til
                               rv




                             M
                             ru

                             U
                   m gric




                           ac
                            Fi

                           er
                          st




                         Tr
                         uf
                       A

                      ity




                     an
                     G
                     C
                    un




                    M
                 om
                C




                                             Economic Sectors

Source: Urban–Econ & Ukusa Consulting, August 2001




                                                                                         59

Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
         5.7      Agriculture

                  The agricultural potential of Umtshezi varies with the different
                  rainfall, soil, climate and topographical circumstances in the
                  area. The five distinct Bioresource areas have a major impact on
                  agricultural practices and potential. In general, the Umtshezi
                  area is of marginal value for crops, unless irrigated. The good
                  water resources in the area create a high potential for irrigation.
                  The best areas for irrigation are in the valleys of the Bushmans
                  and Little Bushmans Rivers and the impoundment area of the
                  Wagendrift Dam. Agricultural potential is greatest in the eastern
                  sections along the Little Tugela River, declining to the west.
                  Commercial farming is taking place in the eastern sections and
                  non-commercial farming occurs in the vicinity of Weenen in the
                  Land Reform Project areas. The Umtshezi Economic
                  Regeneration Study notes that, “The commercial farming sector
                  is, to a large degree, fully developed, although opportunities still
                  exist for the development of intensive farming activities”. The
                  economic contribution of the agricultural sector of Umtshezi to
                  the economy of the District is significant, at 11% (1997) with an
                  annual growth of 0.64%. The contribution of agriculture to the
                  economy of the Province is 5.2%.

                  As with other economic sectors, international, national and local
                  trends affect the economic potential of agricultural development.
                  Significant regional trends for the area include:

                          Reduction in animal husbandry and increase in
                           horticulture activities.
                          Environmental and social reaction against the expansion
                           of forestry.
                          Increase in eco-tourism and conservation as an
                           alternative to subsistence farming.
                          Reduction of the dependence on subsistence farming in
                           rural areas.
                          Refocus of Land Reform Projects from settlement to
                           support of emerging farmers.

                  The KwaZulu-Natal Department of Agriculture identified
                  potential agricultural products for the different Bioresource areas
                  as illustrated overleaf.




                                                                                    60

Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                  FIG 28: EXISTING AND POTENTIAL AGRICULTURAL
                                 PRODUCTS

                BIORESOURCE               VEGETATION         GAME              FARM
                GROUPS                                     ANIMALS           ANIMALS
         BRG 8 Moist Highland     Maize; Potatoes; Blesbuck; Eland; Beef and Dairy
         Sourveld                 Aster;      Bruken; Common              Cattle; Sheep
                                  Tulip; Silver, Black Reedbuck;
                                  and Green Wattle Mountain
                                  Trees                Reedbuck; Grey
                                                       Rhebuck; Oribi;
                                                       Common Duiker,
                                                       Bushbuck
         BRG 12 Moist Tall Silver,               Black Common             Beef      Cattle;
         Grassveld                Wattle Trees         Reedbuck,          Sheep
                                                       Common Duiker;
                                                       Oribi; Zebra
         BRG     13   Dry   Tall Field Crops           Blesbuck; Black Beef Cattle
         Grassveld                                     Wildebeest;
                                                       Zebra; Impala
         BRG       18     Mixed                        Common Duiker, Beef          Cattle;
         Thornveld                                     Bushbuck;          Goats
                                                       Zebra;    Impala;
                                                       Black
                                                       Wildebeest;
                                                       Warthog; Kudu
         BRG 21 Valley Bushveld Citrus;      Lucerne; Common Duiker, Beef           Cattle;
                                  Cabbages;            Bushbuck;          Goats
                                  Potatoes; Sugar Zebra;         Impala;
                                  Cane                 Eland;     Nyala;
                                                       Blue Wildebeest;
                                                       Kudu; Warthog;
                                                       Giraffe;    White
                                                       and Black Rhino
         Source: KwaZulu-Natal Department of Agriculture, Nature Resource Section 2000

                  The three main “veld” types that occur in Umtshezi are:
                   Highland and Dohne Sourveld
                   Natal Sour Sandveld
                   Southern Tall Grassreed

                  These veld types are illustrated in the Land Cover Map overleaf.

                  The key economic factors with regard to the agricultural sector
                  include the following:

                          Agriculture is an important part of the economic base of
                           uMtshezi.
                          The area is well endowed with water resources which
                           could be used for developing irrigation schemes in the
                           correct locations.
                          Land Reform Projects supporting small farmer
                           development, could increase the economic contribution of
                           the agricultural sector.
                          Forest development is unlikely, however potential exists
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                           for the processing of forestry products from existing
                           forests.
                          The agricultural sector has strong backward and forward
                           linkages with other sectors of the economy.
                          The conservation of agricultural land and the
                           development of sustainable agricultural product
                           processing enterprises are important.

                  An important factor in present agricultural activities is the focus
                  on primary products. In order to develop and build on the above
                  key economic factors, the agricultural sector needs to develop
                  larger secondary and tertiary sectors. That is, a greater
                  emphasis needs to be placed on agricultural product processing,
                  marketing and distribution. An important activity will be to assess
                  both the supply (what can be produced) and the demand for
                  agricultural products.

                  The agricultural potential of different areas in the Municipality is
                  illustrated on the Agricultural Potential Map overleaf.

         5.8      Manufacturing

                  Manufacturing is an important economic sector of Umtshezi,
                  contributing 48.65% to the economy of the District. The majority
                  of manufacturing activities takes place in Estcourt/ Wembezi
                  with less than 1% occurring in Weenen. The majority of
                  manufacturing activities (60%) takes place in the processing of
                  agricultural products, as illustrated below. The most important of
                  these are meat and dairy product processing.

                  FIG 29: MANUFACTURING SUB-SECTORS

                     COMPANY                 TELEPHONE                 PRODUCT
         Nestle                            (036) 352 2130      Beverages
         Eskort Bacon                      (036) 352 2112      Processed meat
         Narrowtex                         (036) 352 3108      Clothing
         Masonite                          (036) 352 2120      Masonite board
         Bunjy Soft Toys                   (036) 352 2412      Soft toys
         Glamoza Glass Factory             (036) 352 3144      Glass vases, tiles
         Clover Dairy                      (036) 352 5026      Powdered milk
         Sasko Milling                     (036) 352 3035      Maize meal
         Berg Clothing                     (036) 335 059       Clothing
         Estcourt Window Manufactures      (036) 352 2203      House steel windows
         Electribox                        (036) 352 4242      Meter boxes
         Source :Estcourt/ Wembezi Economic Regeneration Study, 8 May 2001




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                  The manufacturing sector declined significantly between 1972
                  and 1986, largely as a result of the N3 route by-passing
                  Estcourt. This sector recovered after 1986 and increased at
                  3.8% per annum up until 1997. This increase was both higher
                  than that of the Midlands and the Province. The present reported
                  decline by industrialists and those involved in manufacturing
                  may be exaggerated, and should be seen in the context of the
                  national slowdown in this sector.

                  The key economic factors with regard to the manufacturing
                  sector include the following:

                     The manufacturing sector is important for the future
                      economic development of the area.
                     The manufacturing sector is closely linked with agricultural
                      product processing.
                     Forward and backward links of the manufacturing sector
                      extend into the Local, District, Provincial, National and
                      International markets.
                     Changes in transport systems in the 1970s negatively
                      influenced this sector.
                     Opportunities now exist to capitalize on the changes in
                      information and transport systems and with globalization of
                      this sector.

         5.9      Tourism

                  National statistics do not differentiate Tourism from the Trade
                  sector. In addition, local statistics for Tourism in the Umtshezi
                  Local Authority area are not kept. The international and local
                  growth of the Tourism sector and local attractions provides the
                  potential for substantial growth in this sector. The number of
                  foreign visitors to South Africa grew by 5.2% per annum
                  between 1994 and 2000. This resulted in 2.7million foreign
                  visitors to South Africa, of which 2 million were African arrivals
                  (SATOUR).




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                   FIG 30:          FOREIGN ARRIVALS: 1994-2000 (JANUARY – JUNE)

              Origins              1994        1995        1996       1997          1998      1999     2000
         Overseas                             497.53      470.71     516.74        609.72    683.75    707.8
                                  257.216           8           4          1             6         7      86
         African                  1,212,7     1,590,1     1,460,0    1,581,6       1,954,4   2,007,6   2,011
                                       94         45          32         98            11        58      797
         Unspecified                                                                                   56,76
                                  424,87      65,351      63,872     84,952        55,775    64,695        0
         Total                    1,512,4     2,153,0     1,994,6    2,183,3       2,619,9   2,756,1   2,776
                                      97          34          18         91            12        10      443
         PERCENTAGE
         BREAKDOWN
         Overseas                     17,0       23,1        23,6        23,7        23,3      24,8         25,5
         African                      80,2       73,9        73,2        72,4        74,6      72,8         72,5
         Unspecified                    2,8        3,0         3,2         3,9         2,1       2,3          2,0
         Total                         100        100         100         100         100       100          100
         PERCENTAGE
         GROWTH RATE
         Overseas                  7,3
                                 (Ave)     93,4       -5,4                9,8        18,0      12,1          3,5
         African                   4,8
                                 (Ave)     31,1       -8,2                8,3        23,6        2,7         0,2
         Unspecified              -2,8
                                 (Ave)     53,8       -2,3               33,0        -34,3     16,0         12,3
         Total                     5,2
                                 (Ave)     42,3       -7,4                9,5        20,0        5,2         0,7
         Source: Stats SA: Tourism and Migration 1994-2000

                   KwaZulu-Natal received the third highest number of foreign
                   visitors, however it is unlikely that a high percentage of these
                   visitors visited the Umtshezi area. Although Umtshezi is the start
                   of the Battlefields Route, it is not a tourist destination. The main
                   tourist destinations in the area include:

                            The Midlands Meander - An arts and crafts route around
                             the Pietermaritzburg, Howick, Hilton and Mooi River
                             areas. This route caters mainly for day and weekend
                             visitors.
                            Drakensberg Resorts – Recently declared a National
                             Heritage Site, the Drakensberg Mountain Range is a well-
                             established holiday destination for local tourists. There
                             are also an increasing number of foreign tourists to the
                             area.
                            Thukela Biosphere Reserve and Weenen Nature Reserve
                             – The area focuses on eco-tourism and caters for “nature
                             lovers”.
                            Battlefields Route – This route encompasses a number of
                             towns in the region in which historic battles took place.
                             Along the route, events are planned which include re-
                             enactments of battles. (See Figure 31.)


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Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                  FIG 31:           BATTLEFIELDS ROUTE




         From Berg, Bush & Battlefields page28
         Source: Berg Bush, and Battlefields, uThukela & Umzinyathi District Councils, Fifth
         Edition 2001



                  Bushmans Experience– This route starts in Estcourt/ Wembezi
                  and is designed to capture tourists visiting the above
                  destinations, as well as to create a local Umtshezi tourist
                  destination. (Refer to Figure overleaf).




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Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
         FIG 32: BUSHMANS EXPERIENCE




         Source: Berg Bush, and Battlefields, uThukela & uMzinyathi District Councils, Fifth
         Edition 2001

         The number of tourists who visited the Estcourt/ Wembezi area in 1998
         is illustrated below.
         FIG 33:           TOURISTS VISITING THE ATTRACTIONS AROUND ESTCOURT/
                           WEMBEZI 1998

                   NUMBER OF TOURISTS                          DOMESTIC            FOREIGN
                                                               TOURISTS            TOURISTS
         Pietermaritzburg & Midlands                               1 189 000             240 000
         Drakensberg                                                 348 000             270 000
         Battlefields                                                899 000             140 000
         TOTAL                                                     2 436 000             650 000
         ESTIMATED ANNUAL INCOME BASED                          R 12 180 000         R 4 225 000
         ON 1% MARKET SHARE

         Source: Umtshezi Economic Regeneration Study, Urban-Econ & Ukasa Consulting
         August 2001

         The main Tourism Association in the Umtshezi area is the Bushman
         River Tourism Association, which has a membership of 85% of the
         “Bed and Breakfast” establishments in the area. The Association
         reports above 70% occupancy rates in peak periods, declining to 15%-
         40% in the off-peak periods. In peak periods, many visitors stay for an
         average of 2 to 4 nights. The majority of the visitors however, are
         business travellers, who only stay for one night.
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         The key economic factors with regard to the Tourism sector are as
         follows:

                      The increase in Tourism presents potentials to expand this
                       sector.
                      The strong competition to attract tourists will require the
                       development of unique local product niches and marketing
                       and management skills specifically focused on Tourism.
                      At present the majority of Tourists (80%) are on business
                       related travel and stay only one night.
                      The present accommodation is generally found in small
                       establishments of 3 to 6 rooms. No major hotels exist in the
                       Local Authority area.
                      No evening entertainment venues for Tourists exist in the
                       area.
                      Existing Regional initiatives related to tourism development,
                       such as that of the Midlands Investment Initiative, should be
                       supported.


6.       LAND REFORM

         The previous Uthukela Regional Council undertook a number of
         planning studies related to land for the then Uthukela Regional Council
         area. These studies generally formed the basis for The Umtshezi area
         to be part of the Provincial Land Reform Pilot Projects initiated in 1996.
         The Department of Land Affairs has been mandated to develop a
         comprehensive Land Reform Programme. The aims of the Programme,
         are to:
              Redress the injustices of apartheid
              Build National reconciliation and stability
              Support economic growth
              Improve household welfare and reduce poverty
         (Refer to Annexure V for the “Guide to Department of Land Affairs:
         Land Reform Programme”)

         The Land Reform Programme of the Department consists of three
         components, namely:
             Land Restitution
             Land Redistribution
             Land Tenure Reform

6.1      Land Restitution

         The Land Restitution component is based on the Restitution of Land
         Rights Act (Act 22 of 1994). This Act focuses on restoring or
         compensating people or providing alternative land or a combination of
         these, for land rights lost due to laws passed since 1913.

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6.2      Land Redistribution

         The Land Redistribution Programme is intended to provide the
         marginalized poor and landless people with access to land. The
         programme has three components:
          Agricultural Development: to make land available for agricultural
            purposes.
          Settlement: to provide people with land for settlement.
          Non-agricultural enterprises: to provide people with land for non-
            agricultural purposes such as eco-tourism.

         This Programme is based largely on the following legislation:

         I)       The Provision of Land and Assistance Act (Act 126 of 1993).
                  This Act provides the means for distributing land to the poor.
                  The Act facilitates the provision of Settlement/Land Acquisition
                  Grants from the Department of Land Affairs.

         II)      The Communal Properties Association Act (Act 28 of 1996).
                  This Act creates the mechanism for communal acquisition and
                  management of land.

6.3      Land Tenure Reform

         The purpose of this programme is to extend security of tenure to all
         South Africans that presently have diverse insecure forms of tenure.
         The Tenure Reform component strives to:
                Resolve problems of insecurity, inequality and lawlessness
                Remove Development “Bottlenecks”
                Resolve tenure disputes, overlapping tenure rights
                Give all holders of rights, under communal ownership,
                   including women, adequate representation in decision
                   making processes
         (Source: Department of Land Affairs)

          Applicable Legislation for this programme, passed to date includes:
         i)     The Land Title Adjustment Act (Act 111 of 1993)
                This Act deals with land to which one or more persons claim
                ownership, but do not have registered Title Deeds in respect of
                the land.
         II)    The Upgrading of Land Tenure Rights Act (Act 112 of 1993)
                This Act, which is presently being revised, provides for the
                conversion into ownership of certain land rights, such as the
                transfer of Tribal Land.
         III)   The Land Reform (Labour Tenants) Act (Act 3 of 1996)
                This act deals with security of tenure for Labour Tenants as
                defined in the Act.
         IV)    The Interim Protection of Informal Land Rights Act (Act 31 of
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Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                  This Act focuses on inhabitants of former South African
                  Development Trust Land, and former Homelands and Self
                  Governing States. This Act has a limited time frame and was
                  meant to have lapsed at the end of 1999. The Act can be
                  extended by 12 months at a time, with the permission of the
                  Minister.
         V)       The Extension of Security of Tenure Act (Act 62 of 1997)
                  This act deals with the relationship between owners of land and
                  occupiers of land.
         VI)      The Distribution and Transfer of Certain State Land Act (Act 119
                  of 1993)
                  This Act regulates the transfer of State Land.
         VII)     KwaZulu-Natal Ingonyama Trust Act (Act 3 of 1994)
                  The Ingonyama Trust Land is administered by a Board for the
                  well being of members of the tribes and communities who reside
                  on the Ingonyama Land as outlined in the Amakhosi and
                  Izipakahyiswa Act (Act 9 of 1990). The Ingonyama Land
                  includes:
                          Land owned by the Government of KwaZulu-Natal
                             prior to this Act.
                          Land governed by the KwaZulu-Natal Legislative
                             assembly
                          All land acquired in terms of Proclamation R233 of
                             1996.
                  This Act deals with matters of security of tenure for residents on
                  the Ingonyama Trust Land. This Act, together with other Acts,
                  provides the legal framework for land matters in these areas.

         VIII)    The Land Administration Act (Act 2 of 1995)
                  This Act provides for the delegation to Provinces of
                  administration of laws relating to land and the creation of uniform
                  land legislation and related matters.

         The collective aim of the programme is the transfer of 30% of
         agricultural land over 15 years. (Refer to Annexure X for further details
         of the programme). The initial pilot programme in the uMtshezi area
         established projects in the vicinity of Weenen. These projects, as part
         of the early pilot programme, tended to focus on settlement as opposed
         to the present policy focus of Agricultural Development through the
         establishment of small-scale farmers. As a result of the initial approach,
         many settlement areas are not ideally situated in terms of economic
         sustainability.

         There are presently ten Land Reform Projects in Umtshezi, covering
         approximately 5108ha and involving 284 households. In addition, there
         are twelve Labour Tenant Projects and seventy-four land claims. The
         Department of Land Affairs offers five different forms of grants and a
         variety of services for Land Reform. The services offered include
         facilitation, training, capacity building and agricultural support services.
         Neither the grants nor the services are fully utilized in Umtshezi.
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                      The majority of Land Reform Projects in the Municipal area are in
                      the North, around Weenen. The specific sites are listed in the
                      following figure.

                FIGURE 34: Umtshezi Budgeted Land Reform Projects

No   Project Name          Region       KZ      Sub         Current Phase           Ha      Household   Prj
                                        No’s    District                                                Manager
1    Blaaukrantz           Uthukela     KZ      Weenen      Implementation         1125        42       Patrick
     1123                               234                                                             Masoka
2    Uitkyk, 2156          Uthukela     KZ      Weenen      Implementation          250        20       Balungile
                                        234                                                             Mchunu
3    Ngodini/Mona          Uthukela     KZ      Weenen      Implementation          592        42       Promise
                                        234                                                             Makhanya
4    Nikaseni,             Uthukela     KZ      Weenen      Detailed                832        39       Promise
     Bushmans River                     234                 Planning                                    Makhanya
     1280
5    Cecilia 2100 ptn 2    Uthukela     KZ      Weenen      Detailed              647.19       17       Balungile
                                        234                 Planning                                    Mchunu
6    Vrisgewaagd/          Uthukela     KZ      Estcourt    Implementation      311.3299       24       Balungile
     Gugela. 1238                       234                                                             Mchunu
     ptn1
7    Glenbella/Brybella    Uthukela     KZ      Estcourt    Certification           596        59       Balungile
                                        234                                                             Mchunu
8    Rama/ Nkoni           Uthukela     KZ      Estcourt    Transfer                528        27       Balungile
                                        234                                                             Mchunu
9    Klipport              Uthukela     KZ      Estcourt    Transfer                227        14       Thembisile
                                        234                                                             Mhlanzi
10   Misgunst              Uthukela     KZ      Estcourt    PIR                      -          -       Balungile
                                        234                                                             Mchunu

                 In addition to the above there is the Gujini Land Claim project involving
                 517 households who will benefit from the settlement of the land claim.
                 Presently the Commission is negotiating the purchase of 13 farms on the
                 eastern boundary of Umtshezi with KZ244. Some of the landowners
                 have signed sale agreements with respect to their farms.

                 Further, in addition, there are 12 Labor Tenants Projects, involving 325
                 households on 1 334ha of land.

                 As at 31 March 2001, a total of 74 land claims had been lodged in
                 Umtshezi.

         6.4 Department of Land Affairs: Grants and Services

                 The KwaZulu-Natal Department of Land Affairs offers a number of grants
                 and services to support the Land Reform Programme. These grants and
                 services apply to varying degrees to each of the component
                 programmes in point 6 above.

                 The grants and services offered are listed below. Further details are
                 contained in Annexure V.
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       6.4.1      Grants:
        I)        Integrated Grant
                  This grant (previously the Settlement and Land Acquisition
                  Grant) can be accessed on an individual basis. This grant has
                  been increased to between R20 000 and R100 000, depending
                  on the participant’s contribution. The grant covers expenses
                  such as land acquisition, improvements, infrastructure, capital
                  assets and short-term agricultural inputs.
         II)      Acquisition and Development of Municipal Commonage Grant
                  This grant enables Municipalities to acquire land to extend or
                  create commonage for qualifying people and to provide
                  infrastructure on this land or on existing commonage.
         III)     Settlement Planning Grant
                  This grant is used for planners or other professionals to assist
                  applicants in preparing grant applications, and participants of the
                  Restitution Discretionary Grant. (Refer to (v) below.)
       IV)        Land Development Objectives (LDOs) Grant
                  This grant provides for under resourced, poor or rural Local
                  Authorities to undertake strategic planning processes to set
                  LDOs.
       V)         Restitution Discretionary Grant
                  This grant is set at R3000 per Restitution Beneficiary
                  Household. This grant is for restitution where the original land is
                  to be restored or where compensatory land is to be granted.
                  This could be through a negotiated settlement of the restitution
                  claim in terms of s42D of the Restitution of Land Rights Act (22
                  of 1994), a settlement in terms of a recommendation of the then
                  advisory body. the Commission on Land allocation. The grant
                  enables claimants to take charge of their land upon transfer.
                  (Refer to Annexure V)

   6.4.2          Services
       I)         Facilitation Services
                  These services are provided to ensure that applicants receive
                  information relating to the relevant Land Reform Programmes.
                  The service facilitates the accessing by applicants, of assistance
                  from Government and other service providers, before and after
                  land transfer.
         II)      Training and Capacity Building
                  This service encourages people to become actively involved and
                  to equip service providers to participate more effectively.
         III)     Agricultural Support Services
                  This grant for agricultural extension support is accessed via the
                  Department of Agriculture to assist participants during the
                  preparation of proposals and after the purchase of land.

(Source: Department of Land Affairs: Grants and Services of the Land Reform
Programme (version 7) September 2000).


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6.5     Land Reform Implications

        The implications for this programme can be divided into three main
        areas, namely:
                Emotional and aspirational issues
                Appropriate usage of land and capacitation
                Efficient use of support available

        6.5.1 Emotions and Aspirations
        The desire for access to land and secure tenure is a highly emotive
        issue and it needs to be addressed in a fair and decisive manner. The
        presently large number of disputes relating to land matters and the long
        period taken in resolving disputes, have the potential to become counter
        productive for the aims and objectives of the Land Reform Programme.
        Attention needs to be given to the development of clear, effective and
        efficient generally acceptable dispute resolution mechanisms.

        6.5.2 Appropriate Usage and Capacitation
        It is important that land allocated to people is appropriate for the usage
        envisaged on the land. For example, land for housing (settlement)
        purposes should not be on high potential agricultural land, but should be
        close to means of economic development. Conversely, people who
        envisage undertaking agricultural activities should be allocated land of
        adequate size and potential for such agricultural usage.

        In Umtshezi, agricultural potential decreases from the west, where land
        is used intensively for agriculture, to the east, where less intensive
        agriculture is possible and subsistence farming prevails.

        Recipients of land need to be given training and support to capacitate
        them to properly manage agricultural or other income-generating
        initiatives on land provided under this programme.

        6.5.3 Efficient Use of Support
        The support available to applicants and recipients of land in terms of the
        Land Reform Programme is not fully utilized. The main sources of
        support, which are under-utilized, include the grants and services offered
        by the Department of Land Affairs, (Refer to 6.4 above and Annexure V),
        the Municipalities (District and Local), Non Governmental Organizations
        and Community Based Organizations in this area.




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7.       FINANCE

         In development, Finance needs to be considered in terms of:
          Public Sector Finance
          Private Sector Finance

         7.1      Public Sector Finance

                  In order to ensure sustainable development, there is a need for
                  the development of finance through partnerships. In the past, the
                  public sector has been seen as the provider of development
                  finance through the provision of capital for basic infrastructure.
                  While the provision of basic infrastructure remains an important
                  role of the public sector, the new sets of Legislation, including
                  the Municipal Systems Act (Act No 32 of 2000) and the
                  Municipal Structures Act (117 of 1998), provide the framework
                  for the public sector to become a facilitator of development
                  instead of solely carrying out an administrative function (refer to
                  Annexure IV: Relevant Legislation). As a facilitator of
                  development, the public sector can actively pursue the
                  accessing of development finance. This “new role” of the public
                  sector, particularly at the Municipal level, necessitates healthy
                  local finances in order to access and gear additional funds. At
                  present the Operating Budget of Umtshezi is in the order of R76
                  million. This includes R25 million in rates and other arrears. In
                  the last Financial Year 2000/2001, in the order of R5 million was
                  written-off in arrears. This situation does not create the correct
                  perception for potential investors/ financiers.

                  The reallocation of the “equitable share” from National Treasury
                  to the Local Authority is in line with the new role of Municipalities
                  to develop the public infrastructure. As a result, it is important
                  that any proposed new projects are financially sustainable,
                  including ongoing operation and maintenance. This implies
                  commitment to user charges, careful development of cross
                  subsidization mechanisms where necessary, and good public
                  sector financial discipline. Investigations are needed to
                  determine the municipal financial management skills and the
                  commitment of the community to user charges and other cost
                  recovery mechanisms.

         7.2      Private Sector

                  The private sector includes both business and individuals.
                  Section 5 indicates the need to strengthen the general economy.
                  This is necessary in order to assist business to provide greater
                  financial input, as a “partner”, to the development of Umtshezi.

                  The role of individuals in Development includes participation in
                  the prioritization of the projects and in the paying of the
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                    appropriate financial user charges, rates and other contributions.
                    In Umtshezi, the ability of individuals to pay is limited. Based on
                    the 1996 census, 49% of the population of Umtshezi has no
                    income, as illustrated below.
                    FIG 35: ANNUAL INDIVIDUAL INCOME
                                                    Number                 Percentage
                    None                                    23 656                    49.04
                    1 – 200                                   1 243                    2.58
                    201 – 500                                 3 558                    7.38
                    501 – 1000                                2 018                    4.18
                    1001 – 1500                               1 690                    3.50
                    1501 – 2500                               1 487                    3.08
                    2501 – 3500                                 798                    1.65
                    3501 – 4500                                 517                    1.07
                    4501 – 6000                                 483                    1.00
                    6001 – 8000                                 199                    0.41
                    8001 – 11000                                102                    0.21
                    11001 – 16000                                52                    0.11
                    16001 – 30000                                31                    0.06
                    30 000+                                      14                    0.03
                    Unspecified                             12 392                    25.69
                    TOTAL                                   48 240                  100.00
                    Source: 1996 Census as supplied by uThukela PIMSS office

                    Household incomes are also very low, with 32.12% of
                    households in the area earning less than R18 000 per annum.
                    Many farm workers in Umtshezi do not receive any cash
                    remuneration but work on farms in order to be allowed to stay on
                    the farm. Annual household income is illustrated below.
                    FIG 36: ANNUAL HOUSEHOLD INCOME

                        Amount        %                                  Graph
R1-18000
                          2898      32.12

R30001-72000
                           963       6.71

R720001- 132000
                           419       4.64

R132001- 192000
                            90       1.00

Over 192000
                            60       0.67


Other                     2831      31.38
                    Source: 1996 Census

                    The improvement of the economy is critical to the development
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  Bergmaningerop / Setplan / Dludla Dev.: Umthezi IDP: Data and Municipal Analysis
                      of the capabilities of individuals and of businesses in Umtshezi
                      to contribute financially to the development of the area.


  8.       INSTITUTIONAL MATTERS

           8.1        INSTITUTIONAL ROLE PLAYERS

           Within the Umtshezi area, there is a large range of institutional
           structures operating, which influence development. These institutions
           include the Traditional Authorities, District, Provincial and Local
           Authorities as well as Non Governmental Organizations, Community
           Based Organizations and Private Sector Organizations. The capacity of
           these institutions to act in partnership, to facilitate the development of
           Umtshezi, has still to be tested. As part of the process, the capacity of
           the different institutional structures’ organizational design, potential
           areas for improvement and training and other needs, will need to be
           investigated.

           The specific roles and responsibilities of different role players in the
           preparation of the IDP, as outlined in the Draft Process Plan, are
           illustrated below.

           FIG 37:           IDP ROLE PLAYERS

           Role Player                                       Roles and Responsibilities
The Municipal Council                           Final decision making
                                                Approval of IDP monitoring
Councillors                                     Linking the IDP process with their constituencies
                                                Organizing the public participation
Mayor/ Municipal Manager                        Deciding on planning process
                                                Monitoring process
                                                Overall management and co-ordination
IDP Manager                                     Day to day management of the process
IDP Steering Committee                          Discussion on contents of IDP:
                                                  Inputs
                                                  Support Municipal Manager
                                                  Support Representative Forum
Planning Professionals                          Methodology guidance
                                                Facilitation of planning workshops
                                                Special studies
                                                Documentation
Municipal Officials                             Provide technical/ sector expertise
                                                Prepare draft progress proposals
Representative Forum/ Civil Society             Representing interest and contributing knowledge and
                                                 ideas
The District Council                            Align the planning process

           A key aspect of the institutional component will be development of the
           capacity of the Local Authority Officials. In particular, their capacity to
           plan, implement, monitor and evaluate the development programme,
           must be increased. In order to manage the development of Umtshezi
           into the future, different appropriate institutional structures will be
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         needed. Some of these structures will need to be based on partnership
         arrangements between the Public and the Private sectors. The above
         structures, such as the Representative Forum and the IDP Steering
         Committee, could form the basis for such partnerships.

         The present organizational structure of the Local Authority is based on
         a “collective executive” system. The Council consists of 14 Councilors.
         The Mayor, Mr. ML Shelembe is the chairperson of the Executive
         Committee, which is a committee of Council and the Municipal
         Manager, is Mr. VH Magubane. Reporting to the Municipal Manager
         are the Town Treasurer, Community Services, Technical Services and
         the Secretariat. The organizational structure of the Municipality is
         currently being reviewed.

8.2      AMALGAMATION PLAN

         As a result of the establishment of new Municipalities, the Department
         of Provincial and Local Government is supporting Municipalities in the
         restructuring process. This support includes funding “once-off” activities
         that Municipalities need to conduct, which are detailed in
         “Establishment Plans.”

         The Establishment Plan comprises two documents, namely:
                Interim Integrated Development Plan (IIDP)
                Amalgamation Plan

         The IIDP was completed in May 2001 and a draft Amalgamation Plan
         has been compiled.

         This Amalgamation plan addresses the following matters relating to the
         Municipal Institutional structure:

                       Human Resources
                       Transition costs per function
                       Legal issues
                       Information Technology
                       Service delivery factors
                       Communication Plan
                       Financial Systems
                       Strategic Transformation Approach
                       Estimated Costs

         Each of the above matters is addressed in the Draft Amalgamation
         Plan and will be refined in the final report. (Draft available on request.)
         The total “once-off” cost of the amalgamation in respect of the above
         activities is expected to be in the order of R12.5 million.

         Details of the institutional implications will be included on completion of
         this plan. Details and projects will be included in the IDP.
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9.       ENVIRONMENTAL MATTERS

         For the purpose of this report, the environment has been divided into
         different headings:
              Air Pollution
              Soil Erosion
              Vegetation Degradation
              Ground Water Pollution
              Visual Pollution
              Noise Pollution
              Invasive and Alien Plants
              Protected and Special Interest areas
              Water Projects
              Issues, Priorities and Implementation.

         The responsibility for environmental control is largely that of the Local
         Authority (Community Services) and the relevant Provincial
         Departments. In order to ensure effective environmental management,
         partnerships with the private sector will have to be developed. The
         groundwork for these has been initiated.

9.1       Air Pollution

         In urban and peri-urban settlements, air pollution occurs as a result of
         the use of coal, fuel wood, veld fires and paraffin for space heating and
         food preparation. This sulphur-dioxide (SO²) pollution will need to be
         monitored. The poorest residents are most dependent upon “traditional
         fuels”, since they are unable to pay for cleaner fuels or for appliances.
         Air pollution in these areas is a contributory factor in infant mortality. It
         is also a cause of respiratory related sickness amongst the wider
         community. As a result, this is a priority issue that needs to be
         addressed.

         In areas adjacent to the N3 highway, air pollution occurs as a result of
         vehicle exhaust fumes.

         In urban areas there is pollution as a result of industrial emissions. This
         is a factor in Estcourt. The Air/Water Soiling Index developed by the
         CSIR, is no longer used in Umtshezi. The Local Authority (Community
         Services) has found it more effective to stop pollution at source,
         through ongoing monitoring and direct interaction with Industrialists or
         others responsible for pollution. Monthly meetings are held to consider
         new proposals that may impact on the quality of the environment, e.g.
         Boilers. The present Town Planning Scheme of Estcourt was
         developed as a result of historical influence of the apartheid era. This
         scheme places industry in valleys close to rivers and in between
         residential areas. This is problematic from an environmental
         management perspective.
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9.2      Soil Erosion

         This occurs in agricultural areas as a result of overgrazing. The high
         rainfall areas and in particular the catchment areas, are most
         vulnerable.

         In the vicinity of peri-urban and rural settlements, soil erosion occurs as
         a result of poor land management practices.

9.3      Vegetation Degradation

         Vegetation degradation, in the form of bush encroachment, occurs as a
         consequence of overgrazing and fuel wood collection. Reduced woody
         biomass cover is a consequence of             fuel wood collection. The
         proposed “woodlots” will help in this regard.

9.4      Groundwater and River Pollution

         Groundwater and river pollution is occurring in urban areas as a
         consequence of poorly controlled industrial practices.

         In peri-urban and rural areas, groundwater pollution occurs as a result
         of the lack of proper control and/or infrastructure to safeguard against
         contamination arising from both industrial and domestic sources.

         The Little Bushmans River, which passes through Wembezi and
         Estcourt, is checked on a daily basis. For monitoring purposes, a good
         relationship has been established between the Local Authority
         Department responsible for monitoring and the National Department Of
         Water Affairs and Forestry.

9.5      Visual Pollution

         New developments (primarily tourism related) are being inappropriately
         placed with respect to visual envelopes in areas of scenic beauty. This
         has been identified as a problem that needs attention.

9.6      Noise Pollution

         Noise pollution exists in the vicinity of the N3 Highway as a result of
         vehicular traffic.

9.7      Invasive and Alien Plant Species

         The N3 Highway is the primary migration route of invasive plants.
         The impact of invasive plants on groundwater supply and river flow
         needs to be investigated.


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9.8      Protected Areas and Areas of Special Interest

         Protected areas include the Weenen Game Reserve. This 6500ha.
         Reserve is the core area for the proposed Thukela Biosphere protected
         area. This Reserve has a bird list of 279 species and is one of the few
         remaining formally protected areas of valley bushveld vegetation in
         South Africa. Game includes Black and White Rhino and Roan
         Antelope.

         Facilities include three picnic sites, a tent camp, a cottage, a campsite
         and a caravan site.

         Uthukela is a 100 000ha. Biosphere site. The site is a joint venture,
         common property resource management initiative by local communities
         and the public sector, aimed at uplifting rural communities and
         protecting the natural resources of the area through eco-tourism
         development. The vegetation can be classified as valley bushveld, and
         supports a wide variety of animals including elephant, white rhino,
         wildebeest, leopard, warthog, hyena, jackal, and many species of
         antelope.

         Wagendrift Nature Reserve is a 980ha. holiday resort. This resort is
         situated near Estcourt and includes the Moor Park Nature Reserve.
         Facilities include a centre for environmental education, and a camping
         site and a caravan site,
                 Other special interest areas include:
                 1. Wetland west of Estcourt.
                 2. Vegetation area south of Estcourt.
                 3. Vegetation along the main rivers: Tugela, Little Bushmans,
                     Bushmans, and Bloukrans.

9.9      Uthukela Water Projects

         The proposed Mielietuin Dam, southwest of Weenen, is a potential link
         with current and proposed game ranching in the greater Estcourt and
         Weenen areas. Potential also exists for the eutrophication of the dam
         due to the nutrient loading of the Bushmans River, which is the
         recipient of all industrial and domestic effluent from Estcourt.


         10.      PART ONE: CONCLUSION

         This Municipal Data and Analysis Report (Part One of IDP Phase One:
         Perspective Report) has been compiled utilizing available existing
         information. This report is intended to provide information to assist role
         players in the IDP process. This information, amongst other input, was
         used in the identification of the key issues and priorities contained in
         Part Two of this Perspective Report.


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