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Consumers Rule by HC111123042534

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									Ethnic, Racial,
and Religious
 Subcultures

   Chapter 14
     Subcultures, Microcultures,
       and Consumer Identity
• Consumers’ lifestyles are affected by
  group membership within the society-at-
  large
• Subcultures of
  – age,
  – race/ethnicity,
  – place of residence
                           TALOSSA.COM

                                         14-2
     Subcultures, Microcultures,
       and Consumer Identity
• Microcultures
• share a strong identification
• with an activity or art form
  – Have own unique set of norms, vocabulary,
    and product insignias
  – “Micro-nations”


                             TALOSSA.COM

                                           14-3
        Subcultures, Microcultures, &
            Consumer Identity
• Ethnic subculture
  – Homogeneous vs. heterogeneous cultural
    societies




                               CREST KIDS


                                        14-4
          Subcultures, Microcultures,
             & Consumer Identity


• Marketers cannot ignore
• the diversity of cultures in society
  today
  – Ethnic minorities spend
  – more than $600   billion a year on
    products



                                         14-5
    Ethnicity and Marketing
           Strategies
• Subcultural memberships
• shape people’s needs and wants
 –minorities find an advertising
  spokesperson
 –from their own group
 –more trustworthy

                                   14-6
   Ethnicity and Marketing
          Strategies
• Subcultural memberships
 –Level/type of media exposure,
 –food/apparel preferences,
 –political behavior,
 –leisure activities,
 –willingness to try new products

                                14-7
    Ethnicity and Marketing
           Strategies
• Subcultural memberships impact:
 –High-context culture
 –low-context culture




                            14-8
  Is Ethnicity a Moving Target?
• Defining/targeting an ethnic group
  – is not always so easy (“melting pot” society)
  – Many identify with two or more races
     • Tiger Woods, (“polyethnic”)
     • Keanu Reeves,
     • Mariah Carey
• De-ethnicization
  – Bagels

                                            14-9
The “Big 3” American Subcultures

• African Americans,
• Hispanic Americans
  – are largest ethnic subculture (12.5%)
• Asian Americans
  – (3.6%) are fastest-growing racial group
    • (due to immigration)


                                      14-10
       Levels of Acculturation:

• Acculturation:
• process of movement and adaptation
• to one country’s cultural environment
• by a person from another country




                                     14-11
           A Model of
      Consumer Acculturation
• Individual differences
  – affect how rocky adjustment will be
  – Demographic variables
  – Language
  – Recency of arrival
  – Ethinic identity
  – Environmental factors

                                   14-12
           A Model of
      Consumer Acculturation
• Acculturation agents
  – Culture of origin
    • Family, friends,
    • Media
    • Institutions
       – Commercial, educational, religious
  – culture of immigration
    • Same as above
                                              14-13
A Model of Consumer Acculturation
          The process
• Movement,
• translation,
• adaptation




                            14-14
A Model of Consumer Acculturation
        The outcomes
• Assimilation,
• maintenance,
• resistance,
• segregation




                            14-15
A Model of Consumer Acculturation

• Progressive learning model
 –Consumer behavior as
   • mix of original culture & host culture
 –Differences between consumers
   • who retain strong ethnic identification
   • more assimilated consumers


                                      14-16
        Religious Subcultures
• The rise of spirituality
  – Explosion of
    religion/spirituality in pop
    culture
• Churches are adopting
  aggressive marketing
  – Mega-churches



                                   14-17
       Religious Subcultures
• Religious themes
• can spill over into everyday
  consumption
  – “Cult products”
• Marketing opportunity
  among religious
  subcultures


                                 14-18
     The Impact of Religion on
           Consumption
• Religion is seen as a taboo subject to
  marketers
  – Polygamy Porter beer billboard
  – Lipton ad mocking the Catholic Church
  – Pirelli tires ad with Christ the Redeemer
    statue




                                           14-19
      The Impact of Religion on
            Consumption
• Dietary and dress requirements
• create demand for certain products
  – Amish
  – Mormans




                                       14-20
Impact of Religion on Consumption
• Religious subcultures affect
  – personality,
  – attitudes toward sexuality,
  – birthrates
  – household formation,
  – income,
  – political attitudes

  – Church leaders can encourage and/or
    discourage consumption (e.g., boycott of
                                      14-21
    Disney)
      The Born-Again Boom
• Those who acknowledge being
  born again through belief in
  Jesus & follow literal
  interpretations of the Bible
• Fastest-growing religious
  affiliations in United States
  – Christian merchandising activity
    is increasing
  – Christian bookstores
  – C28 stores/Not of This World C28.COM
    brand
                                           14-22
14-23
          New Ethnic Groups
• The dominant American culture exerts pressure
  on immigrants to become absorbed in
  mainstream society
  – “American”…There is a decline in the number of
    people identifying themselves as Irish, German, and
    other European ancestries
• New immigrants are much more likely to be
  Asian or Hispanic
  – Tend to cluster together geographically
  – WOM is especially important

                                                14-24
 Ethnic and Racial Stereotypes
• Many subcultures have powerful
  stereotypes associated with them
  – Subgroups are assumed to possess certain
    traits (often erroneously) which can be cast
    either positively or negatively
    • Scottish stereotype as “thrifty”
  – Marketers in the past have made vast use of
    ethnic stereotypes to communicate product
    attributes
    • Aunt Jemima and Frito Bandito

                                           14-25
               Discussion
• Locate current examples of marketing
  stimuli that depend on an ethnic or
  religious stereotype to communicate a
  message
  – How effective are these appeals?




                                       14-26
            African Americans
• The African American market is hardly as
  homogeneous as many seem to believe
• Overall spending patterns of blacks and whites
  are roughly similar
• Household income and educational levels are
  rising for African Americans
• Differences in consumption behaviors can be
  subtle but still very important
  – E.g., African American children are half as likely to
    wear seatbelts as other children

                                                   14-27
          Hispanic Americans
• “Hispanic” = many different backgrounds
• Hispanic population is now considered a major
  marketing segment
  – Hispanics tend to be brand loyal
  – Highly concentrated geographically by country of
    origin (easy to reach)
  – Many are rushing to sign Hispanic celebrities/actors
  – Spanish-language ad campaigns
• Some ad campaigns don’t work well among
  Hispanics, while Anglos don’t understand some
  products popular among Hispanics

                    BATANGA.COM
                                                 14-28
       Levels of Acculturation:
    Understanding Hispanic Identity
• Acculturation: process of movement and
  adaptation to one country’s cultural environment
  by a person from another country
Segment     Size   Status         Description   Characteristics

Established 17%    Upwardly       Older,        Assimilated into U.S. culture
Adapters           mobile         U.S.-born
Young       16%    Increasingly   Younger       Adaptable to U.S. culture
Strivers           important      U.S.-born
Hopeful     40%    Largest but    Working       Slow to adapt to U.S. culture
Loyalists          shrinking      class
Recent      27%    Growing        Newest        Strongest identification with
Seekers                                         Hispanic background
                         Table 14.1 (Abridged)                      14-29
Levels of Acculturation (Cont’d)
• Hispanic consumers
  are sympathetic
  to marketing that
  emphasizes Hispanic
  cultural heritage
• Many younger
  Hispanics are searching
  for their roots and
  rediscovering the value
  of ethnic identity
                            14-30
      Asian Americans Are…
• Fastest-growing population group
• Most affluent
                           ROCKACOLA.COM
• Best educated
• Most likely to hold technology jobs
  and buy high-tech gadgets
• Most frequent shoppers and most brand-
  conscious (but least brand loyal)
• Most concerned with keeping up appearances
• Made up of culturally diverse subgroups that
  speak many different languages/dialects
                                         14-31
              Discussion
• Should members of a
  religious group adapt
  marketing techniques that
  manufacturers customarily
  use to increase market
  share for their products?
  Why or why not?


                              14-32
                Discussion
• Locate one or more consumers (perhaps
  family members) who have emigrated from
  another country
  – Interview them about how they adapted to
    their host culture
  – In particular, what changes did they make in
    their consumption practices over time?



                                          14-33
         Old and New Religions
• There is an astonishing
  variety of flourishing new
  religious movements
   –   Scientologists
   –   Wicca
   –   The Raelians
   –   The Ahmadis
   –   The Brahma Kumaris World
       Spiritual University
   –   Cao Dai
   –   Soka Gakkai International
                                   BELIEFNET.COM
   –   The Toronto Blessing
   –   Umbanda                                 14-34
                Discussion
• Born-again Christian groups have been
  instrumental in organizing boycotts of
  products advertised on shows they find
  objectionable, especially those they feel
  undermine family values
  – Do religious groups have a right or a
    responsibility to dictate what advertising a
    network should carry?


                                            14-35

								
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