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1 An Overview: The request for, Network Infrastructure (IT405) ELP Essay: The request for Network Infrastructure (IT405), Daryl Shaver CTU Prior Learning: 3/14/11 2 A credit request for Information Technology Architectures (IT405) This paper is written to provide a credit request for IT405, through my work/Life Experience related to instruction, beginning with a brief overview of my related training and actual work related to Network Design Engineering, Sales Engineering and Networking Infrastructure Administration. I have developed a strong Network Infrastructure Administration and Network design foundation understanding, which allowed me to build and design networks with management systems, which have strong security features and network administration managements systems. OBJECTIVE 1 From IT405 Information Technology Architectures was met by my experience as a network administrator and network design engineer working MCI, and Analyst International corporation, also various other consulting companies in which my duties included configuring networking components, implementing explaining and presenting network architectures and networking basic in my designs. The first Objective is to define the basic responsibilities of the Technical Sales Engineer or Network Design Engineer, whose primary function is to provide technical documentation along with architectural support presentation and the overall creation of customized solutions for customers’ base on information technology architectures with distributed or centralized systems. There many issues in which someone working in this capacity may encounter Such as the following: 1. The development of Third Generation Operating Systems 2. Development of Globalization of filing systems, naming space, time, security and computational power. 3 3. Single systems view development 4. Overall system Efficiency, Consistency and the robustness of the systems along with the features. Other duties include the following, which will lay the overall background and foundation for my working knowledge gain from my many years of experience. (1). Provide Systems IT department leadership and supervision techniques, and creating solution based on customer requirements for development of hardware devices and software components used for connecting devices within a customer’s network or organization to some other companies or organizations internet. (2). Determine the best network communication protocols which will enable communication and access also resources on computers running server operating systems, applications, software in a corporate networked environment. (3). Design best connectivity methods, routing and switching capabilities. Also speeds and feeds bandwidths, media and types of connections for both LAN and WAN. (4). Enable Network security and systems resources for access to various, access control systems with permissions, manage access to files and folders using permissions, and manage permission inheritance. (5). Configure and troubleshoot protocols for remote access and provide support for remote users with VPN and other remote access networking systems tools, along with security and network-wide printing server systems also included are web and messaging, database, application servers. Installing the operating Systems, UNIX, Windows 2000, Windows Server 2003 or LINUX 4 Setting up the routing for the network infrastructure: also installing and configuring each of the following components of the network infrastructure as follows: LAN-to-LAN routing and switching Layer 2 and Layer 3 LAN –to-WAN routing and switching at Layer 3 in some cases Using NAT Network Address Translation routing, with remote users and VPN, Also Installing features to be used such as IP multicasting, Packet filtering, Demand-dial routing also DHCP relay and IPSEC. (6). Develop IP addressing schemes and also construct IP addresses for each department and isolate addressing issues associated with the IP routing process. (7) Consider Data center recovery solution and Plan for a computer disaster, also assign equipment systems and the features of server’s operating systems to prevent a disaster or recover when one occurs. OBEJECTIVE 2 The objective depicted for describing the features and development process of distributed IT systems was met by my actual working experience as a project manager and product manger with NEC America and Insight Global as a technical contractor. The concept here dealing with development of distributed system actually means the partitioning of an system overall as setting the tone for defining network communications, as these systems must be designed to provide uniform development with commonly used tools during the evaluation and integration phases. What leaned working for NEC America is that the Development processes for distributed systems tend to encompass OEM and suppliers engineers working all working together in what is commonly practiced known as the Agile 5 development process used when developing open source systems development. There many features of this process such as the managing of systems and components, development for design tools, network architectures plus communication data. The next item can be explored in terms of features that go with the overall process development which deals more with project management aspects and the tools used such as Microsoft project for example. The next item found within this objective is the methodologies and tools used with distributed information systems. There many actions involved with in the development process such as the following: 1) Development of Entity Relationships, for development of unified views within a database system which is distributed within the client server model. 2) Development and Systems modeling 3) Analysis of the actual software and process assessments 4) The actual information systems development and engineering 5) Object Oriented Systems Development used primarily in large distributed systems such as the OSS billing systems development project I worked on for AT&T during the merger with SBC. OBJECTIVE 3 The next objective was met by me working as a software development project manager for SIPERA Systems as a contractor from IBM and Computer Generated Solutions While working in this capacity I learned the component Framework for using the Java 2 Enterprise edition software development tool used for many rapid deployments and Java programming language during the overall deployment process along with installing J2EE 6 application components. The main benefit here with the J2EE and other distributed component modules they provide application integration thus allowing for many companies and organizations use or provide common interfaces for disparate application and systems as with mergers of large corporations such AT&T and SBC. The most important components of the J2EE are as follows: 1) Ecommerce web application development via J2EE Containers and Application servers. Which are broken down by function such as web containers Java Servlets and JSP pages. 2) Unified Access for API’s and Connectors and J2EE Connector Architecture providing integration and facilitations to enterprise IT information systems and middleware. 3) Java Virtual Machine allowing core integration for API’s and user interface toolkit development. 4) J2EE levering XML and runtime environments for configuration and deployments for web services. 5) J2EE Architectural Elements, providing for the designing logical relationships between elements with business logic and the overall facilitating of good systems designs. 7 The Network Design Engineer must also consider some network infrastructure issues also; network architecture refers to the concept of isolated components which are put together in such a way that would allow for communication, usually across some type of transmission achieved through signals. These components can usually be broken down into categories which are depicted as 1).Hardware, 2). Software and lastly for the third category which includes all other devices and collective components which make up the network and allow them to interact directly or indirectly. Specify locations of the MDF’s and IDF‘s also the networking devices and components. How these components are to be installed and configured, develop the networking topology. Develop the logical infrastructure of the network to enable connectivity between devices which includes the software products, and the networking protocols/services mentioned above. The next items to consider is that of applying and installing or configuring Network services for example the DNS Domain Name System or the Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) these services or used to resolve host names for what is known as FQDNs or Fully qualified Domain Names to IP addresses in the TCP/IP networks, for example within Microsoft Windows Server 2003, the DNS server is used to manage database of host names for IP address mapping. There is also WINS which nothing more than enhanced NetBIOS that is also used to resolve computer names to IP addresses, WINS is also used in many cases for names for local hosts and remote hosts resolution. There are some other actions required by most network infrastructure designers which are to implement automatic configuration of IP addressing and other IP type of parameters, I have configured many networks using the DHCP service or better known as the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, used to simplify 8 administration of IP addressing within TCP/IP based networks. This protocol and services is based on Client server The DHCP server automates the configuration of TCP/IP clients by dynamically assigning IP addresses from a predetermined set of IP ranges. These services can be configured to provide Subnet mask information, default gateway information and IP addresses, DNS IP addresses and WINS IP addresses. The items mentioned above also include Certificate services that can be broken into the following example for Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition Install and configure the Microsoft Active Directory® service. Install and configure Certificate Services. The Windows Server 2003 Certificate service is used as a (Certificate Authority or more commonly called CA) created to provide extended security by offering support for Digital Certificates. The Digital Certificates are used for granting system users access based upon their roles and membership within a particular group. For example, a traditional system user that wants to request and enroll for a certificate will only be allowed to enroll for a specific set of Digital Certificates, while some other user that is a member of the Domain Administration group will be allowed to enroll for a different set of certificates that can be used for a variety of functions, including Recovery Agents, IPSec, SSL and so on. User Digital Certificates are valid for different purposes, including: Allowing data on disk to be encrypted Protecting e-mail messages 9 Proving the user's identity to a remote computer The next item a systems administrator should consider is Troubleshooting the boot process for PC’s and other system related issues. The Boot process or Bootstrapping is the term used when a systems is switched on. The Boot process in steps: The first step is loading and initialization of the kernel in the UNIX systems. The Windows systems boot up process has a list of detailed procedures that the system undergoes to perform all system checks and load all necessary files to bring the computer to an operable state. The UNIX system after loading the kernel does the device detection and configurations, also starts the creation of spontaneous processes for its system. Then within a UNIX boot process you have what’s known as the operator intervention, more commonly referred to as single user boot only. The UNIX systems also have some built in scripts, which can be used for execution at the system startup. The UNIX system can also boot up and use scripts for multi-user operations. The Windows system does a power up self test, and once the test is successful, the microprocessor will then trigger the BIOS to perform a series of operations. Then the windows system will attempt to go through a sequence of devices to load based on the settings stored in the BIOS, starting with the floppy drive if the floppy does not contain the startup boot files it will go to the next device. The next step is the boot-loader or the operating system loader file – NTLDR, found in the primary partition loader code. 10 The next item in the process is the Boot.ini file this process is the NTLDR which will then pass all information from the Windows registry and Boot.ini file into Ntoskrnl.exe. The next boot phase is the Ntdetect.com program which collects and configures all installed hardware devices along with any communication ports. The finally the boot process completes by creating the access security which is the Winlogon.exe, which then allows a user to access the system. The Systems Administrator, must be able to use process management to develop methods for simplifying administration in a heterogeneous network environment, most administrators use tricks and techniques developed by one’s own knowledge and experience. However is important to note that most operating systems have tools and utilities built into the systems to help with the process management of systems. The main mechanisms, for this area is the use of key utilities, command-line chains, and scripts that are used to simplify different processes within these systems. The Windows environment uses some built in tools for these processes called extension mechanisms, such as the Object Manager, Process Manager, and Registry edit, used by most systems administrators for process management. These Processes can be broken down further by some action a systems administrator should be familiar with such as the following examples: 1). Real-Time Applications and how to apply them to an organization. 2). Real-time priority classes for VOIP and other applications. 3). Deferred Procedure Call (DPC) 4). Responding To External Events 5). Real-time applications and the use of interrupts 11 6). Multiprocessor Systems, Asynchronous I/O, Device drivers, Priorities and Scheduling. Objective 4 My introduction to computer systems and administration began back during the late 1990’s where I worked as a help desk technician as a contractor for ANALYST INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION, where I begin working on trouble shooting PC’s, Servers and networking devices, this exposed me to the first layer of security and the use of directory services for the management of user accounts and access, or in today’s terminology the physical security and LDAP administrations, because I worked for companies running multiple servers on multiple platforms it was very important to understand and utilize the directory services to enhance the administration of these systems in a timely manner which would allow me to quickly handle user accounts and resources and access/ permissions. To illustrate my point let me provide a real world example as follows: Example1. Using the Directory services is important when changing the Domain Admin Password. Exmple2. When changing a Lost Domain User Account, and also using the Control (UAC) Error Messages, found within the user account control policy statements. This can be found by using the Directory Services Restore Mode utility. The Directory services resource most commonly used be most systems administrators would be that of (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), or LDAP for short, which has been proven to be the answer for many system administrators in today’s IT systems environments. The use of LDAP allows an administrator to integrate a directory server into essential network services across multiple platforms and operating systems, like Microsoft with its 12 active directory along with NOVELL, UNIX, Mac OS X and most Linux for distributions such as mail, DNS, HTTP, and SMB/CIFS etc. The other aspects of that job related to computer Network Infrastructure include security as it provided me with the working knowledge of how computers worked from the mainframe to the desktop. This also provided me with the ability to identify and evaluate the administrative, technical and physical security controls for the company as I moved up through the ranks going from help desk to network design consultant. The next items I learned was that of making sure we had the right policies and procedures in place to implement administrative controls, with strong passwords policies for system and network users, card key access to the Data Center, along with the technical controls for the IT infrastructure, which is done by encryption, network segmentation of the LAN. The next development in my career was the training I got from both on the job training working with various enterprise networks as well as, vendor training such as CISCO, Nortel, Microsoft, etc. During the next phase of my career I became a Network design engineer with MCI Corporation; this provided me with a wealth of knowledge and experiences a traveling from one customer site designing networks to another, including the US Postal service network and The GMAC network. The fact that I became a senior Network design engineer allowed me to broaden my skills. This where I mate all the objectives for Installing and configuring the Network Infrastructure working with Operating Systems and Practical Networking: My main duty or responsibility was to present and design networking solution for fortune 500 companies that were of a nonstandard design meaning very complex, having various components of Voice, Video, and Data. 13 The main aspect of developing a network design centered on fundamental networking concepts, components and functions. The first step within designing a network is gathering the customer requirements, and then determining the data communication signal methods needed to make sure the transmission characteristics meet the needs to present the right amount of bandwidth or signal strength. These operations start with what the customer requirements are which can be as simple as what type of signal is needed such as baseband or Broadband, analog or digital. The next steps can be that of what type of transmission are needed such as Asynchronous or Synchronous in other words start/stop transmission based on character oriented protocols vs. Using byte oriented protocols. This was a big part of network design during the early nineties because of the use of Mainframes, mostly IBM and ATM machines connections for networks such as banks and other intuitions using synchronous transmission. This is where things like BISYNC, ASCII and EBCDIC transmission codes come into play vs. asynchronous transmission which to say stop 7 data bits then start. The Network is simply connecting two or more computers to allow them to share information. These computers can be connected by means of cabling which are electrical or via fiber-optic cables, wireless radio signals also. During my career I have designed various types of networks from PBX voice networks to radio networks such a Page Net a company I worked for back when pagers were used before the cell phone was made available for individual use outside the military. The network is designed for the sharing of resources and the exchange of information, such as documents emails etc. 14 The components of the network are devices such as computers or PC’s called clients and servers, routers, gateways, switches, hubs, also software to allow and enable communications mentioned above. The other hardware components consists of data communication devices such multiplexing for Time Division Multiplexing and Frequency Division Multiplexing which allow for the utilization of channels such as a T1 line for example then there are thing like , modems, also network interface cards found within the computer internal or external The next objective is demonstrating how networks are linked networks can be linked in a number of different way depending on the protocols network standards, distance, network type meaning LAN or WAN and what type of transmission being used for the actual connection. These links usually reside at the upper layer protocols that make up the bulk of a particular type of network, let’s use and older protocol such as SNA for example used with IBM mainframes, the host device is physically connected via multiple transmission lines these as real objects connected within the network. These lines can form what is known as transmission groups, which allow data to move to certain segment within this group to another allowing a specified throughput. This simply means you have a host devices with let’s say three physical lines connecting two other devices these three lines are consider a group and used for the data flow. There is also a logical consideration called a path, this how the data is pass along through these transmissions or route for the data along a certain logical path to determine the best route or path from one device to another. The next idea to show how I mastered this objective would that of the network topology, which is considered the shaping of how the computers and components are connected to each other. 15 The first network device is called a node, this simply a computer within the network, the next item is called a packet, which is the data packages as a message sent over the network from node to another. These topologies describe how nodes are strung together on interconnected for LANS or WANS. The most simple topology is called the bus which is mostly found on LAN’s this where the entire network is viewed as being connected with a single cable, in this type of topology every nodes listen to the packets being sent across the network and make a determination whether or not this packet is intended for them. The next topology is the star, which is as it sounds all nodes are connected to a central devices called a hub or switch. The next topology is what known as the ring topology, this where you have the data sent around a ring from computer to computer, each node looks at the packet to see if it is meant for their use and in passed on, the most common example of this would be the old IBM token ring with speeds for 4 to 16 megabits. The next topology is called the mesh which means you have multiple connections between each node, mostly used in WANS. The next objective is that of cabling, like most IT engineers who started working on the help desk I ran cable, this where I learned about the different cable types, such as your typical Ethernet cable which is made up of four wires inside a single cable or better known as the twisted pair which uses two pairs. The most common UTP cable is the category 5 with speeds from 10, 100 and cat 6 up to 1000. The other cable used today is the coaxial used for video today, based on the old thin net with speeds of ten Mbps; this cable uses the BNC connector. 16 The other thing one should consider is what type of network interface card to use be that it Ethernet UTP based 10/100 depending on what type of hub or switch you are using, maybe a high speed connection such an Gigabit or even fiber which is still too expensive for the common everyday user, however into today’s world even wireless cards are the most commonly used for both home and work. There is another cables which is the fiber cable used mostly for optical networks such as ATM, SONET, DWDM, However we know have fiber to the home such as ATT u-verse and Verizon FIOS. When selecting cable it depends or the distance and the amount of capacity needed to support the amount of traffic going across these wires or radio spectrum if we are taking wireless and radio waves. The Next Objective the OSI reference model. I mastered this objective by attending training from Cisco Systems, Microsoft, IBM, Verizon, And other training vendors and certification and from actual working experience, before we talk about the OSI model, I must address the understanding of standards, which are agreed upon definition for the use of protocols within the networking world. These standards are used to govern the development of standards for protocols, which allow universal standard from a mixture of vendors. These organizations can be broken down as follows: 1). the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). 2). The IEEE which is Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, mostly known for the Ethernet networking standard, IEEE. 802.3, however it is important to note Ethernet was invented by the Xerox Corporation. 17 3). The IETF Internet Engineering Task Force, responsible for protocols which drive the internet. 4). W3C is the last World Wide Consortium, responsible for the development of standards for the web. The OSI is a seven layer model used for the governing of various aspects of how the computers should communicate and provides an outline for network operation which can be addressed by many deferent vendors and manufactures IT operations network carries etc. The OSI model or the Open Systems Interconnection Reference model is used as a basis for breaking these standards into seven layers as follows: 1). The Physical Layer which include the actual connections such as cabling, devices such hubs, switches and repeaters. Example cat 5 or 6 Cable such as Ethernet connecting two or more devices. 2). The Data link or layer 2 which is for MAC addressing for providing a way for nodes to identify themselves with a unique address, sent over the physical layer. Let’s say For example; the packet sizing of data being sent across the network. 3). the network layer or layer 3 this how routers and layer 3 switches handle routing data across network segments. Example TCP addressing 192.168.0.1 4). this Transport Layer or Layer 4 which simply provides reliable delivery of packets across the network. Example TCP and UDP establishing connections between network devices, by acknowledging packets made it through the network without corruption. 5). The Session Layer or Layer 5 this where you would setup sessions between network application, today’s big buzz in the VOIP world SIP. Let’s say for Example, conversations between networked devices simplex, half duplex and full duplex. 18 6). the next is called the presentations layer or Layer 6, simply converts data so that different systems can read the format and exchange information. An example of this is the conversion of ASCII to EBCDIC. 7). The higher level or application layer known as layer seven which is for network service request. An example her would be that of services SMTP, FTP file transfers and downloads telnet into a router to configure it. The next Objective is to describe how networks grow for LANS to WANS, I lived this objective in the old days of using hubs and switches networks mainly used the LAN to segment traffic from the hubs and switches clients and servers, this was due to the 80/20 rule. However as networks grow and companies expend their operation across larger geographical areas they needed to communicate across various media and also the advent of the Network operating systems. The development and expansion of the Internet played a major role in the need for LANS growing into WANS, Higher bandwidth better applications global marketing. The next objective is to discuss systems administrator duties in various Oss environments. I meet this objective early in my career working as a consulting for Analysts International, where I was contracted out to various companies as a network administrator. My duties consisted of the following: 1). Main duties: Oversee day to day computer network operations to ensure that they function smoothly, handle ads, move and changes, 2). Handle all configurations for the severs from UNIX to Microsoft Windows NT and other back office system servers such as Lotus Notes and Microsoft Exchange. 3). Make recommendation to corporate clients and department about various program to help the information flow of Data, Voice, and Video run smoothly. 19 I as a contract network administrator, I worked with various Network operating systems from Novell 2.2 to IBM OS2 and UNIX systems in the late 80’s and early 90’s, this allowed me to earn some certifications from the University of Texas at Arlington, covering UNIX and some systems programming. Then I begin to work with RAID 5 disk arrays for storage and backup of company data, also working some data base applications such as Fox Pro, SQL and a application known a Pacer Share, which allowed for the conversation of UNIX to Macintosh at Nortel Networks, then known as Northern Telecom. The other duties as assigned were to ensure that application and updates also patches was pushed out to the users via Systems Management Server (SMS), other aspects of the job or secondary functions was the monitoring and the performance of the network also troubleshooting any problems such as slow performance or network crashes using tools such as HP Open View, and other packet analyzers, along with FLUKE meters to test our network cabling. The next objective of how to integrate various OS on multiple platforms was a part of my daily job duties from client to client and project to project, I worked with all kinds of operating systems from IBM SNA with the Network server (IBM Netfinity 7000) interoperating with Microsoft Windows 95 and Microsoft Windows NT platforms. One of the major duties was ensuring that there was network compatibility, some of simplest sounding problems were some of the hardest to solve such as file naming conventions from MAC OS to UNIX and also windows. This is where terms like Heterogeneous networks or open systems come into play with large Enterprise Data Centers, having many operating systems and platforms also disaster recovery and back systems such as SNA storage area networking become very important to Network Administrators. Selecting the back office system to address the needs of the company and HR and IT policy’s play and strong role in 20 the job of the network administrator, some of the key function for selecting the right OS’s and the integration include enterprise-wide applications for scheduling and automation for system such as the Windows environments and platforms also, Unix, Linux, OS/400, Tandem, z/OS and OVMS are all key consideration, that I experienced as a contract Network Administrator ( reference attached resume from ELP package along with PowerPoint’s for the Operating Systems training I developed). My duties within this position were to work with clients in developing their security requirements, covering all topics from physical security, such as lighting, fencing, device locks, and UPS or surge protection to the development of SLA’s within the telecommunication aspects, also with other items like security management practices such as risk reduction by performing a quantitative analysis and risk assessments. While performing the duties of a network design engineer, I had the opportunity to evaluate numerous client networks and design many access control systems and methodologies using centralized access control such as RADIUS and TACACS also DIAMETER, which can be used in maintaining and controlling user ID’s, access rights and permissions. During the early nineties, Network design was very crucial, many companies began upgrading their networks due to the IT communication boom opened up by the Telecommunication Act of 1996, at this point a was very much engaged in all phases of network design training and presentations to customers, I have included some of my training presentations as Artifacts for this credit request, most of my training was learned on the job 21 and outside vendor training from many of the major Network equipment manufacturers, such as Cisco, 3Com, Nortel, and there was also training from Microsoft, Computer Associates and many other Software companies. As a Sales Engineer my role was changed somewhat heading into 2000, my duties included designing and presenting solution for various fortune 100 companies, this allowed me to continue learning and providing knowledge of various type of Security Systems which are a vital part of Networking solutions, such as Applications and Systems Development, many of these solutions I designed covered techniques such as (1). Identifying the system development life cycle, Database design, understanding failure states, all of these action help in explaining to customer process and procedures needed for securing their networks. My responsibilities under the requirements to become a senior sales engineer, allowed me to develop a understanding of all phases of Computer Systems from programming to the communications from network to network, from the server farm to the MDF and IDF’s, from the physical layout and equipment, to the deployment of various types of logical designs for internal and external systems also developing and designing and implementing disaster recovery plans along with Business Continuity of the data centers, call centers and operations for corporate systems and application. With the training and experience I gained in the Telecommunications business working for MCI, GTE, Sprint, AT&T also Verizon, allowed me to significantly enhance my career opportunities and eventually become a Sales Engineering Manager, this provided me the skills necessary to build to team of engineers in which I was responsible for all aspects of their training, in which I had to explain the importance of companies adhering to Laws, 22 Ethics and investigations, such as RFC 1087 which what activities are unethical, and the ISC2 code of ethics, which is to protect society or the commonwealth and the infrastructure. Picture the change : As I was suddenly ask to be responsible for Computer Crime Investigations for my team as whiles making sure our clients did not violate in any laws by not implanting our network design properly or meeting or SLA, requirements, There are many aspects in Computer Crime Investigations such as: Planning and preparing, by laying out the right policies and procedures, also providing training, having a team of engineers or staff to secure and isolate the scene, to prevent contamination, answer official’s questions, help with interviews of suspects and witnesses. The other components we had to make where in place was incident- reporting and responses procedures. Another big problem we in countered was misuse of our network and computers there were we had to develop standards for computer forensics procedures. With the training and experience gained from over almost 20 years within the IT business, I was able to become a Sales Engineering Manager, also a Business Development Manager, and Product Manager all within the Telecommunication world, which allowed me a wealth of knowledge and training, which is the reason why I am now seeking credit through the ELP process. Documentation and Evaluation of Learning Achieved: UNIX Certified Systems Administer University of Texas at Arlington, TX (1995) Cisco Certified CCDA (2007) Cisco Security Solutions and Design Specialist CSSDS (2010) 23 Ericsson IPT Certified (2000) Verizon Engineer Data Training satisfactory results on examinations PowerPoint Presentations used by me for customer training and conference. Training Camp Certificate of Accomplishment covering: the topics such as the, OSI Model & Layered Communication, Network Management, WAN services, LAN Technologies.
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